ჩემი სამყარო 36

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36 2022 2022 3 6 politika garemo regioni qarTvelebi sistemasabWoTa musika oda kacobriobisaTvis c i v i l i z a c i a stiven hokingis usazRvro SesaZleb lobebis samyaro mecniereba mxatvroba didi britaneTisa da aSS is gansakuTrebuli urTierTobebi gaudabnoebis procesi saqarTveloSi rogor iqmneboda centraluri evropa nawili I ) niko buri da misi omi Zveli da axali olimpiada saqarTvelos mxatvari qalebi rogor Seiqmna sabWoTa kavSiri

TinaTin evdoSvili

giorgi badriZe zurab janeliZe revaz gaCeCilaZe arCil qiqoZe

malxaz macaberiZe

maia sigua Tea farulava mixeil WabukaSvili nino xundaZe

garekanze: kolaJi statiisTvis `oda kacobriobisaTvis~

Jurnali gamoicema SvedeTis saerTaSoriso ganviTarebisa da Ta namSromlobis saagentos (Sida) finansuri mxardaWeriT gamocema Si gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi ekuTvniT avtorebs da SeiZleba ar asa xavdes saagentos Tvalsazriss

lorwovani garsis anTeba. 86. saomari nadavli. 87. ase uwodebdnen Sua saukuneebSi espaneTsa da CrdiloeT afrikaSi binadar muslim mosaxleobas. 91. rTuli organuli nivTiereba, mcenareuli da cxoveluri organizmis yvelaze mniSvnelovani Semadgeneli nawili.

vrceli mosacdeli oTaxi an darbazi sazogadoebriv SenobaSi. 9. risame gagebis, gacnobis, Seswavlis survili; miswrafeba. 10. saxelmwifos mTel SeiaraRebul ZalTa erToblioba. 11. adamianebiT vaWroba. 12. mowinaaRmdege, moqiSpe, mocile. 14. antikur saberZneTSi moxele, romelic daniSnuli iyo sxva saxelmwifos mier misi elCebis maspinZlad da iq misi interesebis warmosaCenad da dasacavad, dRevandeli sapatio konsuli. 16. Tma-wveris gamkreWi, parikmaxeri. 18. xeliT sasroli Zveleburi iaraRi, gaumjobesebuli mSvild-isari. 19. avadmyofobis gamomwvevi mikroorganizmebis SeWra organizmSi. 20. TviTmmarTveloba; romelime qveynis, mxaris, olqis ufleba – hqondes sakuTari marTva-gamgeoba. 26. revoluciamdel ruseTSi: wkepla, romliTac scemdnen or mwkrivad dayenebuli jariskacebi maT Soris gatarebul dasasjel pirs. 28. samediatoro sasamarTlo. 29. nikotinis Semcveli farTod gavrcelebuli kulturuli balaxovani mcenare. 33. winamZRoli, lideri, beladi. mesame raixis kancleris, adolf hitleris oficialuri wodeba. 34. konkretuli amocanis SesrulebisaTvis saWiro unari; unarebis, codnisa da qcevis erToblioba. 36. rkinis mZime da didi CaquCi, romelsac orive xeliT urtyamen. 37. raimes nawilobriv Secvla an Sesworeba. 41 SurisZieba, samagieros gadaxda. 43. qalaqis didi, ganieri da swori quCa. 45. nebismieri organizmi, romelsac SeuZlia daavadebis gamowveva. 47. erTujrediani mikroskopuli organizmi, romelic organul nivTierebebsa da cocxal qsovilebSi garkveul procesebs iwvevs. 48. azri, Canafiqri. 49. mixvedra, SorsmWvreteloba, romelic emyareba adrindel gamocdilebas, alRos. 50. sportuli iaraRi, grZeli joxi simaRleze gadasaxtomad. 52. gasagebad, damajereblad, lamazad metyvelebis unari. 55. tropikuli xis Teslis fxvnili, romelic gamoiyeneba sakonditro warmoebaSi Sokoladis dasamzadeblad. 57. didi sikeTe, mowyaleba. 58. ormxriv amoburculi optikuri mina. 59. raimes gakeTebis survili, gadawyvetileba. 61. spilenZis Senadnobi kalasTan, tyviasTan da misT. 63. winaprebis mier Seqmnili ram, rasac materialuri Tu kulturuli Rirebuleba aqvs. 65. interieris, yofiTi nivTebis mxatvruli gaformeba. 66. erTi saxelmwifos diplomatiuri warmomadgeneli meore saxelmwifoSi (elCze mcire rangisa). 67. faqti, situacia, romelic raime moqmedebis, saqcielis gamomwvevad saxeldeba. 68. warCinebuli piris mxlebelTa jgufi. 69. feTqebadi nivTiereba cecxlsasroli iaraRis vaznebis da Wurvebis dasamzadeblad. 70. raimes gamoSverili, umetesad wawvetebuli nawili. 73. kavkasiis mTiel xalxTa politikuri, samxedro da religiuri lideri XIX saukuneSi. 74. ZiriTadi midgoma an meTodi gansazRvruli miznebis misaRwevad. 75. herpes-virusis tipis virusi, romelic sakmaod rTuli daavadebaa. 80. avstriis dedaqalaqi. 81. damcveli, mfarveli, gulSematkivari. 83. raime moqmedebis, saqcielis gamomwvevi mizezi. 84. TurqeTSi da aRmosavleTis zog qveyanaSi memamule, feodali. 85. istoriuli mxare centralur evropaSi, dResdReobiT gayofilia poloneTsa da ukrainas Soris. 88. raime saerTo miznisTvis saxelmwifoTa, sazogadoebriv jgufTa an sxvaTa kavSiri an gaerTianeba. 89. saxelmwifos qoneba (fuliTa Tu sxva saxiT warmodgenili). 90. raime zemoqmedebis sapasuxo moqmedeba. 92. XIX saukunis bolos aRmocenebuli ideologia, romlis mizani iyo ebraelTa erovnuli TviTSegnebis aRorZineba da palestinaSi ebraelTa saxelmwifos Seqmna. 93. farTo warmomadgenlobiTi Sekreba, sadac xdeba azrTa gacvla-gamocvla. 94. mutaciis Sedegad miRebuli ama Tu im mikroorganizmis sufTa kultura.

wina nomerSi gamoqveynebuli krosvordis pasuxebi

1. biujeti 2. arqivi 3. apologia 5. liga 6 kolonia 7. flora 8. albaToba 9. blokada 11. Tarjimani 14. nacionalizmi 17. genderi 19. narkvevi 20. narativi 21. momenti 23. feodalizmi 25. Sikriki 26. didaqtika 27. warmateba 28. insruqcia 30. fsevdonimi 34. qvelmoqmedeba 36. koloriti 38. plebisciti 40. protesti 41. struqtura 42. kontrabanda 43. tipografia 48. islami 50. ambrosi 53. abasTumani 54. kani 55. terori 56. pleada 57. Jurnalisti 59. gimnazia 64. personaJi 66. yure 69. nebisyofa 70. principi 71. siurprizi 72. emigracia 73. koncesia 74. izolacia 75. garigeba 79. borkili 82. adaTi 83. nacia 4. lideri 8. arkebuzi 10. dominioni 11. TaRliToba 12. xelovneba 13. komuna 15. alRo 16. yriloba 18. emansipacia 21. memorandumi 22. andaza 23. formula 24. eTika 27. wvlili 29. citata 31. eqspedicia 32. avtori 33. naRmi 35. futurizmi 36. konduqtori 37. aeroporti 39. burji 40. poza 43. taiti 44. porti 45. sabWo 46. kolaboracionizmi 47. ekipaJi 49. misia 51. medrese 52. scena 54. kontingenti 56. peizaJi 58. mze 60. reforma 61. bukinisti 62. korufcia 63. azri 65. awmyo 67. amanula 68. saloni 70. promeTe 73. komisari 76. Subi 77. aJiotaJi 78. aborigeni 80. inkognito 81. mTa 84. propaganda 85. panika 86. okupacia 87. seqcia 88. qabuli 89. ijara 90. niuansi 91. haaga 2.

politika

36 / 2022 4 garemo gaudabnoebis procesi saqarTveloSi regioni revaz gaCeCilaZe 20 14 qarTvelebi 26 32 42 civilizacia 54 musika Tea farulava 62 mxatvroba 74 82 sabWoTa sistema giorgi badriZe didi britaneTisa da aSS-is gansakuTrebuli urTierTobebi arCil qiqoZe malxaz macaberiZe nino xundaZe saqarTvelos mxatvari qalebi maia sigua oda kacobriobisaTvis mecniereba mixeil WabukaSvili stiven hokingis usazRvro SesaZleblobebis samyaro Zveli da axali olimpiada
niko buri da misi omi rogor iqmneboda centraluri evropa (nawili II) rogor Seiqmna sabWoTa kavSiri (nawili II) zurab janeliZe

didi britaneTis da SeerTebuli Statebis gansakuTrebuli urTierTobebi

giorgi badriZe

msoflioSi iSviaTad Tu moiZebneba ori eri, romelsac imdeni akavSirebs, ramdenic did bri taneTsa da amerikis SeerTebul Statebs esaa saerTo istoriuli da kulturuli fesvebi, saer To ena da politikuri tradiciebis didi nawili. 1776 wlis 4 ivliss damoukidebloba da axali saxelmwifos – aSS is Seqmna umetesad britaneTidan gadmosaxlebuli adamianebis STamomavleb ma gamoacxades, riTac axali eris dabadeba daiwyo 1783 wels, damoukideblobisTvis Svidwlia ni revoluciuri omis Semdeg, britaneTma aRiara Tavisi yofili koloniis saxelmwifoebrioba da am droidan or saxelmwifos Soris ormxrivi urTierTobebis istoriac daiwyo maT urTier Tobebs, sul mcire, meore msoflio omis droidan „gansakuTrebuls“ uwodeben ori qveynis Ta namSromloba, gansakuTrebiT, Tavdacvis da usafrTxoebis sferoSi, imdenad Rrmaa, rom marT lac gansakuTrebulia, oRond es urTierTobebi arc yovelTvis uproblemo yofila da arc dResaa moklebuli winaaRmdegobebs

dasawyisisTvis xazi unda gavusvaT, rom gaerTianebul samefos da SeerTebul Statebs So ris mokavSireoba sulac ar iyo gardauvali da ar emyareba mxolod naTesaur kavSirs britane lebsa da amerikelebs Soris bolos da bolos, miuxedavad XVIII saukunis amerikelebis upirate sad britanuli fesvebisa, ori qveynis urTierTobebi mtrobiT daiwyo, rac jer 1776 1783 wlebis damoukideblobisTvis revoluciur omSi gamoixata, romelsac XIX saukuneSi kidev ramdenime konfliqti mohyva: 1812 1815 wlebis omi, romlis drosac britanelebma vaSingtoni da TeTri saxli gadawves, 1838 1839 wlebis sasazRvro konfliqti Crdilo aRmosavleTSi da oregonis sa sazRvro dava 1844 1846 wlebSi qveynebi axlos iyvnen omTan 1861 welsac, rodesac SeerTebul StatebSi axali dawyebuli iyo samoqalaqo omi, romelSic britaneTi samxreTis, anu konfedera tebis mxardaWeras ganixilavda

4
politika

marTalia, britanul amerikul mokavSi reobas manamdec hqonda epizoduri xasiaTi, magram pirveli namdvili partnioroba or qveyanas Soris pirveli msoflio omis bo los Sedga, rodesac 1917 wels aSS omSi ger maniis winaaRmdeg CaerTo da amiT omis bedic gadawyvita maSinve gamoikveTa, rom SeerTe buli Statebi ar iyo tipuri Zlieri saxelm wifo, romelic saerTaSoriso urTierTo bebSi sxvebis xarjze mxolod sakuTari ego isturi interesebis xorcSesxmas cdilob da da Sesabamisad, masTan mokavSireobac gan sxvavdeboda imisgan, rasac evropuli impe riebi iyvnen Cveuli.

maSin SeerTebuli Statebis prezidentma vudro uilsonma Tavis mokavSireebs – bri taneTs da safrangeTs – warudgina sakuTari xedva, Tu ra unda yofiliyo omis miznebi da, gansakuTrebiT, rogori unda yofiliyo om isSemdgomi msoflios mowyoba e w „14 punq tSi“, rac, praqtikulad, aSS is omSi monawi leobis winapirobas warmoadgenda, uilson ma revoluciuri ideebi Camoayaliba, ro melTa didi nawili evropuli saxelmwifo ebisTvis sruliad ucxo da, zog SemTxvevaSi, miuRebeli iyo. mizezi, ris gamoc frangebma da britanelebma am pirobebs winaaRmdegoba ar gauwies is iyo, rom kargad esmodaT, Zle vamosili amerikis mxardaWeris gareSe msof lio omi kidev didxans gagrZeldeboda da ar iyo garantia, rom saboloo jamSi gamarj vebulebi swored Tavad gamovidodnen.

„14 punqts“ Soris iyo moTxovna Ria dip lomatiis da Ria saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebe bis Sesaxeb. evropuli saxelmwifoebi ki mo

damoukideblobis deklaraciis miReba, 1776 wlis 4 ivlisi
5
britanelebis mier TeTri saxlis gadawva amerikis revoluciuri
omi, 1776 1783
didi britaneTi da aSS

politika

laparakebebs umetesad saidumlod awarmoebdnen da xSirad saidumlo xelSekru lebebs debdnen, romelTa Sesaxeb zogjer maTive sazogadoebam araferi icoda. uil soni aseve moiTxovda wesebze dafuZnebuli msoflio wesrigis Seqmnas da saxelmwifoTa Soris davebis mSvidobiani gziT gadawyve tas, rac dRes sruliad bunebrivad migvaC nia, magram maSin es ideac revoluciurad JRerda. kidev erTi siaxle erTa TviTgamor kvevas Seexeboda, rac niSnavda, rom Tavis ufleba unda mieRo evropis mraval xalxs, romlebic am dros ramdenime evropul impe rias Soris iyvnen ganawilebuli, germanias unda CamorTmeoda misi afrikuli kolonie bi, rac aseve gzas uxsnida msoflios sxvada sxva kuTxeSi britaneTis da safrangeTis mi er sakuTari koloniebisTvis damoukideb lobis miniWebas „14 punqtSi“ kidev mraval mniSvnelovan sakiTxze iyo saubari, magram mTavari is iyo, rom britaneTi pirvelad aR moCnda axali realobis winaSe, rodesac mas Tavisze Zlieri mokavSire gamouCnda da Tan iseTi, romelTan TanamSromloba misTvis sa sicocxlo mniSvnelobis iyo da am urTier TobaSi sakuTari pirobebiT modioda

pirveli msoflio omis dasrulebas axali msoflio wesrigis Seqmnis mcdeloba mohyva, rom lis lideroba Tavdapirvelad amerikam ikisra magram maleve aRmoCnda, rom SeerTebuli State bis kongresisTvis, romelic qveynis sakmaod konservatiulad ganwyobili mosaxleobis intere sebs gamoxatavda, es axali roli miuRebeli iyo prezidentma uilsonma maSin ver daajera kong resSi Tavisi oponentebi, rom amerikis damfuZnebeli mamebis tradiciis – saerTaSoriso poli tikaSi izolacionizmis – dasruleba gardauvali iyo da rom es SeerTebuli Statebis da msof lio mSvidobis interesebs Tanabrad esaWiroeboda samwuxarod, amaSi mTeli msoflio maleve darwmunda, rodesac amerikis liderobis gareSe darCenilma erTa ligam 1920 ian da 1930 ian wlebSi ver SeZlo Tavisi umTavresi daniSnulebis mSvidobis SenarCunebis uzrunvelyofa da axali, kidev ufro didi da sisxliani omi SesaZlebeli gaxada

6
vudro uilsoni (1856-1924)

II msoflio omi 1939 wlis agvistoSi nacistur germaniasa da sabWoTa kavSirs Soris dadebul e.w. mo lotov ribentropis paqts mohyva, romlis mixedviTac, orma agresorma saxelmwifom erTmaneTs Soris gaiyo aRmosavleT evropis qveynebi. germaniis mier manamde, Cexoslovakiis mitacebis Semdeg, brita neTs da safrangeTs poloneTisTvis usafrTxoebis garantiebi hqondaT micemuli da mas Semdeg, rac 1 seqtembers nacistebi poloneTSi SeiWrnen, orive qveyanam germanias omi gamoucxada pirveli ramde nime Tvis ganmavlobaSi mas „ucnaur oms“ uwodebdnen, radgan omis gamocxadebis miuxedavad, dasavlel mokavSireebs germaniis winaaRmdeg sabrZolo moqmedebebi ar dauwyiaT. poloneTis dapyrobis Semdeg germaniam Tavad mimarTa „blickrigi“ (swrafi omi) dasavleTisken yvelasTvis moulodnelad safran geTis kargad SeiaraRebulma da mravalricxovanma armiam germanuli jaris elvis siswrafiT moqmed meqanizebul qvedanayofebs Rirseuli winaaRmdegoba ver gauwia, ris Sedegadac 1940 wlis ivnisSi pari zi daeca

britaneTisTvis, romelic marto aRmoCnda nacisturi germaniis winaSe, sasicocxlod aucilebeli gaxda mZlavri mokavSiris povna. premier ministrma uinston CerCilma mTe li Tavisi diplomatiuri da politikuri niWi SeerTebuli Statebisgan samxedro da ekonomikuri daxmarebis miRebisken mimarTa, magram im etapze es sakmaod rTuli amocana gamodga miuxedavad imisa, rom aSS is prezident frank lin delano ruzvelts kargad esmoda, Tu ra saSiSroebas warmoad genda nacizmi mTeli kacobriobisTvis da ra Sedegebs moitan da misTvis britaneTis marcxi, misi unari, realuri dax mareba gaewia britaneTisTvis, mniSvnelovnad iyo

„blickrigi“ `14
punqti~ molotov ribentropis paqtze Seqmnili karikatura
7
didi britaneTi da aSS

politika

nacistebis jari parizSi

SezRuduli kongresis mier gamocxadebuli neitralitetis aqtis gamo Tumca ruzveltis da Cer Cilis TanamSromlobam mainc gaxada SesaZlebeli daewyoT britaneTisTvis aucilebeli samxedro SeiaraRebisa da aRWurvilobis, aseve ekonomikuri daxmarebis miwodeba, rac „lend lizis“ aqtSi gamoixata am meqanizmiT britaneTs SeeZlo esesxa amerikuli saqoneli da aRWurviloba momavalSi gadaxdis pirobiT SemTxveviTi araa, rom 2022 wels aSS m ukrainisTvis samxedro da ekonomikuri daxmarebis programas swored „lend lizis“ saxeli daarqva

yvelaferi gamartivda mas Semdeg, rac 1941 wlis 7 dekembers SeerTebul Statebs jer iaponia daesxa Tavs da ramdenime dReSi misma mokavSire germaniam omi gamoucxada omi, romelsac aSS rac SeeZlo Tavs aridebda, misTvisac gardauvali aRmoCnda da samxedro politikuri aliansi did bri taneTTan ki – sruliad aucilebeli am momentidan iwyeba ori qveynis uprecedento aliansi sam xedro, sadazvervo, politikur da ekonomikur sferoebSi

II msoflio omis dros britaneTis da aSS is jarebi praqtikulad erTian samxedro Zalad iqca, saerTo sardlobiT, romelsac erTmaneTTan mWidro urTierTobaSi myofi politikuri liderebi xelmZRvanelobdnen britaneTma aSS s Tavis teritoriaze (da koloniebSi) samxedro bazebis Seqm nis nebarTva misca, britanul amerikuli jarebi erTad ibrZodnen aziasa da wynar okeaneTSi, aseve CrdiloeT afrikaSi, sanam 1943 wels jer germaniis mokavSire italiaSi ar gadasxdnen, xolo 1944 wlis 6 ivniss safrangeTis atlantikur sanapiroze masiuri desantiT e w. „meore fronti“ gaxsnes britaneli da amerikeli mecnierebi da specsamsaxurebi aqtiurad TanamS romlobdnen birTvuli iaraRis SeqmnaSi mokavSireebma erToblivi Za lebiT daamarcxes nacistebi dasavleT evropaSi da mravali eri gaa

8 franklin delano ruzvelti (1882 1945) uinston CerCili (1874 1965)
ruzvelti xels awers `lend lizis~ aqts, 1942

Tavisufles germanuli okupaciisgan. amave dros, germanelebi aRmosavleT evropaSi sabWoTa jarebmac daamarcxes, oRond amas aRmosavleTevropeli xalxebisTvis namdvili Tavisufleba ar moutania, radgan nacisti dampyroblebi aq sabWoTa kavSiris mier Tavs moxveulma komunis turma reJimebma Caanacvles.

miuxedavad imisa, rom amerikelebma da britanelebma yvelaferi gaakeTes imisTvis, rom omis dasrulebas evropisTvis mSvidoba da Tavisufleba moetana, maleve aRmoCnda, rom sabWoTa xe lisuflebas sul sxva gegmebi hqonda 1946 wels uinston CerCilma, romelic am dros ukve brita nuli opoziciis lideri iyo, aSS is misuris Statis qalaq fultonSi istoriuli sityva warmoT qva, romelSic iwinaswarmetyvela axali dapirispireba sabWoTa kavSirTan da ganacxada, rom ev ropis erebis Tavisuflebis dacva mxolod demokratiuli qveynebis TanamSromlobiT iqneboda SesaZlebeli, rasac safuZvlad aSS is da britaneTis partniorobis gagrZeleba da gaRrmaveba unda dasdeboda. marTlac, ori qveynis aliansi axla ukve civi omis pirobebSi gagrZelda. maTi liderobiT Seiqmna evropis usafrTxoebis qvakuTxedi – Crdiloatlantikuri xelSekrulebis organizacia – nato da or qveyanas Soris samxedro, sadazvervo, ekonomikuri da politikuri TanamSromlobis mravali meqanizmi. ori saxelmwifo koordinirebulad moqmedebda, rodesac sabWoTa kavSirma ramdenjerme scada maT kontrolqveS myofi dasavleT berlinis blokadaSi moqceva Tu komunisturi ajanyebebis mowyoba im qveynebSi, romlebSic sabWoTa jari ar iyo gan lagebuli.

jo baideni xels awers `lend lizis~ aqts, 2022 iaponelebis Tavdasxma perl harboris bazaze, 1941 wlis 7 dekemberi amerikeli da britaneli jariskacebis Sexvedra mdinare elbaze, 1945
9
didi britaneTi da aSS

politika

1950 wels dapirispireba komunistur da demokratiul Zalebs Soris evropis kontinents gascda, rodesac sabWoTa gavlenis sferoSi myofi CrdiloeTi korea Tavs daesxa samxreT kore as da komunisturi mmarTvelobis gavrceleba mTel naxevarkunZulze scada britanul ameri kuli TanamSromloba komunisturi eqspansiis mogeriebaSic gadamwyveti aRmoCnda da is, rom dRes samxreTi korea msoflios erT erTi yvelaze warmatebuli saxelmwifoa, maTi didi damsa xurebacaa or qveyanas kidev ramdenime did samxedro konfliqtSi mouwia mxardamxar brZola –es iyo quveiTis ganTavisufleba erayis okupaciisgan, avRaneTis da erayis omebi da bevri sxva gansakuTrebuli urTierTobebis CamoyalibebaSi didi roli Seasrula aSS is da britaneTis ramdenime Taobis liderebis piradma urTierTobamac zogjer es urTierTobebi marTlac gan s r b r r pr z n r n r n s pr m r m n s r m r r C r s

amerikis desantis gadasvla safrangeTSi britaneTis armia quveiTis omSi uinston CerCilis gamosvla qalaq fultonSi

gansakuTrebulobis miuxedavad, ormxriv urTierTobebSi bevrjer ara mxolod sirTule, aramed namdvili krizisic ki yofila. ormxrivi urTierTobebis yvelaze seriozuli gauareseba 1956 wlis suecis kriziss mohyva rodesac egviptis samxedro diqtatorma britanelebis da frangebis mmarTvelobaSi myofi strategiuli mniSvnelobis suecis arxis nacionalizacia ga moacxada, aSS is prezidentma duait eizenhauerma Tavis mokavSires, mxardaWeris nacvlad, praq tikulad ultimatumi wauyena, rom sabWoTa kavSiris moTxovnas damorCileboda da egviptidan sakuTari jari gaeyvana am incidentma britaneTs TvalnaTliv aCvena, rom is aRar iyo Zlevamo sili imperia da rom aSS sTan aliansSi mxolod umcrosi partniori iyo suecis krizisma ormx riv urTierTobebs didi xniT daasva daRi da Sedegad isic moitana, rom vietnamis omSi (romlis mizezebi da miznebi koreis omis msgavsi iyo) aSS britaneTis mxardaWeris gareSe darCa ormxriv urTierTobebSi kidev yofila araerTi garTuleba, magaliTad, prezident obamas da prezident trampis mmarTvelobebis dros. barak obamam, garda im arasaxarbielo simboluri Jestebisa, rac britaneTis mimarT gaake

Ta – TeTri saxlis ovaluri kabineti dan uinston CerCilis biusti gaa tanina da arasakmarisi pativisce miT daxvda premier ministr gor don brauns aSS Si stumrobisas, naTlad aCvena, rom gansakuTre bul urTierTobas did mniSvne lobas ar aniWebda da evropaSi germanias ufro faseul partni orad miiCnevda, vidre brita neTs misi prezidentobis dros aSS is sagareo politi kis prioritetad aziis da ok eaneTis qveynebTan kavSirebis gaRrmaveba gamocxadda, ronald reigani (1911 2004) da margaret tetCeri (1925 2013)

11
duait eizenhaueri (1890 1969) da egviptis diqtatori gamal abdel naseri (1918 1970) britanelebis da frangebis mmarTvelobaSi arsebuli suecis arxi didi britaneTi da aSS

oRond amas didi warmateba ar moutania gan sakuTrebuli urTierTobebis morigi gamocda prezident trampis dros iyo, romel sac sruliad Taviseburi midgoma hqonda aSS is praqtikulad yvela partniorTan ar sebuli tradiciuli aliansis da savaWro urTierTobis mimarT man kiTxvis niSnis qveS daayena aSS is globaluri liderobis auci lebloba, maT Soris, natos farglebSi is aq tiurad uWerda mxars breqsitis process, magram amave dros sxva qveynebTan erTad britaneTidan importirebul garkveul sa qonelzec daawesa tarifebi.

yvela garTulebis miuxedavad, rogorc wesi, gansakuTrebuli urTierTobebi yovelTvis ubrundeboda Cveul kalapots, radgan liderebis politikuri Sexedulebe bis Tu pirovnuli xasiaTis Taviseburebebze maRla ufro xSirad ori xalxis faseulobe bis da erovnuli interesebis Tanxvedra id ga amis bolodroindeli gamoxatulebaa britaneTis da aSS is mier avstraliasTan erTad axali usafrTxoebis paqtis – aukusis dafuZneba da ukrainisTvis samxedro da ekonomikuri daxmarebis erToblivad gawe va.barak obama da gordon brauni

rogorc dasawyisSive aRvniSneT, ameri kas da britaneTs marTlac bevri aqvT saer To, Tumca msoflioSi araerTia iseTi eri, romlebsac monaTesave warmoSobis, enebisa da religiis miuxedavad, araTu amgvari mWidro partnioroba ar gaaCniaT, aramed erTmaneTs xSirad mtroben kidec. albaT, am

boris jonsoni da donald trampi
12 politika

didi britaneTi da aSS

is yvelaze TvalsaCino magaliTia dRes ruseTis da ukrainis urTierToba or ers Soris TiT qosda mravali saerTo arsebobs – monaTesave eTnikuri warmomavloba, sakmaod msgavsi enebi, ru seTis aRiareba, rom kievis ruseTis memkvidrea da bevri sxva (yovel SemTxvevaSi, ruseTis pozi ciidan), magram am yvelafris miuxedavad, rusebi da ukrainelebi sruliad gansxvavebuli faseu lobebis da kulturuli miswrafebebis erebia.

britanelebisa da amerikelebis gansakuTrebuli urTierTobebis mTavari safuZveli ki is aris, rom maT saerTo enaze, warmoSobasa da religiaze metad faseulobebis da politikuri tradiciebis siaxlove aerTianebT maSinac ki, rodesac amerikelebi TavianT axal saxelmwifos britaneTTan omSi qmnidnen da londonis mmarTvelobisgan Tavis daxsnas cdilobdnen, maT mier Seqmnili axali politikuri da samarTlebrivi sistema, mTeli Tavisi revoluciurobis miuxe davad, inglisur britanul fesvebs efuZneboda. am fesvebs pirdapir ukavSirdeba warmomadgen lobiTi demokratia Tavisi saarCevno sistemiT, precedentuli samarTali Tavisi nafic msa julTa sasamarTloTi, adamianis uflebebi da kanonis uzenaesoba, romlebic aSS is damfuZne belma mamebma metad daxvewes da amerikuli saxelmwifos qvakuTxedad aqcies

amitom, miuxedavad imisa, rom britaneTis da SeerTebuli Statebis urTierTobebSi araerT xel Seqmnila sirTuleebi, romlebic dResac arsebobs da albaT momavalSic iqneba, or qveyanas Soris umWidroesi TanamSromloba arasdros Sewydeba, radgan is efuZneba erebis urTierTo bebSi yvelaze mniSvnelovan kavSirs – saerTo faseulobebs da grZelvadiani erovnuli intere sebis Tanxvedras.

13

gaudabnoebis procesi saqarTveloSi

klimatis Tanamedrove cvlileba da daT boba, adamianis saqmianobasTan erTad, xels uwyobs dedamiwaze gaudabnoebis procesis gaZlierebas dedamiwis xmeleTis daaxloe biT erT mesamed nawilSi, antarqtidis gar da, kontinentebis tropikul, subtropikul da zomier sartylebSi mimdinareobs pro cesi, romelic iwvevs udabnoebiT, naxevar udabnoebiTa da periodul Zlier gvalvebs Seguebuli savanebiT, meCxeri naTeli tyee biT, ariduli (mSrali) velebiT dakavebuli teritoriebis gafarToebas. es procesi ga udabnoebis saxeliTaa cnobili.

konvenciaSi gaudabnoebasTan brZolis Sesaxeb, romelic gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciam 1994 wels miiRo, gaudabnoeba ganmartebulia, rogorc klimatis daTbo biT da adamianis saqmianobiT ganpirobebuli miwis (niadagsafaris) degradacia. miwis deg radacia niSnavs sxvadasxva faqtoris zemoq

zurab janeliZe

medebiT gaudabnoebis mimarT mgrZnobiare teritoriebze sxvadasxva daniSnulebis mi webisa da tyiT dafaruli farTobebis Tan daTanobiT Semcirebas, rig SemTxvevebSi ki –dakargvas.

gaudabnoebisken midrekil teritorieb ze miwis degradaciis gaaqtiurebaSi did rols asrulebs arasworad dagegmili mi waTsargebloba, kerZod, miwis araraciona luri urbanuli aTviseba, mzardi intensiu ri gamoyeneba saxnav saTes miwebad, saZovre bad, baR venaxebis gasaSeneblad, plantacie bis mosawyobad. aseve unda iTqvas tyis mizan dasaxul, masStabur gaCexaze, rac Zvirfasi merqnis miRebisa da sasoflo sameurneo sa vargulebis farTobebis gazrdis mizniT xdeba.

zemoCamoTvlili qmedebebi aZlierebs reliefis wylismier da qarismier erozias,

garemo
14

rac iwvevs reliefis daxramva danawevrebas da miwis safaris ganadgurebas rwyvis nor mebis da wesebis ardacvis, mJave marilebis Semcveli mineraluri sasuqebis Warbi gamo yenebis, samrewvelo, sasoflo sameurneo da sayofacxovrebo narCenebiT dabinZurebis Sedegad Zlierdeba niadagis damlaSebis procesi

gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis zemoaRniSnul konvenciaSi im adgilebs So ris dedamiwaze, romlebsac gaudabnoeba emuqreba, samxreTi kavkasiac aris moxsenie buli samxreT kavkasiaSi gaudabnoebis pro cesi met naklebi intensivobiT mimdinare obs mtkvar araqsis dablobze da mis dasav leTiT mdebare aRmosavleT saqarTvelos barSi – ivris (gare kaxeTis) zegansa da qvemo qarTlis vakeze

ivris zegnis zedapiris didi nawili mSrali xevebiTa da xramebiT aris danawevre buli. reliefis formebia gorak borcvebi, dabali mTebi, serebi, maT Soris mdebare sak maod vrceli vakeebiT da SedarebiT momcro vake tafobebiT mTebis kalTebze alag alag cicabo, Zlier daRaruli, mcenareul sa fars moklebuli bedlendebia, rasac Cven Tan, qarTulad, „alesilebi“ ewodeba. zegan ze mudmivi mdinareebi ar aris mis samxreT da Crdilo aRmosavleT periferiebze ki ga edineba mdinareebi iori da alazani zeganze iSviaTia wyaroebi da maTi umetesoba mlaSe mwarea

ivris zegnis vakeebze da vake tafobebze ZiriTadad Savmiwa niadagia. serebisa da mTe bis kalTebze Warbobs ruxi yavisferi niada gi zegnis mniSvnelovan nawilze gavrcele

bulia naxevarudabnosaTvis damaxasiaTebe li mlaSe, bicobi da ruxi niadagebi ivris zegnis didi nawili cxel da mSral klimats Seguebul vels aqvs dakavebuli, romelsac floristulad Raribi balaxeu li safari (uro, vaciwvera, Svriela da sxva) aqvs. mlaSe, bicobi da ruxi niadagebis gavr celebis adgilebSi gabatonebulia udabno sa da naxevarudabnosaTvis damaxasiaTebeli buCq balaxovani saxeobebi – avSani, xurxumo, Carani, yaraRani. zegnis ukidures samxreT zolSi, mcire farTobebze, SemorCenilia Rviis koromebi, xolo Crdilo aRmosavle TiT mdebare vaSlovanis dacul teritori ebze – meCxeri naTeli tye (sadac xarobs sak mlis xe, Rvia, akaki da sxva) zegnis Crdilo eT nawilSi mdebare mTebis kalTebze warsu lSi gavrcelebuli farTofoTlovani tyis adgilebze ki amJamad jagekliani velebia (ZeZvi, kvrinCxi, grakla da sxva) saerTod, jagekliani velebi ivris zeganze, calkeul ubnebad, yvelgan aris gavrcelebuli ivris zegnis miwebi saxnav saTesad, baR venaxebis gasaSeneblad da saZovrebad gamoiyeneba

gaudabnoeba saqarTveloSi 15

garemo

qvemo qarTlis vake rusTav gardabnisa da marneulis brtyelzedapirian vakeebad iyofa. am vakeebze mtkvari, xrami da maTi Se nakadebi miedineba, romlebic sarwyavad ga moiyeneba. vakeebze rux yavisferi da mde los yavisferi niadagebia ganviTarebuli SedarebiT naklebi farTobi damlaSebul ni adagebs ukavia miwebis didi nawili saxnavad, baR venaxebis gasaSeneblad, bostneulis da kartofilis mosayvanad gamoiyeneba amitom bunebrivi landSafti Zlier degradire buli tye buCqnarebis, mdelo buCqnarebis da meoradi mdeloebis saxiT mxolod vakee bis periferiul mcire ubnebzea SemorCeni li

ivris zegnis da qvemo qarTlis vakisaT vis damaxasiaTebelia subtropikuli, konti nenturi klimati, cxeli da mSrali Tbili se zoniT haeris saSualo temperatura zaf xulSi 24 gradusia temperaturis absolu turi maqsimumi 40 graduss aRemateba nale qebis saSualo wliuri jami 300 500 mm sazRv rebSi meryeobs

haeris temperaturis maRali maCveneble bis da atmosferuli naleqebis mcire ra odenobis Tanafardoba ganapirobebs niadag safarsa da haeris miwispira fenebSi tenis deficits teni ki mniSvnelovani meteoro logiuri faqtoria, romelzec bevrad aris damokidebuli landSaftis, ZiriTadad ki, mcenareuli safaris xasiaTi

ama Tu im teritoriis tenianobis xarisxs gansazRvravs danestianebis koeficienti (anu hidroTermuli koeficienti) danesti anebis koeficienti aris drois garkveul monakveTSi ama Tu im teritoriaze mosuli atmosferuli naleqebiT warmoqmnili tenis realurad aorTqlebuli odenobis da maq simalurad SesaZlebeli aorTqlebis Sefar debis Tvisebrivi maCvenebeli. rodesac aor Tqlebuli tenis raodenoba naklebia haeris maRali temperaturis pirobebSi SesaZle beli aorTqlebiT miRebuli tenis raodeno baze, maSin danestianebis koeficienti uar yofiTia, metis SemTxvevaSi – dadebiTi. da nestianebis koeficienti 1 s udris, roca na leqebis raodenoba da aorTqlebuli tenis moculoba tolia.

ivris zegansa da qvemo qarTlis vakeze wliuri danestianebis balansi, saSualod, 8 Tvis ganmavlobaSi uaryofiTia da danestia nebis wliuri koeficienti 0,60 s ar aRema teba. zafxulSi ki danestianebis koefici enti, arcTu iSviaTad, 0,20 0,30 mde iklebs. naleqebis raodenobis da aorTqlebuli te nis aseTi Tanafardoba mSrali velebisa da naxevarudabnoebisTvis aris damaxasiaTebe li. aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom gaeros gaudabnoe basTan brZolis konvenciiT, gaudabnoebis procesis gaZliereba im regionebs emuqreba, sadac danestianebis wliuri koeficienti 0,65 ze naklebia.

16
gazafxuli ivris zeganze

gaudabnoebis procesis kargad dasana xad, vfiqrobT, sainteresoa ivris zegnisa da qvemo qarTlis vakis warmodgena istoriul arqeologiur geografiul WrilSi. paleo geografiuli kvlevis Sedegebis mixedviT, ivris zegansa da qvemo qarTlis vakeze neo liTis xanaSi (7 10 aTasi wlis win) ganviTare buli iyo bunebrivi uroian vaciwveriani, na irbalaxovani velebis, farTofoTlovani da ariduli naTeli tyeebis mcenareuloba am regionebSi tyeebis farTo gavrcelebis faqts adasturebs amJamad aq ganviTarebuli velis Savmiwa da rux yavisfer niadagebSi Se morCenili tyis niadagebisaTvis damaxasia Tebeli niSnebi isic unda iTqvas, rom ivris zegansa da qvemo qarTlis vakeze gavrcele bul Savmiwa da yavisfer niadagebSi ufro me tad Warbobs mSral velebsa da naxevarudab noebSi mimdinare niadagwarmomqmneli pro

arqeologiuri gamokvlevebiT dadgeni lia, rom ivris zegnisa da qvemo qarTlis mni Svnelovani nawili adamians ukve hqonda aT visebuli eneoliTSi, brinjaosa da adreul rkinis xanaSi (daax 6000 3000 wlis win) ivris zeganze gamovlenilia aTeulobiT arqeo logiuri Zegli, namosaxlarebis (didnauri, patara Siraqi, nazarlebi, sayarauli, naoma ri gora da sxva), maTTan mimdebare samarov nebis da yorRanuli gora samarxebis saxiT gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa zegnis Crdi lo dasavleT nawilSi Zv w II aTaswleulis bolo saukuneebiT daTariRebuli qalaquri tipis dasaxlebis – naomari goris, masTan da kavSirebuli rkinis madnis karierebis da rkinis gamodnobis damadasturebeli arte faqtebis aRmoCena

cesebis niSnebi es faqti am regionebSi mSra li velebis da naxevarudabnoebis landSaf tebis sakmaod didi xnis win dawyebuli gan viTarebiT aixsneba naomari goris naqalaqarze gamovleni lia qviT nagebi sacxovrebeli, sameurneo, sakulto da safortifikacio nagebobebi (qa laqis damcavi kedlebis sisqe zogan 5 metrs aRemateba) arqeologiuri masalis Seswav liT dadasturebulia, rom gvian brinjao adre rkinis xanaSi (3500 2800 wlis win) ivris zegnis am raionis mosaxleobas maRal done ze hqonda ganviTarebuli miwaTmoqmedeba, mesaqonleoba, meTuneoba. gansakuTrebiT unda aRiniSnos metalurgiuli saqmianoba (rkinis gamodnoba da misi eqsporti), rac am raionis imdroindeli dasaxlebebis ganviTa rebis ZiriTadi ekonomikuri berketi iyo.

qvemo qarTlis vakeze Seswavlilia Zv w V-IV aTaswleulebis adresamiwaTmoqmedo kulturis Zeglebi (aruxlo, Sulaveris go ra, imiri da sxva) am Zeglebis kulturuli

17 gaudabnoeba saqarTveloSi
ivris zegnis namosaxlarebi naomari gora
imiris gora gadaWrili gora

garemo

fenebis absoluturi asaki, radionaxSirba duli meTodis gamoyenebiT gansazRvrulia + + + +5960 300; 6360 130; 6680 70; 7020 60; +7450 60 wlebiT am Zeglebze mopovebuli Zvlovani masalis SeswavliT dadginda, rom im dros adamians moSinaurebuli hyavda msxvilfexa rqosani pirutyvi, cxvari, Txa da Rori veluri fauna warmodgenili iyo ro gorc tyis (iremi, Sveli, domba, gareuli Ro ri, xoxobi), ise velis (jeirani, gareuli cxvari, gareuli Txa, gareuli cxeni, meqvi Sia, savaTi, sarsaraki da sxva) saxeobebiT

eneoliTis epoqis Semdeg ivris zegnisa da qvemo qarTlis vakis landSaftebze ga nuxrelad mzardma anTropogenulma dat virTvam bunebrivi velebis da tyiT dakave buli teritoriebis Semcireba da klimatis kidev ufro meti aridizacia gamoiwvia da irRva niadagSi da haeris miwispira fenebSi siTbosa da tenis adre arsebuli Tanafar doba aorTqlebadobis siZliere gaizarda, niadagis tenSemcvelobam ki moiklo niada gis fenebSi warmoiqmna sinestis mkveTrad uaryofiTi balansi klimatis sagrZnobi aridizaciis gamo tyis da velis mcenareuli asociaciebi gavrcelebis mniSvnelovan na wilze TandaTanobiT Seicvala floristu lad Zlier gaRaribebuli velebiT, buCqna rebiT da naxevarudabnosa da udabnosaTvis damaxasiaTebeli avSnian xurxumoiani avS

nian yaraRaniani, avSnian Caraniani mcenare uli dajgufebebiT.

marneulisa da rusTav gardabnis vake ebze tenis uaryofiTi balansis kompensire bis mizniT mosaxleoba sarwyavad iyenebda aq gamdinare tranzitul mdinareebs amitom klimatis sagrZnobi aridizaciis miuxeda vad, es teritoriebi mosaxleobas ar miuto vebia rac Seexeba ivris zegans, misi mosaxle obis moTxovnileba mtknar wyalze ZiriTa dad adgilobrivi wyaroebiTa da mcire, mudmivadwyliani xevebiT kmayofildeboda klimatis mkveTrma aridizaciam ivris zegnis teritoriaze gamoiwvia neogenis asakis qane bidan advilad xsnadi marilebis gamotutvis gaZliereba. aman ganapiroba mtknari wyaroe bis mware mlaSe wyaroebiT Secvla. klimatis aridizaciam aseve ganapiroba mudmivad wyliani patara xevebis daSroba. swored es iyo ZiriTadi mizezi imisa, rom antikuri xanis dasawyisSi (Zv. w. VIII VI ss.) mosaxleoba sabolood tovebs ivris zegnis did nawils. aq mxolod ax. w. VI s. dafuZnebul garejis sa monastro kompleqsSi grZeldeba uwyveti sa monastro cxovreba.

rogor Cans, ivris zegansa da qvemo qarT lis vakeze antikuri periodis dasawyisSi uk ve iyo Seqmnili mSrali velis da naxevaru dabnosaTvis damaxasiaTebeli hidroklima

18
tamariskis buCqnari ivris WalaSi

turi reJimi (sainteresoa iakob curtave lis cnoba V saukuneSi qvemo qarTlis kli matis Sesaxeb: `Jamsa zafxulisasa, cecxlebr Semwueli mxurvalebai igi mzisai, qarni xorSakni da wyalni mavnebelni“). im droisaT vis gaudabnoebis procesis ganviTareba sak maod intensiurad mimdinareobda.

dReisaTvis unda iTqvas, rom Tanamedro ve pirobebSi, Zlieri anTropogenuri zewo lis (intensiuri Zoveba, xvna Tesva, araswo ri melioracia da sxva) uaryofiTi zegavle nis Sedegad, ivris zegansa da qvemo qarTlis vakeze aSkarad SeiniSneba gaudabnoebis pro cesis gaZliereba, ramac klimatis Tanamed rove globaluri daTbobis zegavleniT Se iZleba Seuqcevadi xasiaTi miiRos da vfiq robT, es problema gansakuTrebiT sayurad Rebo da sazrunavia.

rogorc iTqva, saqarTvelo 1999 wlidan aris gaudabnoebasTan brZolis Sesaxeb ga erTianebuli erebis organizaciis konvenci is wevri qveyana. 2003 da 2014 wlebSi saqarT veloSi SemuSavda gaudabnoebasTan brZolis moqmedebaTa pirveli da meore erovnuli programebi, romelTa ZiriTadi mizani iyo saqarTveloSi gaudabnoebis winaaRmdeg brZolis moqmedebaTa gaeros konvenciis moTxovnaTa gaTvaliswineba.

statiaSi gamoyenebulia kaxa ximSiaSvilis da arCil qiqoZis fotoebi

19
gaudabnoeba saqarTveloSi sakmlis xe ivris Walis maxloblad kowaxuras qedi dalis mTis wyalsacavis maxloblad

regioni

II msoflio omis bolos, 1945 wlis 4 13 Tebervals, q. ialtaSi Catarebul konferenciaze an tihitleruli koaliciis xelmZRvanelebi, aSS is prezidenti franklin delano ruzvelti da didi britaneTis premier ministri uinston CerCili, ver aRudgnen win sabWoTa kavSiris xelmZ Rvanelis – ioseb stalinis kategoriul moTxovnas da poloneTis saxelmwifos aRmosavleTi sazRvari faqtobrivad iseTi daamtkices, rogoric sabWoTa kavSirisa da nacisturi germaniis faruli garigebiT, e.w. „molotov ribentropis paqtiT“ SeTanxmda 1939 wlis 23 agvistos (Tumca am garigebis arsebobas moskovi 1989 wlamde ar aRiarebda). poloneTi, ase vTqvaT, „gadaswies da savleTiT“ da kompensaciis saxiT gadasces damarcxebuli germaniis teritoriis nawili, maT So ris – farTo gasasvleli baltiis zRvaze da aRmosavleT prusiis samxreTi raionebi.

Cexoslovakia aRdga omamdel sazRvrebSi, magram sabWoTa kavSirma moaxdina misi aRmosav leT nawilis (ruTeniis) aneqsireba, romelsac iqamde ramdenime weli ungreTi flobda. stalin ma es teritoria „imierkarpatis olqis“ (Закарпатскаяобласть) saxeliT SeuerTa ukrainis ssr s, sa dac iqauri rusinebi „ukrainelebad“ Caweres. iq dRemde cxovrobs sakmaod didi ungruli Temic.

omis dros da mis Semdgom centralur evropaSi didi demografiuli cvlilebebi moxda jer kidev omis dros datrialda tragedia – centraluri evropis TiTqmis mTeli ebrauli mosaxle oba nacistebma gaanadgures (holokosti) aman mkveTrad Seamcira iqamde sakmaod mravalricxo vani eTnoreligiuri jgufi magaliTad, poloneTSi 1939 wlamde ebraelebi mosaxleobis TiTq mis 11 procents Seadgendnen, omis Semdeg ki – 1 procentze naklebs 1948 wels israelis saxelm wifos Seqmnam stimuli misca ebraelTa emigracias centraluri evropis qveynebidan

20

poloneTi 1939 wlame

gadaeca poloneTs germaniisgan 1945 wels

SeierTa sabWoTa kavSirma 1939 wels daubrunda poloneTs sabWoTa kavSirisagan 1945 1947 ww poloneTis aRmosavleTi sazRvari 1947 wlidan

centraluri evropis qveynebisa da sab WoTa kavSiris xelSi gadasuli aRmosavleT prusiis teritoriaze ganxorcielda germa nelebis faqtobrivi eTnikuri wmenda: 12 mi lionze meti adamiani aiZules dasavleT germaniaSi wasuliyo.

centraluri evropis saxelmwifoebi, omamdelTan SedarebiT, ufro monoeTniku ri gaxda, anu iq ricxobrivad sruli domini reba daiwyo qveynisaTvis saxelis mimcemma eTnosma: poloneTSi – polonelebma, ung reTSi – ungrelebma, CexoslovakiaSi – Ce xebma da slovakebma.

amave dros, II msoflio omSi gamarjve bulma mokavSireebma ar dauSves ungrelebis masobrivi eTnikuri wmenda im teritorieb ze, romlebic ungreTisagan sxva saxelmwi foebs daubrundaT (Cexoslovakia, rumine Ti, iugoslavia) an gadaecaT (ukrainis ssr) marTalia, omis Semdgomi Cexoslovakiidan ungrelebis erTi nawili gadasaxlda ung reTSi, magram bevri adgilze darCa da dRem de TiTqmis naxevari milioni ungreli cxov robs samxreT slovakeTSi. sxvaTa Soris, aR iniSneba ungrelebis asimilacia slovakeb Tan, rac XIX saukunis „madiarizaciis“ sapi rispiro procesia!

rac Seexeba politikur ganviTarebas, 1945 wels sabWoTa armiis mier nacistebisa gan ganTavisuflebuli centraluri evropa sabWoTa kavSirma sakuTari gavlenis sfe rod aqcia. regionis saxelmwifoebis forma luri damoukidebloba aRdga, isini gaeros wevrebi gaxdnen, magram 1946 1948 wlebSi yve la maTganSi damyarda adgilobrivi komunis turi partiis diqtatura es partiebi krem lis brZanebebs emorCilebodnen omSi da marcxebuli germaniis sabWoTa saokupacio zonaSi 1949 wels moskovma daaarsa marione tuli saxelmwifo – germaniis demokratiu li respublika (gdr)

21
centraluri evropa gdanski (dancigi) vroclavi (breslau) poznani varSava loZi krakovi liublini bialistoki bresti lvovi stanislavi baranoviCi vilniusi Scecini (Stetini) poloneTis
teritoriis cvlileba 1939 1947 wlebSi

1955 wels evropis yvela „socialisturi saxelmwifo“ (iugoslaviis garda) gaerTianda „var Savis xelSekrulebiT“ Seqmnil samxedro blokSi, romelic moskovidan imarTeboda centralu ri evropa gadaiqca CrdiloeT amerikisa da dasavleT evropis saxelmwifoebis TavdacviTi or ganizaciis, natos, winaaRmdeg mimarTul placdarmad – TiTqmis yvela saxelmwifoSi 1990 wlam de idga sabWoTa armiis mravalaTasiani kontingenti da ganlagebuli iyo dasavleT evropisken damiznebuli samxedro teqnika

centraluri evropis qveynebis realuri suvereniteti aRdga mxolod „civi omis“ dasrule bisa da „varSavis xelSekrulebis“ blokis daSlis Semdeg (1990 w ) yvela qveyanaSi Catarda demok ratiuli mravalpartiuli arCevnebi seriozul gamowvevad iqca axalgazrda demokratiebis in tegrireba evropul da evroatlantikur struqturebSi

centraluri evropis mosaxleobam miiCnia (es referendumebma cxadyo), rom momavali usaf rTxoebisaTvis aucilebeli iyo sando kavSirSi gaerTianeba. erTi xanoba „natos karze kakunis“ Semdeg, 1999 wlis 12 marts, am organizaciis wevrebad miiRes poloneTi, CexeTi da ungreTi, 2004 wlis 29 marts ki – slovakeTi.

regioni
varSavis
1955 wlis
xelSekruleba
ialtis konferencia, 1945
uinston
CerCili (1874-1965) franklin delano ruzvelti (1882-1945)
ioseb
stalini (1878-1953) 22

1991 wlis 15 Tebervals ungreTis qalaq viSegradSi (Visegrád) poloneTma, ungreTma da Cexoslovakiam Seqmnes e w „viSegradis“ regionuli dajgufeba, rogorc evropul kavSirSi gaerTianebisaTvis erToblivi po litikis gatarebis instrumenti 1993 wlis 1 ianvars Cexoslovakiis or nawilad – CexeTi sa da slovakeTis respublikebad – mSvido biani daSlis Semdeg am regionul dajgufe baSi oTxi wevria da mas uwodeben „viSegra dis oTxeuls“ („V4“).

am dajgufebis SigniT mimdinare poli tikuri konsultaciebi dRemde uwyobs xels centraluri evropis saxelmwifoebis saga reo politikis koordinacias evropuli kavSiris SigniT, romlis wevrebad centra luri evropis oTxive saxelmwifo miiRes 2004 wlis 1 maiss maTTan erTad imave dRes evrokavSirSi Sevidnen lietuva, latvia, es toneTi, slovenia, kviprosi da malta. mog vianebiT maT SeuerTdnen bulgareTi da ru mineTi (2007 wlis 1 ianvridan) da xorvatia (2013 wlis 1 ivlisidan).

evropuli kavSiris wevroba gaxda yvela zemoxsenebuli qveynis ekonomikuri da so cialuri ganviTarebis garanti maT miiRes sagrZnobi finansuri daxmareba kavSiris centraluri biujetidan, daCqarda maTi ek onomikuri ganviTareba, amaRlda mosaxleo bis materialuri done

centraluri da samxreT aRmosavleTi evropis qveynebis evropul kavSirSi integ raciis analizi gviCvenebs, rom amisaTvis Za lian mniSvnelovani iyo politikur geogra fiuli mdebareoba da geopolitikuri faq tori

politikur geografiuli mdebareobis TvalsazrisiT mTavari iyo, rom yvela axali wevri saxelmwifo, romlebic istoriulad ganekuTvneba evropul (faqtobrivad, qris tianul) civilizacias, uSualod emezoble ba an Zalian axlosaa evrokavSiris birTv Tan – dasavleT evropasTan kunZulovani qveynebi – kviprosi da malta – Zalian mWid ro urTierTobaSi iyvnen evrokavSiris im droindel gavlenian wevrTan, did brita neTTan, rogorc misi yofili koloniebi

Visegrád Group

23
centraluri evropa

(1952) belgia (1952)

(2007)

dania (1973)

germania (1952)

(1986)

(2004)

(2004)

(1973)

(2004)

(2004)

(2004)

(1952)

(2004)

(2004)

(1952)

(2004)

(1986)

(2007)

(1981)

(1952)

(2004)

(2004)

(2004)

(1995)

(1995)

(2013)

regioni 24 evrokavSiris wevri qveynebi kviprosi
ungreTi
latvia
lietuva
luqsemburgi
malta
niderlandebi
poloneTi
portugalia
avstria
bulgareTi
CexeTi
estoneTi
das.
irlandia
espaneTi
xorvatia
fineTi
safrangeTi
saberZneTi
rumineTi
ungreTi
slovakeTi
slovenia
SvedeTi

aRsaniSnavia, rom daSorebiT mdebare an sxva civilizaciuri bazisis mqone qveynebis integ racia evropul kavSirTan bevrad ufro problemuri sakiTxia

evrokavSirSi gaerTianebis survilis mqone qveynebis mowadinebaze gacilebiT meti mniSvne loba hqonda geopolitikur faqtors – evrokavSiris damfuZnebeli qveynebis dainteresebas, SeeqmnaT mSvidobiani, stabiluri da mdidari samezoblo sakuTar sazRvrebTan winaaRmdeg Sem TxvevaSi, SedarebiT CamorCenili qveynebis arseboba ekonomikurad ganviTarebuli germaniisa an avstriis aRmosavleTiT SeiZleboda gamxdariyo mudmivi destabilizaciis faqtori

Raribi mezoblis yola yovelTvis aris xolme, sul cota, moraluri problema warmatebuli ojaxisa Tu saxelmwifosaTvis!

aseve geopolitikuri gaTvla iyo, rom axalmiRebuli qveynebis sruli integracia evropul institutebSi evrokavSiris damfuZnebel dasavleT evropul saxelmwifoebs SesaZleblobas aZlevda zegavlena moexdinaT centraluri evropis, baltiisa da samxreT aRmosavleT evropis qveynebSi mimdinare ekonomikur da politikur procesebze.

evropuli kavSiris wevroba niSnavs erovnuli suverenitetis nawilis nebayoflobiT daTmo bas da mis gadacemas evrokavSiris mmarTveli zeerovnuli xelmZRvaneli organoebisaTvis rad ganac evrokavSirSi yofna iZleva stabiluri ganviTarebis garantias, masSi wevrobis sanacvlod zemoxsenebuli regionebis xalxebi daTanxmdnen suverenitetis nawilis daTmobas.

evropuli kavSiris wevroba imavdroulad aris regionuli konfliqtebis Tavidan acilebis saSualeba kavSiris wevr qveynebs Soris Tavisufali mimosvlis saSualeba, evrokavSiris sxva wevr qveyanaSi Tavisufali dasaxlebis ufleba, demokratiis principebis cxovrebaSi danergva xSirad abaTilebs teritoriul urTierTpretenziebs magaliTad, ungreTi oficialur doneze aRar ucxadebs teritoriul pretenzias masTan erTad evrokavSiris wevr saxelmwifoebs – slo vakeTsa da rumineTs, Tumca iq mcxovreb ungrul umciresobaze zrunvas Tavis valdebulebad miiCnevs

unda aRiniSnos isic, rom evropul kavSirSi integracia bevri qveynis sazogadoebisaTvis sakmaod mtkivneuli procesi gamodga da kavSiris wevr qveynebSi, maT Soris, centralur evropa Si, arsebobdnen da dRemde aqtiuroben „evroskeptikosebi“, anu antievropuli Zalebic

centraluri evropa
25

qarTvelebi

niko buri da misi omi

arCil qiqoZe

daaxloebiT oci wlis win ucxoel turistebTan erTad avedi myinvarwverze jgufis erT er Ti wevri samxreT afrikidan iyo mgoni, am qveynidan manamde aravis Sevxvedrodi da masTan sauba ri gansakuTrebiT mainteresebda niko buris Sesaxeb rom davuwye moyola, miTxra, rom misi amba vi kargad icoda mere vkiTxe, is Tu ici, niko buris razmma axalgazrda uinston CerCili rom ig do tyved meTqi? gaecina: rogor ar vici, es Cveni ojaxis sircxvilia, radgan datyvevebuli Cer Cili Cemi didi babuis fermidan gaiparao

axla saqarTveloSi burebis ramdenime ojaxi cxovrobs da gardabanSi miwaTmoqmedebas mis deven erT erTma siamayiT miTxra, Cemi babua niko burTan erTad ibrZodao Soreul afrikaSi am kacis xsovna cocxalia ver vityvi, rom CvenTan igi ar axsovT, magram me mainc gadavwyvite axal gazrda mkiTxvels Cemi sayvareli istoriuli gmiri – nikoloz bagrationi (niko buri) Sevaxseno, movuTxro masze da mis araCveulebriv wignze, romelsac, imedi maqvs, am statiis wamkiTxvelebi moiZieben, waikiTxaven da Seiyvareben – wignsac da mis avtorsac roca am striqonebs vwer, mTeli msoflios yuradReba ukrainiskenaa mipyrobili iq veragi dampyroblis winaaRmdeg ukrainelebis mxardamxar sxvadasxva qveynis moxaliseebi ibrZvian, maT Soris arian qarTvelebic aba, aseT dros rogor ar gamaxsendes niko buri – ucxo qveyanaSi, cxra mTasa da cxra zRvas iqiT, ucxo omSi wasuli pirveli qarTveli moxalise es kaci CemTvis kidev erTi ramis gamoa Zvirfasi ar vici, dahkvirvebi xarT Tu ara, magram qarTvelebi didad arasodes mogzaurobdnen sakuTar samSobloSi an im qveyana Si, romelsac dapyrobili vyavdiT (sparseTSi, TurqeTSi, ruseTSi ), ufro komfortulad grZnob

26

dnen Tavs, vidre sruliad ucxo mxareSi Tav gadasavlis, Soreuli qveynebis aRmoCenis Jini TiTqos arasodes yofila Cveni vneba gvqonda zRva da ar vzRvaosnobdiT metic, qarTul enaSi „zRvas“, „zRvars“ da „sazRvars“ erTi Zi ri aqvs mijna, romlis iqiT ar unda gadaxvide hoda, niko buri pirveli gmiri mgonia, rome lic am uxilav mijnas sakuTari nebiT gascda, samyaros kideze mivida da zRapris gmiriviT, cocxali da saRsalamaTi dabrunda Sin.

niko buri qarTveli mefeebis STamomavali iyo, muxranel bagrationTa Stodan iyo ga morCeviT maRali adamiani da saocari Ronis patroni misi mTavari Tviseba mainc codnis da mogzaurobis dauokebeli survili iyo bavSvobidan itacebda istoria da geografia sanam Tavis mTavar TavgadasavalSi gadaeSve boda, niko bagrationi cxovrobda ise, ro gorc misi wris adamians ekuTvnoda. ar iyo Za lian mdidari, magram arc Raribi eTqmoda, Sroma ar eTakileboda, muxranis nayofier ma mulebSi amuSavebda miwas da aryis saxdeli hqonda gaxsnili. misi saocari mogzauroba rom ara, SeiZleba am adamians sruliad Cveu lebrivi cxovrebiT ecxovra ise, rom masze dRes bevri araferi gvcodnoda. magram 1899 wels 31 wlis niko bagrationi jer peter burgSi gaemgzavra, iqidan Tavis naTesavTan, nikoloz orbeliani (1845 1925)

li

nikoloz orbelianTan erTad msoflio gamo fenis dasaTvaliereblad parizSi Cavida. or qarTvel Tavads ramdenime wliT adre hqonda es mogzauroba dagegmili. ori nikolozi saf rangeTidan afrikaSi unda gamgzavrebuliyo da iq didi xnis ocneba aesrulebinaT – lomeb ze unda enadiraT, magram orbelianma afrika Si gamgzavreba gadaifiqra da niko bagrationi martodmarto avida marselidan aleqsandri isken mimaval gemze. swored am mogzaurobi sas, mezobel kaiutebSi gaCaRebuli xmamaRali saubrebidan gaigo, zRvis avadmyofobiT ga tanjulma, burebis winaaRmdeg inglisis mosa lodneli galaSqrebis Sesaxeb nikoloz bag rationma, ra Tqma unda, icoda didi britane Ti, magram warmodgena ar hqonda, vin iyvnen burebi „patara xalxi, romelsac inglisi da Cagvras da dapyrobas upirebs“, – daaxloebiT ase gaacnes egvipteSi Casuls samxreT afrika

Si Seqmnili situacia da meocnebe qarTvelma Tavadma maSinve gadawyvita, samxreT afrikaSi wasuliyo patara eris didi imperiisgan dasa cavad. axla ki movida dro, giamboT, vin arian burebi da ra situacia Seiqmna samxreT afri kaSi XIX da XX saukuneebis mijnaze

27
niko buri

qarTvelebi

maT Soris iyo nikoloz bagrationis moma vali megobari frangi de breda. frangebi da ingliselebi saukuneebis manZilze mtrobd nen erTmaneTs. qarTveli Tavadis am omSi Cab mis motivi sul sxva iyo. ai, ras wers nikoloz bagrationi Tavis mogonebebis wignSi „bureb Tan“:

„gamaxsenda sayvareli saqarTvelo, mTeli Cemi arseba moicva burebisadmi TanagrZnobam da uyoymanod gulSi amoviWeri – davxmarebo di Tavisuflebis moyvarul patara xalxs, ro melsac inglisi mospobas upirebda“

XVII saukuneSi holandia Zalian Zlieri sa xelmwifo iyo, romelic Soreul miwebs ipy robda da iq sakuTar koloniebs aarsebda ho landielebi afrikis samxreTiT pirvelad im zRvispira adgilas dafuZndnen, sadac dRes qalaqi keiptauni mdebareobs; mogvianebiT af rikaSi masobrivi gadasaxleba, miwebis aTvise ba daiwyes da kontinentis siRrmeSic SeaRwi es holandiel kolonistebs daerqvaT burebi (holandiuri sityvidan Boer, rac glexs niS navs) unda iTqvas, rom miuxedavad imisa, rom burebi mamacebi da Sromismoyvareebi iyvnen, isini Zalian sastikad eqceodnen afrikelebs ipyrobdnen da monebad aqcevdnen mTlian to mebs da maTi afrikuli keTildReoba da sim didre mTlianad monebis araadamianuri Sro mis nayofi iyo mogvianebiT, roca msoflio batonoba didma britaneTma moipova da deda miwis sxvadasxva wertilSi holandielebs mra vali kolonia waarTva, is burebis afrikul keTildReobasac daemuqra. ingliselebma bu rebi jer sanapirodan gaaZeves da Semdeg, kon tinentis siRrmeSi maT mier Seqmnil or saxel mwifos – transvaalis respublikas da narin jisfer respublikas moundomes dapyroba. daiwyo inglisi burebis omi, romelSic uka nasknelTa mxares msoflios mravali qveyni dan wasuli moxaliseebi monawileobdnen.

de bredasTan erTad nikoloz bagrationi transvaalSi Cavida, sadac igi pativiT miiRo respublikis prezidentma pol kriugerma. go liaTuri aRnagobis qarTveli Tavadi burebSi didi popularobiT sargeblobda masze werd nen gazeTebi da masze laparakobdnen, ro gorc kavkasiel ufliswulze. es legendebi burebSi dRemde cocxlobs magaliTad, hyve bian, TiTqos niko bagrations mcvelad mudam Tan axlda ori kazaki, rac sul ar Seesabameba sinamdviles – niko bagrationi afrikaSi mar todmarto, mcvelebis da msaxurebis gareSe, Cavida. me ar vapireb niko buris yvela Tavga

tyve niko buri wminda elenes kunZulze, jeimsTaunSi isari miuTiTebs niko burze

28
niko buri da de breda

pol kriugeri (1825 1904 )

niko buri

petre Juberi (1831 1900 )

transvaalis da narinjisferi respublikebi

dasavlis moyolas. es yvelaferi Zalian xatovnad aqvs aRwerili im wignSi, romelsac didi imedi maqvs, rom moZebniT da waikiTxavT am wignSi aris brZolebi, gareul mxecebTan Sexvedra, magram misi mTavari Rirseba Tavad avtoria – Soreul TavgadasavalSi wasuli axirebuli da keTilSobili kaci, romelic sikvdils, arc meti, arc naklebi, dedis portretma gadaarCina. rodesac datyvevebuli bagrationi ingliselebs dasaxvretad hyavdaT kedelTan dayenebuli, nikolozma jibidan dedis fotosuraTi amoiRo, raTa sikvdilis win ukanasknelad Seexeda Cavlilma ingliselma oficerma Tvali mohkra ucnaur samosSi gamowyobili qalis fotos da nikolozs vinaoba hkiTxa, pasuxi rom miiRo, saswrafod gamoiyvana dasaxvretTa rigidan da ase gadaarCina. qarTveli moxalise ufliswu lis ambavi britanelebmac icodnen, ingliselebi ki aristokratias da samefo sisxls yovelTvis

29

qarTvelebi

did pativs scemdnen. am omSi burebis razmebi winaswar iyvnen damarcxebisTvis ganwiruli, msoflios uZlieres da ukeT SeiaraRebul armiasTan aranairi Sansi ar hqondaT datyvevebul burebs da maT mo kavSireebs ingliselebi sakoncentracio banakebSi aTavsebdnen gaivlis ormoci weli da germaneli na cistebis wyalobiT sityvaTSeTanxmeba „sakoncentracio banaki“ yvelaze Semzarav mniSvnelobas mii Rebs, magram es termini pirvelad swored burebis omis dros gamoiyenes gamarjvebulebma sakoncent racio banaki, sadac nikoloz bagrationi moxvda, atlantis okeaneSi, afrikis sanapiros siaxloves, wminda elenes unayofo kunZulze mdebareobda. es is kunZulia, sadac sicocxlis ukanaskneli wlebi gaatara ingliselTa yvelaze saxelovanma tyvem, napoleon bonapartem Cvenamde movida kunZulze da werili nikoloz bagrationis dRiuri, romelic sevdiT da samSoblos monatrebiTaa savse tyve ofic rebis banakSi qarTveli mefeebis STamomavali yvelaze Rataki tyvea. ori wyvili sacvlis Sovnac ki di di ambavia mis mdgomareobaSi. nikolozi mudam gaqcevaze, mudam samSobloze fiqrobs. niko burs banak Si Tavisi arabunebrivi Rone gamoadga gadawyvita, ingliseli oficrebisTvis warmodgena moewyo da ase eSova cotaodeni fuli sakuTari xarjebisTvis da sneuli tyveebis dasaxmareblad warmodgena ki aseTi iyo: niko buri aRviriT iWerda or cxens, romlebic Tavis daRwevas lamobdnen, yalyze dgebod

niko buri wminda elenes kunZulze tyveobis dros niko buris mSobliuri saxli muxranSi niko buri Tavis ZaRlTan erTad
30

nen, bagrationi ki TiTqos miwaSi iyo Cakiru li, magrad idga, xelebze sisxlZarRvebi la mis daxeTqoda da is mainc idga. ingliselebs msgavsi araferi enaxaT bolos britanelebma datyvevebuli ucxoeli moxaliseebi im piro biT gaaTavisufles, rom isini aRarasodes dabrundebodnen afrikaSi da niko buric, de bredasTan erTad, jer londonSi Cavida, iqi dan ki – safrangeTSi, sadac raRac xani mego bars stumrobda. de bredas mSoblebma is sa kuTari SviliviT miiRes mere ki iyo monatre buli samSoblo qorwineba da TiTqos axali, ukeTesi cxovrebis dasawyisi. XX saukune jer mxolod iwyeboda, magram am saukunes mTeli im samyaros ngreva unda moetana, romelic mux ranel bagrations yvelaze metad uyvarda. win iyo pirveli msoflio omi, romelic aseve misi omi gaxda, mere – ruseTis revolucia, saqarT velos samwliani damoukidebloba da bolos –bolSevikuri jojoxeTi. am jojoxeTs niko buri (maSin ukve yvela ase eZaxda) ucxoeTSi ar gaqcevia, samSobloSi darCa misma qaliSvi lebma safrangeTs Seafares Tavi, niko burs ki CamoarTves mamulebi da qoneba is ar mouk lavT komunistur represiebs gadaurCa, mag ram uamravi Tavisi axloblis da naTesavis

sikvdili naxa SeiZleba, niko buris gadarCen is mizezi misi udidesi popularoba iyo afri kis gmiri, romelic sibereSi ori kapikis sa Sovnelad veris ubanSi yidda sigarets, Tbi lisis yvelaze popularuli moqalaqe da Cvens qalaqSi mosiarule yvelaze maRali ada miani iyo – ori metri da aTi santimetris si maRlis keTili goliaTi, romelsac yvelaze saocari ambebi gadaxdenoda erTxel mweral ma aka morCilaZem aseTi ambavi mohyva: Tbili seli kinto, romelsac Tavze siniT xili edga, niko burs dasjaxebia da xilic dahpnevia kin toebi agresiulobiT gamoirCeodnen da mudam Cxubis mizezs eZebdnen is fxukiani kintoc gamxtara ukan da saCxubrad momzadebula, magram axeda metoqes, axeda da aRar damTavr da is imodena kaci. uxmod dascqeroda Turme zevidan da ierze etyoboda, Tavadi unda yo filiyo uTqvams maSin kintos: kniazo, Tu ada miani xar xma amoiRe da Tu tramvai xar, „gudo ki“ mainc momecio niko buri 1933 wels gardaicvala misi mo gonebebis araCveulebrivi wigni „burebTan“ ki mxolod misi sikvdilidan 20 wlis Semdeg dai beWda pirvelad.

niko buri ojaxTan erTad niko buri doRze diRomSi
31

rogor Seiqmna sabWoTa kavSiri!

malxaz macaberiZe

raSi sWirdebodaT moskovel bolSevikebs amierkavkasiis federacia sabWoTa ruseTma saqarTvelos dapyrobis Semdeg moCvenebiTi damoukidebloba SeunarCuna da saTaveSi Tavisi regionuli organizacia – saqarTvelos komunisturi partia da misi centra luri komiteti Cauyena saqarTvelos kompartiis imdroindel xelmZRvanelobaSi bevri Zveli bolSeviki iyo, romlebic wlebis ganmavlobaSi ibrZodnen saqarTveloSi sabWoTa xelisufle bis dasamyareblad da raime gansakuTrebuli „erovnuli“ grZnobebi ar amoZravebdaT sakmari sia davasaxeloT filipe maxaraZe magram qarTveli komunistebis am jgufs ar egona, rom mosko vi da misi saxeliT moqmedi „samxareo komiteti“ „ase tlanqad da ase pirwmindad gaTelavda fex qveS TviT sabWoTa saqarTvelos“ da mas „ubralo TviTmmarTvelobis nasaxsac ar SearCenda“

amierkavkasiis sam qveyanaSi moqmed komunistur partiebs, moskovis garda, uSualo zedam xedvelobas uwevda ruseTis komunisturi partiis centraluri komitetis mier Seqmnili samxa reo xelmZRvaneli jgufi es iyo kavkasiis biuro, romelic 1920 wlis 8 aprils Seiqmna mas xelmZ Rvanelobda sergo (grigol) orjonikiZe, misi moadgile iyo sergei kirovi kavkasiis biurom di di roli Seasrula samxreT kavkasiis damoukidebeli saxelmwifoebis gasabWoebis saqmeSi 1922 wlis TebervalSi am organizacias saxeli gadaerqva da „amierkavkasiis samxareo komiteti“ ewo da

nawili II
32 sabWoTa sistema

sergo orjonikiZe (1886-1937)

sergei kirovi (1886 1934 )

filipe maxaraZe (1868 1941)

samxareo komiteti bolSevikuri kolonializmis gansaxiereba iyo. masac sergo orjonikiZe xelmZRvanelobda rodesac orjonikiZe da misi momxreebi saqarTvelos kompartiis xelmZRva nelebis winaaRmdegobas waawydnen, maT mimarT muqarasa da Seuracxyofas ar moridebian

e w „nacional uklonistebi“ sabWoTa ruseTis mier dapyrobili saqarTvelos viTomda mmarTveli Zalis – saqarTvelos komunisturi partiis centraluri komitetis umravlesobas Seadgendnen 1921 1922 wlebSi maT Soris gamoirCeodnen budu mdivani, filipe maxaraZe, sergo qavTaraZe, mixeil okujava, kote cincaZe da sxvebi qarTveli komunistebis am jgufs ukiduresma Sovinist komunistebma „uklonistebi“ Searq ves, anu Tqven „gadaixareT“ erovnul sakiTxSi swori komunisturi politikidano. es iyo am ada mianebisTvis wayenebuli yvelaze „rbili“ braldeba. amave dros „uklonistebs“ qarTvel xalxSi araviTari dasayrdeni ar hqondaT, maTi xelisuflebis wyaro ruseTis wiTeli armia iyo, isini „samarTals“ moskovSi eZebdnen da orjonikiZes leninTan uCiodnen

dava principul sakiTxebs, kerZod, saqarTvelos isedac mkveTrad Selaxuli suverenitetis naSTebis SenarCunebas exeboda. rogorc xandaxan saqarTvelos kompartiis xelmZRvanelobaSi myofi am jgufis warmomadgenlebi acxadebdnen, saqme exeboda „damoukideblobis atributebis“ SenarCunebas.

erTmaneTs daupirispirda komunisturi partiis xelmZRvanelobaSi arsebuli ori jgufi: erTni viTomda emyarebodnen „proletaruli internacionalizmis“ ideas da arafrad agdebdnen qarTveli xalxis interesebs, meoreni, saqarTvelos kompartiis xelmZRvanelobaSi myofni, cdi lobdnen garkveulwilad angariSi gaewiaT qarTveli xalxis interesebisa da saqarTvelos ga sabWoebis dros gacemuli dapirebebisaTvis, rom „saqarTvelos suvereniteti“ xelSeuxebeli iqneboda.

„samxareo komitetsa“ da „uklonistebs“ Soris gansxvaveba mokled SeiZleba Semdegnairad warmovadginoT:

rkp(b) centraluri komitetis samxareo komiteti

saqarTvelos komunisturi partiis xelmZRvaneloba saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobis ugulebel yofa

saqarTvelos saxelmwifosTvis „damoukideb lobis atributebis“ SenarCuneba

sxva partiebis, gansakuTrebiT socialistebi sadmi, frTxili damokidebuleba radikaluri ekonomikuri reformebi, gansa kuTrebiT agrarul sakiTxSi, klasobrivi brZolis gamwvaveba

agresiuli represiebi politikuri oponente bis winaaRmdeg

sifrTxile agraruli reformis dros, miwaT mflobelTa interesebis garkveulwilad gaTvaliswineba

rogor Seiqmna sabWoTa kavSiri
33

sabWoTa sistema

amierkavkasiis samive respublikis gasab Woebis Semdeg rkp(b) centraluri komite tis amierkavkasiis samxareo komitetma sasw rafod daiwyo muSaoba amierkavkasiis saxel mwifoebis sxvadasxva uwyebis gaerTianebis da amierkavkasiis federaciis Sesaqmnelad amierkavkasiis federaciis Seqmna rkp(b) centraluri komitetis kavkasiis biuros iniciativa iyo da mas moskovSic daeTanxm nen mas Semdegac ki, rac gadawyda sabWoTa kavSiris Seqmna da ukrainasa da belorusias

„ufleba miecaT“ masSi uSualod Sesuliyv nen, samxreT kavkasiis respublikebisgan da JinebiT moiTxovdnen adgilobrivi federa ciis Seqmnas da mxolod am gziT Sesvlas sab WoTa kavSiris SemadgenlobaSi. mogviane biT, rodesac Sua aziaSi Seqmnes „mokavSire respublikebi“, isini cal calke gaaformes sabWoTa kavSiris wevrebad da ar ucdiaT „Sua aziis federaciis“ Seqmna

ra mniSvneloba hqonda da ratom iyo au cilebeli bolSevikebisaTvis amierkavkasi is federaciis Seqmna da samxreT kavkasiis respublikebis mxolod am formiT Seyvana sabWoTa kavSirSi?

amaze pasuxs gvaZlevs saqarTvelos de mokratiuli respublikis cnobili moRvawe grigol lorTqifaniZe. misi TqmiT, „dabru nebul ruseTs amierkavkasiaSi daxvda sami ukve sakmaod Camoyalibebuli erovnuli respublika. da ai, ruseTis imperializmic, gaxelebuli rusuli SovinizmiT, ekveTa in ternacionalizmis niRbis qveS am respub likebs da kidec daamxo isini“.

grigol lorTqifaniZis azriT, ruse TisTvis yvelaze saSiSi saqarTvelo iyo –„sakmarisia saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebri vi gamoqandakeba da amierkavkasiis ori da narCeni eric TavisTavad dakristaldeba somxur da azerbaijanul saxelmwifoebaT. moSaleT, aafeTqeT da aTqvifeT saqarTve lo da mTeli kavkasiac erovnulaT aqoTe buli da aWrelebuli iqneba“.

sergo qavTaraZe (1885 1971) mixeil okujava (1883 1937)
34 grigol lorTqifaniZe (1881 1937)

amierkavkasiis federacia axali rusuli kolonializmis „SesaniSnavi“ gamogoneba iyo saqme isaa, rom amierkavkasiis federa cia sami erovnuli respublikis nacvlad „umtkivneulod“ qmnida erT did rusul gu bernias federaciaSi xom „samuSao enad“ ru suli „bunebrivad“ xdeboda da es „TavisTa vadac“ igulisxmeboda amierkavkasiis fede aciis daarsebiT seriozuli nabiji gadaid ga amierkavkasiis rusifikaciis gzaze faq tobrivad, swored am mizans emsaxureboda amierkavkasiis respublikaTa federaciuli gaerTianeba

amierkavkasiis federaciis Seqmna amave dros akmayofilebda rkp(b) ck samxareo ko mitetis ambiciebsac sami „erovnuli“ res publikis nacvlad samarTavad iRebdnen „ad ekvatur“ erTeuls

„nacional uklonistebi“, saqarTvelos garda, sxvaganac iyvnen, magram saqarTvelo Si maTTan brZolam gansakuTrebiT mwvave xa siaTi miiRo qarTveli „uklonistebis“ brZolam lenins sabWoTa kavSiris Seqmnis ideisken ubiZga, romelSic sxva sabWoTa res publikebi ruseTTan erTad „Tanasworad“ gaerTiandebodnen. am gegmam ukraineli „uk lonistebi“ daawynara, ukraina xom ruseT Tan „Tanasworad“ erTiandeboda axal kav SirSi. magram igive saqarTvelosTvis gamoi ricxa, anu qarTvelma „uklonistebma“ Tavi si brZolis nayofiT ver isargebles – saqar Tvelo amierkavkasiis federaciaSi unda darCeniliyo, saidanac calmxrivad gasvlis ufleba arcerT qveyanas ar hqonda

amierkavkasiis federaciis Seqmna saqar TvelosTvis gansakuTrebiT sazaralo iyo, pirvel rigSi – ekonomikurad. magaliTad, 1921 wlis damlevisTvis azerbaijanuli da somxuri fulis niSnebi rusuli sabWoTa fu lis niSnebis 25% s udrida, qarTuli fulis niSnebis Rirebuleba ki am dros rusuli fu lis niSnebis Rirebulebaze 50% iT, xolo 1923 wlis gazafxulze 75% iT ufro maRali iyo

savaraudod, e.w. nacional uklonistebi Tavidanve amierkavkasiis federaciis Seqm nis winaaRmdegi iyvnen, magram amis Tqmas ver bedavdnen, raTa maTTvis brali ar daedoT „proletaruli internacionalizmis“ RalatSi. amitom taqtikuri mosazrebebiT ac xadebdnen, rom amierkavkasiis federaciis Seqmnis winaaRmdegi ar arian, magram kama Tobdnen respublikebis gaerTianebis vade bisa da meTodebis gamo.

saqarTvelos kompartiis xelmZRvane loba mas Semdeg, rac miRebul iqna gadawyve tileba sabWoTa kavSiris Seqmnis Sesaxeb, uk ve Riad acxadebda, rom sruliad zedmetad miaCnda „amierkavkasiis federaciis“ Seqmna, romelsac mxars uWerda rkp(b) amierkavkasi is samxareo komiteti.

budu mdivani (1877 1937)
35
rogor
Seiqmna sabWoTa kavSiri

sabWoTa sistema

besarion lominaZe (1897 1935)

1922 wlis 19 oqtombers saqarTvelos kompartiis centralurma komitetma wina dadeba wamoayena gauqmebuliyo imave wlis martSi Seqmnili amierkavkasiis federacia da saqarTvelo uSualod Sesuliyo sabWoTa kavSiris SemadgenlobaSi. meore dRes, 1922 wlis 20 oqtombers, gaimarTa rkp(b) amier kavkasiis samxareo komitetis plenumi, sa dac sergo orjonikiZem zemoT aRniSnuli

gadawyvetilebis gamo Sovinistebad gamoac xada saqarTvelos kompartiis centraluri komitetis wevrebi, aseve saqarTvelos kom partiis centraluri komitetis mdivnis Ta namdebobidan moxsnes m. okujava.

1922 wlis 22 oqtombers protestis niS nad gadadga saqarTvelos kompartiis cent raluri komitetis TiTqmis mTeli Semadgen loba, magram amas civad Sexvdnen moskovSi, xolo amierkavkasiis samxareo komitetSi Se iZleba gauxardaT kidec. 1922 wlis 22 oq tombers amierkavkasiis samxareo komitetma saqarTvelos kompartiis centraluri komi tetis axal pasuxismgebel mdivnad daniSna b. lominaZe, 25 oqtombers ki ukve gaimarTa saqarTvelos kompartiis centraluri komi tetis axali Semadgenlobis pirveli plenu mi, romelic winaaRmdegobas araTu aRar uw evda samxareo komitetis pozicias, aramed akritikebda nacional uklonistebs. sergo orjonikiZe, rogorc Tavad acxadebda, gul modgined ebrZoda „qarTul nacionalizms“, sinamdvileSi ki rusuli velikoderJavuli Sovinisturi politikis gamtarebeli iyo

amierkavkasiis federaciis momxreebi ac xadebdnen, rom gaerTianeba didxans iarse bebda, msoflioSi socialisturi revolu ciis gamarjvebamde an sanam saerTod iarse bebdnen saxelmwifoebi, magram amierkavkasi is federacia sabWoTa kavSiris Seqmnis dros bolSevikebisTvis sruliad zedmeti rgoli iyo man sul raRac 14 weli iarseba da 1936 wels gauqmda amierkavkasiis respublikebi sabWoTa kavSirSi uSualod „miiRes“

sabWoTa respublikebis gaerTianebis leninis gegma da misi arasruli ganxorcieleba

ra amocanas saxavda lenini

ra gakeTda uaris Tqma rsfsr Si sxva „suverenuli“ respublikebis Seyvanaze da „Tanasworuflebiani“ kavSiris Seqmna

gakeTda formalurad. „Tanasworuflebianoba“ konstituciaSi ewera, magram imave konstituciiT ar iyo garantirebuli socialisturi respublikebis kavSiris SenarCuneba da ganmtkiceba ganmtkiceba gagebuli iyo, rogorc ukiduresi centralizacia diplomatiuri aparatis SenarCuneba, radganac, leninis azriT, es komunistebiT dakompleqtebuli saukeTeso uwyeba iyo

saerTaSoriso arenaze sabWoTa respublikebs moskovi warmoadgen da, magram ver vityviT, rom es `saukeTeso~ aparati iyo sergo orjonikiZis samagaliTod dasja qarTveli „nacional komunistebis“ Seuracxyofis gamo ar Sesrulda ar uSesrulda mkacresi wesebis SemoReba kavSirSi Semaval respublikebSi erovnuli enebis xmarebis Sesaxeb sabWoebis momdevno yrilobaze ganexilaT sakiTxi, rom sabWoTa respublikebs Soris kavSiri darCeniliyo mxolod samxedro da diplomatiuri mxriv, yvela danarCeni saqmeebi ki respublikebis gamgeblobaSi dabrunebuliyo ar Sesrulda kavSiris centraluri aRmasrulebeli komitetis Tavmjdomare ebi rigrigobiT yofiliyvnen kavSirSi Semavali respublikebis warmomadgenlebi ar Sesrulda

36

sabWoTa kavSiris xelmZRvaneli organoebis formireba da konstituciis miReba

sabWoTa kavSiris Seqmna komunisturi partiis mmarTveli wris gadawyvetileba iyo, magram misi ganxorcieleba garegnulad „xalxis nebiTa“ da „saxelmwifoebrivi xa ziT“ unda momxdariyo. 1922 wlis 10 16 de kembers samma respublikam – ukrainam, belo rusiam da amierkavkasiis federaciam Caata ra yrilobebi da mxari dauWira sabWoTa kav Siris Seqmnas. sul bolos, 26 dekembers, ru seTis federaciam gamarTa yriloba, raTa zegavlena ar moexdina „moZme“ respublike bis gadawyvetilebebze.

1922 wlis 30 dekembers Seikriba sabWoe bis I yriloba, romelmac miiRo deklaracia da xelSekruleba sabWoTa kavSiris Seqmnis Sesaxeb. deklaracia Tanasworad acxadebda yvela respublikas, xazs usvamda gaerTiane bis nebayoflobiTobas, kavSiridan gasvlis Tavisuflebas. magram es yvelaferi sruli sicrue iyo. sabWoTa kavSiri imarTeboda er Tiani, mkacrad centralizebuli komunis turi partiis mier. kavSiris „nebayoflobi Toba“, „Tanasworuflebianoba“ da „kavSiri dan gasvlis ufleba“ mxolod carieli sity vebi iyo.

es dokumentebi damatebiTi ganxilvis aTvis gadaeca mokavSire respublikebis centralur aRmasrulebel komitetebs ma Ti saboloo ratificireba unda momxdari yo sabWoebis meore sakavSiro yrilobaze airCies sabWoTa kavSiris centraluri aR masrulebeli komiteti (cak i), romelSic proporciuli principiT Sedioda respub likebis 371 warmomadgeneli cak is muSao bis saxelmZRvanelod airCies 4 Tavmjdoma re, kavSirSi gaerTianebuli respublikebis ricxvis mixedviT – mixeil kalinini (rsfsr dan), grigori petrovski (ukrainidan), nari man narimanovi (amierkavkasiis federacii dan), aleqsandre Cerviakovi (belorusiidan) da mdivani – abel enuqiZe

mixeil kalinini (1875 1946)

sabWoTa kavSiris saerTo mTavroba gaxda yofili rsfsr saxalxo komisarTa sabWo, leniniT saTaveSi (is ukve avad iyo), romel sac sakavSiro saxkomsabWo ewoda mmarTveli partiis saxelidan ki gaqra raime erovnuli dasaxeleba – 1925 wels kom partias ewoda sakavSiro komunisturi par tia (bolSevikebis) es saxeli Tavisuflad ergeboda sabWoTa kavSiris nebismier gafar Toebas

37
rogor Seiqmna sabWoTa kavSiri

sabWoTa sistema

gadawyvetileba sabWoTa kavSiris Seqm nis Sesaxeb ise saCqarod miiRes, rom ar arse bobda misi konstitucia da bolomde ar iyo gansazRvruli, Tu rogori unda yofiliyo axali saxelmwifos centraluri organoebi. sabWoTa kavSiris konstitucia SemuSav da rkp(b) XII yrilobis miTiTebebis Sesabami sad. is cak is 1923 wlis 6 ivlisis sxdomaze miiRes da maSinve amoqmedda. konstitucia oficialurad daamtkica sabWoebis sruli ad sakavSiro II yrilobam 1924 wlis 31 ian vars, maleve leninis gardacvalebis Semdeg.

sabWoTa kavSiris konstitucia, 1918 wlis ruseTis sfsr konstituciis msgavsad, aSkarad klasobriv xasiaTs atarebda sabWo Ta konstituciebSi pirdapir iyo miTiTebu li, rom amocanad isaxavdnen „proletaria tis diqtaturis uzrunvelyofas burJuazi is daTrgunvis, adamianis mier adamianis eqs pluataciis mospobis da komunizmis ganxor cielebis mizniT“.

xelisuflebis umaRles organod gani sazRvra sabWoebis sakavSiro yriloba am yrilobis delegatebs irCevdnen saguber nio yrilobebze, xolo im respublikebSi, sa dac guberniebi ar iyo – uSualod sabWoebis respublikur yrilobebze yrilobebs So ris periodSi – sabWoebis centraluri aR masrulebeli komiteti (ssrk cak i), rome

lic Sedgeboda ori palatisagan sakavSiro sabWosa da erovnebaTa sabWosagan. ssr kav Siris xelisuflebis umaRlesi organos as eT struqturas unda „uzrunveleyo“ ro gorc mTeli kavSiris, ise calkeuli respub likebis interesebis dacva. erovnebaTa sab WoSi, mosaxleobis raodenobis miuxedavad, yvela respublikas Tanabari raodenobis warmomadgenelTa gagzavnis ufleba eZleo da

umaRlesi aRmasrulebeli organo (mTav roba) iyo sabWoTa kavSiris saxalxo komi sarTa sabWo (saxkomsabWo). ssr kavSiris pir veli mTavroba leninis meTaurobiT Seiqmna 1923 wlis ivlisSi. misi moadgileebi gaxdnen l. kamenevi, m. oraxelaSvili, a. rikovi, a. ci urupa, v. Cubari. mTavrobaSi Sedioda 10 sa xalxo komisari (5 sakavSiro da 5 „gaerTiane buli“ komisariatis xelmZRvaneli).

mokavSire respublikebSic yalibdeboda xelisuflebis analogiuri organoebi – sab Woebis respublikuri yrilobebi, centra luri aRmasrulebeli komiteti da saxkom sabWo. magram TavianTi uflebamosilebis didi nawili respublikebma centralur or ganoebs „gadasces“: saerTaSoriso war momadgenloba, Tavdacva, sazRvrebis gada sinjva, saxelmwifo usafrTxoeba, sagareo vaWroba, transporti, biujeti, kavSirgab muloba, fulis mimoqceva.

38 grigori petrovski (1878 1958) nariman narimanovi (1870 1925)

respublikebis xelSi rCeboda „Sida saq meebi“ – miwaTmoqmedeba, ganaTleba, iusti cia, socialuri uzrunvelyofa da janmrTe lobis dacva.

sabWoTa kavSiris sabWoebis yrilobisaTvis delegatebis arCeva ar iyo demokra tiuli. qalaqebis mcxovrebTagan delega tebs 5 jer mets irCevdnen, vidre soflis sabWoebidan (saqalaqo sabWoebidan 1 depu tati 25 aTasi amomrCevlidan, soflad ki –125 aTasidan. es „uzrunvelyofda“ muSaTa klasis „xelmZRvanel rols“). arCevnebi mra valsafexuriani iyo: yoveli sabWo irCevda zemdgomi sabWos delegatebs (raionuli –saolqos, saolqo – respublikurs, respub likuri ki – sakavSiros). saarCevno uflebe bi CamorTmeuli hqondaT maT, vinc daqirave bul Sromas iyenebda, anda „araSromiTi“ Se mosavlebiT cxovrobda, aseve eklesiis msa xurT, yofil policielebsa da Jandarmebs.

sabWoTa konstituciiT viTomda damk vidrebuli mmarTvelobis konstituciuri formebi ararealuri iyo mmarTvelobis sab WoTa sistemis dros. arcerT sabWoTa orga noSi, cak is arcerT palataSi sakiTxebis re aluri ganxilva arasodes yofila da damou kideblad gadawyvetilebebi ar miuRiaT. ga dawyvetilebebs komunisturi partiis po litbiuro da piradad beladi iRebda.

1924 1925 wlebSi miiRes mokavSire res publikebis konstituciebi, romlebic imeo rebdnen sakavSiro konstituciis ZiriTad debulebebs.

formalurad, mTeli xelisufleba res publikebSi ekuTvnoda muSaTa da glexTa de putatebis sabWoebs, romelTac mosaxleoba irCevda, magram realurad xelisufleba ek uTvnoda bolSevikebis partias, romelic sabWoebs akontrolebda: a) Signidan – iq „arCeuli“ komunistebis meSveobiT da b) ga redan – mmarTveli partiis gankargulebe bis meSveobiT.

aleqsandre Cerviakovi (1892 1937) abel enuqiZe, ioseb stalini da maqsim gorki

39
rogor Seiqmna sabWoTa kavSiri

sabWoTa sistema

yvela respublikas „Tavisi“ sabWoebi hqonda, magram partia yvela respublikaSi iyo erTiani da centralizebuli, romelic emorCileboda centralur komitets da politbiuros. komunis turi partia sabWoebis damoukidebeli saqmianobis „paralizebas“ (leninis termini) axdenda da mTlianad akontrolebda.

amitom laparaki „sabWoTa xelisuflebis“ Sesaxeb arasworia es iyo ara sabWoTa, aramed bolSevikuri (komunisturi) xelisufleba 1918 wlidan sabWoebi mxolod niRabi iyo bolSeviku ri partiis diqtaturisTvis, ufro zustad ki, bolSevikuri partiis xelmZRvanelobis diqta turisTvis.

sabWoTa federalizmis ierarqiu loba da formalizmi

ra SeiZleba iTqvas rsfsr isa da sabWoTa kavSiris, rogorc „federaciuli“ saxelmwi foebis Sesaxeb?

rsfsr is saxelwodebaSi iyo sityva „fe deracia“, Tumca wminda konstituciuri terminebiT es iyo unitaruli saxelmwifo, romelic garkveul avtonomiur erTeulebs Seicavda. sabWoTa kavSiri TiTqosda federaciuli saxelmwifo iyo is Seiqmna for

malurad Tanaswori subieqtebis SeTanxme biT, konstitucia aRiarebda maT suvereni tets „darCenil farglebSi“ da sabWoTa kav Siridan gasvlis uflebas, rac, rogorc we si, araa gaTvaliswinebuli federaciuli sa xelmwifoebis konstituciebSi magram sab WoTa kavSiris saxelwodebaSi sityva „fede racia“ ar figurirebda am periodis doku mentebSi sabWoTa kavSirs ewodeboda „er Tiani samokavSireo saxelmwifo“

rsfsr-is 1918 wlis konstituciasTan SedarebiT, sabWoTa kavSiris 1924 wlis kons titucia centralizaciisken gadadgmuli nabiji iyo Seiqmna ufro Zlieri centralu ri xelisufleba, gaizarda misi uflebamo sileba es iyo morigi nabiji xelisuflebis koncentraciisa

sabWoTa kavSirSi saxelmwifos federa ciuli mowyoba sicrueze iyo damyarebuli. aranairi „suvereniteti“ mokavSire respub likebs ar hqondaT konstituciaSi dafiq sirebuli iyo maTi ufleba, gasuliyvnen sab WoTa kavSiridan, magram araTu amis ganxor cielebis meqanizmi ar arsebobda, aramed sabWoTa saxelmwifos mTlianobis xelyofa umZimes danaSaulad iTvleboda

garda amisa, „suverenuli“ respublikebi imarTebodnen erTaderTi partiis – komu nisturi partiis mier, romelic mkacrad centralizebuli iyo da yovel respublika Si moskovidan miRebuli miTiTebebi ulapa rakod unda SeesrulebinaT

uflebebis ganawileba moskovsa da respublikebs Soris centris xelSi iyo respublikebis xelSi rCeboda saerTaSoriso warmomadgenloba, Tavdacva, saxelmwifos usafr Txoeba, sagareo vaWroba, transporti da kavSirgabmuloba, biu jeti, fulis mimoqceva saSinao saqmeebi, miwaTmoqmedeba, iusticia, ganaTleba, janmrTe lobis dacva, socialuri uzrunvelyofa
40

rogor Seiqmna sabWoTa kavSiri

sabWouri saxelmwifos erovnul teritoriuli mowyoba ierarqiuli federalizmiT xasiaT deboda. mokavSire respublikaze statusiT dabla idga avtonomiuri respublika, romelic ro melime mokavSire respublikaSi Sedioda, ufro dabali statusi hqondaT avtonomiur olqs da avtonomiur okrugs. olqi da okrugi miiCneoda erovnuli TviTmmarTvelobis im formad, ro melTac gansakuTrebiT sWirdebodaT centraluri xelisuflebis mxardaWera.

sabWoTa respublikebis gaerTianebis principebis ararealuroba

principi misi realuroba

nebayoflobiToba

sabWoTa respublikebis kavSiris Seqmnis „nebayoflobiToba“ moCvenebiTi iyo da bolSevikebi TavianT gegmas axorcielebdnen Tanasworuflebianoba

suvereniteti

sabWoTa respublikebi Tanaswori ar iyvnen da moskovi maT mar Tavda, rogorc „ganapira teritoriebs“

mokavSire respublikebs aranairi suvereniteti ar gaaCndaT, Ti Toeuli imarTeboda adgilobrivi komunisturi partiis mier, romelic moskovidan marTuli erTiani komunisturi partiis na wili iyo

federalizmi deklaraciuli xasiaTisa iyo sabWoTa kavSiridan Tavisufali gasvlis ufleba

federalizmi

konstituciiT „mokavSire respublikas“ hqonda sabWoTa kavSiri dan gasvlis ufleba, magram imave konstituciiT sabWoTa qveynis erTianobis xelyofa umZimes danaSaulad iTvleboda

daskvna

sabWoTa kavSirma TiTqmis Svidi aTeuli weli iarseba es iyo e w marqsistul leninur ideo logiaze damyarebuli totalitaruli reJimi droTa ganmavlobaSi cxadi gaxda, rom komunis turi sazogadoebis aSeneba, sadac yvela bednierad icxovrebda, ganuxorcielebeli, utopiuri idea iyo. samwuxarod, saqarTvelo sabWoTa kavSiris SemadgenlobaSi moaqcies da srulad iwvnia 70 wlis ganmavlobaSi mimdinare „axali sazogadoebis mSeneblobis komunisturi eqsperimenti~. msoflio saxelmwifod Cafiqrebuli sabWoTa kavSiri ki sinamdvileSi ganaxlebuli rusuli sa xelmwifo iyo, romelic msoflioze batonobisTvis ibrZoda. 1980 ian wlebSi Sida da gare prob lemebma gamofita komunisturi saxelmwifos resursebi. misi reformirebis mcdeloba ki daS liT damTavrda.

sabWoTa kavSirs im saxiT, ra saxiTac arsebobda, veravin aRadgens komunizmis aRaravis sje ra da arc aravin apirebs leninis ideebiT xelmZRvanelobas sabWoTa kavSiris nostalgia da aRdgenaze saubari sinamdvileSi ruseTis saxelmwifos sazRvrebis gafarToebis survilidan momdinareobs

41

2022 wlis 9 marts kievis centralur mo edanze musika gaisma yovel wams dabombvis saSiSroebis winaSe myof qalaqSi simfoniuri orkestris musikosebi, diriJori da cota xalxic Seikriba erovnuli himnisa da ori ode patara piesis Semdeg yvelasTvis nac nobi, TiTqmis banalurobamde nacnobi, Tema gaisma es evrokavSiris himnia, magram, pir vel rigSi, es „sixarulis Temaa“ beThovenis mecxre simfoniis finalidan Tema, romel sac verc imRereb da verc daukrav, Tu Tavi maRla ar aswie, welSi ar gaimarTe, samyaros Tvali Tamamad ar gauswore da SeuZleblis SesaZleblobis ar daijere.

amitom msoflios sxvadasxva wertilSi, sxvadasxva kontinentze, sxvadasxva mizeziT gamarTuli saprotesto moZraobebisas an maSin, roca adamianebs erTad yofna, imedi da solidaroba yvelaze metad sWirdebaT, yve

laze xSirad JRers „mecxre“ isaa idealuri kacobriobis simbolo, romliskenac yvela Cvengani, rogorc SeuZlia, ise miiswrafvis

beThovenma Tavisi ukanaskneli, mecxre simfonia didi SemoqmedebiTi pauzisa da de presiis Semdeg dawera. am droisaTvis is ukve sakmaod xanSi Sesuli, gatexili janmrTelo biT, savsebiT dayruebuli cxovrobda vena Si. nawarmoebi londonis samefo filarmoni uli sazogadoebis dakveTiT daiwera, magram kompozitorma is prusiis Zlevamosil me fes – fridrix vilhelm III s miuZRvna

oda kacobriobisaTvis „ocneba mgonia, sizmari mgonia... qarTuli motivi - mecxre simfonia!..“ galaktioni musika 42 maia sigua

JanrSi revoluciuri cvlilebebi beT hovenma jer kidev mesame simfoniidan daiw yo, magram mecxremde arc erTi simfonia ar yofila iseTi radikalurad gansxvavebuli, rogorc es ukanaskneli saqme isaa, rom sim fonia mTlianad instrumentuli Janria da mas mxolod simfoniuri orkestri asrulebs, yovel SemTxvevaSi, ase iyo „mecxrem de “ beThoveni iyo pirveli, vinc mis fina lur nawilSi momRerlebi: solistebi da gundi Seiyvana da Sileris leqsi „oda sixa rulisadmi“ aaJRera aseT nawarmoebze is didi xnis ganmavlobaSi fiqrobda, Semdeg –cxra TveSi dawera

nawarmoebi, imdroindeli simfoniis Jan ris tradiciisamebr, oTxi nawilisagan Sed geba, tradiciuli sonaturi alegroTi (Cve ulebriv, simfoniis pirveli nawili, dawe rili sonatur formaSi, rasac ori kontras tuli musikaluri azris dapirispirebis idea udevs safuZvlad); simfoniuri ciklis tradiciuli neli da skercozuli nawilebi aq adgils cvlian, meore nawilad skercoa, mesame nawili – neli, mSvidi, naTeli sevdiT, TiTqos, wina ori nawilis aqtiuri qmediTo bis Semdeg Sesveneba da grandiozuli fina lisTvis mzadebaa ai, finals ki simfoniis im droindel tradiciebTan saerTo ukve ara feri aqvs: masSi adamianis xma da sityva iW reba am nabijiT beThoveni sabolood daas rulebs simfoniis Janris cxovrebis klasi kur etaps da momavlisken gzebs gaWris

beThovenis megobrebsa da mfarvelebs peticiis Sedgena mouxdaT, rom avtori na warmoebis venur premieras daTanxmeboda mas erCia, simfonia pirvelad berlinSi Ses rulebuliyo, radgan miaCnda, rom venelebis gemovneba rosinis musikiT uimedod iyo ga fuWebuli. peticiis Sedegad, beThovenma Znelad, magram mainc gadaifiqra, oRond, re peticiebi mZimed wavida, premiera ramden jerme gadaido beThoveni brazobda, Cxu bobda gadamwerebis uyuradRebobaze, mom ReralTa daukvirveblobaze, orkestrs uWirda gahyoloda mis diriJorobas, kompo zitors xom araferi esmoda maestro repe ticiebidan garboda, mere brundeboda da ase grZeldeboda didxans, sanam sabolood didi dRe ar dadga mravalwliani pauzis Sem deg beThoveni pirvelad gamodioda saja rod afiSebi mis monawileobas sagangebod aRniSnavdnen

am premierasTan dakavSirebiT istorias bevri realuri da gamogonili ambavi SemorCa magaliTad, saRamos monawile mevio line igonebda, rom diriJorobisas beTho veni sadiriJoro podiumis win idga da win da ukan giJiviT irweoda xan mTeli taniT wamo imarTeboda, xan ukiduresad dabla eSveboda xelebsa da fexebs ise iqnevda, TiTqos surda yvela instrumentze Tavad daekra da gundis yvela partiac Tavad emRerao miuxedavad imisa, rom simfoniis nawi lebs Soris taSs, rogorc wesi, ar ukraven,

43 frederik Sopeni (1810 1849)
ludvig
van beThoveni (1770-1827) oda kacobriobisaTvis

musika

aplodismentebma mainc araerTxel ifeTqa orkestri Seyovnda, siCumes daeloda, mag ram beThovens araferi gaugia, diriJoroba ganagrZo da musikosebs ramdenime taqtiT ascda ase moxda ramdenjerme ovaciebi ma tulobda, kompozitori ar reagirebda bo los erT erTi solisti wamodga, maestros xeli Cahkida da darbazisaken miatriala maSin dainaxa kompozitorma fexze mdgari auditoria, haerSi asrolili qudebiTa da mofriale cxvirsaxocebiT. mixvda, rom pre miera triumfad iqca, aplodismentebis gri ali da aRtacebis SeZaxilebi ki ver gaigo.

im saRamos dawyebuli didebuli sasceno cxovrebis gzaze „mecxres“ didi aRfrTova nebiTac Sexvedrian da didi kritikiTac. Tumca, aRfrTovanebis wili kritikisas mu dam aRemateboda arsebobis pirvel as weli wadSi man, antarqtidis garda, yvela konti nentze mravalricxovani Tayvanismcemeli SeiZina yvelgan mohkravdiT yurs – brazi liis favelebsa da umniSvnelovanesi saer TaSoriso organizaciebis Sekrebis adgilebSi; afrikis Raribi qveynebis improvi zebul sarepeticio darbazebSi didi xnis

win mwyobridan gamosuli instrumentebiT SesrulebiTac da yvelaze prestiJul sakon certo darbazebSi uZvirfases sakravebze msoflios ucnobilesi musikosebis mier aJ Rerebulsac; rogorc saeklesio himnsac da mZime rokis versiasac metic, misi didebuli idealebiT did diqtatorebsac ki ucdiaT TavianTi mmarTvelobis borotebis SeniRb va nawarmoebis istoriaSi amgvari „bneli“ furclebicaa, dakavSirebuli, magaliTad, hitlerTan, romelmac sakuTari dabadebis dRis aRsaniSnav koncertze, venaSi, am simfo niis Sesruleba moiTxova, rogorc yvelaze „ariuli“ germanuli nawarmoebisa. arada, simfoniis teqsti yvelaze metad swored Tanasworobas aRniSnavs, maT Soris – rasob rivsac!

finalSi gaJRerebulma erTianobis, Zmobisa da sixarulis ideebma araerT ara evropul qveyanas ubiZga, adgilobriv enaze Targmnili an Sinaarsobrivadac adaptire

44

buli teqstebiT „oda sixarulisadmi“ sa xelmwifo himnad gamoecxadebina erovnuli himnis funqciiT JRerda igi civi omis dro indel olimpiur TamaSebze, sadac II msof lio omis Sedegad orad gayofil germanias droebiT aerTianebda; 1972 wlidan ki „odis“ musika, sityvebis gareSe, erTiani evropis himnad damtkicda

„mecxres“ finali Tan axlda umniSvnelo vanes sazogadoebriv politikur movlenebs mTeli msoflios masStabiT da dRemde ase xdeba es, erTi SexedviT, umartivesi Tema, romlis asagebadac beThovenma oqtavis Tormeti naxevartonidan sul xuTi noti ga moiyena, aseTi ubralo, genialuri da uni versaluri, msoflios uamrav enaze imRe reba, radgan nebismier maTganze molaparake adamianisTvis erTnairad STamagonebeli da mSobliuria, erTnairad aRmafrenisa da energiis mimcemi sayovelTao idealebisTvis brZolisas.

amis magaliTad qvemoT ramdenime ambavs giambobT

45 oda kacobriobisaTvis

musika

Cile 1980-ianebi

1986 wels Cile sayovelTao areulobam moicva. mamakacebis umetesoba, vinc diqta tor augusto pinoCetis winaaRmdeg xma ai maRla, cixeSi aRmoCnda, sadac maT awamebd nen da klavdnen. aTasobiT adamiani, ubra lod, qreboda da Semdeg aravin icoda maTi asaval dasavali. cixidan saSineli ambebi Jonavda pinoCetis reJimis uamravi SezRud visa da akrZalvis siaSi mohyva xalxuri sim Rerebi, romlebic ubralo adamianebze mo uTxrobdnen, aikrZala beThovenis mecxre simfoniac, romlis finalis espanurenovan variants CileSi „sixarulis himns“ uwodebd nen da yvelgan asruleben: eklesiaSi, sko laSi, saxlSi momRerlebma qveyana datoves, vinc darCa daapatimres. „Cven martoni davrCiT, – ambobda Cileli Jurnalisti, yo fili demonstranti, – ase rom Cven Tavidan unda gveswavla simRera magram kedlebsac yurebi hqonda da Cven gveSinoda mRerisac da musikis mosmenisac arada, musika iyo erTad erTi, riTac grZnobebisa da emociebis gamo xatva SeiZleboda sityvebi Zalian saSiSi gaxda da Tuki mainc gvindoda gveTqva raime, ise unda gamogvexata, rogorc darwmunebu li viyaviT, rom sxva adamianebi aucileblad gaigebdnen sxva adamianebi, magram ara – sam xedroebi“

Ludwig Erhard

bolos Cileli qalebi quCaSi gamovidnen isini politikuri patimrebis ganTavisuf lebas iTxovdnen qalebs Ciles droSis fe ri – TeTri, wiTeli da lurji – grZeli len

augusto

tebi eWiraT. imisTvis, rom policiisaTvis darbevis minimaluri Sansi miecaT, qalebi msvlelobisas ar skandirebdnen, mxolod plakatebi eWiraT im adamianebis saxelebiT, romlebic reJimis pirobebSi gaqrnen. isini saidumlo policiis Senobis win ganlagdnen, sadac, rogorc ambobdnen, dapatimrebul adamianebs awamebdnen da „sixarulis himnis“ mRera daiwyes:

Konrad Adenauer
46
pinoCeti (1915 2006)

CineTi 1989

1988 wels CineTSi studentebma uzarma zar saprotesto moZraobas Cauyares safuZ veli. „vgrZnobdiT, rom arsaidan Canda saS veli, arc CvenTvis, arc CineTisaTvis“, – am bobda mogvianebiT „studenturi ligis“ erT erTi lideri, „erTaderTi, rac gvindo

es ar aris Sileris teqsti, romelic beThove nis simfoniaSi imRereba, magram es is musika iyo, romelmac idealurad aaJRera Cilelebis ocne bebi da idealebi simReram daniSnulebis adgi las – patimrebis smenasac miaRwia „TiTqos gul Si feradi pepela Semofrinda, – ixsenebda yofi li patimari, – es iyo saocreba, imedi garemoSi, sadac akrZaluli iyo musika, akrZaluli iyo bed niereba“ xolo cixis kedlebis miRma, dapatimre bis, wamebis, ganadgurebis safrTxis winaSe mdga ri qalebisTvis es simRera iqca damcav farad, Za lad da xmad, romelmac gamoTqva yvelaferi, risi gamoTqmac surdaT „es iyo Cveni aqcia samxedro diqtaturis winaaRmdeg“ – ambobdnen isini

qalTa demonstracia mainc daarbies creml sadeni gazi gauSves da monawileebi daapatimres sixarulis, Tavisuflebis, Rirsebisa da musiki saTvis pinoCetis reJimSi adgili ar iyo

da, iyo dagvetovebina CineTi da ukeTesi cxovreba gveZebna aSS Si, britaneTSi an ev ropaSi, radgan vgrZnobdiT, rom yvelaze mTavari – Tavisufleba – yvelanairi Zala dobis gamoyenebiT agvikrZales. es iyo ro gorc pirdapiri, policiuri, ise kulturu li Zaladoba... amgvar sazogadoebaSi momava li ar gvqonda“.

milionobiT adamiani komunisturi xe lisuflebisgan demokratias, sityvis Tavis

„mousmine, Zmao, sixarulis simReras, mxne simReras maTTvis, vinc axal dRes elis. modi, imRere, iocnebe imaze, razec mReri, da icxovre cxovrebiT, rogorzec ocnebob, axal mzeze, romlis qveSac adamianebi kvlav eZmobian erTmaneTs“.
47 oda kacobriobisaTvis

musika

uflebas da korufciis aRmofxvras iTxov da protestis epicentrad pekinSi tianan menis moedani iqca aqac xSirad JRerda beT hovenis „mecxre“ imedis simbolo. 1989 wels armiis pirispir aTasobiT adamiani aTe nebda da aRamebda, SimSilobda, sityviT ga modioda da mReroda liderebma eleqtro boZebze xmis gamaZliereblebi daamagres da sakuTari improvizebuli radio Seqmnes, sa dac moSimSileTa gasamxneveblad axal am bebsa da musikas gadascemdnen, magram iqve iyo samTavrobo radiomauwyeblobac Tavisi programiT. 20 maiss Cinurma oficiozma sam xedro mdgomareoba gamoacxada da saxelis uflo radiom tiananmenis moedanze mTavro bis warmomadgenlebis sityviT gamosvlebis radioTi gadacema daiwyo. maTi ZiriTadi Sinaarsi iyo demonstrantebs daetovebinaT moedani da saxlebSi dabrunebuliyvnen. ma Sin am gamosvlebis gadasafarad studenteb ma TavianT radioSi mTeli xmiT gauSves beT hovenis mecxre simfonia, rogorc protes tis Jesti SemdgomSi monawileebi ixsenebd nen, rom es namdvili brZola iyo or sxvada sxva „xmas“ Soris da beThovenis mecxre sim foniis mTavari mesiji „AlleMenschenwerden Bruder“ (yvela adamiani erTmaneTis Zma gaxde ba) maTSi gamarjvebis, solidarobis, ukeTe si momavlis rwmenas Sesustebis saSualebas ar aZlevda „am movlenam da am musikam erT RameSi gardagvsaxa, – ambobda erT erTi li

deri, – es ukve aRar iyo mxolod politiku ri moZraoba, es koleqtiuri artistuli moZraobac iyo, TiToeuli Cvengani artisti gaxda, romelic raRac did, mTlian movlena Si erTiandeboda im moedanze yvela Cvengani erTad ganicdida udides sixaruls bolos dabolos Tavisuflebi viyaviT, kvlav davib runeT adamianuri Rirseba!“

magram studentebi safrTxesac kargad grZnobdnen darbevisa da xocva Jletis sa bediswero dRemde erTi kviriT adre maTma umravlesobam anderZi da gamosamSvidobe beli werilebi dawera wina Rames ki tianan menis moedanze beThovenis „mecxre“ kidev erTxel aJRerda, raTa sasowarkveTa da avi winaTgrZnoba kidev erTxel imediT daemar cxebina

48

meore msoflio omSi damarcxebuli ger mania or nawilad gaiyo. dasavleT nawils amerikelebi da sxva mokavSireebi akontro lebdnen, aRmosavleTs sabWoTa kavSiri. maT Soris kedeli aRimarTa da erTi qveyana orad iqca. kedlis meore mxares darCnen na Tesavebi, megobrebi, ojaxis wevrebi. didi xnis ganmavlobaSi isini erTmaneTs verc ki xvdebodnen ibadebodnen bavSvebi, romleb sac warmodgena ar hqondaT, ra xdeboda kedlis miRma

sabWoTa kavSiris mier kontrolirebad aRmosavleT germaniaSi xelisufleba cdi lobda, germaniis didebul warsulSi Seqmni li didebuli kultura, mecxre simfoniis CaTvliT, sakuTari mmarTvelobis gamamarT lebel atributad eqcia, amitom „mecxres“ finals skolebSi moswavleTa gundebsac ki savaldebulo wesiT amRerebdnen da radgan es savaldebulo iyo, moswavleTa did nawils es musika saerTod ar uyvarda

1956 1964 wlebSi, roca olimpiur Ta maSebSi orive germaniis sportsmenebi mona wileobdnen, orive qveynis aTletebis gamar jvebis aRsaniSnavad olimpiadebze beThove nis mecxre simfoniis musika JRerda. „sixa rulis oda“ olimpiur arenebze orad gaxle Cil qveyanas Tundac ramdenime wuTiT aer Tianebda. Semdeg ki aRmosavleT germaniis mcxovreblebs oficialuri propaganda ga mudmebiT Caagonebda, rom kedlis dasavle TiT mtrebi cxovrobdnen Tumca, am „mtre bis“ danaxva yvelas Zalian ainteresebda adamianebi sul ufro metad cdilobdnen, ke deli gadaelaxaT da arc is aferxebdaT, rom maTi winamorbedebi amave kedelTan, tyviiT daxvretilebi asrulebdnen sicocxles msxverplTa raodenobis zrdam, akrZalvebma da Tavisuflebis survilma ufro da ufro mZafrad gaacnobierebina aRmosavleT ber linelebs, rom „sxvebis mier aRmarTuli“ es kedeli unda dangreuliyo

da roca 1989 wels asec moxda da germa nia sabolood gaerTianda, sazeimo kon certze swored beThovenis „mecxre“ simfo nia gaisma, oRond – sul sxvanairad yofili aRmosavleT germanelebisaTvis es aRar iyo Tavsmoxveuli valdebulebiT mobezrebuli Tema, aramed swored beThovenisa da Sileris idealebis realuri gancda da im sixarulis gaziareba, riskenac kompozitori am nawar moebiT kacobriobas mouwodebda. milionebi, erTmaneTisTvis ucnobi adamianebi, nam dvilad gadaexvivnen erTmaneTs swored ise,

germania 1989 49 oda kacobriobisaTvis

rogorc simfoniaSia naT qvami, da aq moxda kidev erTi RirsSesaniSnavi movlena mis istoriaSi: diriJorma leo nard bernstainma im moment Si, sadac gundi didebulad, grandiozulad iwyebs „sixa rulis“ Temas, teqsti Secva la

gundma sityvis

Freude Freiheit

„sixaruli“ – nacvlad, imRe ra sityva

„Tavisufleba“. 50 musika

iaponia 1918 wlidan

yovel wels, dekembris bolos, iaponiis qalaq osakaSi adamianebi beThovenis mecxre simfoniis Sesasruleblad ikribebian pro fesional da araprofesional momReralTa jgufebi bejiTad mecadineoben, raTa sabo lood aTiaTaskacian gundad gaerTiandnen da aaJReron „daiku“ – specialuri iaponuri sityva, romelic swored mecxre simfonias niSnavs da romelic iaponelebisTvis mTeli dasavleTevropuli kulturis simboloa

„daikus“ Tavgadasavali iaponiaSi daiwyo patara qalaqidan, romelsac naruto hqvia 1914 wels iaponelebi Tavs daesxnen germane lebis mier okupirebul Cinur qalaq cinda os, daikaves igi da 4600 germaneli jariskaci daatyveves maTgan aTasi narutoSi gadayva nes aq isini SedarebiT Tavisuflad cxov robdnen da kulturul RonisZiebebs awyob dnen, ori orkestric ki Camoayalibes 1918 wels maT pirveli didi koncerti gamarTes da iaponiasa da mTel aziaSi pirvelad Seas rules beThovenis mecxre simfonia radgan tyveebi mxolod mamakacebi iyvnen, maT gund Si qalTa partiebis Secvla mouwiaT

1925 wlis Semdeg es RirsSesaniSnavi mov lena daviwyebas mieca, magram SemorCenili dokumentebi gadarCa da axla maT muzeumi icavs „mecxres“ Sesruleba iaponiaSi meore msoflio omis wlebSi ganaxlda da damarc xebis Semdeg saswaulebrivad gadaurCa cen zuras 1946 wels misi Sesruleba ganaxlda da, diriJor jefri bernstainis TqmiT, „ga

darCenis, ganaxlebis, aRmSeneblobis, win svlis“ simbolod iqca, misi Tema ki, iaponur enaze Targmnili teqstiT, popularuli sim RerasaviT yvelasTvis cnobili gaxda.

1983 wels safuZveli Caeyara kidev erT gasaocar iaponur tradicias, romelic dRemde ganagrZobs arsebobas: esaa „daikus“ Sesruleba aTi aTasi momRerlis mier. amisa Tvis mTel iaponiaSi profesiuli da moyva rulTa gundebis konkursebi tardeba iapo nelebi mTeli weli gulmodgined mecadine oben da cdiloben, maTTvis rTulad dasaZ levi germanuli sityvebi sworad warmoT qvan, partiebi kargad iswavlon, radgan aTi aTasian „daikuSi“ monawileoba mTeli cxov rebis RirsSesaniSnav movlenad miaCniaT, zogs, gansakuTrebiT iRblians, amis mraval wliani gamocdilebac aqvs ukve. bolo wle bis ganmavlobaSi, gansakuTrebiT dekembris bolos, iaponiis masStabiT „mecxre“ as sxva

51 oda kacobriobisaTvis

musika

dasxva adgilas mainc sruldeba. ase amTavre ben iaponelebi wels da xvdebian axals. es maTTvis saSobao Ramis liturgiasaviTaa. er Tad mRera, romlis mniSvnelobaze jer kidev aristotele werda, maTTvis axali, mTeli momavali wlisTvis samyofi energiis mimce mia.

warmoudgenlad grandiozuli sanaxao baa, Tu rogor wamodgeba Sav TeTr samosSi gamowyobili yvela asakis aTi aTasi adami ani simfoniis finalSi, sixarulis Temis Se sasruleblad. Tqven amis naxva martivad Se giZliaT Youtube Si, Tu „aTiaTas iaponels“ da „beThovenis mecxres“ saZiebo velSi ing lisurad erTad CawerT. videoebis umete

soba, romelsac naxavT, erT gansakuTrebul movlenas asaxavs

2011 wels iaponiis qalaqebi da soflebi arnaxuli simZlavris miwisZvram da cunamim miwasTan gaaswora katastrofas aTasobiT adamiani emsxverpla, kidev ufro meti ki usa xlkarod darCa. sayovelTao glovisa da ubedurebis dros iaponelebma gadawyvites, rom katastrofas gadarCenili Tanamemamu leebisTvis gamamxnevebeli gzavnili „dai kus“ sityvebiT gadaecaT da SeexsenebinaT, rom „yvelani Zmebi iyvnen“ da rom maT gasa WirSi martos ar datovebdnen am wlis „mec xre“ yoveli iaponelisTvis dauviwyar mov lenad iqca aTiaTaskacian gunds interne

52

tis saSualebiT SeuerTda gundi sendaidan –erT erTi yvelaze dazaralebuli qalaqi dan. es daRupulTa datirebac iyo da ga darCenilTa gamxnevebac. iaponelebi werd nen, rom am koncertis Semdeg maT kvlav da ubrundaT simxneve da dangreulis aRsadge nad ase saWiro Zala da suliskveTeba. aTia Taskaciani „daikus“ Sesruleba gasul wleb Si kovidpandemiam Seaferxa, magram Tu ga viTvaliswinebT am qveyanaSi „mecxresadmi“, rogorc ukve maTi kulturis nawilisadmi damokidebulebas, eWvi ar mepareba, rom pan demiis dasrulebisTanave es tradicia isev aRdgeba da vin icis, amjerad kidev ra saocrebas moifiqreben.

es oTxi ambavi, romelic simfoniis nawilebis raodenobas exmaureba, sxvadasxva finaliT dasrulda Cilesa da CineTSi demonstrantebi damarcxdnen diqtaturis msxverplTa raodenoba mravali aTasia da bolomde jerac ar dadgenila germania ga erTianda da evropis erT erT uZlieres sa xelmwifod iqca siaxlisa da tradiciebis paradoqsulad moyvaruli iaponelebi ki dRemde enTuziazmiT asruleben „daikus“ –imedis da Tanadgomis simbolos

„oda sixarulisadmi“ JRerda TbilisSi, „gavrilovis Ramis“ Semdgom saprotesto aq ciebze, „oda sixarulisadmi“ ismis ukrainaSi axla „mecxre“ yvelganaa, sadac adamianebs erTad dgoma, solidaroba esaWiroebaT ka cobriobis erT erTi udidesi miRwevis sa xiT is kosmosSic mogzaurobs

misi arseboba amtkicebs, rom mas, vinc varskvlavebisken miiswrafvis, mtanjveli gzis ar eSinia kacs, romelmac sruliad da yruebulma dawera yvela drois yvela mniSv nelobiT udidesi simfonia, arasodes mous menia, rogor JRerda igi realuri Sesrule biT da, mainc, TiTqmis orasi welia is, razec beThoveni ocnebobda, „mecxre simfoniis“ saxiT arRvevs droisa da kulturebis saz Rvrebs, msoflios uSores wertilebSi mi lionebis survilebs exmianeba, kacobriobas STaagonebs, aerTianebs, amxnevebs, ocnebe bis, bednierebisa da Tanasworobisaken mi maval gzaze miuZRvis

oda kacobriobisaTvis 53

Zveli da axali olimpiada

Tea farulava

dRes sporti Cveni cxovrebis ganuyofe li nawilia. yvela Cvengani cxovrebis rome liRac etapze TamaSobs fexburTs an kalaT burTs, curavs an TxilamurebiT srialebs. bevrisTvis sporti profesiaa. warmatebul sportsmens mTeli sazogadoeba icnobs da pativs scems. sportul Sejibrebebsa da siax leebs mediac did dros uTmobs; ase rom, Tu monawile ara, yvela Cvengani odesRac mayu rebeli mainc yofila sportisa. preistoriul adamians sirbili sWirde boda, rom nadiri xangrZlivi devniT daeqan ca da moenadirebina. amitom varaudoben, rom adamiani jer kidev nadiroba Semgroveblo bis epoqaSi misdevda sports. saukuneTa gan mavlobaSi sxvadasxva sazogadoebaSi sports sxvadasxva mniSvneloba da funqcia hqonda.

saberZneTs sportisadmi gansakuTrebu li damokidebulebiT udavod gamorCeuli adgili uWiravs. antikur saberZneTSi sports didi religiuri da socialuri mni Svneloba hqonda; is iyo erT erTi mTavari saqmianoba, romelic aerTianebda berZnul sazogadoebas qalaqi saxelmwifoebis epoqa Si. sporti pirovnebas aZlevda saSualebas sazogadoebaSi Tavisi pozicia aemaRlebina, sxeuli gaewvrTna brZolisTvis, ganedide bina Tavisi qalaqi saxelmwifo da Tanamema muleTa pativiscema moepovebina. yvelaze sa xelganTqmuli berZeni filosofosebi, pla toni da aristotele, sports ganaTlebis mTavar komponentad aRiqvamdnen ganaTle bul berZens unda epova harmonia sxeulsa da gonebas Soris da am saqmeSi mas sportuli as parezobebic exmareboda. berZeni poetis,

civilizacia 54

homerosis (Zv. w. IX VIII ss.), poemebSi („iliada“ da „odisea“) aRwerili sportuli asparezo bebi uZveles sportul reportaJebad SeiZ leba CaiTvalos. danamdvilebiT veravin am bobs, rodis gaimarTa pirveli organizebu li sportuli Sejibreba. varaudoben, rom es daaxloebiT 3000 wlis win unda momxdariyo. ase iyo Tu ise, Zveli welTaRricxvis VI sau kuneSi saberZneTSi ukve arsebobda oTxi sportuli asparezoba, romlebSic yvela berZnuli qalaqi saxelmwifos da koloniis Tavisufal moqalaqes SeeZlo monawileoba saerTo am asparezobebs ki is hqonda, rom yve la religiuri festivalis nawili iyo da ro melime berZnuli RvTaebis sadideblad imar Teboda

am festivalebs Soris yvelaze Zveli da saxelganTqmuli olimpoSi imarTeboda. zus tad aravin icis, rodis an rogor gaCnda is. miTis Tanaxmad, heraklem Tavisi morigi ga marjvebis adgilze eqvsi sakurTxeveli aR marTa da olimpos miwa sakralur adgilad aqcia olimpo ar iyo qalaqi es iyo religiu ri savane, sadac sakurTxevlebi, taZrebi da ganZTsacavebi galavniT iyo gamijnuli da narCeni sivrcisgan galavnis gareT iyo sa varjiSo da saasparezo moednebi, TamaSebis administrirebisTvis da stumarTa misaRe bad saWiro Senobebi. olimpoSi mudmivad mxolod RvTismsaxurebi da taZrebze mzrun veli adamianebi cxovrobdnen

olimpiuri TamaSebi oTx weliwadSi erT xel imarTeboda 6 agvistosa da 19 seqtem bers Soris pirveli werilobiTi infor macia olimpoSi gamarTuli sportuli aspa rezobis Sesaxeb Zv w 776 wliT TariRdeba olimpiadis organizatori iyo olimpos max loblad mdebare qalaqi saxelmwifo elisi

varaudoben, rom olimpoSi TamaSebis dros 40 000 adamians unda moeyara Tavi. sportsmenebis da mayureblebis garda, aq Turme aTasgvari ramiT movaWreebic Camodi odnen. zustad ise, rogorc dRes ivseba xal xiT olimpiadis maspinZeli qalaqi. olimpia da Tavs uyrida mTel maSindel berZnul sam yaros, romelic bevr qalaq saxelmwifos mo icavda da amitom TamaSebi saerTaSoriso Ro nisZieba iyo aq Sekrebili adamianebi zeimob dnen kulturul Tu religiur erTobas da sportuli asparezoba iyo am zeimis mTavari nawili

olimpiada Tavidan erTdRiani iyo da sportsmenebi mxolod mokle distanciaze

sirbilSi ejibrebodnen erTmaneTs am aspa rezobas stadions (στάδιον – sigrZis sazomi erTeuli, 190 metri) uwodebdnen. varaudo ben, rom 12 amgvari olimpiada Catarda.

droTa ganmavlobaSi olimpiur TamaSebs daemata sportis saxeobebi da gaizarda Ta maSebis Casatareblad saWiro dReebis rao denobac jer sirbilis sxvadasxva saxeoba gaCnda ufro mogvianebiT ki – Widaoba, krivi da xuTWidi Zveli welTaRricxvis 684 wels TamaSebis xangrZlivoba sam dRemde gaizar da mogvianebiT (Zv w V IV ss ) ki, rodesac olimpiuri TamaSebi yvelaze popularuli iyo, is xuTi dRe grZeldeboda da sportis 19 saxeobas moicavda.

Zvel olimpiadaze ar iyo gunduri Tama Sebi sportsmenebi mxolod individualu rad ejibrebodnen erTmaneTs monawileo bisTvis sami mTavari kriteriumi arsebobda: moaspareze unda yofiliyo mamrobiTi sqe sis, erovnebiT berZeni da Tavisufali adami ani sportsmenTa umravlesoba kargad uz runvelyofili ojaxebidan iyo moaspareze ebi didxans emzadebodnen da olimpiadis dawyebamde erTi TviT adre Cadiodnen elis Si, erTgvari sakvalifikacio sagzuris misa Rebad. iq arCevdnen saukeTesoebs, romlebic olimpiadaze daiSvebodnen.

olimpiadis pirvel dRes moasparezeebi da msajebi debdnen fics, rom olimpiur we sebs daicavdnen am ceremonias mosdevda me sayvireTa da xmamaRla molaparakeTa Sesar

Zveli da axali olimpiada
55

Cevi konkursi. radgan xmis gamaZlierebeli ar arsebobda, iseT adamianebs arCevdnen, rom olimpiadaze yvelas yvelaferi kargad gae gona.

meore dRes ipodromze cxenosnobaSi imarTeboda Sejibrebi cxeniT jiriTis gar da, iyo etlebis Sejibric. yvelaze popula ruli oTxcxeniani etlebis rbola iyo. mag ram am SejibrebSi gamarjvebulad mxedari an meetle ar iTvleboda, Cempionis sapatio wo debas cxenis patroni iRebda. ase gaxda olim piuri Cempioni sparteli qali, kiniska, maSin, roca yvela qals olimpiadaze daswrebis uf lebac ki ar hqonda. dRis meore naxevarSi sta dionze imarTeboda asparezoba xuTWidSi (badros tyorcna, sigrZeSi xtoma, Subis tyorcna, sirbili, Widaoba).

mesame dRe iyo festivalis kulminacia da am dRes zevss as Zroxas swiravdnen. msxverpl Sewirvas nadimi mohyveboda, romelzec yvela monawile da stumari iyo dapatiJebuli. Sek rebilni msxverpladSewiruli Zroxebis xorcs miirTmevdnen.

meoTxe dRes stadionze sirbilSi ejibre sxva saxeo aCinod iyo iT da daw oaspareze mul Toks en xolme. sarbe ni

biliki sworxazovani iyo. imave dRis meore naxevari krivs, Widaobas da pankrations (Se Wideba wesebis gareSe) eTmoboda. maSin ar ar sebobda woniTi kategoriebi da vin vis daeWi deboda, kenWisyriT wydeboda. mokriveebs ma Sin ukve ecvaT tyavis xelTaTmanebi, xolo moWidaveebi da pankrationis mebrZolebi SiSveli xelebiT Widaobdnen bolo, mexuTe dRe mTlianad gamarjve bulebs eZRvneboda. antikur olimpiadaze sportis yvela saxeobas mxolod erTi gamar jvebuli hyavda. Cempionebs zeTisxilis to tebisgan dawnuli gvirgviniT da wiTeli Salis bafTiT ajildoebdnen. festivalis damagvirgvinebeli nawili iyo grandiozuli wveuleba Cempionebis pativsacemad, romel sac uamravi stumari, msajebi da politiko sebic eswrebodnen.

Cempionebi mSobliur qalaqSi Zalian mni Svnelovani adamianebi iyvnen. olimpiadis Cempionis yola didi pativi da Rirseba iyo yvela qalaqisTvis. Sin dabrunebul Cempions gmiriviT xvdebodnen da mas sicocxlis bo lomde bevr privilegias aniWebdnen. mas hqonda ufleba qalaqSi sakuTari Zegli aRe marTa da poetisTvis leqsebi SeekveTa Tavi si gamarjvebis ukvdavsayofad. iyo SemTxve vebi, roca romelime saxelmwifo, raTa saxe li gaeTqva Tavisi moqalaqis gamarjvebisT vis da ar daeviwyebinaT igi, monetebs Wrida Cempionis gamosaxulebiT literaturulma Tu istoriulma teqstebma araerTi olimpi uri Cempionis saxeli Semogvinaxa maT Soris yvelaze adre (Zv w 776 w ) eliseli mzareuli korebusi gaxda Cempioni mokle manZilze sirbilSi antikuri olimpiadebis yvelaze mravalgvirgvinosani Cempioni morbenali leonidasi iyo rodosidan is oTx olim-

56 civilizacia

piadaSi Tormetgzis gaxda Cempioni (Zv w 164 152 ww ) da leonidass berZnebma kacTa So ris gmiri uwodes

Zveli olimpiadis epoqaSi saberZneTi bevri saxelmwifosgan Sedgeboda da es sa xelmwifoebi xSirad eomebodnen erTmaneTs am omebs olimpiadisTvis xeli rom ar SeeSa la, olimpos axlomaxlo mdebare qalaqi sa xelmwifoebis mefeebi SeTanxmdnen olimpiu ri zavis Sesaxeb (Zv. w. VII s ). olimpiadis daw yebamde olimpodan macneebi miemgzavrebod nen saberZneTis yvela kuTxeSi da asparezo bis monawileebs da mayureblebs iwvevdnen; imavdroulad macneebi acxadebdnen olimpi uri dazavebis periodis dawyebas es ki niS navda, rom aravis hqonda ufleba am dros olimpos dasxmoda Tavs an ramenairad See ferxebina olimpoSi saasparezod an mayureb lad mimavali adamianebi.

istoriuli wyaroebis Tanaxmad, antikur saberZneTSic arsebobdnen arakeTilsindi sieri adamianebi, romlebic pativs ar scem dnen asparezobis dadgenil wesebs aseTi mo aspareze SeiZleba msajs gaerozga asparezo bis dros ufro seriozuli darRvevebis Tvis sportsmens (Tu is vinmes moqrTamvas ecdeboda) an mis mSobliur qalaqs did ja rimas axdevinebdnen am fuliT zevsis an sxva RvTaebis Zegls aRmarTavdnen olimpoSi da arakanonmorCili kacis saxelsac amokveT dnen qvaze, rom is samudamod SeercxvinaT.

Zveli welTaRricxvis II saukuneSi saberZneTi romaelebma daipyres. dampyrob lebisTvis miuRebeli aRmoCnda sportis berZnuli filosofia. maT olimpiadas Ta maSebi uwodes, maSin, roca berZnebisTvis es asparezoba, Sejibri iyo berZnisTvis olim piadaze pirovnebis Rirseba warmoCndeboda da iq mTavari moqmedi pirebi moasparezeebi iyvnen xolo romaelisTvis olimpiada sana xaoba iyo, romelsac didi politikuri da finansuri potenciali hqonda imperatorma avgustusma swored finansuri Tu politi kuri miznebiT aago romSi stadioni, sadac berZnebi asparezobdnen magram Tavad ro maelebi asparezobebisTvis ar emzadebodnen da ar monawileobdnen berZnul Sejibrebeb Si imperatorma neronma ki miiRo monawile oba olimpoSi oTxcxeniani etlebis Sejibr

Si, magram etlidan gadmovarda da Tavi mainc Cempionad gamoacxada amgvari saqcieli sru liad miuRebeli iyo berZnuli msoflmxedve lobisTvis da imperatoris olimpiadaSi mo nawileobam mxolod daaknina olimpiada ase rom, romaeli dampyroblebis epoqaSi saberZneTSi nel nela Caqra olimpiuri su liskveTeba antikuri olimpiuri asparezo bis oficialur dasasrulad ax w 394 weli iTvleba, roca romis imperatorma Teodosi us I ma warmarTuli dResaswaulebi akrZala

Sua saukuneebis evropaSi sportuli Se jibrebis erTgvari forma iyo rainduli turnirebi, magram es iyo sanaxaoba, romelic

57 Zveli da axali olimpiada neroni (37 68)

brbosTvis imarTeboda. am turnirebs cota hqondaT saerTo asparezobis olimpiur fi losofiasTan, romelic pativs scemda dad genil kanonebs ise, rom ar ugulebelyofda pirovnebas. evropam mxolod ganmanaTleb lobis epoqaSi (XVII XVIII ss.) gaixsena sportis elinisturi gageba, daiwyo fiqri fizikuri da gonebrivi janmrTelobis balansze.

XIX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi (osmale Tis mier dapyrobil) saberZneTSi ganmaTa visuflebeli moZraoba daiwyo da sazogado ebaSi olimpiurma suliskveTebamac gaiRviZa.

Tanamedrove olimpiuri TamaSebic oTx weliwadSi erTxel imarTeba is mTeli deda miwis sportsmenTa Tavyrilobaa, romelsac masStaburobiT verc erTi sxva sportuli RonisZieba ver Seedreba. saerTaSoriso olimpiur komitetSi 206 saxelmwifoa ga erTianebuli. yvela am saxelmwifos moqa laqes SeuZlia olimpiadaSi miiRos monawi leoba. olimpiadis maspinZlobis ufleba yvela im saxelmwifoSi mdebare qalaqs aqvs, romelic saerTaSoriso olimpiur komitet Sia gaerTianebuli. olimpiurma komitetma 1924 wlidan zamTris olimpiuri TamaSebic daawesa. zamTris da zafxulis olimpiadebi ori wlis SualediT imarTeba da amrigad, msoflio or weliwadSi erTxel zeimobs olimpiadas.

amboben, rom 1833 wels berZen poet panai otis sutsosis am striqonebma gaacocxla olimpiada olimpiuri TamaSebis ganaxlebis idea umal aitaces berZenma filanTropebma: evangelos da konstantinos zapasebma, jorj averofma maTi ZalisxmeviT aSenda aTenSi olimpiuri stadioni da Seiqmna olimpiadis fondi gulanTebuli berZnebis ideas frang ma baron pier de kubertinma Seasxa xorci mi si xelSewyobiT Seiqmna saerTaSoriso olim piuri komiteti da 1896 wels, 1502 wliani pa uzis Semdeg, aTenSi pirveli Tanamedrove olimpiada gaimarTa. masSi 14 qveynis 280 sportsmeni sportis 43 saxeobaSi Seejibra erTmaneTs. ase daibada xelaxla olimpiada, romelic adamianebs isev aZlevs saSualebas warmoaCinon sakuTari SesaZleblobebi.

olimpiur TamaSebs aqvs sakuTari simbo lika droSa, himni da devizi. olimpiur droSaze TeTr fonze gamosaxulia xuTi er TmaneTze gadaWdobili sxvadasxva feris rgoli da es dedamiwis xuTi dasaxlebuli kontinentis (lurji evropa, yviTeli –azia, Savi – afrika, mwvane – avstralia, wiTe li – amerika) erTobis simboloa. olimpiuri devizi – ufro swrafad, ufro maRla, ufro Zlierad! (laTinurad Citius,Altius,Fortius!) –Tavad pier de kubertinma moifiqra. olimpi uri TamaSebis himni berZenma avtorebma (kom pozitori – spiridon samarasi, poeti – kos tis palamasi) Seqmnes axali drois pirveli TamaSebisTvis (1896) dRes yvela olimpiada am himniT ixsneba da ixureba

olimpiadis gaxsnamde ramdenime TviT ad re olimpoSi, heras taZarSi, lamazi ce remonia imarTeba, sadac olimpiur cecxls anTeben. iq anTebuli CiraRdani, rogorc olimpiadis dawyebis mauwyebeli, msoflios yvela dasaxlebul kontinents moivlis, sa nam olimpiadis maspinZel qalaqSi Cava. olim piuri cecxlis estafetaSi monawileoba did pativad iTvleba yvelasTvis, sportsmenis

“ daexseniT wvrilman politikas da amao Cxubs! gaixseneT saberZneTis warsuli dideba! sad aris Cveni marmarilos qandakebebi da Cveni Teatrebi?! sad aris Cveni olimpiada?! 58 civilizacia 1896 wels aSenebuli aTenis olimpiuri stadioni

Tvis Tu arasportsmenisTvis miuxedavad imisa, rom olimpoSi cecxlis danTebis ce remonialis monawileebi Zvel berZnul sa mosSi arian gamowyobili, rituals araferi aqvs saerTo antikur olimpiadasTan cecxli pirvelad 1928 wlis olimpiadaze ainTo ams terdamSi, xolo olimpiuri CiraRdnis esta feta pirvelad 1936 wels gaimarTa berlinis olimpiadisTvis

yvela olimpiada Zalian lamazi sanaxao biT ixsneba maspinZeli qveynebi cdiloben am ceremonialze warmoaCinon is, rac yvelaze saamayo da saxasiaToa maT kulturaSi ami tom olimpiadis gaxsnis yvela warmodgena gansxvavebulia magram aris dadgenili nor mebi, romlebic yvela organizatorma unda daicvas ceremonias yovelTvis saerTaSo riso olimpiuri komitetis Tavmjdomare da maspinZeli qveynis meTauri xsnian sanaxaobis mTavari nawilia gundis oficialur formaSi gamowyobil moasparezeTa msvleloba. am msvlelobas yovelTvis berZnebis delegacia iwyebs da maspinZeli qveynis delegacia am Tavrebs msvlelobis Semdeg stadionze sa zeimod aRmarTaven olimpiur droSas da olimpodan wamoRebuli CiraRdniT daanTe ben olimpiur cecxls, romelic dRedaRam anTia olimpiadis daxurvamde.

zafxulis Tanamedrove olimpiur Tama SebSi sportis 43 saxeobaSi imarTeba aspare zoba, xolo zamTris TamaSebSi – 16 saxeobaSi dRevandeli olimpiada 16 dRe grZeldeba da is bevrad ufro xalxmravali da mravalfe rovania, vidre Zvel olimpoSi gamarTuli festivali iyo

rogorc antikur olimpoSi, dResac olimpiadaze mxolod saukeTeso sportsme nebi da gundebi asparezoben olimpiadaSi monawileobisTvis gundma unda gaiaros sa kvalifikacio etapebi; xolo individua lurad moaspareze sportsmenebma ki unda

moipovon sagangebo licenzia (sportis kon kretuli saxeobis federaciis mier dadgeni li normebis Tanaxmad).

Tu antikur olimpiadaze sportis yvela saxeobas mxolod erTi gamarjvebuli hyavda, Tanamedrove olimpiuri kvarcxlbeki samsa fexuriania da yvela asparezobis bolos sam saukeTeso sportsmens Tu gunds ajildo eben jildo olimpiuri medalia pirveli adgilis mflobeli oqros (mooqrul) me dals iRebs, meore adgilis mflobeli – ver cxlis medals da mesame adgilis mflobeli –brinjaos medals. samive medalosani moaspa rezis mSobliuri droSa afrialdeba spor tuli darbazis Tavze, magram JRers mxolod im saxelmwifos himni, romlis warmomadge nelmac oqros medali daimsaxura. 2004 wels

Citius,
Altius, Fortius!
59
Zveli da axali olimpiada

civilizacia

aTenis olimpiadaze berZnebma warsuli kidev erTxel Segvaxsenes da gamarjvebuli sport smenebi medlebTan erTad zeTisxilis gvir gvinebiTac Seamkes

olimpiada iseTive pompezuri ceremoni iT ixureba, rogoriTac ixsneba. dafdafebis TanxlebiT qreba olimpiuri cecxli da olimpiuri himnis TanxlebiT dauSveben olimpiur droSas amis Semdeg stadionze ukve olimpiadagadaxdili moasparezeebi Ca ivlian – ara erovnul gundebad dajgufebu lebi, aramed visac visTan erTad unda, vinc vis daumegobrda olimpiadis ganmavlobaSi

samwuxarod, Tanamedrove olimpiur moZ raobasac axlavs sirTuleebi, saerTaSoriso olimpiuri komitetis korufciiT dawyebu li da terorizmiT damTavrebuli.

XX saukunis meore naxevarSi gaCnda me dikamentebi, romlebic zrdian adamianis fi zikur SesaZleblobebs. bunebrivia, gamoCn dnen arakeTilsindisieri adamianebic, rom lebic cdiloben moatyuon kontrolis sis tema da daumsaxurebeli gamarjveba moipo von. gasuli saukunis miwuruls saerTaSo riso olimpiurma komitetma Seqmna dopingis saagento, romelic cdilobs mecnierebis uaxlesi miRwevebis saSualebiT daicvas olimpiada dopingisgan. am saqmeSi yvelaze metad rusma sportsmenebma gamoiCines Tavi. dopingis saagentom daaskvna, rom rus aTle tebs dopingis gamoyenebaSi saxelmwifo exma reba amitom tokois (2022) olimpiadaze rus sportsmenebs aukrZales samSoblos saxeliT asparezoba (rusuli droSis da himnis gamo yeneba) da isini olimpiuri droSiT gamodi odnen

olimpiadas politikuri miznebiTac iyeneben xolme. magaliTad, sabWoTa jarebis av RaneTSi SeWris (1979) gamo moskovis olimpia daze (1980) ar iasparezes aSS is da kidev 66 saxelmwifos sportsmenebma xolo amis sapa

suxod, los anjelesis olimpiadaSi (1984) sabWoTa kavSirma da misma satelitma 15 qve yanam ar miiRo monawileoba samwuxarod, olimpiada, xalxmravali da msoflios yuradRebis centrSi moqceuli RonisZieba, teroristebis samiznec gamxda ra 1974 wlis miunxenis olimpiadaze pales tinelma teroristebma israelis gundis 11 wevri daatyveves da mokles

60

yvela am sirTulis miuxedavad, Tanamed rove olimpiuri moZraoba sul ufro da uf ro masStaburi xdeba olimpiada, romelic 3000 wlis win demokratiis samSobloSi da ibada, dRes ukve dedamiwaze mcxovreb spor tsmenTa (da aramarto sportsmenTa) umrav lesobisTvis xelmisawvdomi zeimia ukve ar sebobs zafxulis da zamTris paraolimpi adebi, sadac SezRuduli SesaZleblobis ada mianebi asparezoben; smenadaqveiTebuli ada mianebis olimpiada; axalgazrduli (14 18 wlis asakis) olimpiada; daqveiTebuli inte leqtualuri da fizikuri unarebis mqone ymawvilTa olimpiada.

saqarTvelo, rogorc damoukidebeli sa xelmwifo, olimpiadebSi 1994 wlidan mona wileobs manamde Cveni sportsmenebi sabWoTa kavSiris gundis saxeliT asparezobdnen yve la drois yvelaze warmatebuli qarTveli olimpieli aris mZleosani viqtor saneevi, romelmac 1968 1980 wlebSi sami oqros da erTi vercxlis medali daimsaxura. yvelaze met, cxra, olimpiadaze mizanSi msrolelma nino saluqvaZem iaspareza. rio de Janeiros olimpiadaze (2016) nino saluqvaZem da misma Svilma, cotne maWavarianma, erTad iaspare zes. qarTvel sportsmenebs sul (sabWoTa kavSirisa da saqarTvelosTvis) 133 (maT So ris 39 oqros) olimpiuri medali aqvT mopovebuli.

მანუჩარ კვირკველიაგიორგი ასანიძე ვიქტორ სანეევი (1945-2022) საქართველოს რეგბის ნაკრები ლაშა შავდათუაშვილი ირაკლი ცირეკიძე ზურაბ ზვიადაური ნონა gafrindaSvili ლაშა ბექაური ნიკოლოზ ბასილაშვილი ლაშა ტალახაძე ნინო სალუქვაძე 61 Zveli da axali olimpiada

mecniereba

stiven hokingis usazRvro SesaZleblobaTa samyaro

mixeil WabukaSvili

stiven hokingi yvela drois erT erTi ubrwyinvalesi fizikosi iyo etlSi mjdomi, odnav gverdze Tavgadaxrili hokingi adamianebis mexsierebaSi mudam darCeba, rogorc materiaze go nebis triumfis namdvili simbolo mis fizikur unarSezRudulobas TiTqmis zebunebrivi saCu qari abalansebda, rac mis gonebas mTel samyaroSi Tavisuflad navardobis saSualebas aZlevda, samyaro ki mas zogjer TiTqos iseT saidumloebs umxelda, rac Cveulebriv mokvdavTaTvis dama lulia ikvlevda samyaros warmoSobas da struqturas, didi afeTqebidan dawyebuli, Savi xvre lebiT damTavrebuli misma naSromebma dargSi revolucia moaxdina hokingis wigni „drois mok le istoria“ 1988 wels gamovida da dRemde 10 milionze meti egzemplaria gayiduli; naTargmnia 35 ze met enaze igi gardaicvala 2018 wlis 14 marts, 76 wlis asakSi

stiven hokingi bevrs msoflioSi yvelaze Wkvian adamianad miaCnda, magram is arasodes amxel da Tavis IQ is qulas erTxel, rodesac NewYorkTimes is Jurnalistma hkiTxa, ra iyo misi IQ, man myisierad upasuxa: „adamianebi, romlebic sakuTari IQ Ti trabaxoben, xelmocaruli arian“

britaneli kosmologi stiven uiliam hokingi 1942 wlis 8 ianvars inglisSi daibada – astro nom galileo galileis gardacvalebis dRes, zustad 300 wlis Semdeg oqsfordis sauniversi teto kolejSi fizikas swavlobda, miuxedavad imisa, rom mamamisi medicinis mimarTulebiT was vlas aiZulebda

62

1963 wels, Tavis 21 e dabadebis dRemde ramdenime dRiT adre, hokings motoneiro nuli daavadebis diagnozi dausves, romel sac lu gerigis daavadebas an amiotroful gverdiT sklerozsac uwodeben eqimebi va raudobdnen, rom or weliwadze metxans ver icocxlebda

hokingis kvleviTi kariera imedgacrue biT daiwyo 1962 wels kembrijis universi tetis doqtoranti gaxda, magram uTxres, rom mis mier SerCeul xelmZRvanels, kosmo log fred hoils ukve hyavda studentebis sruli Semadgenloba hoili im drois erT erTi yvelaze saxelganTqmuli britaneli astrofizikosi iyo da ambiciur studen tebs magnitiviT izidavda hokingma amaze guli ar gaitexa da hoilis nacvlad sadoq toro naSromis xelmZRvanelad denis siama SearCia, fizikosi, romlis Sesaxebac manamde araferi icoda. swored im periodSi, maleve dausves motoneironuli daavadebis diag nozi es daavadeba imiT aris cnobili, rom pacients swrafad arTmevs kunTebis moZ raobis saSualebas

miuxedavad imisa, rom hokingis sxeuli Sesustda, goneba kvlav maxvili darCa mom devno ori wlis ganmavlobaSi, sadoqtoro naSromze muSaobisas, mas ukve uWirda siaru li da saubari, magram aSkara iyo, rom daava deba imaze nela progresirebda, vidre eqime bi Tavdapirvelad SiSobdnen amasobaSi man jein uaildze iqorwina da mogvianebiT sami Svilic SeeZinaT – roberti, lusi da timi bavSvebma hokings muSaobis xalisi Semates

63
dasawyisi didi afeTqebiT
„ვიდრე მეცნიერებას ჩავწვდებით,ბუნებრივიაგჯეროდეს,რომ სამყაროღმერთმაშექმნა.მაგრამ ახლა, მეცნიერება გაცილებითდამაჯერებელახსნასგვთავაზობს“. აქდაქვემოთმოყვანილიასტივენ ჰოკინგისგამონათქვამები. stiven hokingis `drois mokle istoria~ ე„მთელიჩემიცხოვრებამაჯადო კბდაჩვენწინაშეარსებულიდიდი პითხვებიდამათზემეცნიერული ასუხის გაცემას თვცდილობდი. რუჩემსმსგავსადთქვენცუყუჩებთვარსკვლავებსდაცდილობთ ასწვდეთ, რასაც თხედავთ, ქვენც დაიწყეთ ფიქრი რიმაზე, საგანაპირობებსსამყაროსარებობას“. stiven hokingi

fred hoili (1915 2001)

siama (1926 1999)

siamasTan muSaobas Tavisi upiratesobebi hqonda cnobili hoili iSviaTad iyo departamen tSi, siama ki sul iqve trialebda da sxvebTan saubaric uyvarda masTan diskusiebma axalgazrda hokings stimuli misca, gahyoloda sakuTar samecniero xedvas maSin, roca hoili sastikad ewi naaRmdegeboda didi afeTqebis Teorias, ufro metic, „didi afeTqeba“ am Teorias dacinvis miz niT Searqva, siama bednieri iyo, rom hokings drois dasawyisis Seswavla undoda drois isari

hokingi rojer penrouzis naSroms swavlobda, romelic amtkicebda, rom Tu ainStainis far dobiTobis zogadi Teoria sworia, yoveli Savi xvrelis SuagulSi unda iyos wertili, sadac ar arsebobs Tavad dro da sivrce, anu singularoba. hokingma gaacnobiera, rom Tu drois isars Se vabrunebT, igive msjeloba marTebulia mTlianad samyarosTvis. siamas waxalisebiT man maTema tikuri gamoTvlebiT SeZlo amis damtkiceba – zogadi fardobiTobis mixedviT, samyaro singu larobaSi daibada.

hokingi kargad acnobierebda, rom bolo sityva ainStains ar ekuTvnoda zogadi fardobi Toba, romelic sivrces da dros farTo masStabebSi aRwers, mxedvelobaSi ar iRebs kvantur me qanikas, romelic materiis ucnaur qcevas gacilebiT mcire masStabebSi aRwers am oris gasaer Tianeblad saWiro iyo raRac ucnobi, „yvelafris Teoria“. hokingisTvis samyaros gaCenis singu laruloba ar iyo droisa da sivrcis rRveva; is kvanturi gravitaciis saWiroebaze miuTiTebda. sabednierod, kavSiri, romelic man moZebna penrouzis singularobasa da didi afeTqebis singu

denis
„დროის ფუჭად კარგვა იქნებოდა, ჩემს უნარშეზღუდულობაზე რომ ვჯავრობდე. ადამიანმა ცხოვრება უნდა განაგრძოს დაცუდიარაკეთოს.ადამიანებსშენთვის დრო არ ექნებათ, თუკი შენ მუდამ გაბრაზებულიდამოწუწუნეიქნები“. 64 larobas Soris, aseTi Teoriis povnis sakvan Zo miniSnebas sTavazobda. Tuki fizikosebs samyaros warmoSobis saidumlos gageba sur daT, hokingma maT zustad miuTiTa, sad unda eZebnaT – Sav xvrelebSi. mecniereba

Savi xvrelebi 1970 ian wlebSi ar yofila gansakuTrebiT aqtiuri kvlevis sagani. miu xedavad imisa, rom karl SvarcSildma daad gina, rom aseTi obieqtebi jer kidev 1915 wlis zogadi fardobiTobis gantolebebSi imaleboda, Teoretikosebs isini mainc ub ralo maTematikur anomaliebad miaCndaT da maT realur arsebobaSi eWvi eparebodaT.

miuxedavad imisa, rom sazareli obieqte bia, maTi moqmedeba sakmaod martivia: Sav xvrelebs imdenad mZlavri magnituri velebi aqvT, rom maTgan gaqceva arafers ZaluZs, arc sinaTles. Sav xvrelSi Cavard nili nebismieri materia danarCeni samyarosgan samudamod ikargeba. Tumca, es aris Termodinamikis gulSi gayrili xanjali.

Termodinamikis meore kanoni bunebis erT erTi yvelaze kargad damkvidrebuli kanonia, romlis mixedviTac entropia, anu sistemaSi uwesrigobis done, yovelTvis iz rdeba meore kanoniT, yinulis naWeri gubu raSi yovelTvis gadneba, magram wylis gubu ra spontanurad arasodes gadaiqceva yinu lis naWrad entropias yvela materia Sei cavs da Sesabamisad, ra xdeba, rodesac is Sav xvrelSi vardeba? entropiac masTan erTad ikargeba? Tu asea, samyaros mTliani entro pia ecema da Savi xvrelebi Termodinamikis meore kanons unda arRvevdnen hokingi fiqrobda, rom es kargi iyo. sia movnebiT ugulebelyofda nebismier kon cefcias, romelic xels uSlida ufro Rrma WeSmaritebas da Tu es iqneboda meore ka noni, dae, yofiliyo

„მეცნიერება მიიჩნევს, რომ მრავალი სხვადასხვა სახის სამყარო შეიძლება სპონტანურად გაჩენილიყო არაფრისგან. მხოლოდ შემთხვევითობის საკითხია, რომელმათგანშივართჩვენ“. Termodinamikuri safrTxe
„დროში მოგზაურობა მხოლოდ სამეცნიეროფანტასტიკისსფეროდმიიჩნევა,მაგ რამაინშტაინისფარდობითობისზოგადი თეორიაგვაძლევსსაშუალებას,რომშეიძლება სივრცე-დრო იმდენად გავამრუდოთ, რომ რაკეტით გაფრინდე და თან გაფრენამდეუკანდაბრუნდე.ერთ-ერთიპირველი ვიყავი, ვინც იმ გარემოებათა შესახებ ვწერდი,რომელშიცესშესაძლებელიიქნება.ვაჩვენე,რომამისათვისსაჭიროუნდა იყოსმატერიაენერგიისნეგატიური სიმკვრივით, რაც შეიძლება ხელმისაწვდომი არ იყოს. ჩემმა პუბლიკაციებმა სხვა მკვლევრებიწაახალისადაეს თემა კიდევ უფროგანავრცეს“,–უთხრაჰოკინგმაგამოცემაParade-ს2010წელს.
Savi
xvrelis grafikuli gamosxuleba 65
stiven
hokingi

mecniereba

bekenStaini da garRveva

1972 wels safrangeTis saTxilamuro ku rort lez usSi, fizikis sazafxulo skola Si, hokingi Tavis Tanamoazres Sexvda prins tonis universitetis damamTavrebeli safe xuris studenti iakob bekenStaini fiqrob da, rom Termodinamikis meore kanoni Sav xvrelebzec unda gavrcelebuliyo. bekenS taini entropiis problemas swavlobda da hokingis adreuli xedvebis wyalobiT, SesaZ lo gamosavlamdec iyo misuli.

Savi xvreli sakuTar singularobas ma lavs im sazRvris miRma, romelsac movlena Ta horizonts uwodeben ukan dabruneba aR arasodes SeuZlia imas, rac movlenaTa ho rizonts gadakveTs hokingis namuSevrebma aCvena, rom Savi xvrelis movlenaTa hori zontis zona droTa ganmavlobaSi arasodes mcirdeba. garda amisa, rodesac Sav xvrelSi materia Caedineba, movlenaTa horizontis zona izrdeba.

bekenStaini mixvda, rom es iyo entropiis problemis gasaRebi yovel jerze, rodesac Savi xvreli materias STanTqavs, misi entro pia TiTqos ikargeba da amave dros, movlena Ta horizonti izrdeba amitom bekenStainma dauSva, rom Tu meore kanoni daculi iqnebo da, iqneb Tavad movlenaTa horizontis zona iyo entropiis sazomi?

hokings idea imTaviTve ar moewona da gabrazda kidec, rom aseTi gaumarTavi kon cefciis mxardasaWerad misi naSromi gamoi yenes. entropiasTan erTad modis siTbo, magram Savi xvreli siTbos ver unda asxiveb des – misi gravitaciisgan gaqceva xom ara fers ZaluZs leqciebs Soris Sesvenebaze hokingi Tavis kolegebTan erTad bekenSta ins daupirispirda; es kolegebi iyvnen bren don karteri, romelic aseve siamasTan swav lobda da jeims bardini vaSingtonis uni versitetidan.

„ვინაიდან არსებობს ისეთი კანონი, როგორიც არის გრავიტაციის, სამყაროს შეუძლიაწარმოიქმნასარაფრისგან.სპონტანურიწარმოქმნაარისმიზეზიიმისა, რომ არსებობს რაღაც და არა არაფერი, რატომაც არსებობს სამყარო, რატომაც ვარსებობთჩვენ.არარისაუცილებელი,ღმერთსმოვუხმოთ,რომსამყაროშექმნას“.
iakob bekenStaini (1947 2015) 66
brendon karteri da stiven hokingi

uTanxmoebam bekenStaini didad Seawuxa. „samive maTgani pativcemuli adamiani iyo. me ki doq torantura axali damTavrebuli mqonda. nerviulob, rom ubralod suleli xar da maT icodnen simarTle“, – ixsenebs igi

kembrijSi dabrunebulma hokingma gadawyvita daemtkicebina, rom bekenStaini cdeboda. amis nacvlad, man aRmoaCina maTematikuri urTierTqmedebis zusti forma entropiasa da Savi xvre lis movlenaTa horizonts Soris mosazrebis ganadgurebis nacvlad, hokingma is daamtkica es misi udidesi miRweva iyo

hokingis radiacia

hokingi amjerad miemxro ideas, rom Termodinamika Sav xvrelebSi garkveul rols asruleb da. fiqrobda, rom yvelafers, rasac entropia aqvs, aseve aqvs temperaturac – da nebismier ra mes, rasac temperatura aqvs, SeuZlia gamosxiveba hokingma gaaanaliza, rom misi Tavdapirveli Secdoma is iyo, rom mxolod zogad fardobi Tobas iTvaliswinebda, romlis mixedviTac, arafers – arc nawilakebs da arc siTbos – ar SeeZ lo Savi xvrelisgan gaqceva es yvelaferi icvleba, rodesac saqmeSi kvanturi meqanika erTveba kvanturi meqanikis mixedviT, carieli sivrcisgan mudmivad Cndeba mfrinav nawilakTa da antina wilakTa wyvilebi, romlebic Tvalis daxamxamebaSi spoben erTmaneTs da uCinardebian. rodesac es Savi xvrelis movlenaTa horizontis siaxloves xdeba, nawilaki antinawilakis wyvili SeiZle ba gancalkevdes – erTi movlenaTa horizonts miRma STainTqas, meore ki gaiqces, rac maT samu damod arTmevs Sexvedrisa erTmaneTis mospobis SesaZleblobas ase daoblebul nawilakTa naka di Savi xvrelis kididan radiaciis saxiT gamoiyofa kvanturi Seqmnis SemTxveviToba siTbos SemTxveviToba xdeba.

eqsperimentebi

Zalian rTulia, radgan rac ufro masi uria Savi xvreli, miT

temperatura didi Savi xvrelebis SemTxvevaSi, iseTe bis, romelTa Seswavlac

teleskopiT SeuZliaT, radiaciis temperatura imdenad umniSvneloa, rom ver gaizomeba. rogorc Tavad hokingi xSirad SeniSnavda, swored am mizezis ga mo ver miiRo man nobelis premia verasdros. miuxedavad amisa, es prognozi sakmarisi aRmoCnda imisaTvis, rom mecnierebaSi erT erTi wamyvani adgili daemkvidrebina, Savi xvrelis kididan ga momaval kvantur nawilakTa nakads ki samudamod erqmeva hokingis radiacia zogierTi fiqrob da, rom ufro marTebuli iqneboda, misTvis bekenStain hokingis radiacia ewodebinaT, magram Tavad bekenStainma es azri ukuagdo.

„ვფიქრობ,ფიზიკოსთაუმეტესობადამეთანხმება,რომჰოკინგისუდიდესიწვლილიაპროგნოზი,რომშავიხვრელირადია ციასგამოყოფს.მართალია,ჯერექსპერი მენტულად არ ვიცით, რომ ჰოკინგის ეს პროგნოზისწორია,მაგრამთითქმისყველა ექსპერტს სჯერა, რომ ის მართალი იყო“,–ამბობსკალიფორნიისტექნოლოგიურიინსტიტუტისფიზიკოს თეორეტი კოსისინკაროლი.
hokingis prognozebis Sesamowmeblad
ufro dabalia misi
astronomebs
„მეცნიერებისმთელიისტორიაგახლავთიმისთანდათანობითგაცნობიერება,რომ მოვლენები თვითნებურად კი არ ხდება, არამედ ისინი გარკვეული ფუძემდებლური წესრიგისგამოძახილია“. 67 stiven hokingi

yvelafris Teoria

hokingma anderZad datova, rom misi saflavis qvaze bekenStain hokingis entropiis gantoleba amoetvifraT, romelic warmoadgens fizikis disciplinis saboloo nazavs, radgan Seicavs niutonis mudmivas, romelic mkafiod aris damokidebuli gravitaciaze, plankis mudmivas, romelic Ralatobs kvantur meqanikas, sinaTlis siCqares – ainStainis fardobiTobis Tilismas da bolcmanis mudmivas – Termodinamikis macnes amdeni sxvadasxva mudmivas Tavmoyra miuTiTebda yvelafris Teoriaze, romelSic mTeli fizika erTiania. garda amisa, aman mtkiced daadastura hokingis Tavdapirveli eWvi, rom Savi xvrelebis raobis gageba sakvanZo unda iyos am ufro Rrma Teoriis asaxsnelad hokingis am miRwevam SeiZleba gadaWra entropiis problema, magram imTaviTve warmoqmna kidev ufro rTuli problema Tu Sav xvrelebs gamosxiveba SeuZliaT, isini TandaTan unda aorTqldnen da gaqrnen Sesabamisad, ra daemarTeba maTSi Cacvenil mTel informacias? isic gaqreba? Tu ase iqneba, es ewinaaRmdegeba kvanturi meqanikis mTavar princips meore mxriv, Tu is Savi xvrelidan gaqcevas moaxerxebs, winaaRmdegobaSi iqneba ainStainis fardobiTobis TeoriasTan. Savi xvrelis radiaciis aRmoCeniT hokingma fizikis ZiriTadi kanonebi erTmaneTs daupirispira ase daibada Savi xvrelis informaciis dakargvis paradoqsi

„შავიხვრელისენტროპიასბეკენშტაინ-ჰოკინგისენტროპიაეწოდება,რაცვფიქრობ,მშვენიერია.პირველადისმედავწერე,ჰოკინგმაამმუდმივასმათემატიკური ღირებულებადაადგინა,შესაბამისად,ჩვენერთობლივადშევქმენითდღემდეარსე
ბული ფორმულა. რადიაცია ნამდვილად ჰოკინგის შრომის შედეგია. წარმოდ გენა არ მქონდა, როგორ უნდა შეს ძლებოდა შავ ხვრელს გამოსხივება. ჰოკინგმაესძლიერმკაფიოდწარმოაჩინა.ამიტომმასსწორედრომჰოკინგისრადიაციაუნდაერქვას“,–აღნიშ ნავსბეკენშტაინი. bekenStain hokingis entropiis gantoleba 68 kadrebi filmidan `yvelafris Teoria~ mecniereba

hokingma Tavisi pozicia daicva kidev erT inovaciur da ufro metad sakamaTo publikaciaSi, saxelad „prognozirebadobis moSla gravitaciul kolafsSi“, romelic 1976 wels gamoaqveyna avtoritetul samecniero Jurnal PhysicalReviewD Si. naSromSi is irwmuneboda, rom rodesac Savi xvreli radiaciis gziT sakuTar masas kargavs, asxivebs, igive emarTeba mTel mis informaci asac – miuxedavad imisa, rom kvanturi meqanika calsaxad krZalavs informaciis dakargvas sul male sxva fizikosebma am ideis mxardasaWeri an sawinaaRmdego poziciebi daikaves da am sakiTxze debatebi dRemde grZeldeba. marTlac, bevr mecniers miaCnia, rom informaciis dakargva yvela ze mwvave dabrkolebaa kvanturi gravitaciis gagebaSi.

„hokingis 1976 wlis argumenti, rom Savi xvreli informacias kargavs, uzarmazari miRwevaa, albaT, erT erTi yvelaze Tanmimdevruli aRmoCena Teoriul fizikaSi am dargis gamogonebis Semdeg“, – aRniSnavs berklis kaliforniis universitetis mkvlevari rafael buso.

daTmoba

1990 iani wlebis bolos simebis Teoriidan miRebulma Sedegebma fizikosTa umetesoba daar wmuna, rom informaciis dakargvis sakiTxSi hokingi cdeboda, magram Tavisi SeupovrobiT cno bilma hokingma far xmali ar dayara da kvleva ganagrZo. azri man mxolod 2004 wels Seicvala da es xalisiT gaakeTa – dramatulad gamoCnda dublinis konferenciaze da gamoacxada Tavisi ga naxlebuli Sexeduleba: Savi xvrelebi informacias ar kargaven

„ცოდნისუდიდესიმტერი უცოდინარობაკიარარის, არამედ–ცოდნისილუზია“.
hokingis publikacia „prognozirebadobis moSla gravitaciul kolafsSi“ samecniero Jurnal PhysicalReviewD Si stiven hokingi 2004 wlis dublinis konferenciaze
69
stiven hokingi

mecniereba

rafael buso

Tumca, dRes yvelafers eWvqveS ayenebs axali para

romelsac bariers uwodeben. aSkaraa, rom kiTx

romelic hokingma dasva, aris kvanturi gravita ciis Ziebis birTvi

„Savi xvrelis radiacia aCens seriozul Tavsatexs, romlis amoxsnazec dRemde muxlCauxrelad vmuSaobT. samarTlianad unda iTqvas, rom hokingis radiacia aris Cvens xelT arsebuli erTi udidesi ga saRebi kvanturi meqanikisa da gravi taciis saboloo TanxmobaSi moyva nisTvis, rac, Tavis mxriv, dRes Te oriuli fizikis winaSe mdgari udidesi gamowvevaa“, – ambobs ka liforniis teqnologiuri ins titutis fizikos Teoretikosi sin karoli rafael busos gan cxadebiT ki, hokingis memkvid reoba sakvanZo iqneba yvelaf ris Teoriis sapovnelad

mTeli Tavisi cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi hokingi Teori uli fizikis sazRvrebis gada wevas TiTqos SeuZlebeli tempiT cdilobda man mniSvne lovani nabiji gadadga imis ga sagebad, rogor ergeba kvantu ri meqanika mTlianad samyaros, gza gakvala sferoSi, romelsac kvanturi kosmologia ewodeba progresirebadma daavadebam problemebis daZlevis axleburi

ზოგიერთი ფიზიკოსის აზრით, კაცობრიობამ უკვე მიაღწია მეცნიერების ისტორიის ისეთ ექსტრაორდინარულ წერტილს, რომდროაგვქონდესერთითეორია,რომელიცმთელფიზიკას ერთი მათემატიკური ქოლგის ქვეშ გააერთიანებდა. შედეგად გვექნებოდაერთიჰიპოთეტურიჩარჩო,რომელიცსამყაროში ჩვენთვისცნობილყველაფიზიკურფენომენსახსნიდა.ამთეორიამ უნდა გააერთიანოს XX საუკუნის ფიზიკის ორი დიდი მიღწევა–ფარდობითობისზოგადითეორიადაკვანტურითეორია. ზოგადი ფარდობითობა სამყაროს სტრუქტურას დიდი, ანუკოსმოლოგიურიმასშტაბითაღწერს,კვანტურითეორიაკი მიკროსკოპულ,სუბატომურსტრუქტურებს.ამთეორიებისგაერთიანებამუნდაახსნასროგორცძალიანდიდი,ისეძლიერპატარასტრუქტურები.ასეთთეორიასხშირად„ყველაფრისთეორიას“უწოდებენ. 70
doqsi,
va,

gzebi daanaxa – rodesac grZeli, rTuli gantolebebis weris unari dakarga, hokingma saku Tar gonebaSi problemaTa gadaWris axal, gamWriax meTods miagno – maTi geometriul for mebSi warmosaxvis gziT. unda iTqvas, rom hokings, ainStainis msgavsad, aRarasodes Seuqmnia iseTi revoluciuri rame, rogoric misi adreuli Sromebi iyo

„hokingis yvelaze gavleniani naSromebi 1970 ian wlebSia Seqmnili, roca is axalgazrda iyo Tumca, es savsebiT standartulia iseTi fizikosebisTvisac ki, romlebsac neirodegene raciuli daavadeba ar abrkolebT“, – aRniSnavs karoli.

hokingi, rogorc supervarskvlavi

amasobaSi, publikaciam „drois mokle istoria“ hokingi kulturis varskvlavad aqcia da Teoriul fizikas axali saxe misca wigni msoflio bestseleri gaxda is amas albaT veraso des warmoidgenda 2014 wels gamovida filmi, saxelad „yvelafris Teoria“, romelic hokin gis cxovrebis Sesaxeb gadaiRes.

stiven hokingis feisbuk posti
„უნდავეძიოთ ჩვენიმოქმედების უდიდესი ღირებულება“. 71
stiven hokingi

„miuxedavad imisa, rom Zlier unarSezRuduli var, warmatebas mivaRwie samecniero saqmia nobaSi. bevri vimogzaure, viyavi antarqtidaze da aRdgomis kunZulze, wyalqveS da nulovan gravitaciaSi. imedi maqvs, erT dRes kosmosSic waval“, – werda hokingi 2014 wels Facebook ze.

eWvgareSea, aseTma sajaro imijma mas cxovreba gauadvila daavadebis progresirebaTan er Tad, teqnologebi mas sixaruliT uzrunvelyofdnen sul ufro rTuli mowyobilobebiT, rom lebic mas komunikaciis saSualebas aZlevda aman mas im saqmianobis gagrZelebis saSualeba mis ca, riTac samaradisod Seva istoriaSi – Tavisi mecnierebis

„stiven hokingma gacilebiT meti ram gaakeTa gravitaciis kvlevebSi, vidre vinme sxvam ainS tainis Semdeg is msoflios wamyvani fizikos Teoretikosi iyo, Tavisi drois saukeTeso mkvle vari msoflioSi, maT Soris, vinc gravitaciisa da kvanturi meqanikis urTierTqmedebaze muSa obda; da man es yvelaferi saSineli daavadebis fonze gaakeTa is STamagonebeli figuraa da is toria mas udavod arasodes daiviwyebs“, – ambobs karoli

hokingi xSirad ambobda, rom adamianebma Tavis gadasarCenad dedamiwa unda datovon:

72 „თავის ტვინს ვუყურებ, როგორც კომპიუტერს, რომელიც მუშაობას მისიკომპონენტებისგაუმართაო ბისთანავე წყვეტს. გაფუჭებული კომპიუტერებისთვისარარსებობს სამოთხე ან შემდგომი სიცოცხლე. სიკვდილისშემდეგსიცოცხლეზღაპარია მათთვის, ვისაც სიბნელის ეშინია“, უთხრა ჰოკინგმა 2011 წელსინტერვიუშიTheGuardian ს.
„მომდევნოასწლეულებშირთულიიქნებაკატასტროფებისთავიდანაცილება,რომაღარაფერივთქვამომდევნოათასწლეულზეანმილიონწე ლიწადზე… გრძელვადიანი გადარჩე ნისთვისჩვენიერთადერთიშანსია მხოლოდ პლანეტა დედამიწის ამარა კი არ დავრჩეთ, არამედ კოსმოსში გავვრცელდეთ“. mecniereba

stiven hokingi 2018 wlis 14 marts, 76 wlis asakSi, inglisis qalaq kembrijSi, sakuTar saxlSi gardaicvala, daavadebiT, romelsac eqimTa prognoziT is 50 wliT adre unda moekla misi ferf li londonSi, vestminsteris saabatoSi dakrZales iseTi udidesi mecnierebis gverdiT, rogo rebic arian isaak niutoni da Carlz darvini.

Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom stiven hokingma samyaros gagebisa da aRqmis sruliad axlebur gzebs daudo saTave ver laparakobda, magram ambobda imaze gacilebiT mets, vidre rigiTi mokv davi; etls gaunZrevlad iyo mijaWvuli, magram es sulac ar uSlida xels yofiliyo erT erTi yvelaze Tavisufali adamiani mTel samyaroSi misi brwyinvale goneba xom mudam usasrulo kos mosSi daqroda. hokingis saxeli da Rvawli kacobriobas mravali saukunis manZilze gahyveba.

2017წელსსტივენჰოკინგმაგანაცხადა: „სივრცე გვეწურება და ერთადერთი გამოსავალი სხვა პლანეტებზე წასვლაა.დროაგამოვიკვლიოთსხვამზის(ვარსკვლავური)სისტემები.გავრცელებაერთადერთირამიქნება,რაცჩვენივეთავისგანგა დაგვარჩენს.დარწმუნებულივარ,რომადამიანებსდედამიწისდატოვებაგვჭირდება“.
stiven hokingis ferfli vestminsteris saabatoSi
nulovan gravitaciaSi aRdgomis kunZulze
antarqtidaze
73
stiven hokingi

saqarTvelos mxatvari qalebi

nino xundaZe

qarTvel, ufro sworad ki, saqarTveloSi moRvawe mxatvar qalebze minda giamboT. wina sau kuneebSi TiTqos bevrni ar iyvnen, Tumca saintereso SemoqmedebiT gamoirCeodnen, XX saukunis meore naxevridan da Semdgom ki qarTul realobaSi ukve bevri niWieri, TviTkmari da saintere so Semoqmedi qali Cans. axla, am gadmosaxedidan, imis warmodgenac ki Znelia, rom qalebs adre Se iZleboda xelovnurad SezRudvodaT uflebebi, rom albaT xSirad arc Candnen da ukvalodac ikargebodnen ase iyo saqarTveloSi da ase iyo mTel msoflioSi – evropasa da amerikaSic ki sau kuneebis ganmavlobaSi TiTze CamosaTvleli mxatvari qalis saxeli da Semoqmedebaa cnobili

am sakiTxebze fiqrisas, ramdenadac ucnaurad ar unda mogeCvenoT, pablo pikasos cxovrebis ori saucxoo qali da maTi urTierTobebi magondeba – dora maari da fransuaz Jilo.

dora maari – pablos didi siyvaruli, yovelmxriv Semdgari xelovani, inteleqtuali, sakma od saintereso samegobro wriTa da urTierTobebiT, damoukidebeli, TiTqos Zlieri, romelic 1935 wels daumegobrda pikasos masTan erTad did dros atarebda, STaagonebda mxatvars emuSa va da saintereso mxatvruli saxeebi Seeqmna TviTonac bevrs da sainteresod muSaobda, sruli ad gamorCeul, sakuTar mxatvrul samyaros qmnida. Tumca damokidebuli gaxda pikasos siyva rulze, sakuTari personis sxva qaliT Canacvleba ver gadaitana, tragizmma Seipyro da sulie rad usazRvrod gauWirda, dauZlurda, garkveuli xniT Semoqmedebasac ki daSorda – ver miiRo pikasos cxovrebaSi gamoCenili axalgazrda qalis – fransuaz Jilos mimarT mxatvris didi interesi da siyvaruli. sicocxliT savse, TiTqos susti fransuaz JilosTvis ki pikaso, erTi mxriv, ideali iyo, Tumca miuxedavad amisa, moaxerxa da Tavad gadawyvita rodis iyo mzad masTan sasiyvarulo urTierTobis dasawyebad, rodis da rogor unda moqceuliyo – gaeCina Svilebi, upretenziod, damxmaris gareSe ekeTebina uamravi saqme ojaxSi, Tbili urTierToba daemkvid rebina pikasos cxovrebis sxvadasxva qalsa da Svils Soris, emaspinZla maTTvis, maqsimalurad

74
mxatvroba

Seewyo xeli pikasos SemoqmedebiTi saqmianobisTvis, xolo rodesac pikasos urTierTobebi sxva qalebis mimarT gadametebulad miiCnia, miatova mxatvari da sakuTari cxovreba ganagrZo gamZ vinvarebuli pikaso, romelsac „qalebi ar toveben, TviTon tovebs qalebs“, yvela SesaZlo sa SualebiT uSlida mas xels cxovrebasa Tu mxatvris karieraSi mainc ver ajoba – fransuaz Jilo ar danebda, SvilebisTvis gvaric miacemina „mouTvinierebel“ mamrs, amerikaSi gaemgzavra da Sedga, rogorc mxatvari. misma gautexelobam pikaso aRafrTovana da didi pativiscema saqvey nod daudastura kidec fransuaz Jilos.

am ori qalis istoriis msgavsad samyaroSi uZvelesi droidan arian adamianebi, erTni, vinc yvela akrZalvas, stereotips, xelisSemSlel mizezebs arad agdeben da TavianT niWs, unars, sur vils, miswrafebas gasaqans aZleven, amsxvreven winaaRmdegobebs da im adamianad Sedgebian, ra dac sakuTari Tavi miaCniaT, axerxeben siamovneba miiRon sakuTari cxovrebiT, Tundac rTulad, magram mainc da es siamovneba yovelgvar usiamovnos aqarvebs meoreni ki, miuxedavad uSurvelad boZebuli SesaZleblobebisa, Tavadve emonebian vinmes an rames, msxverplad ewirebian da swira ven yvelaze Zvirfassac, rac maT samyarosgan ergebaT es mxolod qalebis xvedri ar aris, es ada mianis xasiaTia, Tumca umetesad, Sinagani (sakuTari sulieri Tu pirovnuli) Tu garegani wina aRmdegobebiT, sworedac rom qalis cxovrebaSi xdeba.

pablo pikaso da dora maari fransuaz Jilo pikasos daxatuli fransuaz Jilos da dora maaris portretebi
75
saqarTvelos mxatvari qalebi

mxatvroba

axla ki cota ram qarTvel mxatvar qa lebze, maT pirovnul Rirsebebze, saqmia nobaze da imazec, aris Tu ara maTi Semoq medeba saqarTveloSi xelovnebis ganvi Tarebis saerTo suraTis Sesabamisi.

yvelaze Zveli informacia qarTvel qal mxatvarTan dakavSirebiT TeaTineli beris, don kristoforo de kastelis, naSromSi gvxvdeba, romelic Cvens qveyanaSi Tavis mogzaurobas asaxavs da udides, CanaxatebiT ilustrirebul, informacias gvawvdis XVII saukunis saqarTvelos Sesaxeb am naSromSi gvxvdeba rodia miqelaZis portreti – Wvin tiani qoSebiT, mokle qulajiT, dekoratiu li mosasxamiT da bumbuliani TavsaburaviT, anu im drois tipur, aRmosavluri da dasav luri elementebis sinTeziT aRbeWdil sa mosSi gamowyobili qalis gamosaxuleba pa litriT da funjiT. portretTan erTad furcelze datanili warwera gvamcnobs:

samwuxarod rodia miqelaZis namuSevre bi da maTze raime saxis informacia istoriam ar Semogvinaxa.

zogadad rTulia imsjelo, dasabamidan ve iyvnen Tu ara qalebi CarTuli Semoqmede biT saqmianobaSi, magram erTi ram udavoa –Sua saukuneebidan SemorCenili natifi na qargobisa da daxvewili naqsovi, sruliad unikaluri nimuSebis – ardagebis (tiloze gardamoxsnis naqargi gamosaxuleba), saek lesio Tu saero pirTa Sesamoslis, qarTuli qsovilis, xaliCebis, fardagebis Semqmnele bi swored niWierebiT, ostatobiT da Semoq medebiTi unariT gamorCeuli qalebi unda yofiliyvnen. samwuxarod, konkretuli pi rovnebebis Sesaxeb informacia ar mogvepo veba, rac gapirobebuli iyo umeteswilad Sua saukuneebis xelovnebis upirovno xasia TiT. am TvalsazrisiT mosaZiebelia infor macia da amosakiTxia monogramebi qsovileb ze, risi ramdenime nimuSic me Tavad minaxavs. arsebobs gamonaklisebic – arsukisZe, mefis mxatvari Tevdore, beqa da beSqen opizrebi, damiane, gerasime... maTi saxelebi SemogvrCa, aRiarebulic iyvnen da, rogorc Cans, dau morCileblebic.

„ rodia miqelaZe niWieri, umaRlesi saTnoebis da patiosani yofaqceviT Semkuli mxatvari qalia Cveni patrebis mowafea es mxatvari qali sxva saqmeebSic niWieri iyo “

76
Sua saukuneebis qarTuli naqargobis nimuSi

saqarTveloSi gaxangrZlivebulma Sua saukuneebma, evropasTan SedarebiT, Seafer xa saxviTi xelovnebis Tavisufali ganviTa reba (zemoT xsenebuli gamonaklisebis gar da) – pirovnulis, avtoriseulis, individu aluris gamovlena, Semqmnelis Semoqmedad aRiareba. Tumca „sekularizaciis“ (anu sae ro xelovnebis gamoyofa saeklesio xelov nebisgan da misi damoukidebeli ganviTare ba, rac kapitalizmis niSnebis CasaxvasTan erTad gaxda SesaZlebeli) procesis Sede gad, ukve XVII saukunis bolodan saero xe lovnebis ganviTarebis saintereso suraTi gamoikveTa da ostatTa mdgomareobac Seic vala.

wina saukuneebTan SedarebiT, xelovne bis jer kidev manufaqturuli xasiaTis miu xedavad (mxatvrebi dazgur suraTebzec mu Saobdnen amqrebad, samuSao sruldeboda jgufurad, Semoqmedi iTvleboda xelosnad da individualizmi TiTqos ugulebelyofi li iyo), mxatvarTa saxelebi mravlad Semog vrCa – ioseb TurqestaniSvili, grigol da solomon mesxiSvilebi, nikoloz afxazi, gi orgi anCabaZe, beri iostos andronikaSvili, ioseb da sulxan baraTaSvilebi, daviT beJi aSvili, daviT da qristesia gegeliZeebi, grigol da daviT mesxiSvilebi, ovnaTanove bi, iason ciciSvili, isaia janjuRazaSvili, aleqsandre ColoyaSvilis yma, v nikolaZe da maT Soris qali mxatvari – semiramida ami laxvari

semiramida amilaxvarze dokumenturi cnobebi TiTqmis ar gvaqvs, magram xelovne bis muzeumis qarTuli ferweris fondSi mis mier Seqmnili 3 suraTi inaxeba – ori port reti da erTi peizaJi. peizaJs warwera aqvs da iuwyeba, rom suraTi 1862 welsaa Sesru lebuli

am dros qarTul mxatvrobaSi peizaJi mxolod portretuli gamosaxulebis fo nad gvxvdeba. semiramida amilaxvris peizaJi, ferweruli manerisa da kompoziciuri struqturis TvalsazrisiT, ostaturadaa Sesrulebuli. garda niWierebisa, aSkaraa, rom mxatvars profesiuli ganaTleba hqon da miRebuli.

am droidan moyolebuli, saqarTveloSi samoRvaweod CamosulTa Tu aq dabadebul ganswavlulTa Soris yovelTvis Cndebian qalebi. ekaterine baraTaSvili sumbaTaSvi li (1874 1944) jer Tbilisis samxatvro sas wavlebelSi, Semdeg ki miunxenis akademiaSi

semiramida amilaxvris naxatebi
77
saqarTvelos mxatvari qalebi

mxatvroba

portretuli miniatiuris xelovnebas swavlobda 1908 wels, saqarTveloSi dabrunebulma, Seqmna Zve li qarTuli miniatiurebis aslebi, ferweruli su raTebi, miniatiuruli portretebi spilos Zvalze, naqargi portretebic ki. misi Semoqmedeba Sesrule bis daxvewili, ostaturi maneriT gamoirCeva. evro pul xelovnebasTan mis wiaRSive naziarebs, momdev no xanis SemoqmedTa msgavsad, erovnuli, qarTuli xelovnebis safuZvlebTan kavSiri ar daukargavs. sainteresoa is faqtic, rom TbilisSi, swored am dros, qalTa gimnaziaSi xatvis gakveTilebs uZRve boda XIX saukunis Sua wlebSi germaniidan Camosuli helene kiuber frankeni igi umetesad qmnida grafi kul portretebs, romlebic daxvewili ostatobiT gamoirCeva. aseve muSaobda Tbilisisa da saqarTve los sxvadasxva kuTxis peizaJebze. misi Canaxatebi realistur maneras efuZneba da zedmiwevniT asaxavs ra Tanadroul detalebs, mravalmxriv aris sainte reso. helene kiuberi meuRles, cnobil mxatvars pa ul fon frankens, saqarTvelodan samSobloSi gamg zavrebisas ar gahyva da TbilisSi darCa sacxovreb lad. germaniaSi ganaTlebamiRebuli evropeli qa lis Semoqmedeba moswavleebs da qarTul sazogado ebas, sxva aq moRvawe ucxoel ostatTa msgavsad, ev ropul mxatvrobasTan aziarebda.

XIX saukunis bolodan saqarTveloSi ukve arsebobda samxatvro saswavleblebi. jer dawyebi Ti samxatvro skola Seiqmna (1874 w.), 1897 wels ki – gigo gabaSvilis samxatvro studia. 1900 wli dan arsebuli kavkasiis natifi xelovnebis wamaxalisebeli sazogadoebis ferwerisa da qandake bis skolam ki 1922 wels daarsebul Tbilisis samxatvro akademias Cauyara safuZveli am skoleb Si qarTvel da ucxoel pedagogebTan – aleqsandre mrevliSvilTan, boris fogelTan, mose Toi ZesTan, iakob nikolaZesTan, gigo gabaSvilTan, ioseb SarlemanTan da sxvebTan iswavles lado gudiaSvilma, daviT kakabaZem, valerian sidamon erisTavma, mixeil bilaniSvilma, feliqs var lamiSvilma da aseTive mniSvnelobis qalebma – elene axvledianma, qeTevan maRalaSvilma, irina Stenbergma, vera lebedevam, cota mogvianebiT – nina TamamSevam, moqandakeebma Tamar abakeli am, elene maCabelma, nino wereTelma da sxvamac mravalma saukeTeso dro iyo – erovnuli ideeb iT STagonebuli Taobebis mier saxelmwifoebrivi Tavisuflebis mopovebaze, eris sayovelTao

ganaTlebaze zrunvis da uamravi, saxelm wifoebrivad mniSvnelovani Canafiqris gan xorcielebis. kulturuli procesebi sru liad moulodneli, warmoudgeneli formiT viTardeboda. TiToeul wamowyebas unika luri sulisCamdgmeli hyavda – ilia WavWa vaZe, eqvTime TayaiSvili, dimitri Sevardna Ze, giorgi CubinaSvili, ivane javaxiSvili, mxatvrebi, poetebi, mecnierebi...

elene axvlediani da qeTevan maRalaSvi li Tbilisis kulturuli cxovrebis monawi leni iyvnen, Tbilisis, romelsac XX sauku nis 10 ian wlebSi „patara parizs“ eZaxdnen artkafeebi, diskusiebi xelovnebaze, axal mxatvrul formebze, egzotikuri garemo, simbolizmi, moderni, futurizmi, qarTve li da aq droebiT mcxovrebi evropelebi, av angarduli xelovnebis Semqmnelebi, am pro cesebis wamomwyebni da monawileebi – yvela feri zustad ise iyo, rogorc imave perio

78
gigo gabaSvili samxatvro akademiaSi studentebis pirvel gamoSvebasTan erTad ekaterine baraTaSvili sumbaTaSvili (1874 1944)

dis parizSi Tbilisi TiTqos niko firosmanaSvilis didi survilis – „ avaSenoT didi saxli, rom SeviyarneT xolme, viyidoT didi stoli da samovari, vsvaT Cai da vilaparakoT xelovneba ze“ – gansaxierebad iqca. mxatvarTa axalma Taobam, dazguri ferweris erovnuli mxatvruli skola Seqmna. TiToeulis Semoqmedebas individualizmi gamoarCevda. erovnuli tradiciebi da msoflio xelovnebaSi arsebuli Tanamedrove tendenciebi maT SemoqmedebaSi sxvadasxvagvarad iyo gaazrebuli da gamovlenili

elene axvlediani kavkasiis natifi xelovnebis wamaxalisebeli sazogadoebis skolaSi swav lobda xatvas, Semdeg axladSeqmnili samxatvro akademiis studenti gaxda maleve eliCka (ro gorc mas dRemde moixsenieben), qeTo maRalaSvilTan, daviT kakabaZesTan, lado gudiaSvilTan da sxvebTan erTad, ostatobisa da ganaTlebis gasaRrmaveblad parizSi gaemgzavra. kolarosis akademiaSi Cairicxa, bevrs muSaobda, saucxoo adamianebTan megobrobda, gamofenebSi monawile obda. elene axvlediani kidev erTi qalia, romelmac Tavisi pirdapirobiT, xasiaTis simtkiciT da SemoqmedebiT moxibla pablo pikaso cnobili ambavia – erT gamofenaze, 1924 wels, pikasos eliCkas ferweruli suraTi „zamTari kaxeTi“ moewona da SeZena gadawyvita mxatvars suraTi ar eTmoboda, Tvlida, rom mniSvnelovani namuSevari iyo da pikasos mkacrad uTxra uari. mxatvrebi am „mtkice uarma“ daamegobra, pikasom eliCkas sakuTari liTografiac ki usaxsovra. 1927 wels elene axvledianma niderlandebSi 40 namuSevari gagzavna sagamofenod gamofenas Tavadac unda daswreboda, Tumca acnobes, rom deda cudad gaxdomoda da saswrafod samSobloSi dabruneba mouxda is 40 suraTi daikarga, magram dedas cocxals Camouswro da es iyo mTavari dRes albaT is suraTebi an kerZo koleqciaSia, an sadRac galereebSia gabneuli

dimitri SevardnaZe, mixeil Wiaureli, qeTevan maRalaSvili da lado gudiaSvili, 1920 1921 wlebi, parizi irina Stenbergis Canaxati Tamar abakelia, revolucia
79
saqarTvelos mxatvari qalebi

mxatvroba

elene axvlediani peizaJis ostati iyo. misi mxatvroba cocxali da emociu ria, ganzogadebuli kompoziciebi bune bisa da adamianis harmoniuli urTierTmi marTebis gamomxatvelia kompoziciebSi adamiani qvecnobierad arsebobs iqac, sa dac mxatvari mas fizikurad ar gamosa xavs. realistur tendenciebze dafuZne buli saxviTi ena mxatvruli saxis xasiaT saa misadagebuli da mxatvris saxviTi az rovnebis Tavisuflebas avlens igi peiza Jis Taviseburebebs mTeli siRrmiT iaz rebda, maT momxibvlelobaSi im zogadsa da ganumeorebels aRmoaCenda, sxvadasxva qveynis, qalaqis, ubnis Tu saqarTvelos kuTxis mxatvruli saxis, misi xasiaTis siRrmis gamomxatveli rom iqneboda. mniS vnelovnisa da ganumeoreblis danaxvas da sakuTari danaxulis individualuri mane riT gamoxatvas aswavlida Tavis moswav leebsac gamorCeuli damokidebuleba hqonda bavSvebTan – misi saxelosno bavS vebis gamofenebis mudmivi maspinZeli iyo.

1940 iani wlebidan, socrealizmis mZime epoqaSi, rodesac SemoqmedebiTi Ta visuflebis yovelgvari gamovlineba is jeboda, elene axvledianis saxelosnoSi, qalaqis SuagulSi, veris ubanSi, erTgvari gagrZeleba pova 1910 iani wlebis „tfili surma“ cxovrebam – saintereso adamiane bi, qarTvelebi da ucxoelebi, sadilebi, saintereso diskusiebi, saRamoebi, kon certebi, gamofenebi eliCkas saxls „pa tara saqarTvelos“ eZaxdnen, sergo fara janovisTvis ki Tavad elene axvlediani, Tavisi xasiaTiT da cxovrebis wesiT, iyo Tbilisis gansaxiereba

aseTive saintereso cxovreba hqonda qeTevan maRalaSvils. xatvas Tavdapirve lad TbilisSi samxatvro saswavlebelSi eufleboda, Semdegi 2 weli moskovis ferweris skolaSi. TbilisSi dabrunebulma saqarTvelos erovnul galereaSi daiwyo muSaoba dimitri SevardnaZesTan da axladSeqmnili mxatvarTa sazogadoe bis wevri gaxda 1910 ian wlebSi eqvTime TayaiSvilis mier organizebul eqspedi ciebSi monawileobda, akeTebda Sua sauku neebis freskebis aslebs, swavlobda qar Tul samoss, qmnida maT eskizebs Semdeg saswavleblad miunxenSi gaemgzavra, male parizSi megobrebs SeuerTda da maTTan erTad kolarosis akademiaSi daxvewa os tatoba. evropul xelovnebasTan uSualo kavSirma misi Semoqmedeba kidev ufro sa intereso gaxada 1926 wels parizidan TbilisSi dabrunda. muSaoba dimitri Se vardnaZesTan ganagrZo jer galereaSi, Semdeg ki – xelovnebis muzeumSi „metexi“.

elene axvlediani, zamTari, kaxeTi
elene axvlediani, avtoportreti 80 elene axvlediani, parizi

saqarTvelos mxatvari qalebi

maTi urTierToba sifaqiziT da erTmaneTze da saganZurze zrunviT gamoirCeoda qeTevan maRa laSvilma usamarTlobis msxverpl dimitri SevardnaZes (romelmac saqarTvelos muzeumi Seuq mna, Seagrova da gadaarCina qarTuli erovnuli memkvidreoba, aqtiurad monawileobda saqarT veloSi mimdinare saxelmwifoebrivad mniSvnelovan procesebSi) sicocxlis bolomde uerTgu la maTi dafaruli siyvarulis istoria aTeulobiT wlis Semdeg qeTos mier saTuTad Senaxuli piradi werilebidan gamJRavnda

xasiaTiT mkacri, Tavmdabali da zedmetad mowesrigebuli qeTevan maRalaSvili Zalian niWi eri mxatvari iyo, ZiriTadad portretze muSaobda elene axvlediani ki ambobda qeTom majobao, radgan, rogorc Tavad miiCnevda, qeTo erTnairad Zlieri iyo sxvadasxva JanrSi – portretSi, peizaJsa Tu naturmortSi.

qeTevan maRalaSvils portretze muSaobis misTvis damaxasiaTebeli manera hqonda – adamian Tan uSualo damokidebulebis gareSe misi portretis Seqmnas ver iwyebda. muSaobisas naturas Tan guliTad saubars abamda, Tavad bolomde ixsneboda, rom mosaubris gulwrfeloba gamoew via da cocxali emocia SeegrZno, Seeswavla damaxasiaTebeli Jestebi, mimika, rac pirovnebis xa siaTis siRrmis Secnobasa da mis gadmocemaSi daexmareboda. portretebis saxviT enasac, rome lic mravalferovnebiT gamoirCeva, gamosaxuli adamianis Tavisebureba gansazRvravda

1910 iani wlebidan elene axvledianisa da qeTevan maRalaSvilis msgavsad, bevri saintereso mxatvari Tu moqandake qalis saxeli da Semoqmedeba Semogvinaxa saqarTvelos istoriam, romel Ta raodenoba 1950 iani wlebidan kidev ufro gaizarda. dRes qal SemoqmedTa marto CamoTvlac ki Zalian rTulia, romeliRac umniSvnelovanesi xelovani rom ar gamogrCes. msoflioSi momx dari epoqaluri socialur politikuri cvlilebebi, stereotipebis msxvreva, Tavisuflebis, maT Soris – Sinaganis, mopoveba, qalebis mier sakuTari TavisTvis micemuli „ufleba“ – akeTon is, rac misi niWis, survilis da interesis Sesabamisia da, zogadad, msoflmxedvelobis gadaaz reba TiTqmis yvela sferoSi, gansakuTrebiT xelovnebaSi, maTi simravlis mizezi da safuZvelia mxatvruli enis (saxviTi saSualebebisa da xerxebis) Ziebis procesSi gamoCenili siTamamiT, axleburi, gansxvavebuli, Rrma da masStaburi azrovnebiT, originaluri xedviT, siaxleebisad mi swrafviT, epoqis Tanadroul problemaTa SefasebiT da maT mimarT sakuTari damokidebule bis gamoxatviT, msoflio mxatvrul tendenciebTan siaxloviT, mxatvrul samyaroTa mravalfe rovnebiT, Sinagani alRoTi da sruliad gamorCeuli esTetikiT qal xelovanTa Semoqmedeba, Ta visebur xibls rom sZens qarTuli saxviTi xelovnebis istorias, xelovnebis ganviTarebis saer To procesis organuli, ganuyofeli nawilia

qeTevan maRalaSvili, elene axvledianis portreti qeTevan maRalaSvili, avtoportreti
qeTevan maRalaSvili, dimitri SevardnaZis portreti
81

1. magari sasmeli, romelic iwvevs Trobas. 2. kunZuli vestindoeTSi, didi antilis kunZulebis jgufSi. 3. erTi saxelmwifos mier sxva qveynis teritoriis Tavis teritoriasTan ZaliT SeerTeba, dapyroba. 4. istoriuli movlenebis Tanmimdevroba drois mixedviT. 5. Wurvis, naRmis satyorcni grZelluliani saartilerio iaraRi. 6. saxelmwifo, imperia (germaniisa). 7. sworxazovani monakveTi, romelsac garkveuli mdgomareoba da mimarTuleba aqvs. 8. piri, romelic saxelmwifo dawesebulebaSi msaxurobs. 12. vinmes gagzavna gansazRvrul adgilas samsaxurebrivi davalebiT, saswavlo, samecniero da a. S. mizniT. 13. ori an meti SesaZleblobidan erT-erTis arCevis saSualeba an aucilebloba. 15. keTilSobili, Rirseuli, uSiSari mebrZoli. 17. mcenareuli warmoSobis myari sawvavi sasargeblo wiaRiseuli. 21. avi saqmis Camdeni, qurdi, mZarcveli. 22. sazogadoebis privilegirebuli fena, romelic ZiriTadad Sedgeba keTilSobili ojaxebis warmomadgenlebisagan. 23. umaRlesi Tanamdebobis samxedro piri, SeiaraRebuli Zalebis ufrosi. 24. sagnebis ama Tu im formiT ganlageba. 27. raimes Sua nawili, Suaguli. 30. zogierTi dawesebulebis, ganyofilebis, kantoris da misT. saxelwodeba. 31. cxovelebis eqimi. 32. moxseneba Sesrulebuli samuSaos Sesaxeb. 35. ritualuri qmedeba, romliTac zeadamianur arsebebs ZRvens sTavazoben. 38. fuladi an naturaluri gadasaxadi, romelsac uxdis omSi damarcxebuli qveyana gamarjvebuls miyenebuli zaralis asanazRaureblad. 39. qalaqi-saxelmwifo, italiis dedaqalaq romSi, sadac mdebareobs kaTolikuri eklesiis meTauris, papis rezidencia. 40. Sinagani mzadyofna raRacis gasakeTeblad. 42. xelovnuri an bunebrivi imunitetis Seqmna infeqciuri daavadebebis profilaqtikis mizniT. 44. actekTa imperiis dedaqalaqi, agebuli tba teskokos kunZulze, romelic amJamad centraluri mexikos federaluri olqis nawilia. 46. goniereba, yvelafris danaxvisa da situaciaSi swo-rad garkvevis unari. 51. bizantiis imperatori 527-565 ww. 53. didi wveuleba, sacekvao saRamo. 54. Znelad gadasawyveti da Sesasrulebeli sakiTxi. 56. vulkanuri qani – muqi feris mina. 57. samxedro an zogierTi samoqalaqo formis tansacmeli. 60. meocnebe, grZnobebs ayolili adamiani. 62. raime rwmeniT (religiiT da sxv.) ukiduresad gatacebuli adamiani; brmadmorwmune. 64. Zeglis, qandakebis safuZveli, Ziri. 65. mecnieruli an filosofiuri Teoria, sistema. 71. vinmes, raimes zedmiwevniT mibaZva. 72. sagareo politikis erT-erTi instrumenti, romelic ucxo qveynebTan urTierTobebSi saxelmwifos miznebis Sesrulebas emsaxureba. 76. fizikis dargi, romelic Seiswavlis sinaTles. 77. zemoqmedeba vinmeze an raimeze. 78. mWevrmetyveli.

raime zedapirze datovebuli anabeWdi,

79.
navali. 82. mwvave infeqciuri daavadeba, romlisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia sasunTqi gzebis Sveulad 82 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 61 55 56 57 58 62 59 60 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 92 93 91 94