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MYTHIC Imagination

Copyright ©  2012,  Mythic  Imagination  Institute™   All  Rights  Reserved     659  Auburn  Ave,  Suite  266   Atlanta,  GA    30312    


In times  past,  the  hood  was  not  only  the  padded   headdress  with  a  tail  which  was  so  widespread  in   the  Middle  Ages,  but  a  coif  or  crown  of  flowers.     The  May  Queen  wore  for  a  crown  a  flowery  hood   made  of  white  or  red  roses.    The  crown  and  the   flowery  hood  have  always  been  used  in  liturgical,   magical,  or  religious  ceremonies.    Indeed,  we   cannot  imagine  Maïa,  Chloris,  or  Flore,  the   ancient  Queens  of  the  May,  without  their  flowery   hoods.    Could  little  Red  Riding  Hood  be  such  a   liturgical  personage?     ALAN  DUNDES  

Spring & Summer 2012 Year of  the  Roses   Honora  Foah   Theme  of  roses,  the  state-­‐of-­‐the-­‐art  in   mythic  fairy  tales,  and  women’s  voices  

The Path  of  Needles  or  Pins   Terri  Windling   Older  versions  of  Little  Red  Riding  Hood   spell  out  the  wolf’s  true  intentions  

The Better  to  Eat  You  With   D.  L.  Ashliman   Renowned  folklorist  shares  six  variations   on  the  theme  of  Little  Red  Riding  Hood  

Fairy Tales  for  Writers   Lawrence  Schimel   Three  poems:  The  Princess  and  the  Pea,   Sleeping  Beauty,  and  Little  Mermaid    

Notes from  the  Editor   Mary  Davis   Insights  into  Jungian  events  around  Atlanta   and  the  new  performance  piece  Rua/Wűlf    

Cinderella: Ashes,  Blood,  and  the  Slipper  of  Glass   Terri  Windling     Traces   the  evolution  of  Cinderella  from   Yeh-­‐hsien  to  Disney’s  child-­‐safe  version  

Puss in  Boots,  a  Fairy  Tale   Dahna  Lorrain  Koth   Theatre  Royal,  Drury  Lane:  home  to  drama,   spectacle,  and  fairy  tales  

Sleeping Beauty  Awakes   Carolyn  Dunn,  Heinz  Insu  Fenkl,   Gayle  Ross  &  Terri  Windling   Transcription  of  a  Big  Conversation  from   Mythic  Journeys  2004  

Rapunzel, Rapunzel,  Let  Down  Your  Hair   Terri  Windling   Maiden-­‐in-­‐a-­‐Tower  stories  are  worldwide,   but  Rapunzel  comes  from  literary  sources  

In addition  to  the  purely  personal  unconscious   hypothesized  by  Freud,  a  deeper  unconscious   level  is  felt  to  exist.    This  deeper  level  manifests   itself  in  universal  archaic  images  expressed  in   dreams,  religious  beliefs,  myths,  and  fairytales.    

C. G.  JUNG  

Year of the




Year of the Roses

Honora Foah   President,  Mythic  Imagination  Institute   Roses  are  roses  are  roses  as  Ms.   Stein  so  ably  said,  and  I  supposes   she  choses  this  flower  that  is  used   over  and  over  and  over  again  as  a   symbol,  to  make  her  stand  for  the   thing  itself.    But,  it  is  precisely   because  a  rose  is  such  a  glorious   thing  in  itself  that  it  is  irresistible   as  a  doorway  to  different   dimensions  of  experience.   This  issue  issues  in  our  newest   version  of  Mythic  Imagination   Magazine,  published  by  ISSUU,   and  the  first  in  our  series,  The   Year  of  the  Roses.  

We begin  with  The  Subject  Was   Roses,  here  in  May,  the  time  in   the  Northern  Hemisphere  when   the  flowers  grace  us  with  their   first  bloom  and  perfume.    In  The   Friendly  Frog  from  Charles   Perrault’s  Tales  of  Mother  Goose   there  is  a  long  convoluted  story   about  a  magical  frog  who  wears   an  ever-­‐blooming  hood  of  red   roses,  which  is  the  source  of  her   power.    These  red  hoods,  which   like  the  roses,  have  so  many   connotations  and  magical   powers,  lead  us  into  this   springtime  issue.      

Ut eu libero

Ut eu libero

The splendid,  fierce  Alan  Dundes,   who  was  a  bulwark  at  Mythic   Journeys  in  2004,  wrote  a  book   called  Red  Riding  Hood:  A   Casebook.    He  gives  dozens  of   interpretations  and  ideas  about  Red   Riding  Hood,  including  this  one:   …the  tale  reflects  a  seasonal  ritual   in  which  typically  spring  conquers   winter….Here  Red  Riding  Hood  is   spring,  (or  the  month  of  May)   escaping  from  the  winter-­‐wolf.   Guest  Editor  Dahna  Koth  has  woven   an  amazing  tapestry  here  of  the   rose  and  red  hood,  of  spring  and  it’s   invitation  to  the  world  of  faerie  and   then  the  quite  different  world  of   fairy  tales,  largely  through  the   words  of  Terri  Windling.   Ms.  Koth  has  added  to  her  Second   Skins  repertoire  that  you  may  have   seen  at  Mythic  Journeys,  with  a   Queen  of  the  May,  springtide   evocation  of  the  archetypes  and   currents  that  run  in  the  way  we   present  ourselves  to  the  world.    

The next  Year  of  the  Roses  magazine  will  be   Guns  and  Roses,  partially  as  a  balance  to  this   one  which  is  girls,  girls,  girls  all  the  way  down.     If  you  have  been  watching  Game  of  Thrones,   which  is  loosely  based  on  the  War  of  the  Roses   in  the  15th  century,  the  thorny  side  of  life’s   flower  is  shown  in  full  bloom.    This  blooming  of   the  thorns,  blooming  of  the  swords,  was  also   for  a  long,  long  time  a  spring  ritual,  as  men   came  out  to  fight  after  the  winter  lull.    It   continued  through  the  fall,  which  is  the  time  of   year  Guns  and  Roses  will  come  out,  and  that  is   also  the  time  to  reflect  on  the  blood  harvest.  

Having done  so,  one  might  want  to  turn  winterward  and  in  to  reflect  on   the  Mystic  Rose,  the  subject  of  our  winter  issue.    Throughout  the  world,   from  the  Rosicrucians  to  the  Mevlevi  dervishes,  the  rose  is  the  spiral   portal  to  the  inner  life  and  the  heart.   One  of  the  highlights  of  this  issue,  The  Subject  Was  Roses,  is  a  transcript  of   Sleeping  Beauty  Awakes,  a  Big  Conversation  from  Mythic  Journeys  with   Terri  Windling,  Heinz  Insu  Fenkl,  Carolyn  Dunn  and  Gayle  Ross.    Here  is  an   introduction  to  that  conversation:   In  the  20th  century,  fairy  tales  came  to  be  viewed  as  simple,  silly,  sexist   stories  in  which  passive,  dutiful,  beautiful  girls  grew  up  to  marry  rich   Prince  Charmings.  It  is  largely  forgotten  that  in  centuries  past  fairy  tales   have  not  been  so  simple  and  saccharine,  happy  endings  have  not  been   guaranteed,  and  heroines  have  not  sat  passively  awaiting  rescue  by  a   passing  prince.   Fairy  tales  in  the  past  had  looked  unflinchingly  at  the  darkest  parts  of  life:   at  poverty,  hunger,  abuse  of  power,  domestic  violence,  incest,  rape,  the   sale  of  young  women  to  the  highest  bidder  in  the  form  of  arranged   marriages,  the  effects  of  remarriage  on  family  dynamics,  the  loss  of   inheritance  or  identity,  the  survival  of  treachery  or  calamity.    The  old  fairy   tales  had  much  to  say  on  subjects  such  as  these  and  on  how  one  finds  the   courage  to  fight  and  prevail  against  overwhelming  odds.    Such  tales  were   passed  down  through  the  generations  by  word  of  mouth,  woman  to   woman,  mother  to  child—using  archetypes  as  a  mirror  held  to  daily  life,   particularly  the  lives  of  those  without  clear  avenues  of  social  power.   We  look  at  the  ways  women  storytellers  have  used  fairy  tales  to  portray   the  truths  of  their  lives—from  the  anonymous  oral  storytellers  of  the  past,   through  the  women  fairy  tale  writers  of  17th  and  18th  century  France  and   19th  century  Germany,  to  feminist  fiction  writers,  poets,  and  scholars  of   today.  

Terri Windling  is  a  significant  link  in  this  chain  of  women   storytellers  herself  and  we  are  honoured  to  reacquaint  you   with  her  work.    She  was  a  mainstay  of  our  arts  festival   conferences.    Both  her  scholarship  and  her  imagination  as  an   author  have  enriched  the  tradition  and  helped  to  ensure  that   it  is  passed  down  in  a  form  that  is  recognizable  to  us,  that   reminds  us  that  we  are  part  of  the  chain  of  human  wisdom   and  how  much  we  need  it.   For  the  last  year,  I  have  been  working  with  Deeyah,  Darin   Prindle  and  others  on  Ava  (ava-­‐  and  its   associated  projects.    Mythic  Imagination  is  a  partner  of  Ava,   which  means  ‘voice’  in  Farsi,  as  well  as  in  other  languages:   ‘breath  of  life,’  ‘waterfall’  and  ‘bird.’    It  is  also  a  form  of  the   name  Eve,  and  indeed  Ava  projects  focus  mainly  on  women,   particularly  those  from  the  Middle  East  and  Indian  Sub-­‐ Continent.    These  women  often  are  without  a  voice  in  their   communities.    While  one  of  Ava’s  projects  is  an  educational   initiative  for  police,  social  workers  and  hospital  staff  to   familiarize  them  with  the  danger  signals  for  honor-­‐based   killing  and  violence,  (honour-­‐  other  aspects  of  Ava   are  working  specifically  to  help  women  practice  having  a  voice   through  art  and  story.    This  gets  their  stories  into  the  world  so   they  can  become  visible,  but  it  also  is  a  way  to  strengthen   their  own  resources  as  human  beings—much  as  the  Mythic   Imagination  project  Creativity  in  Captivity   (  demonstrates  how  continuing  to   raise  one’s  voice  even  under  the  harshest  conditions  can  be  a   critical  tool  of  soul  survival.    

All of  this  is  in  the  history  and  the  stories  of  fairy  tales  themselves.    Most   critically,  folk  tales  are  usually  about  what  to  do  when  you  are  the  less   powerful  one.    Our  cultural  poverty  discourages  understanding  symbolic   language,  preferring  the  literalism  of  fundamentalism  or  materialism,   stripping  us  of  the  birthright  to  these  stories,  and  could  not  be  more  cruel   because  hidden  inside  Red  Riding  Hood  is  a  world  of  resources  and   understanding.   Still,  the  archetypes  pop  out  everywhere  and  people  respond  though  they   may  not  have  the  context  that  would  make  it  more  useful.    I  love  what   Dahna  Koth  has  done  with  connecting  these  themes  to  fashion,  images   from  the  theatre,  magazines  and  Internet  sites  that  fill  up  our  brains.   So  please  explore  The  Subject  Was  Roses  and  enjoy  its  fashion  and  beauty   as  well  as  its  tour  of  the  dark—sometimes  it’s  the  same  thing.    And  since   this  is  the  season,  look  deeply  into  the  heart  of  rose,  let  the  perfume   awaken  you  into  the  present  moment  or  into  the  harem  of   Scheherazade—sometimes  it’s  the  same  thing.  

Sarah: Ow!    It  bit  me!   Hoggle:  What'd  you  expect  fairies  to  do?   Sarah:  I  thought  they  did  nice  things,  like  granting  wishes.   Hoggle:  Shows  what  you  know,  don't  it?     LABYRINTH,  THE  MOVIE  

The Path of Needles or Pins

The Path of Needles or Pins: Little Red Riding Hood Terri Windling Little Red  Riding  Hood  is  one  of  the  best  loved  fairy  tales   of  all  time—yet  few  now  know  the  original  story  as  it  was   told  in  the  French  countryside  long  before  Charles   Perrault  penned  his  famous  version  in  1697.    The  oral   version,  called  The  Grandmother's  Story,  has  its  taproots   in  ancient  Asian  tales  but  was  largely  shaped  by  the  rural   traditions  of  France  from  the  Middle  Ages  onward.    The   heroine  of  The  Grandmother's  Tale  does  not  wear  the   famous  red  cap  (or  hooded  cloak),  which  was  a  detail   added  by  Perrault;  nor  does  she  require  rescue  by  a   passing  hunter,  which  was  added  by  the  Brothers  Grimm.     Little  Red  Riding  Hood,  as  we  know  it  today,  is  a   cautionary  tale  warning  little  girls  of  the  perils  of   disobedience,  but  the  older  story  is  a  complex  one  of   female  initiative  and  maturation.  

The Grandmother's  Tale  comes  in   a  variety  of  forms,  but  in  general   the  story  goes  like  this:     A  woman  had  finished  her  baking,   so  she  asked  her  daughter  to  take   a  fresh  galette  and  a  pot  of  cream   to  her  grandmother  who  lived  in  a   forest  cottage.    The  girl  set  off,   and  on  her  way  she  met  a  bzou  [a   werewolf].     The  bzou  stopped  the  girl  and   asked,  "Where  are  you  going?     What  do  you  carry?"      "I'm  going  to  my  grandmother's   house,"  said  the  girl,  "and  I'm   bringing  her  bread  and  cream."     "Which  path  will  you  take?"  the   bzou  asked.    "The  Path  of  Needles   or  the  Path  of  Pins?"     "I'll  take  the  Path  of  Pins,"  said  the   girl.      

"Why then,  I'll  take  the  Path  of  Needles,  and  we'll  see  who  gets  there  first."       The  girl  set  off,  the  bzou  set  off,  and  the  bzou  reached  Grandmother's  cottage  first.    He  quickly   killed  the  old  woman  and  gobbled  her  up,  flesh,  blood,  and  bone—except  for  a  bit  of  flesh  that   he  put  in  a  little  dish  on  the  pantry  shelf,  and  except  for  a  bit  of  blood  that  he  drained  into  a   little  bottle.    Then  the  bzou  dressed  in  Grandmother's  cap  and  shawl  and  climbed  into  bed.     When  the  girl  arrived,  the  bzou  called  out,  "Pull  the  peg  and  come  in,  my  child."     "Grandmother,"  said  the  girl,  "Mother  sent  me  here  with  a  galette  and  a  cream."     "Put  them  in  the  pantry,  child.    Are  you  hungry?     "Yes,  I  am,  Grandmother."     "Then  cook  the  meat  that  you'll  find  on  the  shelf.    Are  you  thirsty?"     "Yes,  I  am,  Grandmother."     "Then  drink  the  bottle  of  wine  you'll  find  on  the  shelf  beside  it,  child."  

As the  young  girl  cooked  and  ate  the  meat,  a  little  cat  piped  up  and  cried,  "You  are  eating   the  flesh  of  your  grandmother!"     "Throw  your  shoe  at  that  noisy  cat,"  said  the  bzou,  and  so  she  did.     As  she  drank  the  wine,  a  small  bird  cried,  "You  are  drinking  the  blood  of  your  grandmother!"     "Throw  your  other  shoe  at  that  noisy  bird,"  said  the  bzou,  and  so  she  did.     When  she  finished  her  meal,  the  bzou  said,  "Are  you  tired  from  your  journey,  child?    Then   take  off  your  clothes,  come  to  bed,  and  I  shall  warm  you  up."     "Where  shall  I  put  my  apron,  Grandmother?"     "Throw  it  on  the  fire,  child,  for  you  won't  need  it  anymore."     "Where  shall  I  put  my  bodice,  Grandmother?"     "Throw  it  on  the  fire,  for  you  won't  need  it  anymore."     The  girl  repeats  this  question  for  her  skirt,  her  petticoat,  and  her  stockings.    The  bzou  gives   the  same  answer,  and  she  throws  each  item  on  the  fire.      

As she  comes  to  bed,  she  says  to  him,  "Grandmother,  how  hairy  you  are!"       "The  better  to  keep  you  warm,  my  child."     "Grandmother,  what  big  arms  you  have!"     "The  better  to  hold  you  close,  my  child."     "Grandmother,  what  big  ears  you  have!"     "The  better  to  hear  you  with,  my  child."     "Grandmother,  what  sharp  teeth  you  have!"     "The  better  to  eat  you  with,  my  child.    Now  come  and  lie  beside  me."     "But  first  I  must  go  and  relieve  myself."     "Do  it  in  the  bed,  my  child."     "I  cannot.    I  must  go  outside,"  the  girl  says  cleverly,  for  now  she  knows  that  it's  the  bzou   who  is  lying  in  Grandmother's  bed.     "Then  go  outside,"  the  bzou  agrees,  "but  mind  that  you  come  back  again  quick.    I'll  tie  your   ankle  with  a  woolen  thread  so  I'll  know  just  where  you  are."    He  ties  her  ankle  with  a  sturdy   thread,  but  as  soon  as  the  girl  has  gone  outside  she  cuts  the  thread  with  her  sewing  scissors   and  ties  it  to  a  plum  tree.      

The bzou,  growing  impatient,  calls  out,  "What,  have  you  finished  yet,  my  child?"    When  no   one  answers,  he  calls  again.  "Are  you  watering  the  grass  or  feeding  the  trees?"    No  answer.     He  leaps  from  bed,  follows  the  thread,  and  finds  her  gone.     The  bzou  gives  chase,  and  soon  the  girl  can  hear  him  on  the  path  just  behind  her.    She  runs   and  runs  until  she  reaches  a  river  that's  swift  and  deep.    Some  laundresses  work  on  the   riverbank.    "Please  help  me  cross,"  she  says  to  them.    They  spread  a  sheet  over  the  water,   holding  tightly  to  its  ends.    She  crosses  the  bridge  of  cloth  and  soon   she's  safe  on  the  other   side.     Now  the  bzou  reaches  the  river,  and  he  bids  the  women  help  him  cross.    They  spread  a   sheet  over  the  water—but  as  soon  as  he  is  halfway  across,  the  laundresses  let  go.    The  bzou   falls  into  the  water  and  drowns.     *              *              *  

Numerous variants  of  The  Grandmother's  Tale  were   collected  by  French  folklorists  in  the  19th  and  20th   centuries  in  the  Loire  basin,  the  Nivernais,  the  Forez,  the   Velay,  the  northern  Alps,  and  the  Italian  Tyrol.    Italo   Calvino  published  a  version  from  Abruzzo  in  his  collection   Italian  Folktales  (1956).    Called  The  False  Grandmother,  in   this  story  a  hungry  ogress  takes  the  place  of  the  wolf— but  in  other  respects,  the  story  is  quite  similar  to  the   French  folktale.       Just  as  in  the  French  story,  the  girl  is  offered  a  grisly   meal—beans  (really  teeth)  boiled  in  a  pot  and  fritters   (really  ears)  in  a  frying  pan;  and  she,  too,  escapes  by   feigning  the  need  to  relieve  herself  outside.    Calvino  had   doubts  that  The  False  Grandmother  actually  came  from   the  Italian  oral  tradition,  suggesting  it  may  have  derived   instead  from  published  versions  by  Perrault  and  the   Brothers  Grimm.    Yet  the  Abruzzo  tale  contains  elements   that  link  it  clearly  to  the  older  folk  tradition:  the  cannibal   meal,  the  toilet  ruse,  the  heroine  who  plots  her  own   escape...  all  things  that  disappeared  as  the  tale  moved   from  oral  transmission  to  print.  

In the  oral  tales,  the  girl  must  

largely told  by  female  

choose between  two  paths  of  

storytellers, and  some  

needles and  pins.    In  some  

folklorists attach  no  more  

versions she  chooses  pins,  in  

significance to  the  two  

other versions  she  chooses  

different paths  than  this.    

needles, and  in  a  few  versions  

Paul Delarue  and  Marc  

the bzou  chooses  the  path  for  

Soriano viewed  the  choice  

her.  Folklore  scholars  have  

between pins  and  needles  as  

different theories  on  what  

a nonsense  question,  a  false  

precisely these  paths  are  meant  

choice (for  both  are  equally  

to represent.    Sewing  and  

prickly), a  deliberate  

spinning terms  are  ones  we  find  

absurdity.  Yvonne  Verdier  

often in  fairy  tales,  for  the  

disagreed in  her  fascinating  

making of  cloth  and  clothes  was  

essay "Le  petit  chaperon  

a constant  part  of  women's  

rouge dans  la  tradition  

labor prior  to  the  20th  century.    

orale," first  published  

Such work  was  often  done  

posthumously in  1995.    

communally, in  spinning  rooms  

Verdier had  extensively  

and around  the  evening  fire,  

recorded and  studied  the  

when gossip  was  shared  and  

folklore, traditions,  and  

tales were  told  to  relieve  the  

rituals of  rural  women  in  

monotony of  the  tasks  at  hand.    

remote areas  of  France,  and  

Small wonder  then  that  

she brought  her  wider  

needles, pins,  distaffs,  spindles,  

understanding of  traditional  

and other  symbols  of  women's  

women's stories  to  her  

work make  frequent  

examination of  The  

appearances in  folk  stories  

Grandmother's Tale.  

In villages  Verdier  studied,  she  found  that  girls  were  sent  at  puberty  to  spend  one  winter  with   local  seamstresses—a  passage  of  time  that  marked  a  girl's  change  from  child  to  young  woman.     Writing  about  a  village  in  the  Châtillonnais,  she  noted  "This  had  less  to  do  with  learning  to   'work,'  to  sew  and  use  needles,  than  with  refining  herself,  with  polishing  herself  and  learning   to  adorn  herself,  to  dress  up.    The  seamstress  expressed  this  by  saying  of  her  young   apprentices,  'They  have  been  gathering  pins.'    When  they  reached  the  age  of  fifteen,  both  the   winter  with  the  seamstress  and  the  ceremonial  entry  into  the  age  group  consecrated  to  St.   Catherine  signified  their  arrival  at  maidenhood  (la  vie  de  jeune  fille),  that  is,  permission  to  go   dancing  and  to  have  sweethearts,  of  which  the  pin  seemed  to  be  the  symbol.    It  was  by   offering  them  dozens  of  pins  that  boys  formerly  paid  court  to  girls;  it  was  by  throwing  pins  into   fountains  that  girls  assured  themselves  a  sweetheart."  

While pins  marked  the  path  of  maidenhood,  

wise-­‐women, witches,  herbalists,  and  other  

needles implied  sexual  maturity.    "As  for  the  

femmes sauvage.  

needles," wrote  Verdier,  "threaded  through  

its eye,  in  the  folklore  of  seamstresses  it  

Warner writes,  "In  the  witch-­‐hunting  

refers to  an  emphatically  sexual  symbolism."    

fantasies of  early  modern  Europe  they  [wolf  

Indeed, in  some  parts  of  Europe,  prostitutes  

and crone]  are  the  kind  of  beings  associated  

once wore  needles  on  their  sleeves  to  

with marginal  knowledge,  who  possess  

advertise their  profession.    The  versions  of  

pagan secrets  and  are  in  turn  possessed  by  

The Grandmothers  Tale  where  the  girl  

them.  Both  dwell  in  the  woods,  both  need  

chooses to  take  the  Path  of  Needles  might  

food urgently  (one  because  she's  sick,  the  

well imply  that  the  heroine  is  trying  to  grow  

other because  he  hasn't  eaten  in  three  

up a  bit  too  quickly.  

days), and  the  little  girl  cannot  quite  tell  

them apart."  

At the  end  of  the  path,  the  werewolf  awaits,   disguised  as  the  heroine's  grandmother.    We   assume  that  he's  wearing  his  human  shape   now,  which  makes  the  deception  a  bit  more   convincing,  and  yet—as  Marina  Warner   points  out  in  her  fairy  tale  study  From  the   Beast  to  the  Blonde—it's  odd  that  the   granddaughter  can't  tell  the  difference.     Perhaps,  Warner  suggests,  it's  because   there's  a  similarity  between  the  wolf  and  the   crone.    The  grandmother  lives  apart  in  the   forest—an  unusual  place  for  a  helpless   old  woman,  but  a  common  dwelling  for  

We're  not  surprised  when  the  bzou   slaughters  the  grandmother—that  is,  after   all,  what  werewolves  do.    But  the   granddaughter's  gruesome  meal  is   shocking—particularly  in  those  versions  of   the  tale  where  the  method  of  cooking  and   seasoning  is  elaborately  described.    Yvonne   Verdier  likens  this  ritual  meal  to  a  sacrificial   act,  a  physical  incorporation  of  the   grandmother  by  her  granddaughter.      

Such a  scene  is  reminiscent  of  a  wide  variety  of  myths  in  which  a  warrior,  shaman,  sorcerer,  or   witch  attains  another's  knowledge  or  power  through  the  ritual  ingestion  of  the  other's  heart,   brain,  liver,  or  spleen.    But  Verdier  looks  at  this  part  of  the  story  in   more  symbolic  terms.     "What  the  tale  tells  us,"  the  scholar  conjectures,  "is  the  necessity  of  the  female  biological   transformation  by  which  the  young  eliminate  the  old  in  their  own  lifetime.    Mothers  will  be   replaced  by  their  daughters  and  the  circle  will  be  closed  with  the  arrival  of  their  children's   children.    Moral:  grandmothers  will  be  eaten."     The  slow  striptease  then  demanded  by  the  wolf  hints  at  another  kind  of  appetite,  as  does  the   fact  that  the  bzou  is  not  just  a  wolf,  but  also  a  man.    Though  focusing  on  those  aspects  of  the   tale  that  speak  the  language  of  female  initiation,  Verdier  also  acknowledges  the  powerful  role   of  the  wolf  at  the  center  of  the  story.    He  is  more  than  just  a  symbol  of  the  dangers  of  sexual   deception;  he  is  the  agent  of  change.  

"At the  crossroads  when  she  

the job  of  assisting  in  'passages,'  

chooses the  pins,  he  is  at  the  

of helping  in  childbirth  and  

origin of  the  choice;  it  is  when  she  

helping people  to  die,  is  held—at  

is face  to  face  with  him,  under  his  

least in  the  Châtillonnais—by  one  

gaze and  at  his  demand,  that  she  

and the  same  person,  an  aged  

incorporates her  grandmother  

woman, a  woman  who  can  at  the  

and undresses.    This  is  as  much  to  

same time  handle  the  swaddling  

say that  he  leads  the  game..."    He  

and the  shroud,  who  washes  

leads, but  he  does  not  win—for  in  

infants as  she  washes  the  dead…    

the folktale  (unlike  Perrault's  

If the  laundresses  bring  about  the  

retelling), she  is  not  eaten  by  the  

death of  the  wolf,  they  bring  

wolf.  She  sees  through  the  bzou's  

about the  [re-­‐]birth  of  the  girl."  

tricks at  last,  takes  his  measure,  

Looking  at  The  Grandmother's  

and shrewdly  escapes  him.  

Tale within  the  context  of  rural    

French history,  we  should  also  

The werewolf  is  finally  destroyed  

remember that  the  story  comes  

not by  a  passing  woodsman  or  

from a  time  when  wolves  were  

hunter, but  by  a  group  of  women  

still a  real  danger,  and  when  

engaged in  traditional  women's  

people of  all  classes  still  believed  

labor.  Verdier  comments:  "This  

in the  existence  of  werewolves.    

double role  held  by  the  

As German  folklorist  Marianne  

laundresses—on the  one  hand  

Rumpf has  documented,  France  

allowing the  girl  to  pass,  thereby  

was positively  rife  with  werewolf  

rescuing her,  on  the  other  

trials in  the  15th  to  17th  

drowning the  wolf,  killing  him—is  

centuries—a masculine  

consistent with  their  role  in  the  

counterpart to  the  witch  hysteria  

social reality  of  village  life.    In  fact  

of the  time.      

In werewolf  trials,  men  stood  accused  of  shape-­‐shifting,  killing  and  devouring  children,  as  well   as  of  incest  and  other  unnatural  acts.    These  men  transformed  into  wolves,  it  was  said,  with   the  help  of  salves  purchased  from  the  Devil.    Any  man  might  be  a  wolf  in  disguise,  and  any   wolf,  a  man.    In  1598,  to  give  just  one  example,  a  man  named  Jacques  Raollet  was  tried  as  a   werewolf  in  Angers,  Touraine—which  was  a  time  and  place  when  Perrault's  own  mother  might   have  witnessed  these  events.    Raollet  was  eventually  declared  insane  and  placed  in  a  m ental   hospital,  but  other  men  were  hung  and  burned for  crimes  supposedly  committed  as  wolves.     Rumpf  points  out  that  the  regions  of  France  where  folklorists  found  The  Grandmother's  Tale   being  told  were  also  the  very  regions  where  werewolf  trials  had  once   been  widespread.     By  the  end  of  the  17th  century,  when  Perrault  published  his  Little  Red  Riding  Hood,  popular   belief  in  werewolves  had  dwindled,  at  least  among  the  upper  classes.    Educated  people   generally  disdained  the  "backwards"  folklore  of  the  countryside—but  that  was  about  to   change,  due  to  a  group  of  Parisian  writers.    These  writers,  congregating  in  the  influential   literary  salons  of  Paris,  created  a  vogue  for  magical  stories,  for  which  they  coined  the  name   contes  des  fées,  or  fairy  tales.    The  salon  writers  drew  inspiration  from  peasant  tales  of  magic   and  enchantment—but  they  reworked  this  material,  dressing  it  up  in  rococo  language  and   aristocratic  clothes,  penning  stories  that  commented  on  life  in  the  court  of  Louis  XIV.    In  many   respects,  the  salon  fairy  tale  movement  was  the  fantasy  genre  of  its  day—lively,  inventive,   popular  with  readers,  and  held  in  suspicion  by  the  literary  establishment  (in  particular  because   it  was  a  movement  dominated  by  outspoken  women  authors).    The  salon  tales  proved  to  be  so   popular  that  they  were  eventually  collected  in  forty-­‐one  volumes  in  the  Cabinet  des  fées,  and   were  also  reprinted  and  translated  in  smaller  editions  across  western  Europe.    Simplified   versions  of  the  stories  reached  the  lower  classes  in  the  pages  of  the  Bilbliotheque  Bleue— inexpensive  chapbooks  sold  by  traveling  booksellers—and  many  tales  then  filtered  back  down   into  the  groundwater  of  the  oral  tradition.    

Although not  the  first  or  

little stories  for  adult  

mother and  grandmother.    

the only  successful  fairy  

readers of  the  upper  

Perrault gives  her  a  red  

tale writer  to  emerge  from  

classes.  Unlike  a  number  

chaperon to  wear—a  

the Paris  salons,  Charles  

of the  other  salon  writers,  

fashionable little  hat,  not  a  

Perrault is  the  author  

however (including  his  

hood, that  was  generally  

whose tales  were  most  

niece, Marie-­‐Jeanne  

made out  of  velvet  or  satin.    

often reprinted,  and  are  

L'Héritier), Perrault  

Red would  have  been  an  

still read  and  loved  today.    

maintained traditional  

unusually flamboyant  color  

Perrault was  an  influential  

ideas about  the  role  of  

choice for  an  unmarried  girl;  

civil servant  in  the  court  of  

women, and  his  tales  

more modest  attire,  the  

Louis XIV,  as  well  as  a  

demonstrated the  

text implies,  might  not  have  

prolific writer  on  a  variety  

"correct" behavior  

attracted the  attention  of  

of subjects  and  a  member  

expected of  women  of  his  

the wolf.    But  attract  him  

of the  French  Academy.    

class.  His  heroines  are  

she does,  and  worse,  she  

He wrote  his  fairy  tale  

uniformly beautiful  

stops to  talk  with  him,  "not  

collection, Histoires  ou  

(whereas we  know  nothing  

knowing any  better."    She  

contes du  temps  passé,  

of the  appearance  of  the  

tells him  where  

during the  final  years  of  a  

granddaughter in  The  

Grandmother lives,  

busy life—and  probably  

Grandmother's Tale);  they  

whereupon he  suggests  a  

little dreamed  that  this  is  

also tend  to  be  hapless  

race to  the  house.    He  runs,  

what he'd  be  remembered  

creatures—either passive  

while she  foolishly  dawdles,  

for three  hundred  years  

saints or  active  fools.  

amusing herself  with  

later.  Like  the  other  

The  heroine  of  Little  Red  

butterflies and  flowers.    

salonnières, Perrault  used   themes  and  characters   drawn  from  peasant  tales,   turning  them  into  droll  

Riding Hood,  one  of  the   eight  stories  in  Perrault's   Histoires,  is  a  pretty,  naive   child,  doted  on  by  her

(Here again  the  text  implies   that  the  heroine's  fate  is  her   own  blessed  fault.)        

Perrault eliminates  the  cannibal  meal,  and  the  details  of  the  girl's   striptease,  merely  telling  us  that  the  girl  undresses  and  climbs  into  bed   beside  the  wolf.    When  she  says,  “Grandmother,  what  big  teeth  you   have”  the  wolf  gives  his  well-­‐known  reply,  “All  the  better  to  gobble  you   up.”    And  then  he  pounces,  eats  her  up,  and  there  the  story  ends.     Perrault  finishes  with  a  moral,  making  the  point  of  his  story  crystal  clear.     “Now  there  are  real  wolves,  with  hair  pelts  and  enormous  teeth,”  he   writes,  “but  also  wolves  who  seem  perfectly  charming,  sweet-­‐natured   and  obliging,  who  pursue  young  girls  in  the  street  and  pay  them  the  most   flattering  attention.    Unfortunately,  these  smooth-­‐tongued,  smooth-­‐ pelted  wolves  are  the  most  dangerous  of  all.”  

The wolf, I knew, would lead me deep into the woods, away from home, to a dark tangled thorny place lit by the eyes of owls.

Once again,  let's  look  at  this  tale  within  an  historical  context,  for  it  was  published  in  1796  for   a  very  particular  audience:  aristocratic  readers  in  the  court  of  Louis  XIV.    The  Sun  King's   court  was  famed  for  its  wealth,  its  intrigues,  and  its  sexual  excesses,  particularly  as  practiced   at  the  King's  sumptuous  playground  of  Versailles.    (Read  the  letters  of  the  Marquise  de   Sévigné  for  a  glimpse  of  this  fascinatingly  decadent  society.)    At  the  same  time,  virginity  in   young  brides  was  absolutely  insisted  upon—for  marriage  was  a  business  arrangement   contracted  between  two  families,  and  a  girl's  market  value  decreased  sharply  if  her  virginity   was  compromised.    Perrault's  story  addressed  the  subject  of  seduction  and  rape—but  rape   as  it  was  understood  at  the  time,  not  as  we  define  today.   Fathers  had  the  absolute  legal  right  to  determine  whom  their  daughters  would  marry—and   a  man  who  seduced  or  married  a  young  woman  without  her  father's  consent  was  guilty  of   rape,  regardless  of  the  wishes  of  the  woman  in  question.    To  avoid  this  occurrence,   daughters  were  often  kept  locked  in  convents  until  they  married  in  order  to  avoid  romances   and  elopements.    Perrault's  own  wife  had  been  raised  in  a  convent,  emerging  shortly  before   their  marriage,  and  Perrault  had  laid  eyes  on  her  only  once  before  the  wedding.     At  the  same  time,  certain  women  were  agitating  for  greater  freedom  for  their  sex— particularly  the  influential  women  who  hosted  the  Parisian  salons.    Within  the  salons,  men   and  women  could  mix  more  casually  than  was  possible  at  court;  they  could  converse  about   art  and  politics,  and  meet  on  more  equal  terms.      

Waiting in this old lady's ruffled bed, I am all calculation.

Perrault himself  was  a  

Uncloaked, "Perrault's  

Parisian high  society,  

frequenter of  the  salons  

'girls' are  bien  faites  and  

seducer of  young  women  

(one of  them  run  by  

gentilles: of  the  

and a  threat  to  the  family  

L'Héritier); and  as  an  

aristocracy.  His  warning  is  

patrimony—he is,  as  one  

academician, he  

not simply  to  girls,  but  to  

folklorist has  called  him,  

championed modern  

the well-­‐bred,  educated  

the 'unsuitable  suitor,"  

culture, which  was  

women of  high  society  

who insinuated  his  way  

generally more  favorable  

who, in  inviting  men  and  

into the  best  beds  in  town,  

to women.    But  in  his  tales  

women together  in  mixed  

deflowering young  women  

he consistently  stripped  

company, set  a  dangerous  

and robbing  their  value  as  

folk heroines  of  the  power  

precedent.  Perrault's  wolf  

virgin pawns  in  the  

of self-­‐determination,  

is the  dapper charmer  of  

marriage de  raison."  

holding up  modesty  and   demure  good  manners  as   the  feminine  ideal.    By   lacking  these  things,  Red   Riding  Hood  walks  blindly   into  the  jaws  of  the  wolf;   and  her  fate  is  as  merciless   as  that  of  girls  seduced  by   wolves  in  human  skin.    The   wolves  are  only  doing   what  comes  naturally;  it's   female  behavior  that  is   under  scrutiny  here.    As   Catherine  Orenstein  writes   in  Little  Red  Riding  Hood  

Little Red  Riding  Hood  was  a  popular  tale,  and  it  soon  spread  beyond  the  borders  of  France.     As  it  became  well  known,  elements  from  Perrault's  story  (such  as  the  red  chaperon  and  the   foolish  heroine)  slipped  into  the  oral  tradition  just  as  though  they'd  always  been  there.     When  the  Brothers  Grimm  published  their  version  of  the  story,  Little  Red-­‐cap,  one  hundred   years  later,  they  convincingly  proclaimed  it  as  part  of  the  oral  folk  tradition  of  Germany.     Contrary  to  public  perception,  however,  the  stories  published  by  Wilhelm  and  Jacob  Grimm   in  their  famous  collection  of  German  folktales  did  not  come  straight  from  the  mouths  of   stout  German  peasants.    Many  tales  came  from  their  circle  of  middle  class  friends,  who  had   heard  them  from  nursemaids  and  governesses  (some  of  whom  were  French),  and  whose  re-­‐ tellings  bore  the  influence  of  literary  tales  from  France  and  Italy.    The  Grimms  collected   Little  Red-­‐cap  from  Marie  Hassenpflug,  an  educated  woman  of  French  Huguenot  ancestry;   it's  a  tale  complete  with  red  hat  and  gobbling  wolf  that  clearly  derives  from  Perrault.  

They then  altered  the  story  for  publication,  as  they  did  with  many  of  their  tales—particularly  in   the  later  editions  of  the  collection,  aimed  more  and  more  at  children.    (The  first  edition  had   been  geared  toward  scholars.)    The  Grimms  begin  their  tale  with  a  warning  from  the  mother   instructing  Little  Red-­‐cap  to  stay  on  the  path,  which  subtly  shifts  the  emphasis  of  the  story  to   the  girl's  disobedience.    Whereas  Perrault  had  warned  girls  to  be  modest  and  chaste  lest  they   be  gobbled  up  by  the  wolf,  the  Grimms  warn  them  to  mind  the  rules  and  stay  on  the  straight   and  narrow.    They  also  changed  the  ending,  adding  a  hunter  who  comes  to  save  the  day.    He   cuts  the  wolf's  belly  open,  and  out  steps  Grandmother  and  Little  Red-­‐cap,  as  good  as  new.    The   wolf's  belly  is  then  filled  with  stones,  which  causes  him  to  fall  down  dead.      Just  in  case  we   don't  get  the  point,  there's  a  second  ending  appended  to  the  Grimms'  re-­‐telling  in  which  Little   Red-­‐cap  encounters  a  second  wolf,  but  this  time  she's  a  good  little  girl.    She  stays  on  the  path   and  reaches  her  Grandmother's  house  in  safety.  

In a tupperware wood, mix child and hood. Stir slowly. Add wolf. Serve swaddled in a wolfskin throw, cradled in a basket and left on grandmother's doorstep.

Little Red  Riding  Hood  became  popular  

a general  tendency  to  make  Little  Red  

with English  language  readers  in  the  middle  

Riding Hood  into  a  Victorian  middle-­‐class  

of the  19th  century  when  the  fairy  tales  of  

lass whose  virtue  is  threatened  because  

the Brothers  Grimm  took  Victorian  England  

she forgets  to  control  her  sensual  drives  

by storm.    The  red  cap  then  became  a  red  

and disobeys  her  super-­‐ego  mother."  

cloak and  hood  like  those  worn  by  English  

country women,  and  it's  in  this  guise  that  

With a  few  exceptions,  it  was  not  until  after  

the heroine  of  the  tale  has  been  known  to  

World War  I  that  writers  began  to  examine  

us ever  since.    Advances  in  printing  

the fairy tale  anew—whereupon  we  begin  

methods led  to  the  rise  of  the  children's  

to see  it  used  in  literary  works  that  were  

book industry,  and  Victorian  editors—  

not expressly  aimed  at  younger  readers,  

following in  the  footsteps  of  the  Grimms—

such as  Charles  Guyot's  The  Granddaughter  

continued altering  fairy  tales  to  make  them  

of Little  Red  Riding  Hood  (1922),  Milt  

suitable for  younger  and  younger  children.    

Gross's Sturry  from  Rad  Ridink  Hoot  (1926),  

Some publishers  found  even  the  Grimms'  

and James  Thurber's  wonderful,  wry  tale  

edited renditions  of  fairy  tales  too  harsh,  

The Girl  and  the  Wolf  (1939.)    [For  an  in-­‐

and soon  there  were  versions  of  Little  Red  

depth look  at  early  20th  century  versions  of  

Riding Hood  in  which  the  huntsman  comes  

the tale,  see  The  Trials  of  Little  Red  Riding  

to the  rescue  before  the  wolf  pounces  on  

Hood by  Jack  Zipes.]    By  the  end  of  the  20th  

the girl.    "In  England  and  America,"  notes  

century, the  pendulum  had  fully  swung,  

folklore scholar  Jack  Zipes,  "sweet,  

and fairy  tales  could  be  found  once  again  

innocent, and  helpless  Little  Red  Riding  

on the  shelves  of  adult  literature.    Echoing  

Hood suffered  through  hybrid  adventures.    

the fairy  tale  movement  of  17th century  

That is,  the  Perrault  and  Grimms  versions  

France, the  writers  of  the  new  contes  des  

were often  mixed  together,  and,  whether  

fees were  largely  (but  not  exclusively)  

the plot  was  developed  in  verse,  prose,  

women, using  the  stories  to  comment  on  

theatrical scenes,  or  illustrations,  there  was  

life in  the  20th/21st  centuries.  

Two primary  texts  of  the  new  movement  were  Transformations  by  Anne  Sexton  (1971)  and   The  Bloody  Chamber  by  Angela  Carter  (1979),  both  of  which  contained  powerful  re-­‐workings   of  Little  Red  Riding  Hood.    In  Transformations—a  volume  of  seventeen  poems  based  on  the   themes  of  Grimms'  fairy  tales—Sexton  used  Little  Red  Riding  Hood  to  explore  the  subject  of   deception—the  lies  we  tell  and  the  lies  we  believe.    In  The  Bloody  Chamber,  Carter's  "The   Company  of  Wolves"  was  a  sensual  fever-­‐dream  of  a  story  that  skillfully  manipulated  the   themes,  the  symbols,  the  very  language  of  Little  Red  Riding  Hood.    In  "The  Werewolf,"  in  the   same  collection,  Carter  re-­‐examined  the  fairy  tale  from  a  different  angle,  taking  a  more   historical,  less  psychoanalytical  approach  in  this  dark  rendition.

In the  years  since  Sexton's  

in contemporary  London,  

and Carter's  

involving wolves,  IRA  

groundbreaking volumes,  

terrorism, and  the  

the field  of  fairy  tale  

complexities of  family  

literature has  become  a  

relationships.  Little  Red  

lively one—but  to  seek  out  

Riding Hood  in  the  Red  

its treasures,  readers  must  

Light District  by  Manlio  

travel to  many  different  

Argueta (1998)  is  another  

parts of  the  bookstore.    

award winner,  this  one  set  

Due to  the  idiosyncrasies  

on the streets  of  El  

of the  modern  publishing  

Salvador.  It's  a  brutal,  

industry, this  type  of  

haunting political  novel  

literature is  published  

with tenderness  at  its  

under a  variety  of  labels:  

heart.  Darkest  Desire:  The  

mainstream fiction,  

Wolf’s Own  Tales  by  

fantasy fiction,  historical  

Anthony Schmitz  (1998),  is  

fiction, horror  fiction,  

a quirky  little  novel  in  

feminist fiction,  and  young  

which the  wolf  meets  the  

adult fiction.    A  number  of  

Brothers Grimm  and  tells  

novels and  stories  make  

them his  story.  

use of  the  themes  of  Little  

Red Riding  Hood,  including  

Short Stories:  "Wolfland"  

the following:  

by Tanith  Lee,  first  

published in  her  fine  story  

Novels: Wolf  by  Gillian  

collection Red  as  Blood  

Cross (1990),  winner  of  the  

(1983), is  a  deliciously  

1991 Carnegie  Medal,  is  a  

gothic tale  set  in  19th  

rich, engrossing  novel  set  

century Scandinavia.    "I  

Shall Do  Thee  Mischief  in   the  Woods"  by  Kathe   Koja,  from  Snow  White,   Blood  Red  (1993),  is  a   dark,  sharp  story  that   forces  us  to  re-­‐examine   the  roles  of  predator  and   prey.    "Little  Red"  by   Wendy  Wheeler,  from   Snow  White,  Blood  Red   (1993),  is  a  disturbing   contemporary  tale  about   wolves  whose  skin  is  on   the  inside,  and  the  ways   that  young  girls  can  be   preyed  on.    "The   Apprentice"  by  Miriam   Grace  Monfredo,  from   Ellery  Queen's  Mystery   Magazine  (November,   1993),  mixes  fantasy,   mystery,  and  fairy  tales  in   a  poignant  exploration  of   the  subject  of  child   abuse.    "The  Good   Mother"  by  Patricia   Galloway,  from  

Truly Grim  Tales  (1995),  reworks  the  fairy  tale  into  a  post-­‐nuclear-­‐disaster  science  fiction  story.     "Riding  the  Red"  by  Nalo  Hopkinson,  first  published  in  Black  Swan,  White  Raven  (1997),  is  an   extraordinary  story  about  sex  and  female  power,  influenced—at  least  in  the  rhythm  of  the   language—by  the  author's  Caribbean  background.    "Wolf"  by  Francesca  La  Block,  from  her   urban  fairy  tale  collection  The  Rose  and  the  Beast  (2000),  is  another  story  using  the  fairy  tale   to  explore  the  subject  of  childhood  sexual  abuse.    "Little  Red  and  the  Big  Bad"  by  Will   Shetterly,  from  Swan  Sister  (2003),  is  a  sly  urban  version  of  the  story,  street-­‐wise  and  sassy.     There  are  also  many  good  rewordings  of  Little  Red  Riding  Hood  over  on  the  poetry  shelves.     Olga  Brooms  explores  familial  relationships  between  women  in  her  "Little  Red  Riding  Hood,"   from  Beginning  with  O  (1977).      Roald  Dahl's  "Little  Red  Riding  Hood  and  the  Wolf,"  from   Revolting  Rhymes  (1983),  is  a  hilarious  poem  in  which  the  wolf  is  no  match  for  a  little  girl  with   a  gun.    Gwen  Strauss's  disturbing  poem  "The  Waiting  Wolf,"  from   Trail  of  Stones  (1990),  is  one   that  should  not  be  missed.    "Waiting  in  this  old  lady's  ruffled  bed,  I  am  all  calculation,"  says  the   wolf  as  he  justifies  his  behavior  and  awaits  his  tender  prey.  

Alice Wirth  Gray's  "On  a  Nineteenth   Century  Color  Lithograph  of  Red  Riding   Hood  by  the  Artist  J.H.,"  from  What  the   Poor  Eat  (1993),  turns  the  tale  into  a   police  report,  examined  from  multiple   points  of  view.    "In  a  tupperware  wood,   mix  child  and  hood.    Stir  slowly.    Add   wolf,"  begins  "Journeybread  Recipe"  by   Lawrence  Schimel,  from  Black  Thorn,   White  Rose  (1994).    "....Serve  swaddled   in  a  wolfskin  throw,  cradled  in  a  basket   and  left  on  grandmother's  doorstep."    In   the  same  volume,  the  narrator  of  "Silver   and  Gold"  by  Ellen  Steiber  is  asked  how   it  was  that  she  could  not  manage  to  tell   her  grandmother  from  a  wolf.    Perhaps,   her  doctor  suggests  in  the  poem,  she   was  actually  living  with  wolves  all  along.     The  heroine  of  Carol  Ann  Duffy's  "Little   Red-­‐Cap"  knows  precisely  why  she   followed  the  wolf.    "The  wolf,  I  knew,   would  lead  me  deep  into  the  woods,   away  from  home,  to  a  dark  tangled   thorny  place  lit  by  the  eyes  of  owls."     The  poem  comes  from  Duffy's  splendid   collection  The  World’s  Wife  (1999).        

In Lawrence  Syndal's  

Walking Hood  (1937),  Red  

"Grandmother," from  

Hot Riding  Hood  (1945),  

Conjunctions #31  (1999),  

and Little  Rural  Riding  

the old  woman  muses  on  

Hood (1949),  as  well  as  

her time  in  the  belly  of  the  

Disney's first  animated  

wolf: "I  lay  me  down  

short, Little  Red  Riding  

between his  ribs  and  let  

Hood (1922).    Shelley  

each sighing  lung  massage  

Duvall's Faerie  Tale  

the ache  from  these  old  

Theatre: Little  Red  Riding  

bones."  Sinking  happily  

Hood (1983)  starred  

into the  dreams  of  the  

Malcolm McDowell  as  the  

wolf, she  is  not  pleased  to  

Big Bad  Wolf  and Mary  

be rescued.    Other  Little  

Steenburger as  the  

Red Riding  Hood  poems  

heroine.  Angela  Carter's  

can be  found  in  the  

story "The  Company  of  

following two  excellent  

Wolves" became  a  

collections: The  Poet’s  

wonderfully evocative  film  

Grimm, edited  by  Jeanne  

of the  same  title,  directed  

Marie Beaumont  and  

by Neil  Jordan  in  1984.    

Claudia Carlson,  and  

Carter wrote  the  

Disenchantments, edited  

screenplay with  Jordan,  

by Wolfgang  Mieder.  

and is  reputed  to  have  

Dramatic  adaptations  of  

disliked the  end.    (In  the  

Little Red  Riding  Hood   include  Tex  Avery's   wickedly  salacious   cartoons:  Little  Red  

film, a  dreaming  young  girl   is  awakened  when  a  pack   of  wolves  bursts  into  her   home.  

In the  story,  the  heroine  tames  her  wolf  lover  and  sleeps  safely  in  his  arms.)    Cannon  Movie   Tales:  Little  Red  Riding  Hood  (1987),  a  rendition  set  sometime  during  the  Middle  Ages,  tells  the   story  of  the  daughter  of  a  village  lord,  her  evil  uncle,  and  an  enchanted  wolf.     Freeway  (1986)   is  a  rather  dreadful  film  that  turns  the  story  into  a  contemporary  serial  killer  flick.    Reese   Witherspoon  plays  the  heroine,  and  Kiefer  Sutherland  plays  the  urban  wolf.    Far  more  worth   seeing  is  Little  Red  Riding  Hood,  a  short  film  directed  by  David  Kaplan  (1997)—a  surprising  and   sensual  version  of  the  story  that's  definitely  not  for  children.     If  you  are  looking  for  good  versions  of  the  tale  adapted  for  children,  I  recommend  these  three   picture  books:  Little  Red  Riding  Hood,  illustrated  by  Trina  Schart  Hyman  (1988);  Little  Red  Cap   illustrated  by  Lizbeth  Zwerger  (1995);  and  Little  Red  Ridinghood:  A  Classic  Collectible  Pop-­‐up   Book,  illustrated  by  Marjorie  Priceman  (2001).  

If you'd  like  to  know  more  about  the   history  of  Little  Red  Riding  Hood,  there   are  quite  a  few  good  books  to  choose   from.    For  an  introduction  to  the  tale,   including  a  primer  on  fairy  tale  history,  I   recommend  Little  Red  Riding  Hood   Uncloaked:  Sex,  Morality,  and  the   Evolution  of  a  Fairy  Tale  by  Catherine   Orenstein  (2002).    It's  a  lively,   entertaining  book,  written  for  casual   readers  rather  than  folklore  scholars.    Jack  

Jane Yolen.    Recommended  articles:  "Little   Red  Riding  Hood  in  the  Oral  Tradition"  by   Yvonne  Verdier,  Marvels  &  Tales:  Journal  of   Fairy-­‐tale  Studies,  Vol.  11,  Numbers  I-­‐2   (1997);  "Red  Riding  Hood:  An  Interpretation   from  Anthropology"  by  Mary  Douglas,   Folklore,  #106  (1995);  and  (for  fun)"Little   Red  Riding  Hood  Revisited"  by  Russell   Baker,  The  New  York  Times  Magazine   (January  13,  1980).  

Zipes presents  numerous  versions  of  the  

The  characters  in  familiar  fairy  tales  have  a  

tale from  Charles  Perrault's  to  Angela  

way of  sinking  deep  into  our  psyches.    

Carter's, along  with  an  excellent  essay  on  

Charles Dickens  claimed  Little  Red  Riding  

the subject,  in  his  useful  book  The  Trials  

Hood as  his  first  love,  and  felt  that  if  only  he  

and Tribulations  of  Little  Red  Riding  Hood  

could have  married  her,  he  would  have  

(Second Edition,  1993).    In  Little  Red  

known perfect  bliss.    Yet  Little  Red  Riding  

Riding Hood:  A  Casebook  (1989),  Alan  

Hood was  changed  through  the  years,  

Dundes presents  critical  writings  on  the  

diminished, punished,  literally  gobbled  up.    

tale from  a  wide  range  of  folklorists,  

By knowing  and  retelling  older  versions  of  

including Wolfam  Eberhard's  essay  on  

her story,  and  by  re-­‐imagining  her  in  fiction  

Asian variants,  "The  Story  of  Grandaunt  

and poetry  today,  we  reclaim  the  spirit  of  

Tiger."  For  a  general  history  of  fairy  tales,  

girls everywhere  who  can  face  down  the  

including Little  Red  Riding  Hood,  try  From  

wolves in  their  lives,  and  outwit  them.  

the Beast  to  the  Blonde  by  Marina  

Warner, Twice  Upon  a  Time  by  Elizabeth  

Wanning Harries,  and  Touch  Magic  by  

Endnotes    *Great  Aunt  Tiger,  a  story  found  in  various  forms  in  China,  Japan,  and  Korea,   is  clearly  related  to  Little  Red  Riding  Hood.    Heinz  Insu  Fenkl  will  explore  the   Asian  version  of  the  story  in  a  future  Folkroots  column,  so  for  now  we’ll  limit   ourselves  to  the  Western  history  of  the  tale.     **Translated  by  Marina  Warner,  From  the  Beast  to  the  Blonde,  p.  182.  

Copyright ©2004,  Terri  Windling   used  with  permission  

To all  the  wolves  of  the  world  for  lending  their  good  name   as  a  tangible  symbol  for  our  darkness.     ED  YOUNG  

The Better To Eat You With

Six Variations on a Theme

Little Red Riding Hood Charles Perrault Once upon  a  time  there  lived  in  a  certain  village  a  little   country  girl,  the  prettiest  creature  who  was  ever  seen.   Her  mother  was  excessively  fond  of  her;  and  her   grandmother  doted  on  her  still  more.    This  good  woman   had  a  little  red  riding  hood  made  for  her.    It  suited  the  girl   so  extremely  well  that  everybody  called  her  Little  Red   Riding  Hood.     One  day  her  mother,  having  made  some  cakes,  said  to   her,  "Go,  my  dear,  and  see  how  your  grandmother  is   doing,  for  I  hear  she  has  been  very  ill.    Take  her  a  cake,   and  this  little  pot  of  butter."     Little  Red  Riding  Hood  set  out  immediately  to  go  to  her   grandmother,  who  lived  in  another  village.    

As she  was  going  through  the  wood,  she  met   with  a  wolf,  who  had  a  very  great  mind  to   eat  her  up,  but  he  dared  not,  because  of   some  woodcutters  working  nearby  in  the   forest.    He  asked  her  where  she  was  going.     The  poor  child,  who  did  not  know  that  it  was  

"Who's there?"     "Your  grandchild,  Little  Red  Riding  Hood,"   replied  the  wolf,  counterfeiting  her  voice;   "who  has  brought  you  a  cake  and  a  little   pot  of  butter  sent  you  by  mother."    

dangerous to  stay  and  talk  to  a  wolf,  said  to  

The good  grandmother,  who  was  in  bed,  

him, "I  am  going  to  see  my  grandmother  and  

because she  was  somewhat  ill,  cried  out,  

carry her  a  cake  and  a  little  pot  of  butter  

"Pull the  bobbin,  and  the  latch  will  go  up."    

from my  mother."     The  wolf  pulled  the  bobbin,  and  the  door   "Does  she  live  far  off?"  said  the  wolf     "Oh  I  say,"  answered  Little  Red  Riding  Hood;   "it  is  beyond  that  mill  you  see  there,  at  the   first  house  in  the  village."    

opened, and  then  he  immediately  fell  upon   the  good  woman  and  ate  her  up  in  a   moment,  for  it  been  more  than  three  days   since  he  had  eaten.    He  then  shut  the  door   and  got  into  the  grandmother's  bed,  

"Well," said  the  wolf,  "and  I'll  go  and  see  her  

expecting Little  Red  Riding  Hood,  who  came  

too.  I'll  go  this  way  and  go  you  that,  and  we  

some time  afterwards  and  knocked  at  the  

shall see  who  will  be  there  first."    

door: tap,  tap.    

The wolf  ran  as  fast  as  he  could,  taking  the  

"Who's there?"    

shortest path,  and  the  little  girl  took  a   roundabout  way,  entertaining  herself  by   gathering  nuts,  running  after  butterflies,  and   gathering  bouquets  of  little  flowers.    It  was   not  long  before  the  wolf  arrived  at  the  old   woman's  house.    He  knocked  at  the  door:   tap,  tap.    

Little Red  Riding  Hood,  hearing  the  big   voice  of  the  wolf,  was  at  first  afraid;  but   believing  her  grandmother  had  a  cold  and   was  hoarse,  answered,  "It  is  your   grandchild  Little  Red  Riding  Hood,  who  has   brought  you  a  cake  and  a  little  pot  of  butter  

mother sends  you."    

"All the  better  to  see  with,  my  child."    

The wolf  cried  out  to  her,  softening  his  voice  

"Grandmother, what  big  teeth  you  have  

as much  as  he  could,  "Pull  the  bobbin,  and  


the latch  will  go  up."     Little  Red  Riding  Hood  pulled  the  bobbin,   and  the  door  opened.     The  wolf,  seeing  her  come  in,  said  to  her,   hiding  himself  under  the  bedclothes,  "Put   the  cake  and  the  little  pot  of  butter  upon   the  stool,  and  come  get  into  bed  with  me."    

"All the  better  to  eat  you  up  with."     And,  saying  these  words,  this  wicked  wolf   fell  upon  Little  Red  Riding  Hood,  and  ate   her  all  up.     Moral:  Children,  especially  attractive,  well   bred  young  ladies,  should  never  talk  to   strangers,  for  if  they  should  do  so,  they  

Little Red  Riding  Hood  took  off  her  clothes  

may well  provide  dinner  for  a  wolf.    I  say  

and got  into  bed.    She  was  greatly  amazed  

"wolf," but  there  are  various  kinds  of  

to see  how  her  grandmother  looked  in  her  

wolves.  There  are  also  those  who  are  

nightclothes, and  said  to  her,  

charming, quiet,  polite,  unassuming,  

"Grandmother, what  big  arms  you  have!"    

complacent, and  sweet,  who  pursue  young  

"All the  better  to  hug  you  with,  my  dear."    

women at  home  and  in  the  streets.    And   unfortunately,  it  is  these  gentle  wolves  who  

"Grandmother, what  big  legs  you  have!"    

are the  most  dangerous  ones  of  all.  

"All the  better  to  run  with,  my  child."    


"Grandmother, what  big  ears  you  have!"   "All  the  better  to  hear  with,  my  child."     "Grandmother,  what  big  eyes  you  have!"    

Little Red Cap Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm translated by D. L. Ashliman

Once upon  a  time  there  was  a  sweet  little  girl.    Everyone   who  saw  her  liked  her,  but  most  of  all  her  grandmother,   who  did  not  know  what  to  give  the  child  next.    Once  she   gave  her  a  little  cap  made  of  red  velvet.    Because  it  suited   her  so  well,  and  she  wanted  to  wear  it  all  the  time,  she   came  to  be  known  as  Little  Red  Cap.     One  day  her  mother  said  to  her,  "Come  Little  Red  Cap.   Here  is  a  piece  of  cake  and  a  bottle  of  wine.    Take  them  to   your  grandmother.    She  is  sick  and  weak,  and  they  will  do   her  well.    Mind  your  manners  and  give  her  my  greetings.     Behave  yourself  on  the  way,  and  do  not  leave  the  path,  or   you  might  fall  down  and  break  the  glass,  and  then  there   will  be  nothing  for  your  sick  grandmother."

Little Red  Cap  promised  to  obey  her  mother.    

The wolf  thought  to  himself,  "Now  there  

The grandmother  lived  out  in  the  woods,  a  

is a  tasty  bite  for  me.  Just  how  are  you  

half hour  from  the  village.    When  Little  Red  

going to  catch  her?"    Then  he  said,  

Cap entered  the  woods  a  wolf  came  up  to  

"Listen, Little  Red  Cap,  haven't  you  seen  

her.  She  did  not  know  what  a  wicked  animal  

the beautiful  flowers  that  are  blossoming  

he was,  and  was  not  afraid  of  him.    

in the  woods?    Why  don't  you  go  and  take  

"Good day  to  you,  Little  Red  Cap."     "Thank  you,  wolf."    

a look?    And  I  don't  believe  you  can  hear   how  beautifully  the  birds  are  singing.    You   are  walking  along  as  though  you  were  on   your  way  to  school  in  the  village.    It  is  very  

"Where are  you  going  so  early,  Little  Red  

beautiful in  the  woods."    

Cap?"   Little  Red  Cap  opened  her  eyes  and  saw   "To  grandmother's."    

the sunlight  breaking  through  the  trees  

"And what  are  you  carrying  under  your  

and how  the  ground  was  covered  with  


beautiful flowers.    She  thought,  "If  I  take  a   bouquet  to  grandmother,  she  will  be  very  

"Grandmother is  sick  and  weak,  and  I  am   taking  her  some  cake  and  wine.    We  baked  

pleased. Anyway,  it  is  still  early,  and  I'll  be   home  on  time."    And  she  ran  off  into  the  

yesterday, and  they  should  give  her  strength."    

woods looking  for  flowers.    Each  time  she  

"Little Red  Cap,  just  where  does  your  

picked one  she  thought  that  she  could  see  

grandmother live?"    

an even  more  beautiful  one  a  little  way   off,  and  she  ran  after  it,  going  further  and  

"Her house  is  a  good  quarter  hour  from  here  

further into  the  woods.    But  the  wolf  ran  

in the  woods,  under  the  three  large  oak  trees.    

straight to  the  grandmother's  house  and  

There's a  hedge  of  hazel  bushes  there.  You  

knocked on  the  door.    

must know  the  place,"  said  Little  Red  Cap.     "Who's  there?"    

"Little Red  Cap.    I'm  bringing  you  some  cake  

"Oh, grandmother,  what  big  eyes  you  

and wine.    Open  the  door  for  me."    


"Just press  the  latch,"  called  out  the  

"All the  better  to  see  you  with."    

grandmother.  "I'm  too  weak  to  get  up."     The  wolf  pressed  the  latch,  and  the  door   opened.    He  stepped  inside,  went  straight  to   the  grandmother's  bed,  and  ate  her  up.    Then  

"Oh, grandmother,  what  big  hands  you   have!"   "All  the  better  to  grab  you  with!"    

he took  her  clothes,  put  them  on,  and  put  her  

"Oh, grandmother,  what  a  horribly  big  

cap on  his  head.    He  got  into  her  bed  and  

mouth you  have!"    

pulled the  curtains  shut.     "All  the  better  to  eat  you  with!"    And  with   Little  Red  Cap  had  run  after  flowers,  and  did  

that he  jumped  out  of  bed,  jumped  on  top  

not continue  on  her  way  to  grandmother's  

of poor  Little  Red  Cap,  and  ate  her  up.    As  

until she  had  gathered  all  that  she  could  

soon as  the  wolf  had  finished  this  tasty  

carry.  When  she  arrived,  she  found,  to  her  

bite, he  climbed  back  into  bed,  fell  asleep,  

surprise, that  the  door  was  open.    She  walked  

and began  to  snore  very  loudly.    

into the  parlor,  and  everything  looked  so   strange  that  she  thought,  "Oh,  my  God,  why   am  I  so  afraid?    I  usually  like  it  at   grandmother's."    Then  she  went  to  the  bed   and  pulled  back  the  curtains.    Grandmother   was  lying  there  with  her  cap  pulled  down  over   her  face  and  looking  very  strange.    

A huntsman  was  just  passing  by.  He   thought  it  strange  that  the  old  woman  was   snoring  so  loudly,  so  he  decided  to  take  a   look.    He  stepped  inside,  and  in  the  bed   there  lay  the  wolf  that  he  had  been   hunting  for  such  a  long  time.    "He  has   eaten  the  grandmother,  but  perhaps  she  

"Oh, grandmother,  what  big  ears  you  have!"     "All  the  better  to  hear  you  with."    

still can  be  saved.    I won't  shoot  him,"   thought  the  huntsman.    So  he  took  a  pair   of  scissors  and  cut  open  his  belly.    

He had  cut  only  a  few  strokes  when  he  saw  

They also  tell  how  Little  Red  Cap  was  

the red  cap  shining  through.    He  cut  a  little  

taking some  baked  things  to  her  

more, and  the  girl  jumped  out  and  cried,  

grandmother another  time,  when  another  

"Oh, I  was  so  frightened!    It  was  so  dark  

wolf spoke  to  her  and  wanted  her  to  leave  

inside the  wolf's  body!"    

the path.    But  Little  Red  Cap  took  care  and   went  straight  to  grandmother's.    She  told  

And then  the  grandmother  came  out  alive  as  

her that  she  had  seen  the  wolf,  and  that  

well.  Then  Little  Red  Cap  fetched  some  large  

he had  wished  her  a  good  day,  but  had  

heavy stones.    They  filled  the  wolf's  body  

stared at  her  in  a  wicked  manner.    "If  we  

with them,  and  when  he  woke  up  and  tried  

hadn't been  on  a  public  road,  he  would  

to run  away,  the  stones  were  so  heavy  that  

have eaten me  up,"  she  said.    

he fell  down  dead.    

"Come," said  the  grandmother.  "Let's  lock  

The three  of  them  were  happy.    The  

the door,  so  he  can't  get  in."    

huntsman took  the  wolf's  pelt.    The   grandmother  ate  the  cake  and  drank  the  

Soon afterward  the  wolf  knocked  on  the  

wine that  Little  Red  Cap  had  brought.    And  

door and  called  out,  "Open  up,  

Little Red  Cap  thought  to  herself,  "As  long  as  

grandmother.  It's  Little  Red  Cap,  and  I'm  

I live,  I  will  never  leave  the  path  and  run  off  

bringing you  some  baked  things."    

into the  woods  by  myself  if  mother  tells  me  

They remained  silent,  and  did  not  open  the  

not to."  

door.  The  wicked  one  walked  around  the    


house several  times,  and  finally  jumped   onto  the  roof.    He  wanted  to  wait  until   Little  Red  Cap  went  home  that  evening,   then  follow  her  and  eat  her  up  in  the   darkness.    But  the  grandmother  saw  what  

he was  up  to.    There  was  a  large  stone   trough  in  front  of  the  house.     "Fetch  a  bucket,  Little  Red  Cap,"  she  said.   "Yesterday  I  cooked  some  sausage.    Carry   the  water  that  I  boiled  them  with  to  the   trough."    Little  Red  Cap  carried  water  until the  large,  large  trough  was  clear  full.    The   smell  of  sausage  arose  into  the  wolf's  nose.     He  sniffed  and  looked  down,  stretching  his   neck  so  long  that  he  could  no  longer  hold   himself,  and  he  began  to  slide.    He  slid  off   the  roof,  fell  into  the  trough,  and  drowned.     And  Little  Red  Cap  returned  home  happily   and  safely.

Little Red Hat

Christian Schneller translated by D. L. Ashliman

Once there  was  an  old  woman  who  had  a  granddaughter   named  Little  Red  Hat.    One  day  they  were  both  in  the   field  when  the  old  woman  said,  "I  am  going  home  now.   You  come  along  later  and  bring  me  some  soup."     After  a  while  Little  Red  Hat  set  out  for  her  grandmother's   house,  and  she  met  an  ogre,  who  said,  "Hello,  my  dear   Little  Red  Hat.  Where  are  you  going?"     "I  am  going  to  my  grandmother's  to  take  her  some  soup."     "Good,"  he  replied,  "I'll  come  along  too.  Are  you  going   across  the  stones  or  the  thorns?"     "I'm  going  across  the  stones,"  said  the  girl.     "Then  I'll  go  across  the  thorns,"  replied  the  ogre.    

They left.    But  on  the  way  Little  Red  Hat  came  

Little Red  Hat  opened  the  door,  went  

to a  meadow  where  beautiful  flowers  of  all  

inside, and  said,  "Grandmother,  I  am  

colors were  in  bloom,  and  the  girl  picked  as  


many as  her  heart  desired.    Meanwhile  the   ogre  hurried  on  his  way,  and  although  he  had   to  cross  the  thorns,  he  arrived  at  the  house  

The ogre  replied,  "Go  to  the  kitchen   cupboard.    There  is  still  a  little  rice  there."    

before Little  Red  Hat.    He  went  inside,  killed  

Little Red  Hat  went  to  the  cupboard  and  

the grandmother,  ate  her  up,  and  climbed  into  

took the  teeth  out.    "Grandmother,  these  

her bed.    He  also  tied  her  intestine  onto  the  

things are  very  hard!"    

door in  place  of  the  latchstring  and  placed  her   blood,  teeth,  and  jaws  in  the  kitchen   cupboard.   He  had  barely  climbed  into  bed  when  Little  

"Eat and  keep  quiet.    They  are  your   grandmother's  teeth!"     "What  did  you  say?"    

Red Hat  arrived  and  knocked  at  the  door.    

"Eat and  keep  quiet!"    

"Come in"  called  the  ogre  with  a  dampened  

A little  while  later  Little  Red  Hat  said,  


"Grandmother, I'm  still  hungry."    

Little Red  Hat  tried  to  open  the  door,  but  

"Go back  to  the  cupboard,"  said  the  ogre.    

when she  noticed  that  she  was  pulling  on  

"You will  find  two  pieces  of  chopped  meat  

something soft,  she  called  out,  "Grandmother,  


this thing  is  so  soft!"     Little  Red  Hat  went  to  the  cupboard  and   "Just  pull  and  keep  quiet.  It  is  your  

took out  the  jaws.  "Grandmother,  this  is  

grandmother's intestine!"    

very red!"    

"What did  you  say?"    

"Eat and  keep  quiet.    They  are  your  

"Just pull  and  keep  quiet!"    

grandmother's jaws!"    

"What did  you  say?"    

"Grandmother, you  have  such  long  legs!"    

"Eat and  keep  quiet!"    

"That comes  from  walking."    

A little  while  later  Little  Red  Hat  said,  

"Grandmother, you  have  such  long  

"Grandmother, I'm  thirsty."    


"Just look  in  the  cupboard,"  said  the  ogre.    

"That comes  from  working."    

"There must  be  a  little  wine  there."     Little  Red  Hat  went  to  the  cupboard  and  took   out  the  blood.    "Grandmother,  this  wine  is  very   red!"     "Drink  and  keep  quiet.    It  is  your   grandmother's  blood!     "What  did  you  say?"     "Just  drink  and  keep  quiet!"     A  little  while  later  Little  Red  Hat  said,   "Grandmother,  I'm  sleepy."     "Take  off  your  clothes  and  get  into  bed  with  

"Grandmother, you  have  such  long  ears!"     "That  comes  from  listening."     "Grandmother,  you  have  such  a  big   mouth!"     "That  comes  from  eating  children!"  said   the  ogre,  and  bam,  he  swallowed  Little   Red  Hat  with  one  gulp.        

me!" replied  the  ogre.    

Little Red  Hat  got  into  bed  and  noticed  

something hairy.    "Grandmother,  you  are  so   hairy!"    

From Italy/Austria   Copyright  ©  2007,  D.  L.  Ashliman    

"That comes  with  age,"  said  the  ogre.    

Little Red Hood

A. H. Wratislaw translated by D. L. Ashliman Once upon  a  time,  there  was  a  little  darling  damsel,   whom  everybody  loved  that  looked  upon  her,  but  her  old   granny  loved  her  best  of  all,  and  didn't  know  what  to  give   the  dear  child  for  love.    Once  she  made  her  a  hood  of  red   samite,  and  since  that  became  her  so  well,  and  she,  too,   would  wear  nothing  else  on  her  head,  people  gave  her   the  name  of  "Red  Hood."     Once  her  mother  said  to  Red  Hood,  "Go;  here  is  a  slice  of   cake  and  a  bottle  of  wine;  carry  them  to  old  granny.    She   is  ill  and  weak,  and  they  will  refresh  her.    But  be  pretty   behaved,  and  don't  peep  about  in  all  corners  when  you   come  into  her  room,  and  don't  forget  to  say  'Good-­‐day.'

Walk, too,  prettily,  and  don't  go  out  of  the  

"A good  quarter  of  an  hour's  walk  further  in  

road, otherwise  you  will  fall  and  break  the  

the forest,  under  yon  three  large  oaks.    

bottle, and  then  poor  granny  will  have  

There stands  her  house;  further  beneath  


are the  nut  trees,  which  you  will  see  there,"  

Red Hood  said,  "I  will  observe  everything  

said Red  Hood.    

well that  you  have  told  me,"  and  gave  her  

The wolf  thought  within  himself,  "This  nice  

mother her  hand  upon  it.    

young damsel  is  a  rich  morsel.    She  will  taste  

But granny  lived  out  in  a  forest,  half  an   hour's  walk  from  the  village.    When  Red  

better than  the  old  woman;  but  you  must   trick  her  cleverly,  that  you  may  catch  both."    

Hood went  into  the  forest,  she  met  a  wolf.    

For a  time  he  went  by  Red  Hood's  side  then  

But she  did  not  know  what  a  wicked  beast  he  

said he,  "Red  Hood!    Just  look!    There  are  

was, and  was  not  afraid  of  him.    

such pretty  flowers  here!    Why  don't  you  

"God help  you,  Red  Hood!"  said  he.     "God  bless  you,  wolf!"  replied  she.    

look round  at  them  all?    Methinks  you  don't   even  hear  how  delightfully  the  birds  are   singing!    You  are  as  dull  as  if  you  were  going   to  school,  and  yet  it  is  so  cheerful  in  the  

"Whither so  early,  Red  Hood?"     "To  granny."     "What  have  you  there  under  your  mantle?"    

forest!"   Little  Red  Hood  lifted  up  her  eyes,  and  when   she  saw  how  the  sun's  rays  glistened   through  the  tops  of  the  trees,  and  every  

"Cake and  wine.    We  baked  yesterday;  old   granny  must  have  a good  meal  for  once,  and   strengthen  herself  therewith."     "Where  does  your  granny  live,  Red  Hood?"    

place was  full  of  flowers,  she  bethought   herself,  "If  I  bring  with  me  a  sweet  smelling   nosegay  to  granny,  it  will  cheer  her.    It  is  still   so  early,  that  I  shall  come  to  her  in  plenty  of   time,"  and  therewith  she  skipped  into  the  

forest and  looked  for  flowers.    And  when  she  

she thought,  "Ah!    My  God!    How  strange  I  

had plucked  one,  she  fancied  that  another  

feel today,  and  yet  at  other  times  I  am  so  

further off  was  nicer,  and  ran  there,  and  went  

glad to  be  with  granny!"    

always deeper  and  deeper  into  the  forest.     But  the  wolf  went  by  the  straight  road  to  old   granny's,  and  knocked  at  the  door.     "Who's  there?"     "Little  Red  Hood,  who  has  brought  cake  and   wine.  Open!"     "Only  press  the  latch,"  cried  granny.  "I  am  so   weak  that  I  cannot  stand."     The  wolf  pressed  the  latch,  walked  in,  and  

She said,  "Good-­‐day!"  but  received  no   answer.     Thereupon  she  went  to  the  bed  and   undrew  the  curtains.    There  lay  granny,   with  her  cap  drawn  down  to  her  eyes,  and   looking  so  queer!     "Ah,  granny!  Why  have  you  such  long   ears?"     "The  better  to  hear  you."    

went without  saying  a  word  straight  to  

"Ah, granny!  Why  have  you  such  large  

granny's bed  and  ate  her  up.    Then  he  took  


her clothes,  dressed  himself  in  them,  put  her   cap  on  his  head,  lay  down  in  her  bed  and   drew  the  curtains.     Meanwhile  little  Red  Hood  was  running  after   flowers,  and  when  she  had  so  many  that  she  

"The better  to  see  you."     "Ah,  granny!    Why  have  you  such  large   hands?"     "The  better  to  take  hold  of  you."    

could not  carry  any  more,  she  bethought  her   of  her  granny,  and  started  on  the  way  to  her.     It  seemed  strange  to  her  that  the  door  was   wide  open,  and  when  she  entered  the  room   everything  seemed  to  her  so  peculiar,  that  

"But, granny!    Why  have  you  such  a  terribly   large  mouth?"     "The  better  to  eat  you  up!"    

And therewith  the  wolf  sprang  out  of  bed  at  

Afterwards out  came  old  granny,  still  alive,  

once on  poor  little  Red  Hood,  and  ate  her  up.    

but scarcely  able  to  breathe.    But  Red  Hood  

When the  wolf  had  satisfied  his  appetite,  he  

made haste  and  fetched  large  stones,  with  

lay down  again  in  the  bed,  and  began  to  snore  

which they  filled  the  wolf's  maw,  and  when  


he woke  he  wanted  to  jump  up  and run  

A huntsman  came  past,  and  bethought   himself,  "How  can  an  old  woman  snore  like   that?    I'll  just  have  a  look  to  see  what  it  is."     He  went  into  the  room,  and  looked  into  the   bed;  there  lay  the  wolf.    "Have  I  found  you   now,  old  rascal?"  said  he.    "I've  long  been   looking  for  you."    

away, but  the  stones  were  so  heavy  that  he   fell  on  the  ground  and  beat  himself  to   death.     Now,  they  were  all  three  merry.    The   huntsman  took  off  the  wolf's  skin;  granny   ate  the  cake  and  drank  the  wine  which   little  Red  Hood  had  brought,  and  became   strong  and  well  again;  and  little  Red  Hood  

He was  just  going  to  take  aim  with  his  gun,  

thought to  herself,  "As  long  as  I  live,  I  won't  

when he  bethought  himself,  "Perhaps  the  

go out  of  the  road  into  the  forest,  when  

wolf has  only  swallowed  granny,  and  she  may  

mother has  forbidden  me."  

yet be  released."     Therefore  he  did  not  shoot,  but  took  a  knife   and  began  to  cut  open  the  sleeping  wolf's   maw.    When  he  had  made  several  cuts,  he   saw  a  red  hood  gleam,  and  after  one  or  two   more  cuts  out  skipped  Red  Hood,  and  cried,   "Oh,  how  frightened  I  have  been;  it  was  so   dark  in  the  wolf's  maw!"    

      From  lower  Lusatia  

Note by  Wratslaw     "Little  Red  Hood,"  like  many  folklore  tales,  is  a  singular  mixture  of  myth  and  morality.    In   Cox's  Comparative  Mythology,  vol.  ii.,  p.  831,  note,  Little  Redcap,  or  Little  Red  Riding   Hood,  is  interpreted  as  "the  evening  with  her  scarlet  robe  of  twilight,"  who  is  swallowed   up  by  the  wolf  of  darkness,  the  Fenris  of  the  Edda.    It  appears  to  me  that  this   explanation  may  suit  the  color  of  her  cap  or  hood,  but  is  at  variance  with  the  other   incidents  of  the  story.    I  am  inclined  to  look  upon  the  tale  as  a  lunar  legend,  although  the   moon  is  only  actually  red  during  one  portion  of  the  year,  at  the  harvest  moon  in  the   autumn.    Red  Hood  is  represented  as  wandering,  like  Io,  who  is  undoubtedly  the  moon,   through  trees,  the  clouds,  and  flowers,  the  stars,  before  she  reaches  the  place  where   she  is  intercepted  by  the  wolf.    An  eclipse  to  untutored  minds  would  naturally  suggest   the  notion  that  some  evil  beast  was  endeavoring  to  devour  the  moon,  who  is  afterwards   rescued  by  the  sun,  the  archer  of  the  heavens,  whose  bow  and  arrow  are  by  a  common   anachronism  represented  in  the  story  by  a  gun.    Though  the  moon  is  masculine  in   Slavonic,  as  in  German,  yet  she  is  a  lady,  "my  lady  Luna,"  in  the  Croatian  legend  no.  53,   The  Daughter  of  the  King  of  the  Vilas.    In  the  Norse  mythology,  when  Loki  is  let  loose  at   the  end  of  the  world,  he  is  to  "hurry  in  the  form  of  a  wolf  to  swallow  the  moon  "  (Cox  ii.,   p.  200).    The  present  masculine  Slavonic  word  for  moon,  which  is  also  that  for  month,   mesic,  or  mesec,  is  a  secondary  formation,  the  original  word  having  perished.    In  Greek   and  Latin  the  moon  is  always  feminine.    

The Grandmother Achille Millien translated by D. L. Ashliman There was  a  woman  who  had  made  some  bread.    She  said   to  her  daughter,  "Go  and  carry  a  hot  loaf  and  a  bottle  of   milk  to  your  grandmother."     So  the  little  girl  set  forth.    Where  two  paths  crossed  she   met  the  bzou  [werewolf],  who  said  to  her,  "Where  are   you  going?"     "I  am  carrying  a  hot  loaf  and  a  bottle  of  milk  to  my   grandmother."     "Which  path  are  you  taking?  said  the  bzou.    "The  one  of   needles  or  the  one  of  pins?"     "The  one  of  needles,"  said  the  little  girl.     "Good!  I  am  taking  the  one  of  pins."    

The little  girl  entertained  herself  by  gathering  

And for  all  her  clothes—her  bodice,  her  


dress, her  petticoat,  and  her  shoes  and  

The bzou  arrived  at  the  grandmother's  house   and  killed  her.    He  put  some  of  her  flesh  in   the  pantry  and  a  bottle  of  her  blood  on  the   shelf.     The  little  girl  arrived  and  knocked  at  the   door.    "Push  on  the  door,"  said  the  bzou.    "It  

stockings—she asked  where  she  should  put   them,  and  the  wolf  replied,  "Throw  them   into  the  fire,  my  child.    You  won't  need  them   anymore."     When  she  had  gone  to  bed  the  little  girl   said,  "Oh,  grandmother,  how  hairy  you  are!"    

is blocked  with  a  pail  of  water."    

"The better  to  keep  myself  warm,  my  child."    

"Good day,  grandmother.    I  have  brought  

"Oh, grandmother,  what  long  nails  you  

you a  hot  loaf  and  a  bottle  of  milk."    


"Put it  in  the  pantry,  my  child.    Take  some  of  

"The better  to  scratch  myself  with,  my  

the meat  that  is  there,  and  the  bottle  of  wine  


that is  on  the  shelf."     While  she  was  eating,  a  little  cat  that  was   there  said,  "For  shame!    The  slut  is  eating  her   grandmother's  flesh  and  drinking  her   grandmother's  blood."     "Get  undressed,  my  child,"  said  the  bzou,  

"Oh, grandmother,  what  big  shoulders  you   have!"     "The  better  to  carry  firewood  with,  my child!"     "Oh,  grandmother,  what  big  ears  you  have!"    

and come  to  bed  with  me."    

"The better  to  hear  with,  my  child!"    

"Where should  I  put  my  apron?"    

"Oh, grandmother,  what  a  big  nose  you  

"Throw it  into  the  fire.    You  won't  need  it   anymore."    


"The better  to  take  my  tobacco  with,  my  child!"     "Oh,  grandmother,  what  a  big  mouth  you   have!"     "The  better  to  eat  you  with,  my  child!"     "Oh,  grandmother,  I  have  to  do  it  outside!"     "Do  it  in  the  bed,  my  child!"     "Oh  no,  grandmother,  I  really  have  to  do  it   outside."     "All  right,  but  don't  take  too  long."     The  bzou  tied  a  woolen  thread  to  her  foot  and   let  her  go.    As  soon  as  the  little  girl  was  outside   she  tied  the  end  of  the  thread  to  a  plum  tree  in   the  yard.     The  bzou  grew  impatient  and  said,  "Are  you   doing  a  load?    Are  you  doing  a  load?"     Not  hearing  anyone  reply,  he  jumped  out  of   bed  and  hurried  after  the  little  girl,  who  had   escaped.    He  followed  her,  but  he  arrived  at  her   home  just  as  she  went  inside.     From  France    

The True History of Little GoldenHood Charles Marelles translated by D. L. Ashliman You know  the  tale  of  poor  Little  Red  Riding-­‐Hood,  that  the   wolf  deceived  and  devoured,  with  her  cake,  her  little   butter  can,  and  her  grandmother.    Well,  the  true  story   happened  quite  differently,  as  we  know  now.    And  first  of   all  the  little  girl  was  called  and  is  still  called  Little  Golden-­‐ Hood;  secondly,  it  was  not  she,  nor  the  good  grand-­‐dame,   but  the  wicked  wolf  who  was,  in  the  end,  caught  and   devoured.     Only  listen.    The  story  begins  something  like  the  tale.     There  was  once  a  little  peasant  girl,  pretty  and  nice  as  a   star  in  its  season.    Her  real  name  was  Blanchette,  but  she   was  more  often  called  Little  Golden-­‐Hood,  on  account  of   a  wonderful  little  cloak  with  a  hood,  gold-­‐  and  fire-­‐ colored,  which  she  always  had  on.  

This little  hood  was  given  her  by  her  

under the  trees,  suddenly,  "Who  goes  

grandmother, who  was  so  old  that  she  did  


not know  her  age;  it  ought  to  bring  her  good   luck,  for  it  was  made  of  a  ray  of  sunshine,  

"Friend wolf."    

she said.    And  as  the  good  old  woman  was  

He had  seen  the  child  start  alone,  and  the  

considered something  of  a  witch,  everyone  

villain was  waiting  to  devour  her;  when  at  

thought the  little  hood  rather  bewitched  

the same  moment  he  perceived  some  


woodcutters who  might  observe  him,  and  he  

And so  it  was,  as  you  will  see.     One  day  the  mother  said  to  the  child,  "Let  us   see,  my  Little  Golden-­‐Hood,  if  you  know   now  how  to  find  your  way  by  yourself.    You   shall  take  this  good  piece  of  cake  to  your  

changed his  mind.    Instead  of  falling  upon   Blanchette  he  came  frisking  up  to  her  like  a   good  dog.     "'Tis  you!  my  nice  Little  Golden-­‐Hood,"  said   he.    

grandmother for  a  Sunday  treat  tomorrow.    

So the  little  girl  stops  to  talk  with  the  wolf,  

You will  ask  her  how  she  is,  and  come  back  

who, for  all  that,  she  did  not  know  in  the  

at once,  without  stopping  to  chatter  on  the  


way with  people  you  don't  know.    Do  you   quite  understand?"    

"You know  me,  then!"  said  she.    "What  is   your  name?"    

"I quite  understand,"  replied  Blanchette   gaily.    And  off  she  went  with  the  cake,  quite   proud  of  her  errand.    

"My name  is  friend  wolf.    And  where  are  you   going  thus,  my  pretty  one,  with  your  little   basket  on  your  arm?"    

But the  grandmother  lived  in  another   village,  and  there  was  a  big  wood  to  cross   before  getting  there.    At  a  turn  of  the  road  

"I am  going  to  my  grandmother,  to  take  her   a  good  piece  of  cake  for  her  Sunday  treat   tomorrow."    

"And where  does  she  live,  your   grandmother?"     "She  lives  at  the  other  side  of  the  wood,  in   the  first  house  in  the  village,  near  the   windmill,  you  know."    

the pillow.     "Good!"  said  the  wolf  to  himself,  "I  know   what  I'll  do."     He  shuts  the  door,  pulls  on  the   grandmother's  nightcap  down  to  his  eyes  

"Ah! yes!  I  know  now,"  said  the  wolf.    "Well,  

then he  lies  down  all  his  length  in  the  bed  

that's just  where  I'm  going;  I  shall  get  there  

and draws  the  curtains.    

before you,  no  doubt,  with  your  little  bits  of   legs,  and  I'll  tell  her  you're  coming  to  see  her;   then  she'll  wait  for  you."    

In the  meantime  the  good  Blanchette  went   quietly  on  her  way,  as  little  girls  do,   amusing  herself  here  and  there  by  picking  

Thereupon the  wolf  cuts  across  the  wood,  

Easter daisies,  watching  the  little  birds  

and in  five  minutes  arrives  at  the  

making their  nests,  and  running  after  the  

grandmother's house.    He  knocks  at  the  door:  

butterflies which  fluttered  in  the  sunshine.    

toc, toc.     No  answer.     He  knocks  louder.    

At last  she  arrives  at  the  door.     Knock,  knock.     "Who  is  there?"  says  the  wolf,  softening  his  


rough voice  as  best  he  can.    

Then he  stands  up  on  end,  puts  his  two  

"It's me,  Granny,  your  Little  Golden-­‐Hood.    

forepaws on  the  latch  and  the  door  opens.  

I'm bringing  you  a  big  piece  of  cake  for  your  

Not a  soul  in  the  house.    The  old  woman  had  

Sunday treat  tomorrow."    

risen early  to  sell  herbs  in  the  town,  and  she   had  gone  off  in  such  haste  that  she  had  left   her  bed  unmade,  with  her  great  nightcap  on  

"Press your  finger  on  the  latch,  then  push   and  the  door  opens."    

"Why, you've  got  a  cold,  Granny,"  said  she,   coming  in.     "Ahem!  a  little,  a  little  .  .  ."  replies  the  wolf,   pretending  to  cough.    "Shut  the  door  well,  my   little  lamb.    Put  your  basket  on  the  table,  and  

you have,  Grandmother!"     "That's  for  crunching  little  children  with!"     And  the  wolf  opened  his  jaws  wide  to   swallow  Blanchette.    

then take  off  your  frock  and  come  and  lie  

But she  put  down  her  head  crying,  

down by  me.    You  shall  rest  a  little."    

"Mamma! Mamma!"  and  the  wolf  only  

The good  child  undresses,  but  observe  this!    

caught her  little  hood.    

She kept  her  little  hood  upon  her  head.    

Thereupon, oh  dear!  oh  dear!  he  draws  

When she  saw  what  a  figure  her  Granny  cut  in  

back, crying  and  shaking  his  jaw  as  if  he  had  

bed, the  poor  little  thing  was  much  surprised.    

swallowed red-­‐hot  coals.    It  was  the  little  

"Oh!" cries  she,  "how  like  you  are  to  friend   wolf,  Grandmother!"     "That's  on  account  of  my  nightcap,  child,"   replies  the  wolf.    

fire-­‐colored hood  that  had  burnt  his  tongue   right  down  his  throat.     The  little  hood,  you  see,  was  one  of  those   magic  caps  that  they  used  to  have  in  former   times,  in  the  stories,  for  making  oneself  

"Oh! what  hairy  arms  you've  got,  

invisible or  invulnerable.    So  there  was  the  


wolf with  his  throat  burnt,  jumping  off  the  

"All the  better  to  hug  you,  my  child."     "Oh!  what  a  big  tongue  you've  got,   Grandmother!"     "All  the  better  for  answering,  child."    

bed and  trying  to  find  the  door,  howling  and   howling  as  if  all  the  dogs  in  the  country   were  at  his  heels.     Just  at  this  moment  the  grandmother   arrives,  returning  from  the  town  with  her   long  sack  empty  on  her  shoulder.    

"Oh! what  a  mouthful  of  great  white  teeth  

"Ah, brigand!"  she  cries,  "Wait  a  bit!"    Quickly  

And then,  who  was  it  who  scolded  her  when  

she opens  her  sack  wide  across  the  door,  and  

she knew  all  that  had  happened?    It  was  the  

the maddened  wolf  springs  in  head  



But Blanchette  promised  over  and  over  

It is  he  now  that  is  caught,  swallowed  like  a  

again that  she  would  never  more  stop  to  

letter in  the  post.    For  the  brave  old  dame  

listen to  a  wolf,  so  that  at  last  the  mother  

shuts her  sack,  so;  and  she  runs  and  empties  

forgave her.    And  Blanchette,  the  Little  

it in  the  well,  where  the  vagabond,  still  

Golden-­‐Hood, kept  her  word.    And  in  fine  

howling, tumbles  in  and  is  drowned.    

weather she  may  still  be  seen  in  the  fields  

"Ah, scoundrel!  you  thought  you  would   crunch  my  little  grandchild!    Well,  tomorrow   we  will  make  her  a  muff  of  your  skin,  and  you   yourself  shall  be  crunched,  for  we  will  give   your  carcass  to  the  dogs."     Thereupon  the  grandmother  hastened  to   dress  poor  Blanchette,  who  was  still   trembling  with  fear  in  the  bed.     "Well,"  she  said  to  her,  "without  my  little   hood  where  would  you  be  now,  darling?"     And,  to  restore  heart  and  legs  to  the  child,   she  made  her  eat  a  good  piece  of  her  cake,   and  drink  a  good  draught  of  wine,  after  which   she  took  her  by  the  hand  and  led  her  back  to   the  house.    

with her  pretty  little  hood,  the  color  of  the   sun.    But  to  see  her  you  must  rise  early.    

We read  in  Plato’s  writing  that  old  women  told  their   children  symbolic  stories—mythoi.    In  later  antiquity   Apuleius,  a  philosopher  and  writer  of  the  second   century,  built  into  his  famous  novel  The  Golden  Ass  a   fairy  tale  called  “Amor  and  Psyche,”  a  type  of   “Beauty  and  the  Beast”  story.    This  fairy  tale  runs  on   the  same  pattern  as  those  one  can  nowadays  still   collect  in  Norway,  Sweden,  Russia,  and  many  other   countries.    It  has  therefore  been  concluded  that  at   least  this  type  of  fairy  tale  (that  of  a  woman   redeeming  an  animal  lover)  has  existed  for  two   thousand  years,  practically  unaltered.     MARIE-­‐LOUISE  VON  FRANZ  

Every man  wants  to  experience  certain   perilous  situations,  to  confront  exceptional   ordeals,  to  make  his  way  into  the  other   world—and  he  experiences  all  this,  on  the   level  of  his  imaginative  life,  by  hearing  or   reading  fairy  tales.    


Fairy Tales  for   Writers:  The   Princess  and  the   Pea   Lawrence  Schimel   The  writing  life  is  full  of  tests  of  authenticity,   like  variations  on  a  theme,  a  repeated  refrain   of  having  to  prove  oneself  time  and  again:     Sleepless  nights  as  an  undergraduate,  searching  for   that  kernel  of  truth  among  the  mountains  of  paper,   that  essential  key  to  prove  the  thesis  of  her  essay.     Beginning  to  submit  her  work  and,  as  she  opens   each  SASE,  feeling  each  form  rejection  like  a  physical   blow  strong  enough  to  leave  her  black  and  blue.     Those  red  marks  on  the  pages  of  her  manuscript   that  leave  her  tossing  and  turning  all  night:   would  she  be  able  to  do  the  rewrite  the  editor  wanted?     How  confusing  it  often  seems,  as  the  emotional   pendulum  swings  between  the  artist's  sensitivity   and  receptiveness  to  the  world  and  the  thick-­‐skinned     toughness  of  the  shrewd  businesswoman.   But  for  the  writer  able  to  endure  the  recurring   onslaught  of  apprehension  and  self-­‐doubts,     there  come  those  mornings  of  confirmation:   the  call  from  an  editor  or  agent,  a  contract,   a  royalty  check,  a  byline,  a  fan  letter.    

Fairy Tales  for   Writers:  Sleeping   Beauty   Lawrence  Schimel   There  are  many  who  yearn  to  be  frozen   while  their  youth  is  at  its  peak,   to  stretch  out  that  ephemeral  time   into  a  hundred  years.     There  are  others  who  seem  not  to  discover  themselves   until  late  in  life,  following  sundry  other  paths   until  they  stumble  upon  a  true  vocation,  such  as  writing.   We  call  them  sleeping  beauties,  these  authors   who  blossom  in  a  later  season,  their  measured,  mature  prose   a  welcome  antidote  to  the  youthful  brouhaha   that's  all  the  rage  in  the  marketplace  these  days.     But  far  too  many  are  the  true  sleeping  beauties,   who  at  a  tender  age  find  a  harsh  critic   who  belittles  their  talent  and  their  fantasies   with  a  verbal  barb  sharper  than  the  nib  of  any  fountain  pen   that  silences  the  stories,  poems,  daydreams   they  might  have  written.     Be  it  from  parent  or  teacher,  sibling  or  spouse,   just  one  tiny  prick  of  criticism  is  all  it  takes  sometimes   to  put  a  burgeoning  writer  to  sleep   for  a  hundred  years,   for  a  lifetime   for  so  long  that  no  princes  are  left   to  hack  through  the  brambles,   or  if  one  is,  he  can't  imagine  that  he  should  bother.      

Fairy Tales  for   Writers:  Little   Mermaid   Lawrence  Schimel  

She gave  up  her  voice  for  him,   learning  to  mimic  the  minimalist  style   he  advocated  in  his  workshops.     They  had  met  at  a  conference.   He  was  one  of  the  guest  lecturers,   and  all  during  his  talk  about  passion   and  craft,  he  kept  his  eyes  on  her.     In  the  one-­‐on-­‐one  discussion  of  her  work,   he  complimented  her  form   and  said  she  showed  tremendous  promise.   The  things  he  could  show  her...   His  deep-­‐timbred  voice  was  full  of  assurances   and  innuendo,  and  she  succumbed  to  both.     She  slaved  to  scrape  together   enough  money  to  join  the  MFA   where  he  taught,  working  double  shifts   as  a  waitress  that  sent  sharp  pains   shooting  up  her  legs  from  being  on  her  feet   all  day  and  night.    She  had  no  time  to  write.   But  she  bore  it  all  silently,  buoyed  by  the  memory   of  their  time  together  at  the  conference,   and  the  promise  the  future  held.     At  the  cocktail  party,  the  night  before   the  first  day  of  classes,  where  the  students  were   to  meet  and  mingle  with  the  faculty  and  each  other,   he  introduced  her  to  his  wife,   who  had  also  once  aspired  to  write,  but  now   was  content  to  remain  in  his  shadow,   to  be  seen  on  his  arm  when  he  won  awards  and   to  look  the  other  way  when  he  followed   his  wandering  eye.  

You know  how  when  you  were  a  little  kid  and  you  believed  in  fairy   tales,  that  fantasy  of  what  your  life  would  be,  white  dress,  prince   charming  who  would  carry  you  away  to  a  castle  on  a  hill.    You   would  lie  in  bed  at  night  and  close  your  eyes  and  you  had   complete  and  utter  faith.    Santa  Claus,  the  Tooth  Fairy,  Prince   Charming,  they  were  so  close  you  could  taste  them,  but  eventually   you  grow  up,  one  day  you  open  your  eyes  and  the  fairy  tale   disappears.    Most  people  turn  to  the  things  and  people  they  can   trust.    But  the  thing  is  it’s  hard  to  let  go  of  that  fairy  tale  entirely   ‘cause  almost  everyone  has  that  smallest  bit  of  hope,  of  faith,  that   one  day  they  will  open  their  eyes  and  it  will  come  true.    

MIMI SCHMIR   Grey's  Anatomy,  Meredith  Grey  

Notes From  the  Editor   Mary  Davis   As  I  write  these  notes,  I  am   seeing  the  extravagant  beauty   of  a  bouquet  of  roses  I  picked   in  my  garden  yesterday.    Red,   pale  pink,  deep  pink,  peach   colors  with  their  variations  of   sweet  smells,  are  all  nestled   in  a  vase  which  belonged  to   my  grandmother.   Their  beauty  is  like  the  beauty   of  this  issue  of  our  Mythic   Imagination  Magazine,  so   lovingly  put  together  by  our  

Guest Editor,  Dahna  Koth.     Dahna  even  transcribed  one   of  our  Mythic  Journeys™   sessions,  in  itself  a  big  job.    So   first  on  my  agenda  is  my  huge   gratitude  to  Dahna  for  a  job   well  done.    Thank  you,  Dahna!   Next,  there  seems  to  be  a   convergence  of  interesting   events  in  Atlanta,  where  I  live   and  where  MII  is  physically   located.    One  of  these  events,   “The  Sacred  Round,  Mandalas  

by the  Patients  of  Carl  Jung,”   closed  on  May  6,  and  I   encouraged  anyone  near   Atlanta  to  see  it.    Located  at   the  Oglethorpe  University   Museum  of  Art  and  co-­‐ sponsored  by  the  Jung  Society   of  Atlanta  (,   the  exhibit  featured  the   drawings  and  mandalas  of  five   women  who  were  patients  of   Dr.  Jung.    

by the  curator  of  the   exhibition,  Vicente  de  Moura,   and  de  Moura’s  comments   are  included  in  an  exhibit   catalogue,  which  is  for  sale  by   the  Oglethorpe  Museum  of   Art  or  the  Jung  Society  of   Atlanta.  

audience followed  the  actors   around  twelve  acres,  as  they   explored  “…tearing  away   labels  such  as  victim  and   prey…”  and  “…exploring  the   choices  individuals  make,  and   the  resulting  consequences   that  transcend  generations.”      

I would  also  like  to  share  with   you  information  about  two   more  events.    The  first  was  a   world  premiere  production  of   Our  area’s  Jungian  analysts   a  different  “take”  on  Red   provided  commentary  and   Riding  Hood  titled  Rua/Wűlf   they  and  others  presented   by  Saïah  (    Two   lectures  related  to  the  exhibit.       dozen  Atlanta  artists  designed   different  sets,  and  the   These  lectures  included  three  

Our Jung  Society’s  Red  Book   Discussion  group  has  been   exploring  Jung’s  Liber   Novus/The  Red  Book  as  well   as  exploring  some  fairy  tales   in  depth.    This  Rua  experience   will  be  part  of  our  next   discussion.  

This was  the  first  and  only   exhibit  of  these  drawings   from  the  Archives  of  the  C.  G.   Jung  Institute  in  Zürich,  and  it   included  Christiana  Morgan’s   journal  and  drawings,  often   referred  to  as  a  feminine   version  of  The  Red  Book.    The   exhibit  was  a  profound  visit   with  the  psyches  of  these  five   women  as  manifested  in  their   art.  

And finally,  our  Jung  Society’s  recent  guest   lecturer  was  a  Jungian  Analyst  who  is  also  a   senior  climate  scientist,  Jeffrey  Kiehl,  Ph.D.,   from  Boulder,  Colorado.    Not  only  is  he  a   practicing  analyst,  he  has  worked  as  a  scientist   on  the  issue  of  global  warming  for  more  than   thirty  years.    He  discussed  “the  psychological   processes  that  have  led  to  our  split  from  the   natural  world  and  the  current  global   environmental  consequences  of  this  split…”   with  a  focus  on  healing  this  split  in  his  lecture,   “Sustaining  Earth,  Sustaining  Soul,”  as  we   connected  with  the  celebration  of  Earth  Day,   2012.    In  my  view,  every  day  must  now  be   Earth  Day.  

these sorts  of  events,  which  while  on  the   surface  may  sound  disparate,  I  find  all  closely   connected  to  one  another  as  well  as  to  our   “mythic  imagination.”      

So.  In  the  future,  I’ll  be  reporting  to  you  on  

Now,  back  to  enjoying  these  roses!  


And then,  this  summer,  June  15  -­‐17,  we  have   (co-­‐sponsored  by  the  Mythic  Imagination   Institute)  Andrew  Greenberg’s  “Faerie  Escape:   Atlanta”  with  many  of  our  friends  returning   from  our  Mythic  Journeys™  conferences!   Don’t  miss  this  one!   Again,  here’s  my  giant  thank  you  to  our  Guest   Editor,  Dahna  Koth,  and  to  our  contributors,   especially  Terri  Windling,  for  sharing   themselves  with  us.  

After working  for  many  years  in  this  field,  I  have  come  to  the   conclusion  that  all  fairy  tales  endeavor  to  describe  one  and   the  same  psychic  fact,  but  a  fact  so  complex  and  far-­‐ reaching  and  so  difficult  for  us  to  realize  in  all  its  different   aspects  that  hundreds  of  tales  and  thousands  of  repetitions   with  a  musician’s  variations  are  needed  until  this  unknown   fact  is  delivered  into  consciousness;  and  even  then  the   theme  is  not  exhausted.    This  unknown  fact  is  what  Jung   calls  the  Self,  which  is  the  psychic  totality  of  an  individual   and  also,  paradoxically,  the  regulating  center  of  the   collective  unconscious.  


Cinderella: Ashes, Blood, and the Slipper of Glass

Cinderella: Ashes, Blood, and the Slipper of Glass

Terri Windling Once upon a time there was a rich merchant who had a lovely wife and daughter. But the wife died, and in time, the merchant took a second wife. Now this woman was also fair of face, but cruel and hard inside her heart; and she had two wicked daughters whom she favored above all things. She dressed these two in silk and lace and fed them on white cake and cream. Her stepdaughter she clothed in rags and fed with scrapings from the bottom of the pot. The child became their scullery girl, and slept in the ashes of the hearth for warmth. She soon grew thin and filthy, and they called her Cinderella... So begins one of the most famous stories of all time, "Cinderella" (or "Arne-Thompson tale type 510A," as the folklorists note it), a tale which is found in diverse cultures all around the globe. In English-speaking lands, there are few indeed who would not recognize this classic tale. We've all grown up with the wicked stepmother, the cheerless hearth and the slipper of glass; these images have become an indelible part of childhood for us all.

Yet the Cinderella we know today is subtly

intelligent, very clever" and "good at making

altered from the "Ash Girl" tales handed

pottery on the wheel." Her mother dies, and

down for at least a thousand years. Our

then her father as well, leaving her with the

modern "Cinderella" is a simple (and simple-

father's co-wife and her daughter, both of

minded) rags-to-riches story: the tale of a

whom mistreat Yeh-hsien. Her only friend is

timid, passive girl whose lovely face wins her

a magical golden fish, who appears to her in

the "happy ending" of a wealthy marriage.

the pond. The stepmother discovers this

How did the feisty Ash Girl of ages past turn

source of comfort and promptly kills the

into the feckless creature of the Disney film

fish. Yeh-hsien recovers the bones from the

and countless modern picture books? To

dung heap, and hides them in her room.

examine this, we must go back to the oldest written versions of the story.

The bones are magic, and the fish continues to help her even after death, providing the

The earliest text we know was recorded in

food and drink and warmth that Yeh-hsien's

China in the 9th century, although the

family denies her. When the girl is left

scribe, Tuan Ch'eng Shih, implies that the

behind on festival day, the bones provide

story is old even at this time. Yeh-hsien, the

her with clothes: a cloak of kingfisher

Chinese Cinderella, is described as "very

feathers and tiny golden shoes.

Running home again, the girl loses a shoe.

who subsequently mistreats the child.

It is picked up and sold to a warlord, who

Zezolla complains to her beloved

begins a massive search to find the

governess, who gives the girl the

woman the tiny shoe will fit. (This,

following advice: "When your father

remember, is a culture in which tiny feet

leaves the house, tell your step-mother

were then so highly prized that the brutal

you would like one of the ragged old

art of foot binding was practiced on

dresses she keeps in the big chest. She'll

highborn women.) Yeh-hsien reveals

open the chest and say, 'Hold the lid.'

herself and becomes chief wife in the

While she is rummaging around inside,

warlord's household. The stepmother and

you must let the lid fall suddenly so that

stepsister are subsequently stoned to

it breaks her neck. When she is dead,

death—but their grave, "The Tomb of the

beg your father to take me for his wife,

Distressed Women," becomes a local

and then we shall both be happy."


Zezolla carries out these rather startling instructions, and her father marries the

It is not until many centuries later that

governess. At this point, the conniving

the tale makes its written appearance in

woman reveals she already has six

Europe. Giambattista Basile's Italian Cat

daughters of her own, and then proves to

Cinderella, published in Naples in 1634, is

be even more abusive than Zezolla's first

one of the earliest extant western

stepmother. The girl is reduced to

versions of the story. Basile's "La Gatta

sleeping in the ashes of the hearth along

Cenerentola" tells the tale of a rich

with the kitchen cat, and finally, losing

widower and his lovely daughter, Zezolla.

even her name, becomes the Cat

The widower marries a wicked woman


Our heroine is aided by the "fairies of Sardinia," whose favor she gains through her own quick wits. The fairies give her a magic date tree, from which she requests magnificent clothes in order to attend the local feast-day, where she dazzles a neighboring king. On the third feast-day she loses her shoe, and the story continues in a familiar vein — but this Cinderella clearly revels in her cleverness and trickery. It is not a gentle or particularly moral tale, and was never meant for children's ears. Basile recounts "La Gatta Cenerentola" in a prose both earthy and florid, rich with double

Cap o' Rushes, as well as "Ash Boy" variants),

entendres and filled with the ribald puns so

abstracted and tabulated, with a discussion

loved by the readers of his day.

of medieval analogues. In 1951, Swedish folklorist Anna Birgitta Rooth published her

Although the Cat Cinderella is the most

Cinderella Cycle; she drew upon over seven

complete of the old European Ash Girl

hundred versions of the story. The German

stories, Straparola and others published

version, "Aschenputtel," was recorded by the

earlier tales which partially resembled

Brothers Grimm in 1812. It begins with the

"Cinderella" as we know it. None of the

usual death of the mother and the entry of a

surviving variants matches the age of the

wicked new wife and her two daughters into

Chinese story above, leading some scholars

the household. The stepchild is sent to live

to speculate that the original tale (whatever

in the kitchen, where she is forced to cook

that might be) must have come from the

and scrub and is subjected to further abuse.

Orient. Wherever the tale began, it

The father goes off to a fair and asks each

certainly succeeded in spreading itself

daughter what present she would like. The

around the world, adapting from culture to

stepsisters choose clothes and jewels; Ash

culture, from teller to teller, yet keeping its

Girl asks for the first twig that brushes

essence intact. In 1883, English folklorist

against his hat. She plants this twig on her

Marian Roalfe Cox published a compilation of

mother's grave and it grows, from the bones,

three hundred and forty-five variants of

into a magical tree. The tree can give her

Cinderella (and the related tales Catskin and

whatever she wishes, but Ash Girl waits,

and bides her time. There are no talking mice, no pumpkin coaches, no twinkly little fairy godmothers—just a stoic, clever girl in a cruel household, aided by the potent magic of the dead. When the King's ball is announced, Ash Girl boldly asks for permission to go. Her stepmother empties a dish of lentils into the hearth, saying, "First you must pick the lentils out of the ashes within two hours. If you succeed, perhaps you'll go to the ball. If you fail, I'll beat you black and blue." The girl calls down the birds from the sky to come to her aid and finish the work. They do so, and the task is fulfilled, but the stepmother will not relent; she tosses two bowls of lentils into the hearth, saying, "Pick them out again within one hour." The birds come again at the Ash Girl's bidding; she fulfills her task, but to no avail. "You're much too filthy and ragged," the stepmother says as she leaves for the ball. Undaunted, Ash Girl requests a golden dress from the tree on her mother's grave. She goes to the ball and dances with the prince, and yet conceals her identity from him (although there has been no magical injunction compelling her to do so). Twice she slips away from him despite his attempts to follow her home. Her father, oddly, makes an appearance here—he suspects her tricks and tries to catch her out, acting enraged, even violent now. The third night the prince resorts to a trick of his own—he covers the stairs with pitch, and one of her silver slippers sticks fast. The Prince proclaims he will marry whichever girl the tiny slipper fits. The first stepsister cannot fit the shoe, until her mother hacks off her big toe. The prince takes her away as his bride, but as they pass the grave the birds cry out: "Look! Look! There's blood in the shoe! The shoe's too small! The right bride is still at home!"

When a second wife entered the house, she often found herself and her children in competition — often for scarce resources — with the surviving offspring of the earlier marriage.

Many versions of the tale throughout the world contain this ghostly element: the bird or cow or cat or hound containing the dead mother's spirit, contrasting the strength of the first mother's love with the second mother's wickedness. Fairy tales, Marina Warner has pointed out in her brilliant study From the Beast to the Blonde, often reflect the particular conditions of the society in which they are told. "The absent mother," she writes, "can be read as literally that: a feature of the family before our modern era, when Now the second stepsister tries on the

death in childbirth was the most common

shoe, and it fits—once her mother hacks

cause of female mortality, and surviving

off her heel. Once again the birds warn

orphans would find themselves brought up

the prince he has the wrong girl, and he

by their mother's successor... When a

returns and finds Ash Girl at last. The pair

second wife entered the house, she often

are married—while on the wedding day

found herself and her children in

birds peck out the stepsisters' eyes.

competition—often for scarce resources— with the surviving offspring of the earlier

In "Rushen Coatie," a Scottish version of


the tale collected one hundred years ago, the dead mother comes back in the form

"This antipathy seethes in the plots of

of a cow to feed her starving child—until

many 'Cinderellas', sometimes offering an

the suspicious stepsisters discover this and

overt critique of social custom. Rossini's

have it killed. The animal's bones retain

Cinderella opera, La Cenerentola, shows

the potent magic of the dead woman,

worldly-wise indignation at his heroine's

providing the girl with clothes so that she

plight; in her case, at the hands of her

can go to church and meet her prince (i.e.

stepfather, Don Magnifico, who plots to

her ticket, in older societies, to life

make himself rich by marrying off his two

beyond the family walls).

other daughters, ignoring Cinderella.

Tremendous buffoon he might be, but he

This is a women's story, concerned with

treacherously pronounces Cinderella dead

relationships between women: between

when he thinks it will help advance his

Cinderella and her mother on the one

own interests. And when she protests, he

hand, the second wife and her daughters

threatens her with violence. Dowries are

on the other. Yet, as Carter is quick to

at issue here, as they were in Italy in

point out, the father is "the unmoved

Rossini's time; sisters compete for the

mover, the unseen organizing principle.

larger share and Don Magnifico does not

Without the absent father there would

want to cut his wherewithal three ways.

have been no story because there would

As it was gradually amassed, such corredo

have been no conflict." In every version of

(treasure) was stored in cassoni, which

the story I have read, the father casts a

were often decorated with pictures of just

remarkably blind eye over the

such stories as 'Cinderella'."

circumstances of his household. He quickly disappears from the story both emotionally

The Rossini opera is unusual in casting a

and literally. It is not to him that the Ash

man in the stepparent role. Yet the

Girl turns—help must come from another

primary male in other tales—Cinderella's

source: from the mother's ghost, or the

natural father—is an ambiguous figure at

bones of a fish; from a giant stork in a

best. Angela Carter (in her story

Javanese version; from a talking

"Ashputtle" or "The Mother's Ghost") writes, "The father is a mystery to me. Is he so besotted with his new wife that he cannot see how his daughter is soiled with kitchen refuse and filthy from her ashy bed and always hard at work? If he sensed there was a drama in hand, he was content to leave the entire production to the women for, absent as he might be, always remember that it is his house where Ashputtle sleeps on the cinders, and he is the invisible link that binds both sets of mothers and daughters in their violent equation."

doll in a Russian variant; from the king of the frogs in an African "Cinderella" collected in Hausaland; from spiders, eagle-women, and spirits in Native American renditions. A remarkable version of the story was recorded twenty years ago in eastern Iran in which, like the Scottish version, the mother returns in the form of a cow. The story is part of a Muslim women's rite in honor of Bibi Fatimeh (the daughter of Mohammed and wife of Ali, also known as the Lady of Wishes) in which a ritual meal is prepared in supplication for the fulfillment of a wish. The ingredients for the meal must be begged from certain households in a certain way: the begging is done by dark of night by pairs of completely silent women whose identity remains concealed. The food is taken to the mosque. No men may be present there. In the morning the women return and a meal is prepared of foods no men may touch: komaj, a bread of "blessed" flour, and ash, a kind of soup. A widow and a motherless virgin sit side by side in the center of the mosque, surrounded by ten to fifty other women. The widow has a bowl of ash. The young girl has an empty bowl. As the widow spoons soup into the child's bowl, she recites "Mah Pishani," a long and lively variant of "Cinderella." Each time the girl receives a spoonful of ash, she must answer "Yes" to affirm the tale, which is briefly thus:

A rich merchant sends his daughter to religious school. A female teacher at the school convinces the girl to kill her mother and put her in a vinegar jar, and subsequently the teacher marries the widowed father. The new wife bears a child, after which the first daughter is starved and mistreated. The original wife comes back in the form of a cow and gives aid to the girl, who proves herself to be quick-witted and good-hearted after all. The second daughter is vain and lazy and this eventually causes her downfall. The first is rewarded with a moon on her brow, a star on her chin, and a good marriage. The second is cursed with a snake on her chin and a donkey penis on her forehead. At the end of the story, the meal is consumed and the ceremony completed.

Margaret A. Mils, a folklorist who has worked extensively in Iran and Afghanistan, comments on the tale at the core of this fascinating ritual: "In this form of [Cinderella], as in most, the dominant relationships are between women: loyalty and disloyalty between mother and daughter; rivalry between the stepmother and her offspring and the first born daughter. That the girl first betrays her own mother is an important element in the equation of solidarity and redemption, as is the choice of this story as part of a solidarity ritual for women, in which women join together to call on a spiritual "mother," deceased but present, in support of the desires of one or more of their members... The marking of the wicked daughter with a donkey's penis and a snake, in contrastive relation to the good daughter's marking with signs of radiant female beauty, the moon and star, constitutes a strong rejection of male symbols...a direct result of her and her mother's attempted exploitation of other females, human and supernatural, and as an indirect result of her mother's antisocial competition for a male. In this tale about women told exclusively for women, acquisition of male characteristics by a female is a grotesque punishment for disloyalty to women." (For more on this story, see Mils's intriguing essay in Cinderella: A Casebook, edited by Alan Dundes.) When we turn to the French "Cendrillon," written by Charles Perrault and published in Paris in 1697, we find a version of the story that more closely resembles Cinderella as we know her today. Perrault eliminated the mother's ghost, the lentils in the hearth, the blood-drenched shoe, and added a cheery fairy godmother complete with magic wand. The pumpkin coach and the rat coachmen are original to the Perrault version. (The glass slippers have also been erroneously attributed to Perrault, but they turn up in older, non-French sources as well—which ought to end the debate about whether glass and not fur was simply a mistranslation from the old French.) Perrault's "Cendrillon" is elegant and courtly, written for circulation in aristocratic literary salons. The rough edges of the older tales are smoothed and polished in Perrault's

nimble hands. The Ash Girl is more clearly

Children's Literature in Education (#8,

virtuous, and less clearly self-motivated.

1977), Jane Yolen writes that the Golden

The sisters are no longer actively sadistic,

Press picture book based on the Walt Disney

merely vain, self-centered, and spiteful. In

film "set the new pattern for America's

the end, our heroine kindly forgives them,

Cinderella. The book's text is coy and

and arranges good marriages for them, too.

condescending. (Sample: 'And her best friends of all were—guess who—the mice!')

When fairy tales were taken up by the

The illustrations are poor cartoons. And

publishers of Victorian children's books, it is

Cinderella herself is a disaster. She cowers

not surprising that Perrault's version was the

as her stepsisters rip her homemade ball

one they most often turned to. Not only was

gown to shreds. (Not even homemade by

it a kinder, gentler Cinderella, but it was

Cinderella, but by the mice and birds.) She

also funny without being bawdy, filled with

answers her stepmother with whines and

charming incidents, plump white mice, and

pleadings. She is a sorry excuse for a

long-whiskered rats. It was this version Walt

heroine, pitiable and useless. She cannot

Disney drew upon for his animated film in

perform even a simple action to save

1949. This extraordinarily successful film

herself, though she is warned by her friends,

would come to influence the way whole

the mice. She does not hear them because

generations now perceive the tale—as well

she is 'off in a world of dreams.' Cinderella

as influencing subsequent printed editions of

begs, she whimpers, and at last has to be


rescued by—guess who—the mice!

In an incisive essay first published in

Such editions are responsible for the helpless

films, not of traditional folktales. What has

girl we call by the name Cinderella today; a

the prostitute heroine of Pretty Woman done

Cinderella decried by feminists unaware of

to win her prince or transform her life?

the Ash Girl's bold ancestry; a Cinderella

Precisely nothing—except to be beautiful,

who, Dr. Yolen points out, "is not recognized

and in the right place at the right time.

by her prince until she is magically back in her ball gown, beribboned, and bejeweled."

That's no fairy tale. The old tales, as Gertrud Mueller Nelson has succinctly

As a result, a film like Pretty Woman is

expressed it in her Jungian study, Here All

promoted with apparent sincerity as a

Dwell Free, are about "anguish and

modern day Cinderella tale. What makes

darkness." They plunge heroines and heroes

Pretty Woman a fairy tale? To an audience

into the dark wood, into danger and despair

weaned on Disney films, it is that a poor but

and enchantment and deception, and only

beautiful girl grows up to marry a wealthy

then, offer them the tools to save

"prince." Yet the knight-on-the-white-

themselves—tools that must be used wisely

charger who swoops into our lives and

and well. (Used foolishly, or ruthlessly, they

relieves us of the need to determine our own

turn back on the wielder.)

fate is a creature of modern Hollywood

The power in fairy tales lies in such self-determined acts of transformation. Happy endings, where they exist, are hard won, and at a price. Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre is a better example of a fairy tale than Hollywood's Pretty Woman. Combining elements of "Cinderella," "Beauty and the Beast," and other tales. Jane is a classic folklore heroine: good-hearted yes, but also clever, resourceful, and determined. In modern parlance, the term "fairy tale" is sometimes used to refer to a lie or fanciful untruth. This describes the modern Cinderellas: the Disney film, and Pretty Woman, and umpteen hundred mass market retellings; they lie to us by reducing our dreams to simplistic formulas that empower no one, neither those who wait for Happily Ever After to arrive on the back of a shining white horse, or those who seek it in a pretty face. By contrast, the oldest "Ash Girl" tales use simple language to tell stories that are not really simple at all. They go to the very heart of truth. They've spoken the truth for a thousand years.

Once upon a time, they say, there was a girl.., there was a boy.., there was a person who was in trouble. And this is what she did... and what he did..., and how they learned to survive it. This is what they did..., and why one failed..., and why another triumphed in the end. And I know that it's true, because I danced at their wedding and drank their very best wine.

Š 1997, updated 2007 Terri Windling used with permission

Further Reading

Novels •

The Glass Slipper by Eleanor Farjean

Just Ella by Margaret Peterson Haddix

Ella Enchanted by Gail Carson Levine

Confessions of an Ugly Stepsister by Gregory Maguire

Bound by Donna Jo Napoli

Bella at Midnight by Diane Stanley

The Coachman Rat by David Henry Wilson

Short Stories •

"Glass" by Francesca Lia Block (from The Rose and the Beast)

"Ashputtle" by Angela Carter (from Burning Your Boats)

"The Tale of the Shoe" by Emma Donoghue (from Kissing the Witch)

"Recalling Cinderella" by Karen Joy Fowler (from L. Ron Hubbard Presents the Writers of the Future, 2000)

"The Prince" by Patricia Galloway (from Truly Grim Tales)

"Rosie's Dance" by Emma Hardesty (from Black Heart, Ivory Bones)

"The Ugly Sister" by Joanne Harris (from Jigs and Reels)

"Switched" by Nina Kiriki Hoffman (from Rotten Relations)

"The Reason for Not Going to the Ball" by Tanith Lee (from The Year's Best Fantasy & Horror, Vol. 10)

"When the Clock Strikes" by Tanith Lee (from Red as Blood)

"Ever After" by Susan Palwick (from The Year's Best Fantasy & Horror, Vol. 1)

"Ashputtle" by Peter Straub (from Black Thorn, White Rose)

"Cinder Elephant" by Jane Yolen (from A Wolf at the Door)

Poetry •

Disenchantments: An Anthology of Modern Fairy Tale Poetry, edited by Wolfgang Mieder

The Poets' Grimm: 20th Century Poems from Grimms Fairy Tales, edited by Jeanne Marie Beaumont and Claudia Carlson

On Fairy Tales •

Cinderella, a Casebook, edited by Alan Dundes

The Annotated Classic Fairy Tales by Maria Tatar

From the Beast to the Blonde: On Fairy Tales and Their Tellers by Marina Warner

Touch Magic: Fantasy, Faerie and Folklore in the Literature of Childhood by Jane Yolen

The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales, edited by Jack Zipes

Come away,  O  human  child!     To  the  waters  and  the  wild     With  a  faery,  hand  in  hand,     For  the  world's  more  full  of  weeping  than  you  can  understand.     WILLIAM  BUTLER-­‐YEATS  

Puss in Boots, A Fairy Tale The Drury Lane Collection

Dahna Lorrain Koth

The first  Theatre  Royal,  Drury  Lane  dates  back  to  1663,   making  it  the  oldest  theatre  in  London  and  perhaps  the   most  influential  theatre  in  the  English-­‐speaking  world.    Its   lineage  vies  with  a  mere  scattering  of  other  Letters  Patent   theatres,  establishments  granted  monopoly  rights  to  the   production  of  “legitimate  dramas”  as  opposed  to   performances  the  likes  of  opera,  dance,  or  music.  

The house  was  literally  

compete with  its  rival,  the  

brought down  by  fire  in  

Duke’s Company;  the  

1672, demolition  in  1794,  

Great Plague  of  London;  

and fire  once  again  in  

riots over  the  abolition  of  

1809.  In  her  349-­‐year  

the theatre’s  policy  which  

history, Drury  Lane  has  

allowed footmen  free  

been forced  to  endure  

access to  the  upper  

other humiliations:  the  

gallery; an  actor’s  revolt;  

Puritan Interregnum;  the  

an assassination  attempt  

hasty retreat  of  its  patrons  

against King  George  III  

when a  hail  storm  

while seated  in  his  royal  

punctured the  dome  over  

box; World  War  II;  its  

its pit;  the  Popish  Plot;  

billing as  one  of  the  

legal harangues  

world’s most  haunted  

concerning the  definition  

theatres; and  the  ultimate  

of “legitimate  drama;”  the  

cabbage-­‐throw, the  need  

forcing of  the  King’s  

to spike  the  perimeter  of  

Company to  commission  

the stage  to  prevent  

flashy, hightech  options  

audience members  from  

like moveable  scenery  to  

mounting it.  

To understand  the  dynamics  of  Dury  Lane  theatre-­‐going,  this   remark,  noted  by  Alois  Nagler  in  A  Source  Book  in  Theatrical   History,  helps  portray  the  environment.     The  Pit  is  an  Amphitheatre,  fill'd  with  Benches  without   Backboards,  and  adorn'd  and  cover'd  with  green  Cloth.     Men  of  Quality,  particularly  the  younger  Sort,  some   Ladies  of  Reputation  and  Virtue,  and  abundance  of   Damsels  that  haunt  for  Prey,  sit  all  together  in  this  Place,   Higgledy-­‐piggledy,  chatter,  toy,  play,  hear,  hear  not.     Farther  up,  against  the  Wall,  under  the  first  Gallery  and   just  opposite  to  the  Stage,  rises  another  Amphitheatre,   which  is  taken  by  persons  of  the  best  Quality,  among   whom  are  generally  very  few  Men.    The  Galleries,   whereof  there  are  only  two  Rows,  are  fill'd  with  none  but   ordinary  People,  particularly  the  Upper  one.      

Moving from  intricate  

During his  tenure,  he  also  

dialogue and  intimate  

designed costumes  for  the  

delivery to  heart  

Theatre Royal,  Drury  Lane.  

pounding, seat-­‐filling   spectacle,  Drury  Lane   presented  extravaganzas   such  as  finalés  featuring  a   man  on  horseback   escaping  a  raging  inferno   via  a  cataract  operated  by   hydraulics  discharging  39   tons  of  water,  a  steam-­‐ hissing  train  crashing   toward  the  audience,  or  a   horserace  with  twelve   jockey-­‐toting  horses   pounding  their  hooves   against  an  on-­‐stage   treadmill.  

The costumes  featured  in   this  article  are  from  a   production  of  Puss  in   Boots,  A  Fairy  Tale,  which   opened  at  the  Theatre   Royal,  Drury  Lane  in   December  1915,  and  a   subsequent  production  of   Puss  in  Boots  also   performed  at  Drury  Lane   in  1916.    These  delightful   costumes  were  designed   and  supervised  by  Comelli,   and  form  a  subset  of  the   collection  which  once   resided  in  the  Archives  of  

Entwined in  her  long  and  

the Theatre  Royal,  Drury  

majestic history  was  the  

Lane.  They  are  now  part  

major role  of  costume  

of the  Drury  Lane  Design  

designer.  Atillio  Comelli  

Collection housed  at  the  

rose to  the  position  of  

Victoria and  Albert  

house designer  for  the  

Museum, London.  

Royal Opera  House  from   the  1880s  to  the  1920s.    

Mother Goose

For those  who  immerse  themselves  in  what  the  fairy  tale   has  to  communicate,  it  becomes  a  deep,  quiet  pool  which   at  first  seems  to  reflect  only  our  own  image;  but  behind  it   we  soon  discover  the  inner  turmoils  of  our  soul—its   depth,  and  ways  to  gain  peace  within  ourselves  and  with   the  world,  which  is  the  reward  of  our  struggles.     BRUNO  BETTELHEIM  

Fairy Tales  are  more  than  true;  not  because   they  tell  us  that  dragons  exist,  but  because   they  tell  us  that  dragons  can  be  beaten.    


The Sleeping   Beauty  

Walter John  de  la   Mare  

The scent  of  bramble  fills  the  air,   Amid  her  folded  sheets  she  lies,   The  gold  of  evening  in  her  hair,   The  blue  of  morn  shut  in  her  eyes.     How  many  a  changing  moon  hath  lit   The  unchanging  roses  of  her  face!   Her  mirror  ever  broods  on  it   In  silver  stillness  of  the  days.     Oft  flits  the  moth  on  filmy  wings   Into  his  solitary  lair;   Shrill  evensong  the  cricket  sings   From  some  still  shadow  in  her  hair.     In  heat,  in  snow,  in  wind,  in  flood,   She  sleeps  in  lovely  loneliness,   Half-­‐folded  like  an  April  bud   On  winter-­‐haunted  trees.    

Do not  ask  questions  of  fairy  tales.     JEWISH  PROVERB  

Sleeping Beauty  Awakes  

Sleeping Beauty   Awakes  

Carolyn Dunn,  Gayle  Ross,   Heinz  Insu  Fenkl,  Terri  Windling     A  Big  Conversation:  Mythic  Journeys  2004      

Fenkl: Hi,  I’m  Heinz  Insu  Fenkl,  and  I  was  designated  parent  of  this  panel…    (laughter)   Windling:  Fairy  godfather.   Fenkl:  …although  it’s  about  women  storytellers.    I  don’t  know  how  they  did  this.    It  must  be   some  sort  of  gender  inversion  thing.    What  I’ll  do  is,  we’ll  go  around  the  circle  and   introduce  ourselves  and  then  I’ll  make  a  general  comment  on  the  theme  and  each  one  of   us  will  address  the  theme  briefly.    After  that  we’ll  open  it  up  to  the  floor  and  have  a   conversation.          

So let  me  begin  by  introducing  myself.    I’m  from  a  Korean   and  German  background  and  I  think  the  reason  that  I’m   on  this  panel  is  because  I  come  from  a  family  where   there’s  an  oral  storytelling  tradition.    I  grew  up  in  Korea   and  my  first  book,  Memories  of  My  Ghost  Brother,  which   was  a  memoir  published  as  a  novel,  includes  a  character,   my  uncle,  who  was  actually  quite  a  Falstaffian  figure  who   was  also  a  wonderful  storyteller.    I  grew  up  in  a  family   where  he  was  the  major  storyteller.   In  my  mother’s  village  storytelling  was  a  central  part  of   the  culture  and  I  have  incorporated  that  sort  of  theme   into  my  own  work.    I  somehow  inadvertently  became  a   folklore  specialist  largely  out  of  default.    So  although  I   teach  creative  writing  and  I  have  a  background  in   anthropology,  somehow  I  became  one  of  the  major   specialists  in  Korean  narrative  folklore.    So  I  think  that’s   why  I’m  here.    I  also  have  done  lots  of  work  in  things  like   literary  theory  so  my  approach  to  folklore  comes  from   both  ends  of  spectrum:  on  the  one  hand  very  abstract  and   theoretical  and  academic,  but  on  the  other  hand  having   grown  up  in  a  family  where  it  was  integral  to  our   understanding  of  who  we  were  and  what  community  we   belonged  to.   So,  shall  we  go  around  this  way?    

Dunn: Okay,  I’m  Carolyn  Dunn  and  I,  like  Heinz,  grew  up  in  a   very  oral  storytelling  culture.    I’m  Creek,  Seminole,  and   Cherokee  born  and  raised  in  southern  California  so  I’m  a   diasporic  Indian.    Primarily  I’m  a  poet  and  a  mom  and  a   musician  sometimes.    Now  we  were  talking  about  this  last   night,  I’ve  been  working  on  this  play  for  the  last  three  years.     I  was  a  playwright  in  eighth  grade.    (laughter)    I  wrote  the   eighth  grade  play  that  we  did  for  a  drama  that  year  and  I   haven’t  written  a  play  since.    So  I  thought,  well  why  not?     Now’s  as  good  a  time  as  any.    The  play  really  explores  the   themes  of  diaspora,  homeland,  allotment  in  Oklahoma   during  that  period  of  the  early  1900s,  and  the  connection   that  still  remains  for  native  people  to  their  homeland  which   is  as  important  now  as  it  was  a  hundred  years  ago,  as  it  was   two  hundred  years  ago,  three  hundred  years  ago,  a   thousand  years  ago.   As  a  scholar  my  work  is  mostly  looking  at  Native  American   critical  theory  in  terms  of  literary  studies  and  also  as  a   folklorist—as  maintaining  the  importance  of  the  oral   tradition  as  well  as  some  of  the  stories  of  the  area  which  I   come  from.    Gayle  and  I  are  neighbors,  cultural  neighbors  as   well  as  sharing—   Ross:  Traditional  enemies.    

Dunn: Traditional  enemies.    But  we  also  share  

Dunn: He  wishes.    Anyway,  we  digress.    So  

the same  tribal  backgrounds.  

that’s the  work.    Also  I’m  a  big  fan  of  

Ross: She’s  Creek  and  Cherokee.    That  means   she’s  at  war  with  herself.  (laughter)  

these three  folks  who  I’m  sitting  around   this  panel  with,  and  with  the  work  that   they’ve  been  doing  both  as  creative  

Dunn: Always.    And  I’m  in  a  mixed  marriage.    

writers and  as  editors  and  as  scholars.    It’s  

I’m married  to  a  Choctaw  man  so  it’s  a  mixed  

just amazing  work  and  I  feel  really  lucky  to  


sit here  in  the  same  room  with  these  

Ross: Who  is  the  Peacekeeper.  

three folks.  

Windling: I’m  Terri  Windling.    

throughout the  centuries.    So  

here.  I’m  an  enrolled  

Unlike everyone  here  I  didn’t  

my particular  area  of  interest  

member of  the  Cherokee  

grow up  with  an  oral  

is in  feminine  motifs  in  fairy  

nation.  My  family  is  from  

tradition.  I  grew  up  in  your  

tales.  I’ve  worked  as  an  

Tahlequah, Oklahoma,  but  my  

basic working  class  American  

editor in  the  New  York  

dad at  the  end  of  World  War  

household in  which  stories  

publishing industry,  and  I’m  

II came  to  the  Dallas-­‐Fort  

were never  told  so  my  

also a  writer  and  a  painter  

Worth area  to  go  to  college.    

introduction to  fairy  tales  was  

working with  fairy  tale  

He met  and  married  my  

through books,  the  books  I  

themes.  I’ve  kind  of  made  it  

mother there  so  like  Carolyn,  I  

had as  a  child,  which  were  

my mission  over  the  last  

grew up  away  from,  about  

powerful.  I  think  that  even  if  

twenty-­‐five years  as  an  editor  

five hours  away  from,  the  

you are  getting  stories  on  the  

to promote  fairy  tale  fiction  

Cherokee Nation  capital  of  

printed page  rather  than  

for adults,  for  children,  and  

Tahlequah, Oklahoma.    I  grew  

through your  ears  they  can  

for teenagers  by  editing  

up in  what  my  relatives  like  to  

still affect  you  profoundly.  

anthologies of  fairy  tale  

call Baja  Oklahoma.    

fiction, and  editing  a  Webzine  

(laughter)  Which  is  Texas.    

focusing on  fairy  tale  studies  


My interest  in  fairly  tales,   despite  being  told  that  fairy   tales  were  just  for  children   and  I  was  supposed  to  lose   interest  in  them  as  I  grew   older,  I  never  did.    I  studied  

and fairy  tale  art.    So  all  of   these  things  are  what  I’m   going  to  bring  to  the   discussion  today.  

I was  very  lucky  because  as   Carolyn  is  well  aware  when   you  are  a  member  either  from   the  urban  relocation  

fairy tales  in  college  and  

Ross: My  name  is  Gayle  Ross  

programs of  the  40s  or  50s  or  

particularly the  ways  that  

and I  am  a  last  minute  

from individual  Indian  heads  

fairy tales  have  been  used  to  

addition to  the  panel  because  

of families  who  made  the  

tell women’s  stories  

Midori Snyder  could  not  be  

decision for  economic  reasons  

to move  away  from  either  a  

And she  was  of  course  much  

reservation or  a  center  of  

older when  I  was  growing  up,  

tribal community,  you  know  

but she  was  the  one  who  told  

that you  are  in  danger  of  

the stories  of  The  Trail  of  

being disconnected  from  all  

Tears, the  one  who  told  the  

that—from the  Indian  

stories of  our  ancestor  Chief  

people’s point-­‐of-­‐view—all  

Ross, the  one  who  would  

that really  makes  you  Indian,  

occasionally—if we  behaved  

which is  the  language,  the  

just so—would  tell  us  the  

community, ceremony,  and  

traditional stories  of  the  

the like.  

Cherokee people.  

I was  lucky  in  that  there  were  

So I  grew  up  with  the  love  of  

trails of  breadcrumbs  for  me  

story and  that  translated  as  

and my  sibs  in  that  our  

well into  reading  fairy  tales  

Cherokee grandmother  lived  

and folktales  and  I  began  

with our  family  and  she  was  a  

telling stories  myself  for  a  

wonderful storyteller,  literally  

living.  What  I  laughingly  call  a  

a performing  storyteller  in  the  

living….  (laughter)    …almost  

19 teens  and  twenties.    She  

thirty years  ago.    For  a  long  

traveled around  this  country  

time my  stories  were  simply  a  

telling stories,  singing  in  

product, or  a  part  and  parcel,  

Cherokee, and  she  was  a  

of my  involvement  in  Indian  

political activist.    She  was  

community.  Then  a  librarian  

speaking on  behalf  of  Indian  

one day,  who  knew  I  knew  

people’s rights,  seeking  to  

stories, asked  me  to  come  for  

halt the  process  of  allotment.    

November, “Hug  an  Indian  


Month” (laughter)  to  tell  stories  at  her  library  and  when  I  left  she  gave  me  a  check.    And  this   big  light  bulb  went  on  over  my  head:  There  is  something  you  know  how  to  do.    (laughter)    I   love  story.    It  is  the  reason  we  have  survived  as  a  people,  as  a  distinct  people.    It  is  an  integral   part  of  who  we  are  and  how  we  remain  connected  to  each  other  and  most  importantly  to  the   land  and  all  of  our  other  relatives.   Heinz:  Thanks,  Gayle.    What  we’ll  do  is  we’ll  go  around  and  each  briefly  address  this  theme,   which  happens  to  be  about  women  and  storytelling.   Windling:  And  specifically  fairy  tales.   Fenkl:    Since  we’re  sort  of  looking  at  the  underbelly  of  I  guess  what  plays  out  in  the  United   States  now  as  the  sort  of  Disneyfied  or  the  edited  version  of  Grimms  that  everybody  is  familiar   with.    What  the  panel  is  designed  to  do  is  to  look  beneath  that  and  look  at  how  the  tradition  of   storytelling  among  women  actually  addresses  things  that  have  gotten  to  the—I  guess  you  can   think  of  it  as  the  shadow  of  fairy  tale  tradition  in  a  sense.   I’ll  begin  by  talking  briefly  about  a  couple  of  cases  in  Korea  because  in  Korea,  in  contemporary   Korea,  it’s  pretty  much  the  same  phenomena.    The  oral  storytelling  traditions  are  pretty  much   gone.    In  the  past  two  decades  Korea  has  become  a  developed  nation  with  all  of  the  problems   of  modernization:  family  structures  have  disintegrated,  traditional  architecture  has  gone,   people  live  in  apartment  complexes.    So  the  whole  extended  family  structure  basically  has   died.   What’s  happened  in  Korea,  storytelling  has  been  co-­‐opted  by  television  and  by  the  school   system,  very  much  like  what  happens  in  the  United  States.    Recently  I  was  doing  some   research  on—I’m  finishing  the  compilation  of  re-­‐tellings—and  two  things  occurred  to  me  when   I  thought  about  the  panel.    One  was  that  although  in  my  family  the  storyteller  was  my  uncle,   traditionally,  in  many  traditional  households  going  back  as  recently  as  the  60s,  if  you  went  to  a    

rural household  in  Korea  at  the  end  of  the  day  people  would  come  in  from  their  agricultural   work  and  the  storyteller  was  often  the  grandmother.   In  Korea  the  opening  formula  for  a  fairy  tale  or  a  folktale  that  happened  a  long  time  ago  is:  In   the  old,  old  days  when  animals  talked  and  tigers  smoked  tobacco  pipes.    (laughter)    That’s  the   Korean  version  of  Once  Upon  a  Time.    Oddly  enough  the  person  telling  that  story  was  often  an   old  woman  who  was  sitting  on  the—there’s  an  area  between  the  rooms,  it’s  like  an  open   wooden  floor—she  would  be  sitting  there  smoking  a  pipe.    Women  in  Korea  smoked  pipes  in   traditional  times,  and  she  would  tell  traditional  stories.   Now  in  Korea  there’s  also  a  continuing  tradition  of  shamanism  and  although  Christianity  is  the   major  success  story  now,  the  underbelly  of  Korean  culture  is  shamanic.    The  practicing   shamans  are  almost  all  women.    The  male  shamans  who  practice  on  the  peninsula  are  often   cross-­‐dressers.    There’s  a  gender  transformation  involved.      

But the  women  who  are  the  shamans  

soybeans, a  common  peasant’s  food,  

trace their  lineage  through  a  story,  

and she’s  given  various  impossible  

which is  basically  a  fairy  tale.    It’s  the  

tasks to  do.    Animal  helpers  help  her  

story of  the  abandoned  princess.    The  

with those  tasks.    And  when  she’s  

king and  queen  have  wished  for  a  son  

upset she  goes  to  a  particular  tree  and  

but they  have  a  daughter  and  they  

she weeps  beneath  it.    Instead  of  a  

reject her  and  she’s  banished.    But  then  

fairy godmother  we  have  a  cow  that  

she becomes  the  savior  of  the  family  

comes to  her  representing  her  

through lots  of  privations  and  self-­‐

mother’s spirit.    That  spirit  gives  her  

sacrifice.  It  happens  to  be  linked  to  the  

certain advice.    She  gets  fancy  clothes  

story of  Guanyin,  the  Buddhist  goddess  

and new  shoes;  she  goes  to  the  

of mercy.    Now  that’s  a  very  well  

festival; she  loses  a  shoe;  and  the  first  

understood tradition  in  Korea.  

half of  the  story  goes  very  much  like  

What I  want  to  do  is  talk  very  briefly   about  another  story  whose  ending   most  Koreans  have  forgotten  and   whose  beginning  all  of  you  are  basically   familiar  with  because  this  is  the  Korean   Cinderella.    In  the  first  half  of  the   Korean  Cinderella  all  the  motifs  that  we   are  familiar  with  are  there.    There’s  the   death  of  the  mother,  the  father   remarries,  there’s  a  wicked   stepmother,  wicked  stepsister.    Poor   Cinderella,  in  Korea  she’s  called  Kimchi,   which  means  she’s  named  after    

Cinderella.  In  contemporary  times,   that’s  a  story  everybody  knows.  

But there’s  a  second  half  to  

to a  palatial  house,  she  

her own  sister  to  visit  her  

the Korean  Cinderella.    For  

lives with  the  magistrate,  


practical purposes  it’s  been  

and what  happens  is  her  

forgotten.  The  story  was  

stepsister and  stepmother  

texturalized by  Confucian  

feel very  resentful  and  

scholars of  course  as  a  kind  

vengeful.  So  they  plot  

of pseudo  history  so  it’s  

revenge upon  her  and   th

actually written  in  the  13  

they’re full  of  bitterness.    

century.  There  are  written  

It’s part  of  the  Korean  

versions of  this  text.    But  

national character.    

the people  who  know  the  

(laughter)  So  they’re  full  of  

second half  of  the  story  and  

envy and  bitterness.    They  

who can  tell  it  are  almost  

hatch a  plot.    Pachi  is  the  

all women.    Now  it’s  

wicked stepsister.    Her  

curious because  the  second  

name comes  from  red  or  

half of  the  story  is  a  

black beans.    It’s  a  festive  

tragedy, and  here’s  how  it  

food, a  delicacy,  and  


peasants would  only  eat  

The Cinderella  in  Korea:   Kimchi  has  married  the   magistrate  and  she  moves   from  her  humble  house.     Her  father  was  also  a   member  of  the  gentry  but   his  situation  had  become   rather  humble.    She  moves    

black bean  soup  for   example  once  a  year,  so   she’s  the  more  privileged   and  spoiled  person.    And   she  wrangles  an  invitation.     Of  course  Kimchi  being  the   good  sister  can’t  decline;   she  cannot  refuse  to  invite  

So the  wicked  stepsister   visits.    When  she  visits  the   good  sister,  the  Cinderella   figure  shows  her  through   the  house—all  the  beautiful   lacquer  furniture,  her  silk   dresses,  and  all  of  it.    Then   she  shows  her  the  lotus   pond.    At  that  moment  the   wicked  stepsister  realizes   how  she  is  going  to  have   her  revenge  and  she  invites   Kimchi  to  go  swimming  with   her.    The  Cinderella  figure   says,  “No,  we  shouldn’t  do   that  because  my  husband   may  return  at  any  moment   and  we  can’t  be  seen   unclothed.”    The  wicked   stepsister  says,  “No-­‐no,   don’t  worry,  he  won’t  be   here  that  soon.”    And  she   compels  Kimchi  to  go   swimming  in  the  lotus  

pond.  Although  Kimchi  is  afraid  of  things  like  snakes  in  the  pond,  and  Kimchi  can’t  swim,  her   wicked  stepsister  assures  her  that  everything  is  fine.    Then  as  they’re  swimming  together,  the   wicked  stepsister  pulls  Kimchi  into  the  center  of  the  pond  and  pulls  her  under  and  drowns  her.     And  so  the  Korean  Cinderella  dies.   Now  the  wicked  stepsister  comes  out  of  the  water,  puts  on  Kimchi’s  clothing,  and  puts  on  a   very  thick  layer  of  makeup  because  she  has  pockmarks  on  her  face  and  her  makeup  has  to  be   extra  thick.    She  waits  at  the  pavilion  for  the  magistrate  to  come  home.    The  magistrate  comes   home  and  she  stands  in  this  enticing  posture  and  seduces  him.    He’s  shocked  of  course   because  although  he  probably  had  lustful  thoughts  in  his  heart  regarding  his  wife,  it  was   unexpected  that  she  would  be  so  amorous.    The  suggestion  in  the  language  of  the  story  is  that   what  Pachi  offers  him  is  a  kind  of  sex  that  is  forbidden.   What  happens  is  that  after  this  amorous  moment,  he  finally  sees  her  face.    What  happens  is   that  her  exertion  and  the  sweat  have  caused  the  makeup  to  drip  from  her  face  and  the   pockmarks  are  revealed  and  he’s  stunned.    He  says,  “Kimchi,  what  happened  to  your  face?”     She  says,  “Well,  I  waited  for  you  so  long  that  I  became  sunburned  and  then  I  tripped  and  fell   on  a  pile  of  beans  and  they  are  why  I  have  these  pockmarks.”    Then  he  declares  that  he  loves   her  anyway  even  though  her  face  is  now  disfigured.   This  goes  on  and  she  continues  to  seduce  him  and  she  takes  over  the  household.    She  believes   that  everything  now  belongs  to  her  and  she  gets  rid  of  her  sister’s  belongings.    The  charade  is   not  undone  until  a  local  neighbor  who’s  an  old  woman  Kimchi  has  been  kind  to  comes  to  visit.     She’s  borrowing  small  coals  to  start  her  kitchen  fire,  and  as  she  goes  to  borrow  these  coals  she   finds  jewelry  in  the  stove.    She’s  curious  about  this  and  she  hasn’t  seen  Kimchi  in  a  while  so   she  figures  she  can  just  take  it.    So  she  does  and  she  puts  it  in  a  special  spot  in  her  cupboard.     And  then  she  hears  a  voice  issuing  from  there.  

Thematically this  is  like  a  relic  left  over  from  the  cremation  of  a   Buddhist  master.    So  the  jewelry  now  embodies  Kimchi’s  spirit  and   the  spirit  talks  to  the  old  woman  and  explains  the  situation:  that  she   has  been  wrongfully  murdered,  and  asks,  “Please  can  you  help  me?”     So  the  old  woman  hatches  a  plan  and  she  invites  the  magistrate  to   come  and  dine  at  her  house  and  enjoy  “humble  country  cooking.”  

When the  magistrate  accepts  the  invitation  

venereal disease  and  his  lineage  is  in  

for dining,  she  sets  up  his  plate  so  that  his  

jeopardy.  The  Confucian  hearing  this,  or  

chopsticks are  mismatched.    One  is  longer  

any Korean  hearing  this,  would  understand  

than the  other.    He’s  trying  to  eat  and  he  

that this  is  a  major  problem.  

becomes furious  because  he  can’t  pick  up   the  food  properly.    After  a  certain  point  his   frustration  explodes  and  he  yells  at  the   woman.    The  woman  says,  “Well,  how  is  it   that  you  can  recognize  mismatched   chopsticks  but  you  cannot  recognize  a   mismatched  marriage?”  

He basically  gets  a  confession  out  of  her  in   the  old  traditional  way  which  is  she’s   tortured,  drawn,  and  quartered.    Her  limbs   are  put  into  a  huge  pickling  pot  and  that  is   sent  to  her  mother.    Her  mother  receives   it;  she  thinks  it’s  a  great  gift  from  the  

He doesn’t  know  what  she’s  talking  about,  

magistrate; she  starts  to  eat  it,  and  then  

but then  what  happens  is  that  there’s  a  

she sees  the  note.    The  note  explains  what  

decorative screen  that  you  find  in  a  lot  of  

it is  that  she  has  just  made  herself  a  

Korean households.    From  behind  the  

glutton of  and  the  shock  kills  her.  

screen this  voice  talks  to  him  and  he  thinks   it  must  be  the  sound  of  his  wife’s  voice.    He   talks  to  her  and  the  voice  tells  him  what  the   situation  is.    Now  he’s  aghast  because  he   feels  terribly  guilty  but  also  the  image  of   pockmarks  in  Chinese  and  Korean   narratives  is  often  a  veiled  allusion  to   smallpox  or  syphilis.    The  suggestion  is  that   he  has  been  seduced  by  a  woman  with  a  

So he  goes  and  he  exposes  the  charade.    

Then the  magistrate  goes  back  and  they   drain  the  lotus  pond  and  they  find  the   body  of  Kimchi  in  pristine  and  uncorrupted   condition  in  a  bed  of  fragrant  lotuses.    Just   as  they  find  the  body—what  happens  is   there  are  now  two  versions  of  the  story.          

In one,  when  the  villain  is  done  away  with  and  the  body  is  found  and  the  magistrate  expresses   the  proper  remorse,  she  comes  back  to  life.    In  another  version,  what  happens  is  that  as  they   find  the  uncorrupted  body,  they  see  a  last  issue  of  breath  and  then  the  ghostly  figure  vanishes   and  the  story  is  resolved.   So  this  theme  is  like  a  Chinese  ghost  story.    In  Korea  what  you  find  is  that  during  the  colonial   era  and  during  the  times  when  Korea  was  occupied  either  by  the  Chinese  or  the  Mongols  or   the  Japanese,  both  halves  of  the  story  would  have  been  told.    It’s  only  in  recent  years,  post   Korean  war  and  probably  not  until  after  the  70s  or  probably  even  the  early  80s,  that  the   second  half  of  the  story  became  jettisoned  because  the  national  character  or  the  national   consciousness  was  far  more  optimistic  and  they  did  not  want  these  sorts  of  sentimental,  tragic   endings  anymore.   But  in  contemporary  times  the  people  who  remember  the  second  half  of  the  story  are  not   scholars  and  the  successful  businessmen,  or  even  the  children,  they  tend  to  be  the   grandmothers  because  it  comes  out  of  their  experience.   So  that’s  my  illustration  of  the  theme.    Terri,  if  you’d  like  to…    

Windling:  Well,  I  guess  I’m  here  representing  the   Western  European  traditions.    I  think  for  most  of  us   growing  up  in  America  or  England,  in  the  English   language  countries,  growing  up  with  Western   European  fairy  tales  in  the  late  twentieth-­‐early   twenty-­‐first  centuries,  the  thing  that  is  startling   about  hearing  a  story  like  that  is  that  we’ve  come  to   expect  fairy  tales  to  be  stories  for  very  small  children   involving  very  passive,  beautiful  young  girls  who  by   virtue  of  being  passive,  beautiful,  and  dutiful  grow  up   to  marry  the  rich  Prince  Charmings.    Then  hear  a   story  like  that  which  is  filled  with  adult  themes,  with   sexuality,  with  tragedy,  it  seems  quite  alien  from  our   tradition  of  fairy  tales.    But  in  fact,  the  European   tradition  has  much  more  in  common  with  the  Korean   tradition  if  you  go  prior  to  the  Disneyfication  of  fairy   tales.   First  of  all,  the  term  fairy  tale  is  confusing.    Fairy  tales   are  rooted  in  the  oral  folk  tradition.    European  fairy   tales  are  rooted  in  the  world-­‐tradition  of  stories  like   Cinderella,  but  have  come  to  us  through  literary   sources  beginning  in  sixteenth-­‐century  Italy.    That’s   when  fairy  tales  begin  to  be  written  down  and   published.    When  they  were  written  down  and   published,  they  were  published  for  adult  readers  not   children.        

If you  go  back  to  those  tales  from  sixteenth-­‐century  Italy  and  seventeenth-­‐century  France,   you’ll  find  that  these  are  very  much  adult  stories  with  sensuality,  with  violence,  with  a  lot  of   themes  that  pertain  particularly  to  the  lives  of  women  and  to  those  who  are  socially   disenfranchised:  the  poor,  the  gypsies.    It  was  the  literature  of  the  dispossessed.    The  people   who  were  not  in  control  of  socially  sanctioned  literature,  the  literature  coming  out  of  the   academies,  were  putting  their  stories  into  these  areas,  into  fairy  tale  and  folklore,  particularly   women.   Fairy  tales  as  we  know  them  today  such  as  our  version  of  Cinderella  come  to  us  first  from  the   Italian  versions  which  were  written  down  by  two  men,  Achille  and  Straparola,  but  they  were   writing  down  tales  told  to  them  by  circles  of  women.    Their  stories  in  turn  were  reinterpreted   by  French  writers  in  late  seventeenth-­‐century  France.    Largely  women  were  writing.    The  name   fairy  tales,  les  contes  de  fées,  was  coined  in  the  Parisian  salons  where  fairy  tales  became  a  very   popular  literary  form  for  aristocratic,  educated  adult  readers.    

The writers  of  the  French  salons  who  

countryside extracting  stories  from  

were largely  women  took  these  old  folk  

peasants but  in  fact  they  got  most  of  their  

stories plus  the  literary  versions  which  

stories from  middle  class  informants,  

had been  written  down  by  the  Italians,  

from educated  women  who  were  largely  

and reworked  them  in  ways  that  were  

hearing these  tales  from  the  French  and  

expressing the  concerns  of  their  day.    

Italian traditions.    But  when  they,  the  

These were  upper  class  women  who  were  

Grimms, rewrote  and  edited  the  stories,  

concerned about  things  like  arranged  

they made  them  even  more  patriarchal.  

marriages, about  the  fact  that  they   weren’t  allowed  in  education,  they   weren’t  allowed  to  control  their  own   money,  they  weren’t  allowed  to  travel  on   their  own.    They  were  putting  all  of  these   things  into  their  fairy  tales.  

twentieth century  after  they’ve  been   through  Grimms,  through  Perrault,   through  Disney,  we  end  up  with  these   fictions  where  women’s  agency  has  been   stripped  from  them.    But  if  you  go  back  to  

There were  some  men  in  these  salons.    

the older  stories,  the  older  published  

Charles Perrault  is  the  best  known.    His  

stories and  then  to  the  oral  tales  which  

tales were  privileged  in  the  centuries  that  

influenced them,  you’ll  find  that  they’re  

followed.  They’re  the  ones  that  were  

very similar  to  the  story  that  Heinz  just  

printed over  and  over  again  primarily  by  

told.  They  are  morally  complex  and  

male editors  in  the  eighteenth,  

morally ambiguous.    They  largely  involve  

nineteenth and  twentieth  centuries.    And  

women’s rites  of  passage  and  women’s  

his stories  were  the  ones  that  tended  to  

trials and  tribulations.    They  don’t  always  

have the  more  passive,  dutiful  girls  in  

end happily  ever  after.  

them.  Then  in  turn  the  Grimms  took  the   French  stories—the  myth  is  that  the   Grimms  went  around  the  German    

So when  we  come  to  fairy  tales  in  the  


I think  it’s  a  real  shame  the  

The marriage  that  is  often  

stop there.    I  just  wanted  to  

way we’ve  come  to  think  of  

the end  of  the  fairy  tale  

define our  terms  before  we  

fairy tales  in  our  time  

isn’t about  finding  a  man  

talk about  fairy  tales  that  

because the  very  thing  that  

who’s going  to  take  care  of  

we’re actually  not  talking  

made them  important  in  all  

you, it’s  about  coming  into  

about Disney’s  version  of  

those centuries  is  that  they  

your adult  life  and  creating  

Beauty and  the  Beast  or  

were stories  about  the  

a new  life  for  yourself.    But  

The Little  Mermaid.    That’s  

grimness of  life,  the  

those things  have  been  

not what  fairy  tales  are  

difficulties of  life,  and  how  

stripped out  of  fairy  tales  in  

about if  you  start  looking  at  

one survives  them.    How  

our time  because  they’ve  

the history  of  fairy  tales.    So  

one transforms  oneself  in  

been turned  into  fictions  

when you  see  all  these  

spite of  the  difficulties  we  

for small  children.  

books out  there  about  how  

encounter. So  many  of  the  older  stories  

to understand  when  we  

were about  young  people,  

talk about  fairy  tales  is  that  

often a  young  woman,  

these Disney  creations  that  

sometimes a  young  man,  

we all  know  are  not  what  

being thrust  out  of  their  

fairy tales  are.    They  are  

family situation  by  some  

modern pieces  of  art  based  

real calamities:  violence,  

loosely on  fairy  tales,  but  

sexual or  otherwise.    Being  

they’ve changed  them  so  

thrust out  of  their  home,  

dramatically that  I  almost  

having to  make  their  own  

hesitate to  give  them  the  

way in  the  world,  and  find  

same name.  

their way  into  a  new  future.  

So the  first  thing  we  need  

I think  I’m  just  going  to  

fairy tales  are  bad  for   young  girls  because  they’re   so  sexist  and  teach  them  to   be  obedient  and  passive,   those  are  by  people  who   don’t  understand  the   history  of  fairy  tales.    They   don’t  understand  that  this   twentieth-­‐century  gloss,   children’s  gloss,  that  was   given  to  them  is  very   recent.    And  that  the  old   tales  really  have  got  quite  a   lot  to  say  about  how  

women have  lived  their  

territory with  some  of  the  

I’ve done  a  lot  of  work  

lives, how  they  continue  to  

glossing over  of  these  

very recently  with  some  of  

live their  lives  today.  

particular stories.  

the Deer  Woman  stories  

Dunn: I’ve  always  loved  the  

Where we  come  from  

original stories  and  through  

there’s a  home  saying  that  

my friendship  with  Terri  

people have.    If  someone  is  

I’ve only  recently  been  able  

misbehaving or  if  

to look  into  those.    With  

someone’s not  acting  in  

the work  that  she’s  done  in  

the way  that  they  should  

terms of  some  of  these  

be, we  say  about  them,  

original endings,  and  as  a  

“They just  don’t  know  how  

storyteller and  as  a  literary  

to act.  “  And  that’s  what  it  

critic, it’s  always  important  

is.  They  literally  do  not  

to look  at  the  story  art  and  

know how  to  act  because  

to know  that  they  don’t  

they don’t  have  any  home  

always end  happily  

training.  A  lot  of  that  

because that’s  life.    Life  

home training  comes  from  

doesn’t always  end  happily.    

being able  to  know  these  

And these  stories  don’t  

stories—that these  stories  

always end  that  way.    

do exist  and  they  do  serve  

Especially I  think  of  The  

a purpose,  like  Terri  was  

Little Mermaid  and  

saying and  Heinz  was  

Pocahontas, you  know,  all  

saying.  They  do  serve  a  

these Disneyfied  stories,  

purpose because  they  

Mulan, that  we’re  getting  

teach us  how  to  act  in  the  

into different  cultural  


from where  Gayle  and  I   come  from.    Basically   these  Deer  Woman  stories   are  a  puberty  narrative.    It   teaches  men  and  women   how  to  act  or  how  not  to   act.    The  basic  gist  of  the   story  with  the  Deer   Woman  is  that  she’s  very   beautiful,  very  beautiful,   very  sexy,  and  easy  to   follow.    It’s  easy  to  give  in   to  some  of  these  carnal   urges  that  you  may  have.     But  again,  like  I  said  she’s   very  beautiful,  and  they   say  she  turns  men  to   madness  and  to   prostitution  and  women  as   well.    If  you  look  down  at   her  feet,  she’s  a  beautiful   woman  in  body,  and  if  you   look  down  at  her  feet  then  

you see  that  she  has  deer  hooves.    So  then  you  know  this  is  Deer  Woman.    So  I  know  I  need  to   be  careful  and  get  away  from  this  if  this  is  the  kind  of  life  that  I  don’t  want  to  lead.   As  a  puberty  narrative  it  teaches  us  appropriate  people  to  marry  and  inappropriate  people  to   marry  because  what’s  at  stake  for  us  is  the  survival  of  the  nation.    What’s  at  stake  for  us  is  the   survival  of  the  people.    Hereditarily  all  of  our  kinship  systems,  all  of  our  ways  of  life,  and  the   way  that  we  ordered  the  world  came  through  the  maternal  line  and  that’s  how  we  establish   our  clan  systems  with  one  another.    That’s  how  we  knew  who  our  mother  was,  because  of   those  particular  clan  systems.  

Well, prior  to  removal  and  

children?  Who  is  going  to  

European fairies,  to  the  

after removal,  a  lot  of  those  

be the  appropriate  teacher  

Celtic fairy  folk.    There’s  a  

systems were  done  away  

of the  family?    And  who  is  

story that  we  used  to  hear  

with but  we  still  had  

going to  be  the  appropriate  

when we  were  young  

women who  were  the  

carrier of  the  knowledge?    

where you  don’t  walk  over  

center of  power  in  the  

Traditionally, if  you  marry  

puddles because  that’s  

home having  been  raised  by  

outside then  your  children  

where Deer  Woman  lives,  

strong grandmothers  and  

will have  no  clan,  your  

that’s where  she  comes  out  

mothers.  We  joke  around  

children will  have  no  

of.  The  reason  why,  again,  

that you  cannot  tell  a  

relationship within  the  

is how  to  act.    You  don’t  

Cherokee woman,  you  


walk over  puddles  or  you  

cannot tell  a  Creek  woman,   and  you  can  not  tell  a   Choctaw  woman  how  to  act   in  her  own  home  because   she  knows.    The  mother  is   the  head  of  the  household   regardless  and  her  word  is   law,  even  though  we’ve  lost   a  lot  of  those  traditional   clan  systems.   So  the  Deer  Woman  story   teaches  men:  Who  is  the   appropriate  partner?    Who   is  going  to  be  the   appropriate  mother  of  your    

So it’s  easy  to  look  at  the   beautiful,  gorgeous,  very   sexy,  very  scintillating   woman  over  here  in  the   corner  telling  you,  “Come   over  here,  honey,”  or  are   you  going  to  marry  the   woman  who  is  going  to  be   the  mother  of  the  nation?     So  that’s  where  a  lot  of   these  stories  come  from.   Deer  Woman  originally  is   one  of  the  little  people,   which  is  akin  to  the  

don’t walk  through  puddles   in  the  rain  because  you  can   get  sick.    You  know?     What’s  the  first  thing  kids— my  kids  are  the  first  ones  to   go  into  the  puddle  and   jump  up  and  down  and  my   husband  as  a  child  was  the   first—it’s  hereditary.     They’re  southeastern   people;  they  love  water.     They  have  to  go  there.   So  there’s  a  reason  behind   the  story.    There’s  a   practical  reason  and  then  

there’s a  mythological  reason.    

know the  next  one  that  I’m  

There’s a  folkloric  reason  

working on,  which  uses  Gayle  

behind it.    So  you  don’t  cross  

as a  model  for  one  of  the  

over a  puddle  because  Deer  

characters, she’s  going  to  find  

Woman can  reach  up  and  

her way  into  that  too.    But  I  

grab you  and  pull  you  down  

just let  her  because  she  wants  

into the  water.    And  you’ll  

the story  to  be  told.    And  they  

never be  seen  again.  

really do  have  to  be  told.    

I try  to  get  away  from  Deer   Woman  but  I  can’t.    And   everything  that  I  do,  that   spirit  is  there  because  she  just   wants  a  voice.    The  first  book   of  my  own  stand-­‐alone  book  

their own.    And  the  “life  of   their  own”  is  the  fact  that  the   key  to  it  is  the  survival  of  the   nation,  the  survival  of  the   people.  

of poetry  was  a  dialogue  

You look  to  the  women  as  the  

between the  Deer  Woman  

key to  that  survival  because  

spirit and  Coyote  spirit  of  

all of  your  lineage,  all  of  your  

northern California.    Those  

clan systems,  everything  is  

two were  always  trying  to  

run through  the  line  of  the  

outdo each  other.    So  she  

mother.  So  if  you  don’t  have  

appears there.    In  the  novel  

that, you  don’t  have  a  people,  

that I’m  working  on,  strangely  

you don’t  have  a  nation,  you  

enough called  Deer  Woman,  

don’t have  a  community  

she’s there.    The  play  that  I  


just finished,  strangely   enough  she’s  there.    And  I    

These stories  have  a  life  of  

Ross: There’s  a  wonderful  

native cultures;  it’s  a  

closer all  of  a  sudden  all  

writer, she’s  in  Wisconsin  

common belief  that  stories  

seven birds  stood  up  and  

now, named  Betsy  Hern.    

are living  spirits.    They  live  

ruffled their  feathers  and  

Betsy was  doing  an  

on the  breath—that’s  why  

then used  them  and  lifted  

interview with  a  Cree  elder  

tellers have  to  be  trained  

off and  flew  away  into  the  

named John  Rains  and  she  

traditionally—they live  on  

sky.  John  and  Betsy  just  

went to  visit  him  and  it  was  

the breath  of  the  teller.  

stood there  with  their  

the wintertime  and  they   had  been  in  the  cabin   recording  a  long  interview.     When  the  clouds  broke  and   the  sun  came  through—it   had  been  a  bitterly  cold   winter—he  suggested  they   leave  the  close  confines  of   the  cabin  and  take  a  walk   outside  for  a  while  before   continuing  to  talk.    Betsy   was  talking  with  him  about   native  stories  and  he  was   explaining  to  her  that   stories  are  living  spirits.    

So they  were  walking  across   a  snow  covered  field  and  up   ahead  they  saw  seven  black   splotches  on  the  snow.     They  went  closer  and  there   were  seven  dead  crows   lying  there—what  appeared   to  them  to  be  dead  crows.     It  looked  as  though  they   had  flung  themselves   against  a  great  invisible   windshield  in  the  sky  and   fallen  crumpled  to  the   Earth.  

mouths hanging  open.     Finally  John  turned  to  Betsy   and  said,  “Some  story  will   come  along  and  know  just   where  to  put  that.”    And   Betsy  said,  “You  mean  you   and  I  will  describe  what  we   saw  and  a  storyteller  will   put  it  in  a  story.”    John  said,   “Oh  no.    Some  story  will   come  along  and  know  just   where  to  put  that.”    Betsy   said,  “Well,  I  know  you  said   your  stories  are  living   spirits  and  that  they  live  on  

This is  a  common  belief  

Both of  them  were  

the breath  of  the  teller,  but  

phrased in  many  different  

wondering what  could  have  

are you  telling  me  that  

ways, expressed  in  many  

caused the  death  of  these  

they’re living  even  when  

different ways,  among  

birds and  as  they  drew  

they’re not  being  told?”    

“Oh yes,  “  John  said.    Rather  flippantly  Betsy  said,  “Well,  what  do  they  do  when  you’re  not   telling  them?”    And  John  said,  “I  think  they  live  in  a  village  somewhere.    And  they  tell  each   other  to  each  other.”    (laughter)   I  don’t  want  to  give  you  the  false  impression  that  this  is  wisdom  that  I  learned  at  a  campfire   somewhere  sitting  at  my  grandmother’s  knee.    My  grandmother  was  a  very  strong  and  proud   Cherokee  woman,  but  she  was  also  a  product  of  her  time  as  am  I,  very  assimilated  in  many   ways.    This  comes  from  years  and  years  of  moving  within  the  stories  and  moving  within  the   culture  itself.    We  have  to  reclaim  the  true  power  of  the  stories  in  much  the  way  Terri  was   talking  about  uncovering  the  essence  of  European  folk  and  fairy  tales  that  have  been   manipulated  in  some  way  to  suit  certain  social,  economic,  and  political  agendas.    Which  is   what  I  think  happens.    And  I  don’t  think  it  happens  to  make  them  suitable  for  children,  I  think   that  what  has  happened  is  that  we  have  redefined  what  is  suitable  for  children.   In  our  culture,  some  of  the  funniest  and  favorite  stories  that  kids  love  and  ask  for  involve   Coyote  poking  burning  sticks  up  his  ass  and  Witzehatzick  (phonetic  spelling)  trying  to  make   love  to  his  sister-­‐in-­‐law  and  her  hanging  a  snapping  turtle  on  his  penis  in  the  sweat  lodge.     These  are  children’s  stories.    And  this  used  to  be  a  common  thing  not  just  among  native   culture,  but  among  all  cultures.   I  have  my  own  theory  about  the  particular  manipulations  that  happen  in  cultures  as  they   change  as  a  result  of  organized  religion  and  other  kinds  of  social  pressures  that  are  brought  to   bear.    But  it  is  inherent  upon  us  because  children  eventually  will  rebel  against  the  very   homogenized  dried  powder—what  child  wouldn’t  want  to  squirt  cow’s  milk  right  from  the   udder  into  their  mouth  as  opposed  to  powdered  milk  bought  off  the  shelf?    In  many  ways   what  I  see  happening  with  young  people  in  this  culture  today  is  a  silent  cry  against  what  they   perceive  of  as  the  culture  we  have  prepared  for  them.  

One thing  you  said  that  I  thought  you  should  know…  (to  Heinz  Insu  Fenkl)  I  was  going  to  tell   you  a  little  quick  story.    I  was  doing  two  videoconferences  for  the  US  State  Department  at  the   opening  of  the  National  Museum  of  the  Native  American  in  Washington.    These   videoconferences  were  with  colleges  around  the  world  that  were  interested  in  the  museum’s   opening  and  wanted  to  have  an  opportunity  to  interact  with  some  of  the  Indian  performers   who  came  to  Washington  for  it.   On  the  morning  I  talked  to  college  students  from  Oman  in  the  Middle  East  and  in  the   afternoon  I  talked  with  college  students  from  South  Korea.    I  thought  it  was  almost  a   frighteningly  neon  example  of  what  happens  when  forces  of  political  and  economic  rigidity  in  a   region  begins  to  subvert  natural  human  processes  of  culture  and  story  and  the  like  to  the   service  of  a  very  Darth  Vaderish  kind  of  point  of  view.    All  the  students  f rom  Oman  wanted  to   talk  about  were  stories  that  reflected  genocide  in  America.    How  did  Indian  people  feel  about   living  in  a  country  that  had  perpetrated  500  years...?    I  mean  they  were  very  strident  and  

wanted to  talk  about  only  political  issues.    And  in  South  Korea  all  the  students  wanted  to  talk   about—they  had  been  given  a  copy  of  my  rabbit  storybook—and  all  they  wanted  to  talk  about   was  the  stories  that  they  had.   So  I  spent  the  hour  trying  to  discuss  tribal  sovereignty  and  the  survival  of  our  individual   cultures  within  the  context  of  the  larger  American  mosaic,  remembering  that  the  state   department  is  cutting  my  check  (laughter)  and  they  will  have  a  copy  of  this,  you  know,  so  I  was   trying  to  be  truthful  and  tactful  at  the  same  time  which  is  something  that  if  you  know  me,  you   know  is  not  my  strong  suit  (laughter).    But  with  those  South  Korean  kids  it  was  just  this   wonderful  exchange  where  I  would  tell  them  a  story  and  then  one  of  them  would  stand  up  and   tell  me  a  story  that  they  had  heard  as  a  child.    They  were  very  interested  in  the  way  that  story   is  a  vehicle  for  the  survival  of  the  culture  of  a  people.    So  I  wanted  to  tell  you,  you  don’t  have   to  be  completely  hopeless  and  bitter  about  the  prospect  because  the  young  people  that  I   talked  to  were  delightful.   But  that  underside,  that  underside  of  keeping  the  true  culture  alive  because  Indian  people   were  in  that  process  of  seeing  our  stories,  our  spirituality,  our  traditions  appropriated  and   exploited  by  the  larger  culture.    It’s  an  ongoing  battle  that  we’re  f acing  now  and  that  we  deal   with  on  a  day-­‐to-­‐day  basis.   Windling:  Can  I  jump  in  here?   Ross:  Please.    Go,  go,  I’m  done!   Windling:  Not  in  any  way  to  denigrate  the  struggle  of  Indian  people,  but  I  can  relate  to  that  in   terms  of  fairy  tale  histories  by  women  through  reclaiming  our  stories,  our  fairy  tales  as   women.    Because  you  know  for  centuries  and  centuries  and  centuries,  our  history  has  been   suppressed.  

Ross: Exactly.   Winding:  Ignored.    Denigrated.    And  by   going  back  to  try  to  uncover  the  ways  that   these  stories  have  been  told  by  our  great   and  great  and  great  and  great  grandmothers   and  the  uses  to  which  they  put  those   stories—the  tellers  in  each  generation,  the   things  that  will  be  important  in  any  given   story  like  Cinderella—will  change  from   generation  to  generation  depending  on  the   issues  of  that  day.    And  if  we  can  get  back  to   the  story,  start  to  uncover  the  tellings  that   happened  prior  to  the  issues  that  Perrault   decided  were  important  or  the  Grimms   decided  were  important  or  the  male   Victorian  editors  decided  were  important,   we  can  start  hearing  our  ancestors  voices…   Ross:  Or  Rush  Limbaugh  thought  were   important.    (laughter)  

speak to  us.    As  much  as  I  denigrate  Disney   children  still  love  them,  adults  still  love   them.    The  fairy  tales  I  read  as  a  child,  they   were  perhaps  a  little  more…   Ross:  Meaty.   Windling:  …meaty.    Yeah,  that’s  a  good   word.    I  didn’t  get  the  Disney  versions.    I   read  a  book  called  The  Golden  Book  of   Fairy  Tales  which  was  translated  by  Marie   Ponsot  from  a  French  edition,  and  they   were  a  little  more  of  the  real  thing  than  the   pure  Disneyfied  versions.    But  even  so  they   were  watered  down.    Yet  such  is  their   power  that  the  symbols  come  through,  the   information  comes  through.   Reading  a  modern  version  of  “Donkeyskin”   in  which  it’s  never  made  explicit  that  what   is  going  on  is  that  a  king  is  trying  to  have  

Windling: …we  can  start  connecting  to  

sex with  his  own  daughter,  even  when  

women’s lives  in  centuries  before.  

that’s watered  down,  watered  down,  

One thing  that  I  find  extraordinary  about   fairy  tales  though  is  that  such  is  their  power   that  even  in  the  incredibly  diluted  versions  

that we  have,  even  the  Disney  versions  

watered down  to  just  a  simple  tale  in   which  a  king  wants  to  marry  his  own   daughter  and  the  sexuality  is  never  talked   about,  still  a  child  in  a  sexually  abusive  

situation can  decode  that.    The  symbols  are  there.    The  symbols  are  so  powerful  that  if  you’re   a  child  growing  up  in  any  kind  of  difficult  circumstance,  fairy  tales  contain  a  lot  of  information   about  family  dysfunction,  about  violence,  about  how  to  set  yourself  off  on  your  own  road  after   a  family  calamity  and  having  the  fortitude  to  be  good  and  pure  and  keep  on  going  and  to  look   for  those  fairy  godmothers  and  to  learn  to  tell  the  false  friend  from  the  true  friend  and  the   false  helper  from  the  true  helper.  

It’s extraordinary  for  me  to  meet  people  all  the  time,  women  all  the  time,  who  in  spite  of   Disney,  in  spite  of  what  Andrew  Lang  and  some  of  the  others  did  to  fairy  tales  in  watering   them  down,  they  still  found  in  them  messages  that  helped  them  create  lives  for  themselves.     They  certainly  did  that  for  me  growing  up  in  a  violent  household  where  you  lived  on  television   at  the  time,  you  know,  the  Brady  Bunch,  and  some  of  these  fantasies  about  what  family  life   was  supposed  to  be  about.    They  had  nothing  that  spoke  to  what  I  was  experiencing  in  my   home.   But  I  looked  at  fairy  tales  and  I  found  fathers  who  lopped  off  their  daughter’s  hands,  and   mothers  who  ordered  huntsmen  to  take  their  daughters  into  the  woods  and  pull  out  their   hearts  just  because  they  were  jealous  of  them.    These  complex  family  situations  that  come   through  even  the  watered  down  versions  make  you  understand,  oh,  there  are  wicked  fathers,   there  are  wicked  mothers,  and  people  have  survived  them.   Ross:  My  friend,  Elizabeth  Ellis,  who  is  a  very  gifted  storyteller  from  Dallas,  Texas  says  that  all   of  that  needed  to  be  in  there  so  that  children  could  be  at  ease  with  the  violence  in  themselves,   with  the  dark  sides  of  themselves,  that  we  deny  it.    That  we  say  it  comes  into  them  from  the   outside  as  opposed  to  coming  from  all  of  us  when  we  are  children  from  the  inside  out.    And  if   you  don’t  give  them  a  way  to  process,  if  you  make  them  frightened  of  themselves,  of  their   own  interior  landscape,  then  you  have  this  severe  disconnect.    You  d on’t  ever  learn  how  to   act.    You  don’t  ever  integrate  and  deal  with  your  own  inner  aspects  of  the  dark  and  the  light,   which  in  native  culture  is  very  clearly  understood  that  there  must  be  the  dark.    We  have  so   many  stories  from  different  tribes  about  the  world  being  all  light  and  how  the  dark  came,  or  all   dark  and  how  the  light  came.    And  it’s  very  clear  that  there  must  be  a  balance  between  dark   and  light.    That’s  an  integral  part  of  our  story.            

When Carolyn  said  we  say,  “You  don’t  know   how  to  act,”  my  Navajo  friends  say  it  even   better.      They  say,  “You  act  like  you  ain’t  got   no  relatives.”    (laughter)    See,  you’re  never   alone.    The  great  American  mythic  figure  of   rugged  individualism,  individual   accomplishment,  is  diametrically  opposed.  

Audience Member  #1:  First  thank  you  very   much.    This  has  been  a  fascinating   conversation.    My  name  is  Jeff.    My  question   is,  now  that  we’ve  explored  a  little  bit  of  the   problem,  I’d  like  to  hear  from  each  of  you   what  we  can  do  in  our  own  families  and  in  

Windling: But  that’s  a  very  masculine  feeling  

our own  cultures  going  forward  to  try  to  

because women  survive  in  community.  

reclaim what  was  lost,  the  stories  that  were  

Ross:  You  cannot  behave—any  time  you   behave  badly  it  is  not  just  your  own  self  you   are  bringing  shame  on.    You  are  by   extension  bringing  shame  on  your  entire  

lost, so  that  the  generation  to  come  can   have  a  sense  of  connection  with  the  past   and  so  that  they  can  know  how  to  act  with   relatives?  

family and  that’s  the  way  our  whole  clan  

Dunn: It’s  almost  like  what  Terri  was  saying,  

system works.    The  Blood  Law  was  such  that  

is that  there  is  some  essence  of  the  original  

if you  murdered  somebody  and  did  not  take  

story there.    I  mean  I  grew  up  on  fairy  tales  

responsibility for  it,  your  clan  would  have  to  

too.  I  grew  up  on  the  same  book,  but  still  

offer up  a  life  in  order  to  balance  the  life  

knowing that  there  was  something  else  in  

that was  taken.  

the story  that  was  involved.    Going  back  as  a  

Dunn: That  was  common  to  all  of  what  we   call  the  Five  Civilized  Tribes.    All  of  us  in  the   southeast,  that  was  pretty  much  standard   and  later  abolished,  but  pretty  much   standard.  

Fenkl: Shall  we  open  it  up  for  questions?  

college student  and  starting  sort  of  this   formal  study  of  native  literature,  really  what   do  we  have?    Mooney  and  Kilpatrick?     Who’s  that  other  one?    Swanton?    You  know   a  lot  of  these  anthropologists  went  in  in  the   early  1800s  to  these  traditional  

communities of  the  southeastern  tribes  and  

walk up  to  me  one  time,  “Well  of  course  

recorded these  narratives.    But  they’re  

you’re a  storyteller,  look  at  you,  you’ve  got  

fragments and  they’re  also  filtered  through  

this wonderful  heritage,  you’ve  got  these  

those Western  eyes,  western  European  

great ancestors,  you’ve  got  these  people  

male eyes.    

who got  shoved  twelve  hundred  miles  away  

Ross: They  wouldn’t  print  some  of  my  very   favorite  ones  because  they  were  just  too   vulgar.   Dunn:  Right,  but  at  some  point  there  is  an   essence  of  that  story  that’s  in  there.    You   know  like  Gayle  was  saying  the  kids  all  love   to  hear  burping  and  farting  and  snapping   turtles  on  a  penis.    I  mean  they  love  that   stuff.    There  is  that  essence  of  it  there.    You  

have great  stories.”    (laughter)    “Look  at   me,  I’m  just  a  little  white  woman  from   Milwaukee.”   I  went,  “No  you’re  not.    You  know,  you’re   not  originally  from  Milwaukee.    Trust  me,  I   know  the  people  that  are.    (laughter)    Go   back.    Go  back.    Recover  the  people  in  your   family.”  

know not  everybody  has  access  to  the  oral  

Windling: European  Americans  have  a  

tradition, not  everybody  has  access  to  a  

heritage too  and  their  own  ethnic  

Gayle Ross.  


Ross: But  you  can  create  one.    I  would  

Ross: All  these  stories  originally  come  from  

answer your  question  by  saying  recover  

our collective  understanding  of  each  other  

your family  story,  recover  stories  of  the  

as people.    There  wasn’t  one  person,  I  don’t  

people in  your  family,  the  places  in  your  

believe, who  sat  down  and  went  “here’s  a  

family, the  significant  events  in  your  family.    

great idea  for  a  story”  and  wrote  it  down  

They are  there.  

and Cinderella  was  born.    There  are  over  

I had  this  lovely  little  woman  in  Milwaukee  

from home,  died  like  flies  on  the  way—you  

four hundred  versions  of  Cinderella  around   the  world.    It’s  part  of  our  collective,  this  

place that  we  all  go  as  two-­‐legged  beings  

Windling: I  think  the  oral  tradition  is  really  

and we  draw  from  this.    So  everybody  has  a  

important and  I  totally  agree  with  making  

great heritage  of  story,  of  travels,  of  people  

sure that  within  your  own  families  you  do  

and family.  

tell stories  in  addition  to  reading  them.    I  

Create an  oral  tradition  in  your  own  family   that  is  authentic;  that  is  genuine.    Don’t  be   afraid  to  hear,  you  know,  when  your  son   says,  “I’m  going  to  kill  my  little  sister,”  take   out  a  book  or  a  story  that  talks  about  that.     Don’t  say,  “Oh  you  don’t  mean  that.”    Yeah,   he  probably  does.    (laughter)    If  he’s   anything  like  my  son.   Dunn:  Let  me  piggyback,  because  my  son   just  said  that  recently.    Talking  about   resources,  Gayle,  here’s  the  point  for  the   plug.    We  all  have  books  next  door.  

tradition as  well  because  we  are  living  in  a   golden  age  now  of  fairy  tale  scholarship  and   fairy  tale  resources.    Things  have  changed   enormously  in  twenty,  twenty-­‐five  years.     Particularly  if  you’re  looking  for  stories  for   children  I  would  recommend  Jane  Yolen’s   collection,  her  Favorite  Folktales  from   Around  the  World,  because  Jane  is  a  scholar   who  goes  back  to  the  older  versions.   She’s  also  got  two  terrific  books.    One   is…oh…No  Damsels  in  Distress?    Anyway,  if   you  look  up  her  books  there’s  one  of  Jane  

Ross: Oh  yeah,  I  missed  a  chance  for  crass  

Yolen’s collections  called  World  Folktales  

commercialism.  (laugher)    And  I’m  an  

for Strong  Girls  and  one  that’s  World  

American.  How  dare  me?    Yeah,  we  do  have  

Folktales for  Strong  Boys.    They  are  terrific  

CDs of  stories.  

collections for  giving  to  kids  to  get  them  

Dunn: But  maybe  we  could  talk  about  some  

interested in  the  meatier  versions  of  

of the  sources  too;  Terri  and  Heinz  are  some  


great sources.  

also want  to  make  a  plug  for  the  literary  

If as  adults  you  want  to  

another resource  we  can  

and fiction  children’s  books  

start looking  at  the  older  

all refer  to.    Also  I  would  

that work  with  fairy  tale  

traditions in  fairy  tales,  look  

recommend Sur  la  Lune  


at Angela  Carter’s  

fairy tale  Website.    This  is  a  


fantastic resource.    Many  

Ross: Yes.  


familiar with  are  archived  

Windling: No,  

Windling: She’s  another  

there with  links  to  earlier

person who  before  she  died  

sources and  discussions.  

Fenkl: Also  if  you’re  an  

Windling: Yeah,  the  

academic, like  when  I  was  

histories of  the  tales.  

in the  anthropology  

went around  looking  for  the   older  versions  of  tales.    If   you’re  interested  in  fairy   tale  history…   Ross:  And  if  you’re  

Fenkl: It’s  called  Sur  la   Lune.  

program beginning  as  a   folklorist,  I  immediately   arrived  at  the  central  irony  

intimidated by  telling  the  

Windling: And  here  are  

of folklore  scholarship  

story, which  a  lot  of  people  

postcards you  can  pick  up  

which is  the  fact  that  if  

are because  they  don’t  

after the  panel  is  over  for  

you’re a  folklorist  you  have  

understand that  they  have  

the Endicott  Studio.    We  do  

to go  back  to  “the  earliest  

an innate  ability  to  do  that,  

articles on  the  history  of  

source” but  that  earliest  

reading aloud  is  a  great  

fairy tales.    We  also  do  

source was  the  written  

place to  start  from  these  

articles on  writers  and  

text, which  basically  

resources.  Read  these  

painters and  dramatists  

represented the  death  of  

books aloud.  

working with  fairy  tales  

the living  tradition.  

Fenkl: I’ll  make  a  plug  for   the  Endicott  Studio.    This  is  

of the  stories  that  you’re  

Dunn: S-­‐u-­‐r-­‐l-­‐a-­‐l-­‐u-­‐n-­‐e  dot  

today.  And  we  also  have   reading  lists  of   recommended  non-­‐fiction  

But the  irony  has  a  remedy,  which  is  if  you  look  at  what’s  been  happening  in  the  past  twenty   years  or  so,  people  have  gone  back  to  the  earliest  written  text  or  begun  with  the  most   conventionally  available  text  and  then  begun  to  do  their  written  retellings.    That  now   represents  a  kind  of  dynamic  living  tradition  which  is  like  an  oral  tradition  but  it  happens  to  be   in  text.   If  all  of  you  want  to  recover  the  storytelling  tradition  and  to  do  something  with  fairy  tales  what   I  would  do  is  encourage  you  to  participate  in  both.    Tell  your  family  stories  but  also  don’t  just   read  stories  to  your  children,  feel  free  to  elaborate  on  them,  feel  free  to  manipulate  them.     Because  the  oral  storytelling  tradition  and  the  fairy  tale  tradition  were  always  dynamic,  it  was   being  changed  and  transformed  and  reconfigured  for  particular  contexts  continuously.   Windling:  And  both  those  traditions  have  been  interlinked.    Sometimes  people  in  the  fairy  tale   field  want  to  privilege  one  over  the  other:  the  oral  tradition  is  the  right  one  or  the  literary   tradition  is  what  fairy  tales  are.    In  fact  through  the  centuries,  fairy  tales  have  gone  in  and  out   of  the  oral  tradition,  the  literary  tradition,  and  it  was  affecting  the  oral  tradition  affecting  the   literary  tradition.    They  are  so  intensely  interlinked  and  that’s  one  of  the  things  that  makes  it   interesting.   Ross:  I  would  qualify  that  with  one,  there  are  among  native  people,  certain  stories  that  are   told  a  certain  way,  that  are  taught  a  certain  way,  that  are  not  allowed  to  be  changed.  

Windling: I  guess  that  I’m  speaking  specifically  of  the  fairy  tale  tradition  rather  than  the   folktale  tradition.   Ross:  There  are  the  wonder  stories,  certain  ceremonial  versions  of  certain  stories,  and  they’re   told  and  taught  so  that  they  don’t  change  for  a  reason.    Certainly  all  the  other  stories  do   change  continuously.   Windling:  I  wouldn’t  categorize  them  under  fairy  tales  though.    Fairy  tales  are  specifically   wonder  tales.   Ross:  Yeah.   Windling:  When  you  get  into  ceremonial  tales,  you  know,  that’s  a  whole  different  kettle  of   fish.   Fenkl:  Do  we  have  another  question?   Audience  Member  #2:  Yeah,  my  name  is  Diana.    I  talked  to  Carolyn  and  was  in  your  session   yesterday.    I  have  a  couple  of  comments.    One,  I  liked  when  you  were  talking  about  the  sort  of   generation  we  grew  up  in.    What  I  was  thinking  about  when  we  talked  about  what  had   happened,  the  Disneyfication  that  happened  to  fairy  tales,  I  think  it  goes  back  to  what  Heinz   was  saying  at  the  beginning,  it’s  a  reflection  of  the  general  collective  consciousness  of  the   culture  and  the  fact  that  when  we  were  growing  up,  the  baby  boomer  generation,  America   was  all  about  how  the  future  is  going  to  be  bright  and  wonderful,  the  war’s  over  hurray  for   America.    I  think  part  of  that  mentality  was  that  we  pretended  that  things  like  rape  and  incest   and  sexual  abuse  didn’t  exist.    I  grew  up  totally  oblivious  to  that  in  the  world.    I  think  culture   has  shifted  to  where  that’s  open  and  talked  about  now.    I  think  along  with  that  is  sort  of  a   collective  willingness  to  go  back  to  the  roots  of  the  folktales  and  the  fairy  tales  because  now  in   our  culture  those  are  things  that  it’s  okay  to  talk  about.    For  a  generation  of  us  it  got  swept   under  the  rugs  in  real  life  just  as  it  did  in  the  fairy  tales.      

Windling: That’s  true.   Audience  Member  #2:  So  I  think  there’s  a  willingness  to  embrace  that  again  and  I  think  that’s   reflected  in  our  generation  as  we’ve  become  adults.    I’m  a  high  school  language  arts  teacher.    I   teach  American  literature.    One  of  the  things  I’ve  always  done  is  include  Native  American   literature  which  only  recently  has  started  to  appear  in  textbooks,  which  is  a  wonderful  step.     But  I  always  try  to  expand  that  to  beyond  American  literature  to  folktales.   One  thing  I  always  try  to  do  in  any  literature  with  my  kids  is  see  the  connections  between   different  genres,  different  cultures,  and  so  to  come  back  to  what  you  had  asked  about:  How   do  we  move  forward?    I  think  a  really  big  piece  of  that  is  that  connectedness.    The  fact  that   there  are  four  hundred  Cinderella  stories  from  four  hundred  different  cultures  around  the   world,  that’s  really  important.    This  isn’t  a  uniquely  American  idea  or  a  uniquely  Korean  idea  or   a  uniquely  European  idea,  this  is  a  universal  human  idea  and  it  rose  throughout  the  world   because  that’s  a  part  of  being  human.    Teaching  that  to  our  children,  whether  it’s  your  own   little  kids  at  home  or  if  you’re  like  me  and  you’re  dealing  with  adolescents  every  day  in  a   classroom,  reinforcing  that  message  because  I  think  they  need  to  hear  that  idea  of   connectedness  and  empowerment  and  all  the  wonderful  messages  that  are  in  folktales.   Ross:  Uh  huh,  un  huh.   Audience  Member  #2:  The  other  question  that  I  had  earlier  and  wanted  to  quick  cycle  back  to   is  for  Heinz.    We  talked  about  how  as  the  tales  had  been  changed  throughout  the  centuries  it   was  a  reflection  of  the  political  and  the  forces  that  surrounded  them.    I  think  with   feminization,  the  whole  feminine  mystique  thing  that’s  coming  back,  we’re  looking  more  at   the  feminine  in  spirituality  and  feminism.    And  I  think  that’s  feeding  back  into  the  folktale   resurgence.  

What is  happening  in  the  culture  in  Korea?    

standards but  also  virtuous  by  old  Korean  

You know  they’re  on  a  different  part  of  the  

and Confucian  standards,  and  also  to  be  

wave as  America.    Could  you  do  the  same  

more liberated  individuals.    All  of  these  

sort of  connections  historically  with  

pressures are  coming  together  and  it’s  

women’s roles  in  society  and  what’s  

creating horrible  dysfunction.  

happening with  fairy  tales  and  folktales?   Fenkl:  Well  in  Korea  right  now  what’s  

attractive young  woman  was  said  to  have  

happening from  my  point  of  view  is  rather  

what we  called  muja:  she  had  calves  like  

troubling because  the  major  representation  

turnips.  So  when  I  was  a  child  that  was  a  

of Korean  culture  right  now  is  Korean  film.    

compliment.  By  the  time  I  was  a  teenager  

In the  Pacific  Rim  there’s  a  whole  

that was  derogatory.    I  left  Korea  in  ‘72  and  

phenomenon called  the  “Korean  Wave.”    

when I  went  back  in  ‘84,  anorexia  was  

Korean film  actually  dominates  the  Pacific  

rampant because  the  Korean  women  who  

Rim right  now;  Hollywood  is  now  second  

were naturally  large  and  kind  of  plump  were  

fiddle to  that.    But  the  sorts  of  products  

all being  forced  into  this  Western  model  of  

coming out  of  Korea  seem  to  suggest  a  

thinness.  By  the  time  I  went  back  in  1995,  

deeply troubled  social  consciousness.  

bulimia, anorexia,  all  of  these  things,  it  was  

What’s coming  out  of  the  woman’s  tradition   is  actually  kind  of  like  an  amplification  of  the   second  part  of  the  Korean  Cinderella  that  I   talked  about.    The  psychological  problems  

I remember  very  clearly  when  I  was  a  kid  an  

just horrific.    It’s  not  happening  in  the  folk   tradition  now,  what  you’re  seeing  is  that  in   the  popular  culture  these  sorts  of  things  are   happening.  

are generally  conveyed  as  genre  horror  but  

I just  translated  a  story  by  a  Korean  woman  

what they’re  really  reflecting  is  this  dual  

writer who  is  one  of  the  most  popular  

pressure that  Korean  women  are  under  now  

writers right  now.    She’s  in  her  mid  thirties  

not only  to  be  attractive  by  Western  

and it’s  a  story  kind  of  like  Nikolai  Gogol’s  

Diary of  a  Madman  but  what  it  represents  is  

to figure  out  what  a  woman  was  supposed  

this woman  who’s  under  so  much  pressure  

to be  and  I  would  impersonate  what  I  saw.    

that she’s  become,  I  guess  in  our  

Therefore today,  I’m  supposed  to  be  a  brain  

interpretation she  would  be  a  manic-­‐

surgeon who  takes  my  kid  to  the  

depressive individual,  and  she  lives  in  her  

orthodontist and  I’m  doing  surgery  in  high  

own psychological  world.    This  is  the  major  

heels and  I’ve  got  beautiful  fingernails.    I  

sort of  popular  representation  now.  

mean the  advertising  when  I  was  coming  of  

So it’s  ironic,  more  Korean  women  are   writing,  they’re  going  back  to  the  old  folk   traditions,  but  the  way  they’re   reinterpreting  them  has  highlighted  all  these   problems  and  instead  of  the  culture  looking   at  those  and  responding  to  them,  what  the   culture  does  is  turn  them  into  commodities.     They  become  popular  fiction.    And  I  think   it’s,  whenever  a  culture  is  under  a  certain   type  of  pressure  it  has  to  come  out  

him a  good  meal  he’ll  buy  you  a   refrigerator.”    We  definitely  were  truncated   beings  who  didn’t  have  power.    Our  power   came  through  the  one  who  had  power.    But   we  would  manipulate  them.    And  women   didn’t  like  other  women  because  if  she’s   prettier  than  me,  she’ll  get  my  power.    And   that  was  scary.    So  we  didn’t  even  support   one  another.  

somewhere and  the  mainstream  culture  

And our  grandmothers…  there  was  a  silence  

tries to  coopt  that,  but  eventually  it  falls  

in my  family.    I’m  Jewish.    There  was  a  lot  of  

apart and  it  has  to  be  addressed  more  

holocaust terror.    But  I  interviewed  my  

directly.  So  I  think  in  Korea  we’re  at  a  stage  

mother before  she  died  and  that’s  

just before  that.  

something I  would  recommend.    We  all  

Audience Member  #3:  I  wanted  to  say   something.    I  am  a  female  impersonator.    I   was  born  in  1939  and  I  looked  at  advertising  

age taught  us  to  manipulate.    “Oh  if  you  fix  

have tape  recorders,  and  to  pass  this  on  to   our  children  and  grandchildren.    Her  stories   were  too  good  to  lose.    She’s  dead;  if  I   hadn’t  interviewed  her  they  would  have  

gone.  Then  I  interviewed  her  older  brother  who  lived  to  a  hundred-­‐and-­‐two  bless  his  heart,   and  he  read  my  mother’s  story  and  he  said  obviously  she  was  the  girl  child  because  they  saw   their  parents  so  differently  and  they  saw  their  lives  so  differently.   So  if  we  grow  to  be  authentic  because  we  all  have  one  author,  like  the  word  authentic  comes   from  author,  and  if  we  live  our  truth  and  forget  to  share  it,  then  every  one  else  has  to  relive   our  difficulties,  our  pain,  our  boys  will  marry  deer  women,  and  then  divorce  them—   Dunn:  Or  not.   Audience  Member  #3:  Or  not.    (laughter)    Or  I  would  grow  to  be  a  Deer  Woman  and  that   wasn’t  me.    You  know?    Thank  you.   Dunn:  When  I  listen  to  you  I  think  that’s  so  beautiful.    There  are  so  many  stories  in  families.     My  aunt  was  interred  during  World  War  II  in  a  Japanese-­‐American  internment  camp.    And  my   cousins,  we  all  interviewed  her  for  our  high  school  projects.    That  was  so  important  because   interviewing  her  as  a  child  in  ninth  grade  and  then  interviewing  her  as  a  graduate  student  in  a   folklore  class  was  very  different.   My  family  all  grew  up  in  Los  Angeles  before  it  was  LA.    So  hearing  their  stories  about  this  place   before  it  became  LA  in  the  cultural  imagination  is  going  to  be  very  important,  and  the   migration  stories  as  well  are  important.    Hearing  those,  you  know,  looking  at  the  stories  within   our  families  are  going  to  become  very  important  because  that  connects  us,  like  Terri  was   saying,  with  a  literary  tradition  and  an  oral  tradition.   Windling:  One  thing  that  you  said  that  sparks  something  in  me  is  this  idea  of  you  individually,   by  yourself,  unconnected  with  other  women,  trying  to  figure  out  what  authentically  being  a   woman  was.    This  isn’t  new  to  the  twentieth  century  or  the  twenty-­‐first  century.    If  you  look  at   what  women  in  seventeenth-­‐century  Paris  were  doing  with  fairy  tales,  they  were  trying  to  tell   each  other  how  to  live.    The  whole  notion  of  the  fairy  godmother,  you  don’t  really  find  it  in  the    

European oral  tradition  prior  to  the  seventeenth  century.    It  was  kind  of  a  literary  construct  by   these  women  writers  who  were  creating  these  characters  who  were  wise  older  women  who   were  advising  the  young  heroine  how  to  behave,  how  to  get  through,  how  to  survive  in  the   world.   That  idea  of  mentoring  was  really  important  to  those  women.    I  think  it’s  important  today.     One  thing  I  find  fascinating  about  fairy  tales  is  how  when  we  read  them  as  children,  we  focus   on  certain  aspects  of  them  and  certain  characters  and  to  me  it  was  the  young  heroines   heading  off  on  the  road  trying  to  find  how  she  was  going  to  live  her  life.    Now  coming  back  as   an  older  woman,  I’m  really  interested  in  those  mentor  characters,  those  fairy  godmothers,   those  witches  in  the  woods.    They  become  important  as  we  relate  to  the  younger  women  in   our  lives.   The  way  we  find  out  how  to  be  women  is  through  other  women.    In  America  particularly   where  we  have  this  idea  of  individuality,  it’s  really  important  to  remember  community  and   mentoring.    I  mean  all  of  us  that  came  out  of  the  feminist  movement  of  the  60s  and  70s   understand  the  necessity  of  political  activism  as  a  collective.    But  I  see  a  lot  of  faces  in  this   room  of  women  about  my  age  and  I  think  this  is  something  that  we  can  look  to  fairy  tales  for   now.    It’s  to  look  at  all  these  roles  for  older  women  and  how  we  translate  that  into  our  lives  as   we  speak  to  women  in  their  teens,  their  twenties.    And  the  concerns  they  have  about  how  to   be  women  today.   Audience  Member  #4:  My  name’s  Karen.    First  of  all  I’d  like  to  say  thank  you,  this  is  an   opportunity  for  me  to  thank  the  Native  American  storytellers  for  reminding  us  that  we  have  a   culture  and  we  have  stories  as  Westerners.    Because  I  sort  of  discovered  that  by  hanging   around  in  the  late  80s  in  the  New  Age  movement  in  the  sweat  lodges.   Ross:  Uh  oh.    Lucky  to  be  here,  aren’t  you?    (laughter)  

Audience Member  #4:  Yeah.    Then  one  day  

work you’ve  done  because  I  feel  you’re  a  

in the  early  90s  I  went,  oh  I  have  a  culture,  

big part  of  the  renaissance  and  the  

you know,  and  what  happened  to  it.    Where  

retrieving of  those  stories.    I  cannot  

are the  stories?    So  I  spent  the  last  fifteen  

remember if  it  was  you  or  Ellen  Datlow  

years or  so  digging  into  them  and  now  I’m  in  

who… it  was  in  one  of  the  introductions  to  

conventional academia  in  a  masters  

one of  your  books,  like  the  Snow  White,  

program where  I’ve  been  able  to  look  at  

Blood Red  or…  

that quite  a  bit.    I  wanted  to  say  that’s  one   of  the  ironies  because  while  you  have  clung   and  as  you  have  described  held  onto  your   identity  and  that  sort  of  thing,  that  there’s  

who have  both  our  names  on  them.    Ellen  is   not  a  writer.  

been sort  of  a  sideline  result  of  that,  for  the  

Audience Member  #4:  I’m  in  the  

rest of  us  have  realized  how  our  stories  have  

conventional scholarship  mode  with  a  lot  of  

been subverted  by  the  dominant  culture:  

the stuff  right  now  and  there  is  a  weird—

Disneyfication, commodification,  etc.    So  I  

trying to  bridge—trying  to  write  about  

wanted to  thank  you  for  your  holding  onto  

shamanism at  LSU,  I  mean  it’s  always  a  trick.    

your culture  and  inspiring  the  rest  of  us.    

But because  you  go  back  to  those  origins  

Because we  probably  don’t  deserve  it.    But  

that’s where  you  end  up  when  you  go  back,  

any way,  thank  you.  

but I  wanted  to  say  that  in  the  original  Snow  

A couple  of  things.    One  is  I  want  to  highly   recommend  Terri  Windling’s  introductions   to  her  anthologies.   Ross  and  Dunn:  Yeah,  yeah.   Audience  Member  #4:  Thank  you  for  the  

Windling: I  write  all  the  intros  even  the  ones  

White, maybe  it’s  you  that  told  us,  that  it  is   the  birth  mother  and  not  the  stepmother   who  sends  the  hunter  out.   And  that  was  something  that  the  Grimms   brothers  changed.    Because  they  thought  it   was  too—  

Windling: It  was—   Audience  Member  #4:  But  you  know  what?     In  Tolkien’s  famous  essay  on  fairy  tales  it’s   the  consulatio  for  those  of  us  who  had  a   birth  mother  who  would  send  us  out  with  

in spite  of  that.    So  anyway,  I  just  wanted   to  thank  you  for  your  work  in  digging  and   for  inspiring  the  rest  of  us,  and  for  your   wonderful  introductions.  

the hunter.    I  never  knew  that  and  I  used  to  

I had  a  question  but  I  don’t  remember  

always tell  people,  you  know  it’s  weird,  my  

what it  was…    (laughter)    And  I’m  probably  

mother is  like  the  stepmother  in  Snow  

running out  of  time  anyway.    So  thank  you.  

White.  Why  is  she  that  way?    And  I  used  to   think  it’s  so  strange,  there  was  something   wrong  with  me  that  I  had  this  kind  of  

Windling: I’d  like  to  make  a  plug  about  a   few  other  books.  

ruthless, jealous,  mirror-­‐mirror-­‐on-­‐the-­‐wall  

Audience Member  #4:  Oh  please.  

type of  mother.  

Windling: I’m  sure  you’ve  already  read  

Then finally  as  a  forty-­‐something  adult  

them since  you’re  well  read  in  this  area  but  

woman, I  realized  that  there  was  actually  a  

one is  Clarissa  Pinkola  Estes’  Women  Who  

story in  my  tradition  to  help  little  girls  like  

Run with  the  Wolves.    It  got  a  little  bit  of  

me to  understand  that  sometimes  it’s  just  

bad press  because  it  was  so  popular  and  

that way  in  life.    There’s  brutality  in  life,  you  

it’s actually  a  fabulous  resource  for  

know.  Life  is  brutal  and  bad  things  happen,  

women’s tales.  

but guess  what,  you’re  gonna  get  help,  

Audience Member  #4:  Oh  yeah.  

you’re gonna  get  friends.    Dwarves  are   gonna  come  help  you.    (laughter  &  applause)  

I’ve made  it.    I’m  here.    And  I’m  doing  great  

Windling: Women  Who  Run  with  the   Wolves.    I  really  respect  that  book  and  

And birds  in  forests,  and  the  fairy  

what she  has  done  as  a  storyteller.    The  

godmother’s gonna  materialize.    I  mean,  the  

other is  a  collection  of  essays  called  Mirror  

tree’s gonna  help  you.    And  so  you  know,  

Mirror On  the  Wall:  Women  Writers  

Explore Their  Favorite  Fairy  Tales,  edited  by  Kate  Bernheimer.    And  it  contains  essays  by   writers  like  A.  S.  Byatt,  Margaret  Atwood,  all  kinds  of  people.    Me.    Talking  about  the  ways   fairy  tales  influenced  our  lives  as  writers  and  as  women.   Audience  Member  #4:  Okay  my  question,  I  remembered  it.    Do  you  think  we  can  go  all  the  way   back  to  Marie  de  France?    I  mean  don’t  you  think  we  can  go  that  far  back  to  her  versions  of  the   romance  cycle  lady’s  story  where  the  shapeshifting  woman  in  the  forest  trains  the  knight  to   behave  properly?    I  mean  that  goes  farther  back  than  the  fifteenth  or  sixteenth  century.   Windling:  That’s  a  very  good  point.   Audience  Member  #4:  The  Breton  lais,  I  really  think  we  can  go  back  that  far.   Windling:  Scholars  go  crazy  trying  to  determine  what’s  a  myth,  what’s  a  legend,  what’s  a  fairy   tale.    I’m  not  gonna  go  there  myself.    But  a  lot  of  people  put  her  in  the  myth  and  legend   category  rather  than  fairy  tale.    But  honestly  as  you  bring  it  up  I  don’t  know  why  because  some   of  her  stories  are  very  much  in  the  fairy  tale  tradition.    Certainly  in  some  of  her  stories  you  can   see  links  to  tales  such  as  Bluebeard.   But  that’s  a  good  point.    I  don’t  know  why  she’s  not  considered  one  of  the  early  fairy  tale   writers.   Heinz:  Do  we  have  time  for  one  more  question?   Ross:  You’ve  been  waiting  a  long  time.    Did  you  have  a  question?   Audience  Member  #5:  First  I  want  to  thank  the  panel.    Every  one  of  you  have  been  so   incredible  in  sharing  your  insights  into  storytelling  and  I’m  from  Hawaii  and  I  used  to  be   involved  with  children’s  television  in  the  area  of  Hawaiian  studies  and  also  I  was  involved   with—our  class  was  ’69  so  I’m  over  fifty  but  when  we  graduated  we  all  got  together  and  raised   thirty  thousand  dollars  for  our  school  to  have  a  storytelling  gift.    I’m  still  in  touch  with  trying  to    

check it  out  and  see  how  it’s  coming.   So  this  is  very  informative  and  helpful  for  me  as  I  continue  to  represent  our  classmates  to  see   how  we  select.    You  see  it’s  really  timely  ‘cause  I’m  going  back,  I  return  on  the  twentieth.    I   moved  here  six  years  ago  but  I  go  back  every  year  or  two  to  continue  working  with  the  schools   and  all  that.   It  reminds  me  of  the  hula  in  that  the  hula  is  the  archive  of  Hawaiian  history  in  the  sense  that   there’s  the  ‘auana,  which  is  the  modern,  contemporary  hula  and  then  there’s  kahiko,  the   chants.    And  certain  chants  are  forbidden  and  only  certain  hula  teachers  will  share  that  with   the  hula  students  they  select.    But  then  others  are  vital  to  carrying  on  the  history  and  honoring   all  those—   Ross:  A  sense  of  place.   Audience  Member  #5:  A  sense  of  place.    The  love  stories  and  the  Pele  chants,  that  is  like  a   certain  school  of  hula,  the  Kanaka  Aia  La  ‘O  Pele.    They  live  in  the  island  of  Hawaii,  and   probably  everyone,  you  may  have  heard  of  Pele  and  she’s  just  the  source  of  such  inspiration.     She’s  so  sacred.    And  it’s  still  so  much  alive  there.    So  anyway,  it  reminded  me  of  my  Kuma   Hula,  the  teacher  of  my  hula  school.    She  lives  in  Kauai  and  she  would  not  enter  into  any   competition  where  there’s  any—actually  there’s  a  famous,  it’s  called  the  Monarch  Festival  and   King  Kamehameha  when  he  was  coronated  at  the  turn  of  the  century—before  the  turn  of  the   century  hula  was  banned  because  it  was  considered  pagan  and  all  this  kind  of  stuff  that   happened,  so  that  it  was  underground.   When  the  king  was  coronated  he  said  we’re  having  it  back.    So  every  April  in  the  springtime   there’s  the  Merrie  Monarch  Festival  where  many  halau  hula  schools  come  together,  even   some  from  the  mainland  because  many  Hawaiians  now  live  away  from  Hawaii.    T hey  come  to   compete  but  my  hula  teacher  would  not  enter  into  that  because  although  that  keeps  it  alive    

and keeps  it  visual,  there’s  so  much  of  the  television  that  can  link,  and  you  can  send  the  videos   back  to  friends  and  family,  but  she  said  that  she  didn’t  want  the  television  to  determine  what   was  the  most  popular  because  each  year  she  would  notice  that  part  of  the  hulas  that  were   coming  in  were  ones  that  kind  of  had  some  of  the  flairs  of  the  previous  years.    So  that  was   starting  to  change  some  of  the  kahiko.    But  otherwise  that  has  a  creative  base.    It  can  enlarge   your  audience  and  share  it  to  schools.    You  keep  it  alive  by  modernizing  some  of  the  myths   that  we  see.   But  anyway,  I  do  think  that’s  part  of  the  storytelling,  I  love  it,  the  oral  traditions  of  y our  family   and  also  keeping  them.    Like  I  grew  up  on  Sharp  Ears,  The  Baby  Whale  because  my  mother   taught  me.    She  kept  reading  it  and  that  was  my  story.    Now  it’s  obscure  and  it’s  no  longer   probably  available.    And  then  the  fairy  tales.    But  I  love  what  you’re  sharing  as  far  as  being   critical  about  what  we  select  and  so  I’m  really  going  to  bring  that  back  home  to  my  colleagues.     So  thank  you  so  much.   Dunn:  So  how  about  that  one  last  question?   Fenkl:  Did  we  have  one  last  question?   Audience  Member  #6:  It  had  to  do  with  being  able  to  break  through  the  modern  mother-­‐ daughter  relationship  which  now  as  soon  as  you  open  your  mouth—I  have  this  son  and  he  will   listen  coming  from  a  different  place,  but  I  see  so  many  young  people  without  any  direction  and   if  a  parent  would  try  to  give  them  some  tradition  even  though  they  desperately  need  it…    I   don’t  know  where  that’s  going  to  come  from.   Windling:  Well,  I  speak  from  a  particular  perspective  as  a  fantasy  editor  and  writer  but  I  think   fantasy  does  a  heck  of  a  job  of  reaching  kids—fantasy  that’s  rooted  in  myth  and  fairy  tales,   which  there’s  a  lot  of  these  days  by  some  very  knowledgeable  and  heart-­‐centered  writers.  

I think  that  if  you’re  talking  about  kids  who  read  at  all  that  this  is  one  way  that  mythic   knowledge  and  fairy  tales  can  come  to  them  through  the  pages  of  fantasy  books.   Audience  Member  #6:  They  should  present  them  with  a  book  instead  of  a  lecture.   Fenkl:  Or  forbid  the  book  and  then  they’ll  really—  (laughter)   Ross:  And  then  leave  it  lying  around.    (laughter)   Dunn:  Just  a  quick  plug  ‘cause  I  have  taken  on  Miss  Ross’  mantle  today.    I  guess  I’m  the—   Ross:  You’re  the  crass  commercial—   Dunn:  I’m  the  driver  today.   Ross:  Okay.   Dunn:  She  and  I  are  doing  a  book  signing  today  at  one  o’clock  next  door.   Ross:  I  was  just  going  to  say  that  if  you’re  interested  there  are  CDs  of  stories  and  songs  at  the   Mythic  Journeys  booth,  not  the  Phoenix  and  Dragon  bookstore,  they  have  the  books.      The  CDs   of  her  songs  and  my  stories  are  at  the  Mythic  Journeys  booth.   Windling:  And  if  you  want  to  learn  more  about  Korean  fairy  tales  in  particular,  Heinz  has   several  articles  on  the  site.   Fenkl:  So  thank  you  all  for  coming.   (applause)  

Deeper meaning  resides  in  the  fairy   tales  told  to  me  in  my  childhood  than   in  any  truth  that  is  taught  in  life.    


I was  Snow  White,  but  then  I  drifted.    


Some day  you  will  be  old  enough   to  start  reading  fairy  tales  again.     C.  S.  LEWIS  

Lorem Ipsum  Dolor  

Issue #,  Date  

Rapunzel Rapunzel   Let  Down  Your  Hair  

Rapunzel Rapunzel  

Let Down  Your  Hair  

Terri Windling   Maiden-­‐in-­‐a-­‐Tower  stories  

believed that  their  "Rapunzel"  

than anonymous  folk  stories  

can be  found  in  folk  traditions  

was neither  German  nor  a  

passed orally  from  teller  to  

around the  world—but  

proper folk  tale.    Scholars  

teller.  The  Grimms'  

"Rapunzel," the  best  known  

have shown  that  a  number  of  

"Rapunzel," for  example,  was  

of these  stories,  comes  from  

the storytellers  from  whom  

derived from  a  story  of  the  

literary sources.    The  version  

the Brothers  Grimm  obtained  

same name  published  by  

of "Rapunzel"  we  know  today  

their material  were  

Friedrich Schultz  in  1790—

was published  as  a  German  

recounting "authored"  tales  

which was  a  loose  translation  

folk tale  by  the  Brothers  

from German,  French,  and  

of an  earlier  French  story,  

Grimm in  1857—but  it's  now  

Italian literary  sources  rather  

"Persinette" by    

Charlotte-­‐Rose de  La  Force,  

Each writer  in  this  chain  used  

"Rapunzel" in  one  category  or  

published in  1698  at  the  

folk motifs  drawn  from  oral  

another—for after  the  Basile,  

height of  the  "adult  fairy  tale"  

tales (associated  with  

La Force,  and  Schultz  

literary movement  in  Paris.    

peasants and  the  

publications, "Rapunzel"  

La Force's  tale  was  influenced  

countryside), reworking  them  

slipped into  the  oral  tradition  

by an  even  earlier  Italian  

into literary  tales  (for  adult  

of storytellers  throughout  the  

story, "Petrosinella"  by  

readers who  were  educated,  

West, where  it's  now  part  of  

Giambattista Basile,  published  

urban, and  upper-­‐class).    It  is  

our folk  culture  even  though  

in 1634  in  his  story  collection  

difficult, however,  to  draw  a  

it didn't  start  there.  

Lo Cunto  de  li  Cunti  (also  

sharp line  between  folk  tales  

known as  the  Pentamerone).  

and literary  fairy  tales,  placing  

Let's go  back  to  the  start,  however,  with  

The woman  threw  herself  on  her  neighbor's  

Giambattista Basile's  "Petrosinella."    Basile,  

mercy, but  the  ogress  was  not  appeased.    "I  

born near  Naples,  drew  plots  and  characters  

will spare  your  life  only  if  you  give  me  the  

from the  folk  tales  of  the  region,  re-­‐working  

child you  carry,  be  it  boy  or  girl."    The  

them into  courtly  tales  for  the  Italian  

frightened woman  agreed  and  slunk  back  

aristocracy.  What  follows  is  a  bare-­‐bones  

home, pockets  full  of  parsley.  

summary of  his  story,  without  the  clever  

She  soon  gave  birth  to  a  beautiful  baby  girl  

turns of  language  that  make  Basile's  work  so   sprightly  and  distinctive.    (I  suggest  reading   Basile's  story  in  full  in  a  good  English   translation—such  as  the  one  provided  by   Jack  Zipes  in  his  book  The  Great  Fairy  Tale   Tradition.)     Once  upon  a  time,  the  tale  begins,  a  woman   looked  out  her  window  at  the  garden  of  her   neighbor,  an  ogress,  and  developed  a   terrible  hunger  for  the  fine  parsley  growing   there.    Now,  this  woman  was  pregnant,  and   it  was  widely  believed  that  denying  the   cravings  of  a  pregnant  woman  could  cause   grave  harm  to  mother  and  child—so  she   snuck  into  her  neighbor's  garden,  not  once,   but  over  and  over.    The  ogress  laid  a  trap  

and named  her  Petrosinella  (derived  from   the  word  for  parsley  in  the  Neapolitan   dialect).    By  the  time  the  child  was  seven   years  old,  her  mother  had  forgotten  all   about  her  promise.    But  when  Petrosinella   started  school,  her  path  took  her  by  the   ogress's  house.     Each  time  that  Petrosinella  passed,  the  old   ogress  called  out  to  her:  "Tell  your  mother   to  remember  the  promise  she  made  to  me,   Petrosinella!"    The  child  did  as  she  was  told.     Her  mother  grew  more  and  more   frightened,  until  one  day  she  cried  out:  "Tell   that  woman  my  answer  is:  'Take  her!'"      

and caught  her.    "What  do  you  have  to  say  

for yourself,  thief?"  

When Petrosinella  delivered  this  message,  the  

happened that  a  prince,  who  was  hunting  

ogress grabbed  her  by  the  hair,  carried  her  

nearby, became  separated  from  his  fellows.  

deep into  the  forest,  and  locked  her  in  a  tall  

He stumbled  through  the  forest,  lost,  and  

stone tower.    The  tower  had  no  door  or  stairs,  

came upon  the  tower.    The  ogress  was  away  

just a  small  window  at  the  very  top,  and  there  

and Petrosinella  sat  in  the  window  sunning  

the child  would  sit,  straining  to  catch  a  small  

her hair.    She  was  the  most  beautiful  young  

ray of  sun.    The  girl  grew  up  in  this  lonely  

woman the  prince  had  ever  seen,  and  he  

place.  The  ogress  was  her  only  company,  

instantly fell  in  love.    He  called  up  to  

climbing in  and  out  of  the  tower  on  the  long,  

Petrosinella, and  for  several  days  they  

gold braids  of  Petrosinella's  hair.  

conversed and  sighed  and  pledged  their  love.    

Then Petrosinella  proposed  a  plan  to  meet  

Years passed,  and  Petrosinella  grew  into  a  

when the  moon  had  risen.    That  night,  she  

beautiful young  woman,  her  golden  braids  so  

gave the  old  ogress  a  dose  of  poppy  to  make  

long they  coiled  on  the  ground  below.    It  

her sleep  then  she  threw  her  braids  over  the  

windowsill and  pulled  the  

They hadn't  gone  very  far  

prince's own  kingdom,  where  

young man  up.    The  prince  

when the  ogress  woke  and  

"with the  kind  permission  of  

then "made  a  little  meal  out  

discovered the  girl's  escape,  

his father,  the  prince  made  

of the  parsley  sauce  of  love."  

using her  magic  to  catch  up  to  

Petrosinella his  wife  and  

More  nights  of  lovemaking  

the fleeing  lovers  in  no  time.    

proved that,  after  many  trials  

Petrosinella threw  down  the  

and tribulations,  one  hour  in  a  

first acorn.    It  turned  into  a  

safe harbor  can  make  you  

ferocious dog—but  the  ogress  

forget one  hundred  years  of  

drew bread  from  her  pocket  


and fed  the  dog  so  it  let  her  

Sixty  years  after  Basile's  

followed until  an  old  gossip   got  wind  of  this.    She  told  the   ogress  what  was  going  on,   warning  her  that  her   "daughter"  might  up  and  fly  if   she  didn't  act  quickly.    The   ogress  was  unperturbed,   saying:  "She  won't  be  able  to   get  very  far  without  the  use  of   my  magic  acorns,  and  I've   carefully  hidden  them  in  a   little  spot  above  the  rafters."     Petrosinella  had  been   listening  at  the  window,  and   she  quickly  made  a  plan.    She   told  her  lover  to  bring  some   rope  then  she  drugged  the  

pass.  Petrosinella  threw   down  the  second  acorn.    It   turned  into  a  raging  lion.    The   ogress  stole  the  skin  from  a   grazing  ass  and  charged  into   the  lion,  which  reared  back   from  this  monstrous   apparition  and  fled  in  fright.     Petrosinella  threw  down  the   third  acorn.    It  turned  into  a   hungry  wolf,  which  quickly   gobbled  up  the  ogress  before   she  could  use  her  magic  again   to  save  herself.  

"Petrosinella," the  French   writer  Charlotte-­‐Rose  de  La   Force  borrowed  elements   from  it  to  use  in  her  own   Maiden-­‐in-­‐a-­‐Tower  story,   "Persinette,"  published  in  her   fairy  tale  collection  Les  Contes   des  Contes  in  1697.    (This,  of   course,  was  a  practice  much   more  common  in  the  days   before  copyright  laws;   particularly  among  writers  of   fairy  tales,  where  the  practice  

ogress to  sleep  again,  stole  

continues to  this  day.)    La  

the three  acorns,  and  used  

Now the  lovers  were  safe.    

Force was  part  of  a  group  of  

the rope  to  leave  the  tower.    

They traveled  on  to  the  

writers (including  Madame  

D'Aulnoy, Madame  de  Murat,  

legal right,  and  there  was  no  

and Charles  Perrault)  who  

possibility of  divorce.  Young  

created a  vogue  for  adult  fairy  

girls could  find  themselves  

stories in  the  literary  salons  of  

married off  to  men  many  

Paris.  Like  Basile,  La  Force  

years their  senior  or  of  vile  

was writing  for  an  educated,  

temper and  habits;  

aristocratic audience,  creating  

disobedient daughters  could  

stories that  were  meant  both  

be shut  away  in  convents  or  

to entertain  and  to  comment  

locked up  in  mad-­‐houses.    

on issues  of  contemporary  

Little wonder,  then,  that  


French fairy  tales  are  filled  

One  issue  of  particular  

with girls  handed  over  to  

concern to  women  of  the   period  was  the  common   practice  of  arranged   marriages,  particularly  among   the  upper  classes.    Women  

various wicked  creatures  by   cruel  or  feckless  parents,  or   locked  up  in  enchanted   towers  where  only  true  love   can  save  them.  

had no  legal  say  in  these  

La  Force  and  other  writers  of  

arrangements, often  

the period  championed  the  

conducted as  business  

idea of  consensual,  

transactions between  one  

companionate marriages  

aristocratic family  and  

ruled by  love  and  civility.    

another.  Daughters  were  

(Some also  believed  that  Fate  

used to  cement  alliances,  to  

intended certain  souls  to  be  

curry favor,  and  to  settle  

together.)  The  emphasis  on  

debts.  Sex  was  a  husband's  

love and  romance  in  their  

stories can  seem  quaint  and  saccharine  

see why  the  tale  of  a  girl  locked  away  in  a  

today, but  such  stories  were  progressive,  

tower would  have  appealed  to  her.  

even subversive,  in  the  context  of  the  time.    

Once  upon  a  time,  the  tale  begins,  a  young  

La Force  herself  was  an  independently   minded  woman  from  a  noble  family  who   caused  several  scandals  in  her  quest  to  live  a   life  that  was  self-­‐determined.    She  fell  in   love  and  attempted  to  marry  a  young  man   without  parental  permission.    When  his   family  locked  him  up  to  prevent  an   elopement,  she  snuck  into  his  room  dressed   as  a  bear  with  a  traveling  theater  troupe!     The  couple  escaped,  and  married—but  the   law  eventually  caught  up  to  them  and  the   marriage  was  annulled.    She  then  got  caught   publishing  satirical  works  critical  of  King   Louis  XIV.      La  Force  was  exiled  to  a  convent   for  this  crime—where  she  wrote  her  book  of   fairy  tales  and  a  series  of  popular  historical   novels.    Eventually  released,  she  spent  the   rest  of  her  life  earning  her  own  living   through  her  writing.     Like  all  of  La  Force's  fairy  tales,  "Persinette"  

couple prepares  for  the  birth  of  their  child,   and  all  is  well  until  the  wife  conceives  a   passionate  craving  for  parsley.    Her  doting   husband  steals  the  parsley  out  of  a  fairy's   enchanted  garden.    (The  gate  stands   temptingly  open,  implying  the  fairy  knows   very  well  what  will  happen—and  may,   indeed,  have  magically  caused  the  craving   that  sets  the  tale  in  motion.    Fairies  are  well   known,  after  all,  for  their  penchant  for   stealing  infants.)    The  second  time  the   husband  sneaks  into  the  garden  (again  he   finds  the  gate  open),  the  fairy  catches  him   and  demands  his  unborn  child  as  payment.     The  man  agrees  "after  a  short  deliberation."     When  his  wife  gives  birth  to  a  beautiful   baby  girl,  she  promptly  hands  the  child  over   to  the  fairy  without  a  word  of  protest.     The  fairy  raises  the  child  tenderly  until  

is a  sensual,  sparkling  confection  with  a  sly,  

Persinette (as  she's  come  to  be  called)  

sharp humor  at  its  center.    It's  not  hard  to  

reaches the  age  of  puberty.    Then,  in  order  

to keep  the  girl  safe  from  harm  (the  eyes  

village and  learns  that  the  girl  is  a  fairy's  

and attention  of  men),  the  fairy  builds  a  


magnificent silver  tower  deep  in  the  forest.    

It contains  all  that  the  girl  could  desire:  large  

The prince  returns,  waits,  and  watches  how  

and airy  rooms  elegantly  furnished;  

the fairy  goes  in  and  out  of  the  tower.    The  

wardrobes full  of  sumptuous  clothes;  

next day,  when  the  fairy  is  gone,  he  stands  

delicious meals  that  are  gracefully  served  by  

and calls  out  in  the  fairy's  voice:  

invisible fairy  servants;  books,  paints,  and  

"Persinette, let  down  your  hair."    Her  long  

instruments so  Persinette  need  never  be  

gold hair  comes  tumbling  down;  he  climbs,  

bored.  What  it  doesn't  have  is  a  door  or  

and steps  into  the  tower.      Persinette  is  

stairs, so  whenever  the  fairy  comes  to  call  

frightened once  again—but  she  soon  

she says,  "Persinette,  let  down  your  hair,"  

recovers her  aplomb  as  the  prince  

and she  climbs  up  through  the  window.  

persuades her  of  his  love.    He  proposes  to  

marry her  there  and  then,  and  she  

Years pass,  and  one  day  the  son  of  the  king  

"consented without  hardly  knowing  what  

is hunting  in  the  forest  nearby.    He  hears  the  

she was  doing.    Even  so,"  writes  La  Force  

maiden singing  and  falls  in  love  with  her,  

archly, "she  was  able  to  complete  the  

sight unseen.    He  finds  his  way  to  the  tower  


and spies  a  shadowy  figure  far  above—but  


when he  calls  to  her,  Persinette  takes  fright.    

The prince  continues  to  visit  the  tower,  and  

It's been  many  years  since  she's  seen  a  man,  

before long  Persinette  grows  fat.    Innocent,  

and the  fairy  has  told  her  that  some  are  

she doesn't  know  she's  pregnant—but  the  

monsters who  can  kill  with  a  single  look.    

fairy certainly  does.    Furious,  the  fairy  takes  

The prince  leaves  discouraged,  but  he  

up a  knife  and  cuts  off  Persinette's  long  

cannot forget  the  sound  of  that  lonely,  

braids then  she  sends  her  off  in  a  flash  of  

lovely voice.    He  makes  inquiries  in  a  nearby  

fairy magic  to  a  remote  place.  

The fairy  hangs  the  braids  from  the  tower  window  and  waits  for  the  prince  to  come.    He   clambers  over  the  windowsill  and  is  shocked  to  find  his  lover  gone.    The  fairy  angrily  informs   the  prince  he'll  never  see  Persinette  again,  and  she  flings  him  from  the  tower.    He  lands  in   briar  thorns,  which  blind  him.     For  several  years  the  prince  wanders  the  world,  living  on  charity,  till  at  last  he  reaches  a   remote  place  where  he  hears  his  wife  singing.    Persinette  now  has  twin  children,  who  instantly   recognize  the  blind  man  as  their  father.    Persinette  cries  with  joy,  and  her  tears  magically   restore  his  sight.  

But wait!    The  fairy  is  still  angry,  and  not  yet  

Schultz merely  re-­‐tells  La  Force's  tale  rather  

prepared to  leave  them  be.    The  food  in  the  

than spinning  it  into  something  new.  

larder turns  into  stones,  the  well  fills  up  with  

venomous snakes,  the  birds  in  the  sky  above  

The oral  version  of  "Rapunzel"  collected  by  

turn into  dragons  breathing  fire.    The  little  

the Grimms  half  a  century  after  the  Schultz  

family huddles  together,  preparing  to  die  of  

publication follows  the  Schultz  and  La  Force  

the fairy's  wrath—but  the  lovers  are  happy,  

plot, and  is  clearly  derived  from  one  or  

nonetheless, to  have  found  each  other  at  last.    

both.  But  the  Grimms  made  several  

At this,  the  fairy's  heart  finally  melts.    She  sees  

changes before  they  published  their  

that their  love  is  strong  and  true.    She  forgives  

"Rapunzel" in  1857.      Once  again,  the  story  

them, blesses  their  marriage,  and  transports  

begins with  the  overwhelming  cravings  of  a  

them to  the  king's  castle,  where  the  king  and  

pregnant woman.      She  craves  rapunzel  (a  

queen welcome  their  son  and  his  family  with  

form of  lettuce),  which  grows  in  the  garden  

open arms.  

of a  sorceress.    (The  Grimms  often  edited  

fairies out  of  their  stories,  for  they  

Friedrich Schultz's  "Rapunzel,"  published  in  

considered the  creatures  to  be  too  French.    

Germany one  hundred  years  later,  faithfully  

It was  not  until  later  English  versions  that  

follows La  Force's  plot  while  toning  down  the  

the sorceress  became  a  witch.)      When  she  

flowery language  common  to  fairy  tales  of  the  

reaches the  age  of  puberty,  the  girl  is  locked  

earlier period.    The  only  marked  change  Schultz  

up in  a  tower  by  the  woman  she  now  calls  

makes to  the  story  is  that  the  fairy  is  portrayed  

Mother Gothel  (a  generic  name  for  a  

with greater  sympathy.    Confronting  

godmother).  The  tower  has  no  door  or  

Rapunzel's pregnancy,  she's  more  

stairs, and  the  only  way  to  enter  it  is  to  

Disappointed Mother  than  Vengeful  Fury;  and  

stand and  deliver  the  famous  line:  

she doesn't  throw  the  prince  from  the  tower—

"Rapunzel, Rapunzel,  let  down  your  hair."  

he leaps  himself,  in  a  fit  of  despair.    Overall,  

The prince  hears  the  maiden  singing,  finds  the  tower,  and  cannot  get  into  it.    He  rides  home   again,  but  returns  each  day,  compelled  by  the  beauty  of  her  song.    When  he  sees  the  sorceress   come  and  go,  he  learns  at  last  how  the  tower  is  entered.    "If  that's  the  ladder  one  needs,"  he   says,  "I'm  also  going  to  try  my  luck."     He  enters  the  tower,  calms  the  frightened  princess,  and  declares  his  undying  love  for  her.    He   offers  her  his  hand  in  marriage,  and  Rapunzel  chastely  accepts.    Thereafter,  he  visits  Rapunzel   each  evening  when  Mother  Gothel  is  safely  away.    Each  time  he  comes,  he  brings  a  skein  of  silk   so  she  can  weave  a  ladder  to  escape.  

One day,  as  the  sorceress  climbs  her  hair,  Rapunzel  absentmindedly  asks  her  why  is  she  so   much  heavier  than  the  prince?    Mother  Gothel  guesses  all  and  flies  into  a  terrible  rage.    She   cuts  off  Rapunzel's  hair,  banishes  her  to  a  distant  wilderness,  and  waits  for  the  prince  to  come   that  night,  where  she  confronts  him  with  his  crimes.    He  leaps  from  the  tower,  is  blinded  by   the  thorns,  and  then  wanders  the  world  seeking  Rapunzel—who's  now  referred  to  as  his   "wife."    They  re-­‐unite,  his  sight  is  restored,  and  he  learns  he  has  two  children.    He  takes  them   home  to  his  father's  court,  and  no  further  mention  is  made  of  Mother  Gothel.  

Although the  Grimms  

moral.  Thus,  in  their  version  

As fairy  tales  continued  to  be  

originally expected  their  folk  

of "Rapunzel,"  they  glide  right  

pushed to  the  children's  

tale collection  to  be  of  

over the  conception  of  the  

shelves in  the  20th  century,  

interest primarily  to  scholars,  

twins, and  over  the  fact  of  her  

the Grimms'  version  of  

they soon  realized  they  had  a  

pregnancy, until  the  children  

"Rapunzel" was  re-­‐told  over  

large and  lucrative  readership  

appear, without  explanation,  

and over  in  countless  picture  

among children  and  their  

at the  story's  end.    Because  of  

books—sometimes edited  

parents.  With  each  

the worldwide  popularity  of  

further to  delete  the  

subsequent edition,  they  

the Grimms'  now-­‐classic  

existence of  those  awkward  

edited the  stories  further  to  

volume of  tales,  this  

twins altogether.    In  the  

make them  more  appropriate  

children's version  of  

public mind,  Rapunzel's  tale  

for young  readers,  deleting  

"Rapunzel" is  the  one  best  

was one  intended  for  very  

sexual references,  and  making  

known today.  

young readers—with  few  

heroines more  virtuously  

realizing that  at  its  root  this  is  

a story  about  puberty,  sexual  desire,  and  the  

three different  points  of  view:  Zel  

evils of  locking  young  women  away  from  life  

(Rapunzel), her  mother  (combining  the  role  

and self-­‐determination.    In  the  children's  

of mother  and  witch),  and  Konrad  (the  son  

version, Rapunzel  is  just  another  passive  

of a  count).    This  is  a  dark,  psychologically  

princess waiting  for  her  prince  to  come.    In  

complex story,  delving  deep  into  each  

the older  tales  we  glimpse  a  different  story:  

character's psyche:  a  mother  unhinged  by  

about a  girl  whose  life  is  utterly  controlled  

the possessive  nature  of  her  love,  a  

by greedy,  selfish,  capricious  adults...  until  

daughter scarred  by  imprisonment,  a  young  

she disobeys,  chooses  her  own  fate,  and  

man obsessively  in  love  with  a  girl  he  barely  

bursts from  captivity  into  adult  life,  

knows.  It's  a  taut,  beautifully  written  novel  

symbolized by  the  birth  of  her  own  children  

and highly  recommended.  

in a  distant  land.  

In her  story  "Touk's  House,"  Robin  McKinley  

In the  latter  decades  of  the  20th  century,  

uses elements  from  "Rapunzel",  but  re-­‐

Rapunzel's story  began  to  change  again  as  

works the  plot  extensively.    Here,  a  

fairy tales  began  re-­‐appearing  in  poetry  and  

woodcutter's newborn  daughter  is  the  price  

fiction for  adult  readers.    This  new  literary  

he pays  for  stealing  healing  herbs.    The  

fairy tale  movement  was  pioneered  by  

witch is  a  sympathetic  figure,  raising  the  girl  

feminist writers  such  as  Anne  Sexton,  and  

like her  own  daughter,  and  teaching  her  the  

Angela Carter,  and  by  genre  writers  such  as  

herb lore  with  which  she'll  eventually  win  

Robin McKinley,  Jane  Yolen,  and  Tanith  Lee.  

the hand  of  a  prince.    But  the  girl  doesn't  

want the  prince  in  the  end,  choosing  the  

Donna Jo  Napoli's  Zel,  for  example,  is  one  of  

witch's sweet  son  instead.    Gregory  Frost's  

the very  best  renditions  of  the  "Rapunzel"  

"The Root  of  the  Matter,"  by  contrast,  is  a  

fairy tale.    The  novel  is  set  in  Switzerland  in  

dark and  very  adult  tale  exploring  the  

the middle  of  the  16th  century,  told  from  

sexual tensions  inherent  in  the  story,  and  its  

consequences.  Here  Mother  Gothel  is  a  

bloody, her  body  still  seeping),  her  

woman deeply  damaged  by  a  history  of  

Godmother has  turned  into  a  different  

abuse, and  she  damages  the  child  she  has  

creature, pushing  her  into  the  tower  at  

forcibly adopted  in  turn.    The  story  is  told  

knife point,  and  walling  up  the  door  with  

from three  points  of  view:  Mother  Gothel,  


Rapunzel, and  the  Prince—the  latter  two  

undergoing true  transformation  by  the  

The heroine  of  Emma  Donoghue's  "The  Tale  

story's end.  

of the  Hair"  has  chosen  to  live  in  a  crooked  

stone tower.    She's  blind,  and  she  has  come  

Abuse also  factors  into  Esther  Friesner's  

to fear  the  sounds  of  the  forest  around  her.    

darkly comic  story  "Big  Hair,"  about  a  girl  on  

"Block up  the  windows  and  doors,"  she  tells  

the beauty  pageant  circuit,  her  life  

the wise-­‐woman  who  is  her  guardian  and  

controlled by  her  witch-­‐like  mother.    The  

companion.  One  night  a  prince  hears  her  

"prince" is  a  newspaper  reporter  who  sneaks  

singing, climbs  up  the  tower,  and  introduces  

past the  watchful  mother's  guard,  and  here,  

her to  love.    But  soon  she  learns  that  the  

too, we  see  how  abuse  is  cycled  and  a  

unseen prince  is  not  quite  what  she  

maiden can  become  a  witch.    


Lisa Russ  Spaar's  story  "Rapunzel's  Exile"  is  

Elizabeth Lynn's  delightful  "The  Princess  in  

brief but  packs  an  emotional  wallop.    Spaar  

the Tower"  is  set  in  an  obscure  and  remote  

imagines Rapunzel's  journey  as  her  

village somewhere  in  the  hills  of  Europe:  a  

Godmother leads  her  into  the  forest,  and  

place with  fabulous,  fattening  food,  and  

her dawning  horror  as  she  realizes  that  the  

where zaftig  women  are  prized.    Poor  

tower will  be  her  fate.    For  twelve  years  her  

Margeritina is  so  slim  that  everyone  thinks  

Godmother raised  her  kindly—but  now,  with  

she's ill  and  hideous.        

the onset  of  menstruation  (her  skirts  still  

She stays  in  the  family  house  in  shame,  trying  to  no  avail  to  put  on  weight—until  a  young  man   stumbles  into  the  village,  hears  her  singing  from  her  high  window,  falls  in  love,  and  whisks  her   away  to  marry  him  and  start  a  restaurant.     The  charm  of  the  story  lies  in  Lynn's  telling,  and  in  the  sumptuous  food  descriptions.  

Anne Bishop's  "Rapunzel"  is  a  moving  tale  that  is  broken  into  three  distinct  parts:  the  mother's   story,  the  witch's  story,  and  finally  Rapunzel's  story.    The  first  two  parts  are  contrasting   narratives  of  jealousy  and  greed;  the  third  follows  Rapunzel  to  the  wilderness,  where  she  finds   new  life  beyond  the  tower.     Contemporary  poets  have  also  looked  at  the  tale  through  the  eyes  of  its  different  characters,   finding  in  the  story's  themes  issues  relevant  to  our  lives  today.  

Carolyn Williams-­‐Noren  gives  voice  to  the  least  sympathetic   character  in  the  story  in  "Rapunzel's  Mother":     I  can't  explain  why  I  wanted  that  simple   thing  so  much:  dark  green  rampion  leaves,  the  curled   coverlets  of  them  stacked  together  on  the  sideboard,   the  rainy  steam  of  them  cooking,  the  hot  full  softness   and  the  bittersweet  bite  in  my  throat,  mouthful   after  mouthful.    It  was  as  if  there  was  no  other  way  to  keep  alive.     Nicole  Cooley  reflects  on  a  troubled  mother-­‐daughter  relationship   in  her  poem  "Rampion":     Tiny  blue  flowers  furred  with  dirt  are  all  the  woman  desires   in  the  story  my  mother  reads  over  and  over.    Once  upon  a  time   a  woman  longed  for  a  child,  but  see  how  one  desire  easily   replaces  the  next,  see  her  husband  climbing  the  tall  garden  wall   with  a  handful  of  rampion,  flowering  scab  she's  traded  for  a  child.     Look,  my  mother  says,  see   how  the  mother  disappears   as  rampion's  metallic  root  splits  the  tongue  like  a  knife   and  the  daughter  spends  the  rest  of  the  story  alone.  

Dorothy Hewett's  chilling  poem  "Grave  Fairy  Tale"  looks  at  the   witch,  through  Rapunzel's  eyes:     She  was  there  when  I  woke,  blocking  the  light,   or  in  the  night,  humming,  trying  on  my  clothes.     I  grew  accustomed  to  her;  she  was  as  much  a  part  of  me   as  my  own  self;  sometimes  I  thought,  "She  is  myself!"   a  posturing  blackness,  savage  as  a  cuckoo....     Both  Anne  Sexton  and  Olga  Broumas  cast  the  relationship   between  Rapunzel  and  Mother  Gothel  as  a  sexual  one.    In   Sexton's  "Rapunzel,"  she  writes  of  a  lesbian  affair  between  a   student  and  her  mentor,  which  the  younger  woman  ends  when  a   "prince"  offers  her  a  more  socially  acceptable  life:     As  for  Mother  Gothel,   her  heart  shrank  to  the  size  of  a  pin,   never  again  to  say:  Hold  me,  my  young  dear,   hold  me,   and  only  as  she  dreamt  of  the  yellow  hair   did  moonlight  sift  into  her  mouth.  

Broumas, by  contrast,  celebrates  such  relationships  in  her  answering   poem  "Rapunzel,"  writing  in  the  voice  of  a  younger  woman  who  has   no  such  temptation  to  stray:     Climb   through  my  hair,  climb  in   to  me,  love  hovers  here  like  a  mother's  wish.   ...How  many  women   have  yearned   for  our  lush  perennial,  found   themselves  pregnant,  and  had   to  subdue  their  heat,  drown  out  their  appetite   with  pickles  and  hard  weeds.     David  Trinidad's  "Rapunzel"  grows  desperate  in  her  isolation:     Like  hair,  the  days  and  nights  are  growing  longer  and  longer.   ....And  each  evening  the  crone  comes.    Her  crackled  fingers  appear   pinching  the  key...   If  only  once  she'd  say:  "Here,   take  this  pair  of  scissors  and  cut  your  hair  before  it  twists     into  spaces  between  the  bricks  like  vines."    I'd  slit  my  wrists.  

In Liz  Lochhead's  "Three  Twists,"  on  the  other  hand,  Rapunzel   discovers  there  are  worse  things  than  solitude—like  a  prince   who  hasn't  got  a  clue  about  what  she  really  needs:     ...and  just  when  our  maiden  had  got   good  and  used  to  her  isolation   stopped  daily  expecting  to  be  rescued,   had  come  almost  to  love  her  tower,   along  comes  This  Prince   with  absolutely  all  the  wrong  answers     The  prince  in  Sara  Henderson  Hay's  "Rapunzel”  is  all  too  skilled   at  the  language  of  love:     Oh  God,  let  me  forget  the  things  he  said.   Let  me  not  lie  another  night  awake   Repeating  all  the  promises  he  made....     I  knew  I  was  not  the  first  to  twist   Her  heartstrings  to  a  rope  for  him  to  climb.   I  might  have  known  I  would  not  be  the  last.  

Alice Friman's  poem  "Rapunzel"  displays  a  bit  more  sympathy   for  the  prince:     If  she  was  unwise  about  such  things   that  girls  are  taught  of  men   with  chocolate  kisses  /  who  offer  lifts  to  lessons   who  stand  too  close  in  subways   playing  with  their  change   then  what  was  he?     Caught  in  that  small  room,   the  braid   coiling  the  floorboards  like  a  snake,   and  she  all  Rubens—ripe  and  curious.     Oh,  the  tower—singing  on  the  wheezy  couch.     Forbidden  fruits  in  platters  of  her  flesh   and  he  with  scars  to  touch  along  his  side   and  many  wondrous  things  to  name.    

Bruce Bennett's  "The  Skeptical  Prince"  wants  proof  that  there's   really  a  maiden  in  that  tower:     The  town  has  grown  accustomed  to  the  sight:   he  drinks  by  day,  then  hangs  around  at  night,   purveying  sad  and  antiquated  lore,   insisting  he  will  act  once  he  is  sure     In  "Rapunzel"  by  Arlene  Ang,  we  never  quite  know  what  it  is  the   prince  encounters  when  he  climbs  into  the  tower.    Is  it  the  witch   with  Rapunzel's  braids,  or  Rapunzel  herself  who  is  terrifying?:     The  twelfth  prince  climbed  the  tower   on  golden  tresses  he  knew  were  here.   When  he  penetrated  her  window,   she  turned  away  to  light  the  fire.     His  eyes  blinded  by  hair  that  mirrored   the  leap  of  flames  she  stoked,   the  prince  failed  to  see  the  woodpile   of  chewed  bones  at  the  corner  of  the  hearth.    

Essex Hemphill's  "Song  of  Rapunzel"  reminds  us  that   sometimes  men  need  rescuing  too:     His  hair   almost  touches   his  shoulders.   He  dreams   of  long  braids,   ladders,   vines  of  hair.   He  stands   like  Rapunzel,   waiting  on  his  balcony   to  be  rescued   from  the  fire-­‐breathing   dragons  of  loneliness.  

Rosemary Dun's  "Rapunzel"  rescues  herself  from  prince   and  tower  alike:     ...I  cut  off  the  long  hank  of  my   just-­‐for-­‐him  hair  with  golden  shears,   so  that  no  more  would  he  climb,   prick  my  finger,   nor  ravish  me  awake.     Instead,  my  howls  which  once   had  filled  my  madwoman's  attic   with  despair.   announce  the  birth  of  my   daughter.     We  hold  hands  and  jump.    

Lisa Russ  Spaar's  "Rapunzel  Shorn"  is  a  young  woman  tasting   sweet  freedom  at  last:     I'm  redeemed,  head  light   as  seed  mote,  as  a  fasting   girl's  among  these  thorns,  lips   and  fingers  bloody  with  fruit.     Years  I  dreamed  of  this:   the  green,  laughing  arms   of  old  trees  extended  over  me,   my  shadow  lost  among  theirs.     Gwen  Strauss'  "The  Prince"  is  an  old  man  now,  living  with  his   beloved  wife  and  looking  back  over  the  events  of  his  life:     For  a  long  time  I  was  blind,   even  before  the  thorns  tattered  my  eyes.   I  was  bored,  handsome,  a  Prince.   The  thrill  was  in  what  I  could  get  away  with.     ...All  my  childhood  I  heard  about  love   but  I  thought  only  witches  could  grow  it   in  gardens  behind  walls  too  high  to  climb.    

Rapunzel's story  has  become  part  of  our  folk  tradition  because  its  themes  are  universal  and   timeless.    We've  all  hungered  for  things  with  too  high  a  price;  we've  all  felt  imprisoned  by   another's  demands;  we've  all  been  carried  away  by  love,  only  to  end  up  blinded  and  broken;  we   all  hope  for  grace  at  the  end  of  our  suffering,  and  a  happy  ending.    The  story  has  additional   resonance,  of  course,  for  those  of  us  who  were  given  up  by  one  or  both  of  our  birth  parents,  as  it   does  for  those  raised  by  parents  who  are  over-­‐protective  or  over-­‐controlling.    In  the  end,  the   story  tells  us,  we  have  to  leave  the  tower  one  way  or  another,  weave  a  ladder  or  leap  into  the   thorns.    We  can't  stay  in  childhood  forever.    The  adult  world,  with  all  its  terrors  and  wonders,   waits  for  us  just  beyond  the  forest.  

Further Reading     Short  Stories   •

"Rapunzel" by  Anne  Bishop,  from  Black  Swan,  White  Raven  (Avon,  1997)  

"The Tale  of  the  Hair"  by  Emma  Donoghue,  from  Kissing  the  Witch  (HarperCollins,  1997)  

"Big Hair"  by  Esther  Friesner,  from  Black  Heart,  Ivory  Bones  (Avon,  2000)  

"The Root  of  the  Matter"  by  Gregory  Frost,  from  Snow  White,  Blood  Red  (Avonova  Book)  (Avon,  1995)  

"The Golden  Rope"  by  Tanith  Lee,  from  Red  as  Blood  or  Tales  From  the  Sisters  Grimmer  (DAW,  1983)  

"Rapunzel" by  Tanith  Lee,  from  Black  Heart,  Ivory  Bones  (Avon,  2000)  

"Rapunzel Dreams  of  Knives"  by  Beth  Adele  Long,  from  Strange  Horizons  (October  17,  2005  issue)  

"The Princess  in  the  Tower"  by  Elizabeth  Lynn,  from  Snow  White,  Blood  Red  (Avonova  Book)  (Avon,  1995)  

"Touk's House"  by  Robin  McKinley  (from  A  Knot  in  the  Grain  and  Other  Stories ,  (Greenwillow,  1994)  

"The Girl  in  the  Attic"  by  Lois  Metzger,  from  Swan  Sister:  Fairy  Tales  Retold  (Simon  &  Schuster,  2003)  

"Melisande" by  E.  Nesbit,  from  Nine  Unlikely  Tales  (Fisher  Unwin,  1901)  

"Thy Golden  Stair"  by  Richard  Parks,  from  Twice  upon  a  Time  (DAW  1999)  

"Rapunzel's Exile"  by  Lisa  Russ  Spaar,  from  Ploughshares,  Vol.  22,  No.  4,  and  The  Year's  Best  Fantasy  and   Horror:  Tenth  Annual  Collection  (St.  Martin's  Press,1997)  

"Maiden in  a  Tower"  by  Wallace  Earl  Stegner,  from  The  City  of  the  Living,  and  Other  Stories  (Short  Story   Index  Reprint  Series)  (Houghton  Mifflin,  1956)     Children's  Novels    

Golden: A  Retelling  of  "Rapunzel"  (Once  Upon  a  Time)  by  Cameron  Dokey  (Simon  Pulse,  2006)  

Stone Cage  by  Nicholas  Stuart  Gray  (Dennis  Dobson,  1963)  

Letters from  Rapunzel  by  Sara  Holmes  (Harper  Collins,  2007)  

Zel by  Donna  Jo  Napoli     Picture  Books  

Rapunzel by  Alix  Berenzy  (Henry  Holt,  1995)  

Rapunzel by  Barbara  Rogasky,  illustrated  by  Trina  Schart  Hyman  (Holiday  House,  1982)  

Petrosinella. A  Neapolitan  Rapunzel.  by  Diane  Stanley  (Puffin  Reprint,  1997)  

Rapunzel (Caldecott  Medal  Book)  by  Paul  O.  Zelinsky  (Dutton,  1995)  

Poetry •

The Poets'  Grimm:  20th  Century  Poems  from  Grimm  Fairy  Tales  edited  by  Jeanne  Marie  Beaumont  and   Claudia  Carlson,  containing  fourteen  Rapunzel  poems  (Story  Line  Press,  2003)  

Rapunzel, Rapunzel:  Poems  by  Janet  Charman  by  Janet  Charman,  containing  a  cycle  of  Rapunzel  poems   (Auckland  University  Press,  1999)  

"Rapunzel" by  Faye  Kicknosway,  from  American  Poetry  Since  1970:  Up  Late  (Four  Walls,  Eight  Windows,   1989)  

Disenchantments: An  Anthology  of  Modern  Fairy  Tale  Poetry ,  edited  by  Wolfgang  Mieder,  containing   seven  Rapunzel  poems  (University  Press  of  New  England,  1985)  

"Rapunzel" by  William  Morris,  from  The  Defence  Of  Guenevere  And  Other  Poems  (Ellis  &  White,  1858)  

Rapunzel's Hair  by  Judy  A.  Rypma,  chapbook  (All  Nations  Press,  2005)  

Glass Town:  Poems  by  Lisa  Russ  Spaar,  containing  a  cycle  of  Rapunzel  poems  (Red  Hen  Press,  1999)  

"The Golden  Stair"  by  Jane  Yolen,  from  The  Faery  Flag:  Stories  and  Poems  of  Fantasy  and  the  Supernatural   (Orchard,  1989)  

Nonfiction   •

Out of  the  Woods:  The  Origins  of  the  Literary  Fairy  Tale  in  Italy  and  France ,  edited  by  Nancy  L.  Canepa   (Wayne  State  University  Press,  1997)  

Clever Maids:  The  Secret  History  of  The  Grimm  Fairy  Tales  by  Valerie  Paradiz  (Basic  Books,  2004)  

The Annotated  Classic  Fairy  Tales  by  Maria  Tatar  (W.W.  Norton  &  Co.,  2002)  

Rapunzel's Daughters:  What  Women's  Hair  Tells  Us  About  Women's  Lives  by  Rose  Weitz  (FSG,  2005)  

The Great  Fairy  Tale  Tradition:  From  Straparola  and  Basile  to  the  Brothers  Grimm  by  Jack  Zipes  (W.W.   Norton  &  Co.,  2001)  



Music •

"Rapunzel: What  the  Prince  Saw  at  the  Top  of  the  Hair"  by  Jennifer  A.  Conner  and  Tom  Trenney,  from   Organa  Americana      Organa  Americana  (Pro  Organo,  2005)  

“Rapunzel: An  Opera  in  Six  Acts”  by  Lou  Harrison:  Rapunzel  and  Other  Works ,  Lou  Harrison  (New  Albion   Records,  1952)  

"Rapunzel" by  The  Dave  Matthews  Band,  from  Before  These  Crowded  Streets  (RCA,  1998)     On  the  Web  

Rapunzel on  D.  L.  Ashliman's  "Folktexts"  site  

Rapunzel on  Heidi  Anne  Heiner's  "Surlalune  Fairy  Tales"  site  

Rapunzel art  installation  by  Jennifer  Steinkamp,  2005  

Rapunzel, Rapunzel,  Let  Down  Your  Hair  art  exhibition  at  the  National  Museum  of  Women  in  the  Arts,   2001—  2002  

Six Fairy  Tales  from  the  Brothers  Grimm,  prints  by  David  Hockney,  1969  

Copyright ©2006,  Terri  Windling   originally  published  at   used  with  permission        

It is  one  of  the  important  functions  of  the  fairy   tale  to  enable  people  to  identify  with,  and  enter   into,  archetypal  situations  and  experiences,  such   as  the  conflict  of  good  versus  bad,  courage  versus   cowardice  and  pitting  one’s  wits  against  superior   forces.    This  identification  and  participation  helps   to  eliminate  the  feelings  of  isolation  and   loneliness  to  which  humanity  is  so  prone,  and  in   so  doing  makes  the  person  feel  part  of  a  greater   whole;  while  the  happy  ending  to  the  tale  gives  a   pleasing  sense  of  being  a  successful  part  of  the   whole.    


Myths and  fairy  tales  seem  to  know   something  that  we  do  not  know.    


The May  Queen   Alfred,  Lord  Tennyson    

You must  wake  and  call  me  early,  call  me  early,  mother  dear;   To-­‐morrow  'ill  be  the  happiest  time  of  all  the  glad  New-­‐year;   Of  all  the  glad  New-­‐year,  mother,  the  maddest  merriest  day,   For  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May,  mother,  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May.     There's  many  a  black,  black  eye,  they  say,  but  none  so  bright  as  mine;   There's  Margaret  and  Mary,  there's  Kate  and  Caroline;   But  none  so  fair  as  little  Alice  in  all  the  land  they  say,   So  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May,  mother,  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May.     I  sleep  so  sound  all  night,  mother,  that  I  shall  never  wake,   If  you  do  not  call  me  loud  when  the  day  begins  to  break;   But  I  must  gather  knots  of  flowers,  and  buds  and  garlands  gay,   For  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May,  mother,  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May.    

As I  came  up  the  valley  whom  think  ye  should  I  see   But  Robin  leaning  on  the  bridge  beneath  the  hazel-­‐tree?   He  thought  of  that  sharp  look,  mother,  I  gave  him  yesterday,   But  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May,  mother,  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May.     He  thought  I  was  a  ghost,  mother,  for  I  was  all  in  white,   And  I  ran  by  him  without  speaking,  like  a  flash  of  light.   They  call  me  cruel-­‐hearted,  but  I  care  not  what  they  say,   For  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May,  mother,  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May.     They  say  he's  dying  all  for  love,  but  that  can  never  be;   They  say  his  heart  is  breaking,  mother—what  is  that  to  me?   There's  many  a  bolder  lad  'ill  woo  me  any  summer  day,   And  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May,  mother,  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May.     Little  Effie  shall  go  with  me  to-­‐morrow  to  the  green,   And  you'll  be  there,  too,  mother,  to  see  me  made  the  Queen;   For  the  shepherd  lads  on  every  side  'ill  come  from  far  away,   And  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May,  mother,  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May.  

The honeysuckle  round  the  porch  has  woven  its  wavy  bowers,   And  by  the  meadow-­‐trenches  blow  the  faint  sweet  cuckoo-­‐flowers;   And  the  wild  marsh-­‐marigold  shines  like  fire  in  swamps  and  hollows  gray,   And  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May,  mother,  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May.     The  night-­‐winds  come  and  go,  mother,  upon  the  meadow-­‐grass,   And  the  happy  stars  above  them  seem  to  brighten  as  they  pass;   There  will  not  be  a  drop  of  rain  the  whole  of  the  livelong  day,   And  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May,  mother,  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May.     All  the  valley,  mother,  'ill  be  fresh  and  green  and  still,   And  the  cowslip  and  the  crowfoot  are  o ver  all  the  hill,   And  the  rivulet  in  the  flowery  dale  'ill  merrily  glance  and  play,   For  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May,  mother,  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May.     So  you  must  wake  and  call  me  early,  call  me  early,  mother  dear;   To-­‐morrow  'ill  be  the  happiest  time  of  all  the  glad  New-­‐year;   Of  all  the  glad  New-­‐year,  mother,  the  maddest  merriest  day,   For  I'm  to  be  Queen  o'  the  May,  mother,  I'm  to  be  Queen  o '  the  May.    

Fairy tales  actually  tell  us  about  figures  of  the   unconscious,  of  the  other  world.    One  could  say   that  in  myth  the  figures  are  confused  with  the   gods  of  religion;  they  correspond  to  what  Lucien   Lévy-­‐Bruhl  calls  the  représentations  collectives.     Fairy  tales,  on  the  contrary,  migrate  and  cannot  be   linked  up  with  a  national  collective  consciousness.     They  rather  contain  a  tremendous  amount  of   compensatory  material  and  usually  contradict  or   compensate  collective  conscious  ideas.    




Cover Art

Mystic Rose    

Michael Green  

Michael Green,  the  designer  of  the  mystic  rose  used  on  the  cover  of   this  issue  of  Mythic  Imagination,  was  the  Environmental  Designer  for   our  Mythic  Journeys  Conference  and  Performance  Festival  held  in   2006.   Born  in  1943,  Michael  Green  studied  at  the  New  York  University  film   school  and  the  University  of  Sao  Paulo  in  Brazil,  and  then  hitchhiked   around  the  Amazon.    A  "contentious  objector”  during  the  Vietnam   War,  he  went  on  to  join  the  Castalia  Foundation  in  Millbrook,  N.Y.,   and  worked  on  germinal  light  shows  with  Tim  Leary.    Mr.  Green  has   participated  in  various  tribal  and  communal  societies,  lived  in  a   mountaintop  tipi  in  Woodstock,  New  York,  and  finally  moved  to   Pennsylvania  to  study  with  the  Sufi  master  Bawa  Muhaiyaddeen.   For  the  last  twenty-­‐five  years,  Michael  Green  has  pursued  a  mixed   career  as  an  artist  and  craftsman.    Working  as  a  sign  painter,   landscaper,  television  art  director,  and  as  a  fine  artist  and  sculptor,  he   eventually  turned  to  creating  visual  books  as  the  artist,  writer  and   designer.    "I  have  always  favored  the  bookstore  as  a  superior  and   more  accessible  gallery,"  says  Michael.    "I've  tended  to  skirt  the  reefs   and  shifting  tides  of  the  art  establishment.    So  far  so  good:  there  are   over  2,500,000  copies  of  my  books  (The  Illuminated  Rumi;  One  Song:   The  New  Illuminated  Rumi;  The  Illuminated  Prayer:  The  Five-­‐Times   Prayer  of  the  Sufis;  Zen  and  the  Art  of  the  Macintosh;  The  I-­‐Ching   Records;  Unicornis  and  The  Book  of  the  Dragontooth)  currently  in   print."  

The Faerie Queens

Rainbow Portrait  of  Queen  Elizabeth  I    

Isaac Oliver    

Title: Rainbow  Portrait  of  Queen  Elizabeth  I   Artist:  Attributed  to  Isaac  Oliver  (1556—1617)   Date:  c.  1600-­‐1602   Medium:  oil  on  canvas   Dimensions:  127  x  99.1  cm  (50  x  39  in)   Location:  Collection  of  the  Marquess  of  Salisbury—on  display  at  Hatfield  House;  Hatfield,   Hertfordshire.   Notes:  Isaac  Oliver  painted  the  Rainbow  Portrait  of  Queen  Elizabeth  I  in  about  1600  when   she  was  67  years  old.    In  1596  the  Privy  Council  had  issued  orders  that  all  “unseemly   portraits”  of  the  Queen  be  destroyed.    Thereafter  the  Queen  was  pictured  solely  in  the   “Mask  of  Youth”  and  was  portrayed  as  untouched  by  age.    Elizabeth  I  often  referred  to  the   sorrows  of  her  aging  body,  thus  it  was  not  vanity  that  prompted  this  edict,  rather  a  wish  to   portray  the  monarch  as  perpetually  potent  and  ageless—traits  considered  critical  for   maintaining  the  authority  of  an  unmarried  Queen  who  would  never  produce  a  male  heir.   Allegorically,  the  image  portrays  Elizabeth  as  Astrae,  the  goddess  of  justice.    She  wears   pearls,  the  symbol  of  virginity;  English  wildflowers  to  symbolize  her  youth  and  virtue;  a   serpent  on  her  left  sleeve  to  represent  wisdom.  The  serpent  has  a  heart-­‐shaped  ruby  in  his   mouth,  indicating  that  Elizabeth’s  speech  is  ruled  by  wisdom,  not  emotion.    Elizabeth’s   mantle  is  covered  with  ears  and  eyes,  indicating  that  the  Queen  sees  and  hears  all.    In  her   right  hand  she  holds  a  rainbow,  a  symbol  of  hope,  wisdom,  faith  and  peace.   During  the  European  Renaissance,  Astraea  became  associated  with  the  general  spirit  of   cultural  renewal  occurring  at  that  time,  particularly  in  England,  where  the  goddess  became   poetically  identified  in  literature  with  the  figure  of  Elizabeth  I  as  the  virgin  queen  reigning   over  a  new  Golden  Age.  

The Faerie Queens

Sophia Alekseyevna  of  Russia    


Title: Sophia  Alekseyevna  of  Russia   Artist:  Unknown   Notes:  This  portrait  is  a  seventeenth-­‐century  representation  of  Sophia   Alekseyevna,  Tsarevna  of  Russia.    The  future  tsarevna  was  born  on   September  17,  1657.    Her  strategic  alliance  with  Prince  Vasily  Galitzine   led  to  her  installation  as  a  regent  during  the  minority  of  her  brothers,   Peter  the  Great  and  Ivan  V.    Her  later  reign  was  characterized  as  a   velvet  hammer  since  violence  was  often  necessary  to  maintain  her   sovereignty;  yet  her  iron  fist  was  softened  by  a  keen  intellect,  an  active   and  educated  mind,  and  a  strong  desire  for  political  and  religious   harmony.    Simeon  Polotsky,  a  Russian  monk,  observed  that  Sophia  had   an  “accomplished  masculine  mind,”  high  praise  for  the  time.   Since  most  upper-­‐class  Muscovite  women  were  confined  to  the  upper-­‐ floor  terem,  veiled  and  guarded  in  public,  and  invariably  kept  from  any   open  involvement  in  politics,  it  is  remarkable  that  Sophia  Alekseyevna   began  her  career  by  sitting  in  on  state  council  meetings.    It  was  there   that  she  became  acquainted  with  a  number  of  the  powerful  boyars,   something  royal  young  ladies  were  not  expected  to  do.     During  the  course  of  bloody  coups  and  fevered  uprisings,  Sophia   Alekseyevna  rose  to  power  to  become  the  first  woman  to  rule  the   Russian  Empire.    Over  the  course  of  paranoid  familial  relations,  her   brother,  Peter  I,  had  her  arrested  and  sent  to  a  convent,  where  she   eventually  took  the  veil.    A  rebel  faction  attempted  to  restore  her  to   power,  but  she  died  on  July  14,  1704  as  a  simple  religious  sister.    

The Faerie Queens Julie LeBrun  as  Flora  

Marie Louise  Élisabeth  Vigeé  Le  Brun    

Title: Julie  Le  Brun  as  Flora   Artist:  Marie  Louise  Élisabeth  Vigeé  Le  Brun  (1735-­‐1842)     Date:  1799     Medium:  oil  on  canvas   Dimensions:  51  3/8  x  38  1/2  in   Location:  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  St.  Petersburg,  Florida   Notes:  Élisabeth  Vigeé  Le  Brun  is  considered  to  be  one  of  the  finest  and  most  famous   portrait  painters  of  her  time.    Those  who  sat  for  her  included  many  of  Europe’s  royalty.   Vigeé  Le  Brun  was  born  in  Paris  to  modest  circumstances;  although  her  father  was  a  portrait   artist,  she  was  largely  self-­‐taught.    Her  classroom  was  a  variety  of  museums  and  galleries   where  she  made  copies  of  the  great  works.    Known  for  her  fine  talent  as  well  as  her  beauty   and  charm,  by  the  age  of  15  she  found  herself  receiving  commissions  from  wealthy   Parisians.    Although  she  was  forced  to  flee  France  during  the  French  Revolution,  her  talents   found  her  welcome  across  Europe.    She  continued  painting  until  she  was  well  into  her   fifties.   This  portrait  of  Julie  Le  Brun  was  painted  by  her  mother  when  Julie  was  19  years  old.     Mythically,  Flora  is  the  goddess  of  flowers  and  blooming  vegetation;  she  is  the  beloved  of   Zephyrus,  the  wind,  whose  image  may  be  seen  in  the  clouds  sailing  behind  Julie.   Vigée  Le  Brun  left  a  legacy  of  660  portraits  and  200  landscapes.    In  addition  to  private   collections,  her  works  may  be  found  in  major  museums  such  as  the  Hermitage  Museum  and   London's  National  Gallery,  as  well  as  other  institutions  in  Europe  and  the  United  States.    

The Faerie Queens Primavera

Sandro Botticelli    

Title: Primavera     Artist:  Sandro  Botticelli  (1445-­‐1510)     Date:  c.  1482     Medium:  Tempera  on  panel     Dimensions:  203  cm  ×  314  cm  (80  in  ×  124  in)     Location:  Uffizi,  Florence     Notes:  Primavera,  also  known  as  Allegory  of  Spring,  is  an  Italian   Renaissance  painting  by  the  artist  Sandro  Botticelli.    It  is  considered   one  of  the  most  popular  paintings  in  Western  art,  as  well  as  highly   controversial  due  to  the  variety  of  interpretations  stemming  from   its  mythological,  multivalent  layers.    Among  its  allegorical  aspects,   the  work  is  sometimes  cited  as  illustrating  the  ideal  of  Neoplatonic   love.    It  may  have  been  inspired  by  a  poem  by  Poliziano.   The  history  of  the  painting  is  not  known  for  certain,  although  it  was   apparently  commissioned  by  one  of  the  Medici  family.    The  painting   has  been  part  of  the  collection  of  the  Uffizi  Gallery  in  Florence,  Italy   since  1919.    

The Faerie Queens The Boyarina  

Konstantin Makovsky    

Title: The  Boyarina     Artist:  Konstantin  Makovsky  (1839-­‐1915)     Date:  1885     Medium:  oil  on  canvas     Dimensions:  37  ×  26.25  in  (94  ×  66.7  cm)   Location:  Private  Collection     Notes:  Konstantin  Yegorovich  Makovsky,  was  born  on  September  17,  1839.    He  grew   to  become  an  influential  Russian  painter,  affiliated  with  the  Peredvizhniki   (Wanderers).    Many  of  his  historical  paintings,  such  as  The  Russian  Bride's  Attire   (1889),  show  an  idealized  view  of  Russian  life  of  prior  centuries.    He  is  often   considered  a  representative  of  Salon  art.     Konstantin  was  born  in  Moscow  to  the  Russian  art  figure  and  amateur  painter,  Yegor   Ivanovich  Makovsky.    Mr.  Makovsky  was  the  founder  of  Natural  Class,  the  art  school   that  later  became  the  famous  Moscow  School  of  Painting,  Sculpture  and   Architecture.    Among  the  friends  of  his  family  were  Karl  Briullov  and  Vasily  Tropinin.   All  of  Yegor  Makovsky’s  children  became  notable  painters;  Konstantin,  the  painter  of   The  Boyarina,  was  his  eldest  child.    Later  Konstantin  wrote:  “For  what  I  became,  I   think  I  should  thank  not  the  Academy  or  Professors  but  only  my  father.”    In  1851   Konstantin  entered  the  Moscow  School  of  Painting,  Sculpture  and  Architecture   where  he  became  its  top  student,  easily  receiving  all  of  the  available  awards.    Other   of  his  paintings  include  Ophelia,  The  Russian  Bride  Attire,  and  the  Satyr  and  Nymph.  

The Faerie Queens Princess Badoura  

Edmund Dulac    

Title: Princess  Badoura     Artist:  Edmund  Dulac  (1882-­‐1953)     Date:  1913     Notes:  Edmund  Dulac’s  illustration  of  Princess  Badoura  was  created  as  an   illustration  for  the  fairy  tale  Princess  Badoura,  a  tale  from  Arabian  Nights.     The  story  is  Laurence  Housman's  retelling  of  the  classic  tale  attributed  to   Scheherezade,  the  daughter  of  the  Grand  Vizier  to  Sultan  Shahriar.    In  the   story,  Princess  Badoura  rules  the  lands  during  her  husband’s  absence.     When  he  returns,  Badoura  requests  that  her  husband,  Prince   Camaralzaman,  take  the  Princess  Haiatelnefous  as  another  wife.    He   consents  and  the  two  queens  live  in  sisterly  harmony  and  each  bear  a  son   for  their  husband-­‐king.   Edmund  Dulac  was  born  in  Toulouse  France.    He  began  his  career  by   studying  law  at  the  University  of  Toulouse  then  switched  to  art  when  law   studies  bored  him,  and  after  winning  prizes  from  the  Ecole  des  Beaux  Arts.   In  London,  the  22-­‐year  old  was  commissioned  to  illustrate  Jane  Eyre,  and   also  commissioned  by  the  Leicester  Gallery,  where  his  artwork  was  sold   and  the  rights  to  the  paintings  were  purchased  by  Hodder  &  Stoughton,   who  used  them  as  book  illustrations.    Books  produced  under  this   arrangement  include  Stories  from  The  Arabian  Nights;  an  edition  of  William   Shakespeare's  The  Tempest;  The  Rubaiyat  of  Omar  Khayyam;  The  Sleeping   Beauty  and  Other  Fairy  Tales;  Stories  from  Hans  Christian  Andersen;  The   Bells  and  Other  Poems  by  Edgar  Allan  Poe;  and  Princess  Badoura.  

The Faerie Queens The End  of  the  Ball  

Rogelio de  Egusquiza    

Title: The  End  of  the  Ball     Artist:  Rogelio  de  Egusquiza  (1845-­‐1915)     Location:  Unknown   Notes:  As  one  of  the  most  celebrated  Spanish  painters  of  the  19th  Century,  Rogelio   de  Egusquiza  began  working  with  the  academic  painter  Leon  Bonnat  and  went  on  to   enjoy  a  highly  successful  career.    From  Spain  he  moved  to  Italy  where  he  became  a   central  figure  of  the  Spanish  artistic  colony,  and  interacted  with  a  circle  of  artists   that  included  Mariano  Fortuny  and  the  Madrazo  brothers.    De  Egusquiza  successfully   collaborated  with  the  Italian  painter,  Mariano  Fortuny,  and  his  style  became  more   colorful  and  precise  as  a  result.    In  Italy  he  also  met  the  composer  Richard  Wagner   where  the  two  developed  a  friendship  that  was  to  have  an  important  influence  on   his  more  grandiloquent  and  tragic  works.   The  End  of  the  Ball  reveals  the  artist  at  the  height  of  his  skill,  both  compositionally   and  stylistically.    Dressed  in  traditional  19th  Century  costumes,  the  couple  dances  a   waltz,  a  popular  dance  at  the  end  of  the  century.    Egusquiza  masterfully  combines   the  depiction  of  elegantly  dressed  woman  with  beautiful  roses,  and  the  atmosphere   of  the  Belle  Epoque.   From  his  view  of  the  room,  Egusquiza  focuses  not  only  on  the  entertainers  in  the   foreground  but  also  on  what  is  happening  behind  the  scene.    As  such,  the  viewer’s   eye  is  drawn  to  the  back  of  the  room  and  beyond  to  the  activity  behind  the  curtains.   On  November  13,  2007,  The  End  of  the  Ball  sold  at  Bonhams  Auctions  for   approximately  $93,000.    

The Faerie Queens Queen Mary  


Title: “Queen  Mary”     Artist:  unknown  photographer     Date:  1911     Medium:  film   Notes:  Queen  Mary,  or  Mary  of  Teck,  was  born  Victoria  Mary  Augusta  Louise  Olga  Pauline   Claudine  Agnes  on  May  26,  1867.    She  was  the  queen  consort  of  the  United  Kingdom  and   the  British  Dominions;  and  Empress  of  India,  as  the  wife  of  King-­‐Emperor  George  V.     Technically  a  princess  of  Teck  in  the  Kingdom  of  Württemberg,  she  was  born  and  brought  up   in  the  United  Kingdom.    Her  parents  were  Francis,  Duke  of  Teck,  who  was  of  German   extraction,  and  Princess  Mary  Adelaide  of  Cambridge,  a  member  of  the  British  Royal  Family.   To  her  family,  she  was  informally  known  as  "May,"  after  her  birth  month.    At  the  age  of  24   she  was  betrothed  to  Prince  Albert  Victor,  Duke  of  Clarence  and  Avondale,  but  six  weeks   after  the  announcement  he  died  of  pneumonia.    The  following  year  she  became  engaged  to   Albert  Victor's  next  surviving  brother,  George,  who  subsequently  became  king.    After  the   difficulties  of  the  First  World  War,  and  her  husband’s  death  in  1936,  her  eldest  son  Edward   became  King-­‐Emperor,  but  to  her  dismay  he  abdicated  the  same  year  in  order  to  marry   twice-­‐divorced  American  socialite  Mrs.  Wallis  Simpson.    Her  second  son,  Albert,  succeeded   to  the  throne  as  George  VI,  where  he  ruled  as  monarch  until  his  death  in  1952.      She  died   the  following  year,  at  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  her  granddaughter,  Elizabeth  II.    For  a   brief  time,  there  were  three  queens  in  the  country:  Mary,  her  daughter-­‐in-­‐law;  Queen   Elizabeth,  The  Queen  Mother;  and  Elizabeth  II.   The  photograph  shows  Queen  Mary  in  her  coronation  robes  which  depict  an  allegorical   pond-­‐and-­‐vegetation  scene  with  roses,  thistles,  and  shamrocks.  

The Faerie Queens La Licorne  

Gustave Moreau    

Title: La  Licorne     Artist:  Gustave  Moreau  (1823-­‐1898)     Date:  c.  1885     Medium:  oil  on  canvas     Dimensions:  50  by  34.5  cm,  19¾  by  13½  in   Location:  unknown,  formerly  at  auction  Sotheby’s  London  on  May  30,  2008   Notes:  Gustave  Moreau  was  born  in  Paris,  France  on  April  6,  1826.    As  a  French   Symbolist  painter,  his  main  emphasis  was  on  the  illustration  of  biblical  and   mythological  figures.    His  paintings  struck  a  cord  and  appealed  to  the   imaginations  of  various  Symbolist  writers  and  artists.   Gustave’s  father,  Louis  Jean  Marie  Moreau,  was  an  architect  and  as  such   recognized  his  talent,  as  did  his  mother,  Adele  Pauline  des  Moutiers.    Moreau   initially  studied  under  the  guidance  of  François-­‐Édouard  Picot  and  became  a   friend  of  Théodore  Chassériau,  whose  work  strongly  influenced  his  own.    Moreau   had  a  25-­‐year  personal  relationship,  possibly  romantic,  with  Adelaide-­‐ Alexandrine  Dureux,  a  woman  whom  he  drew  on  several  occasions.   His  first  painting  was  a  Pietà  which  is  now  located  in  the  cathedral  at  Angoulême.     He  showed  A  Scene  from  the  Song  of  Songs  and  The  Death  of  Darius  in  the  Salon   of  1853.    In  1853  he  contributed  Athenians  with  the  Minotaur  and  Moses  Putting   Off  his  Sandals  within  Sight  of  the  Promised  Land  to  the  Great  Exhibition.    

The Faerie Queens Queen Elizabeth  I  


Title: Queen  Elizabeth  I   Notes:  Elizabeth  I  was  born  September  7,  1533.    She  was  the  queen   regnant  of  England  and  Ireland  from  November  17,  1558  and  ruled   until  her  death  during  the  time  of  spring  equinox  in  1603.    Called  The   Virgin  Queen,  Gloriana,  or  Good  Queen  Bess,  Elizabeth  was  the  fifth   and  last  monarch  of  the  Tudor  dynasty.   As  the  daughter  of  Henry  VIII,  she  was  born  a  Tudor  princess,  but   when  her  mother,  Anne  Boleyn,  was  executed  two  and  a  half  years   after  her  birth,  Elizabeth  was  declared  illegitimate.    Her  half-­‐brother,   Edward  VI,  bequeathed  the  crown  to  Lady  Jane  Grey,  cutting  his  half-­‐ sisters  out  of  the  succession.    Edward’s  will  was  later  set  aside,  Lady   Jane  Grey  was  executed,  and  in  1558  Elizabeth  succeeded  her  sister,   the  Catholic  Mary  I,  who  had  been  imprisoned  for  nearly  a  year  on   suspicion  of  supporting  Protestant  rebels.    

The Faerie Queens Margaret of  Valois  


Title: Margaret  of  Valois     Artist:  Unknown   Notes:  Margaret  of  France,  known  as  Marguerite  de  France  and  Marguerite  de   Valois,  was  born  on  May  14,  1553  as  a  royal  princess.    She  was  later  crowned  Queen   of  France  and  of  Navarre,  and  was  the  last  of  the  House  of  Valois.   As  the  daughter  of  King  Henry  II  of  France  and  Catherine  de'  Medici,  Margaret  was   twice  queen  since  she  married  King  Henry  III  of  Navarre  who  became  King  Henri  IV  of   France.   Aside  from  being  twice  a  queen,  Margaret  was  famous  for  her  wit,  beauty,  and  sense   of  style.    She  was  considered  one  of  the  most  fashionable  women  of  her  time,   influencing  most  of  Europe's  Royal  Courts  with  her  attire.    Margaret  was  also  a  gifted   poet  and  writer—noted  for  her  scandalous  behavior—she  took  many  lovers  during   her  marriage  and  after  its  annulment—and  for  revealing  the  scandalous  behavior  of   others.   When  imprisoned  in  the  midst  of  craggy  summits  by  her  brother  for  eighteen  years,   she  took  advantage  of  the  time  to  write  her  memoirs  in  a  series  of  letters  containing   the  secret  history  of  the  Court  of  France.    These  “scandalous”  memoirs  were   published  posthumously  in  1628.   Her  life  has  inspired  a  variety  of  authors  and  artists  over  the  centuries,  beginning   with  Shakespeare's  comedy  Love's  Labour's  Lost  written  during  her  lifetime;   Alexandre  Dumas’  1845  novel,  Queen  Margot;  and  the  1994  movie  La  Reine  Margot,   which  was  nominated  by  the  Academy  of  Motion  Picture  Arts  and  Sciences  for  Best   Costume  Design.  

The Faerie Queens Mary of  Burgundy,  Tyrol  

Master H.A.  or  A.H.    

Title: Mary  of  Burgundy,  Tyrol     Artist:  Master  H.A.  or  A.H.     Date:  1528     Medium:  oil  on  conifer  panel     Dimensions:  17  x  12  ¼  in   Location:  Robert  Lehman  Collection,  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art     Notes:  Mary,  the  duchess  of  Burgundy,  was  born  in  1457.    At  the  age  of   twenty,  she  married  Emperor  Maximilian  I.    In  this  profile  portrait— extremely  rare  in  the  Netherlands  and  France  during  the  fifteen  century— the  duchess  wears  a  tall  hennin,  or  steeple  headdress,  characteristic  of   the  1470s  fashion.    The  headdress’  thick  band  of  material  is  pinned  to  its   base  by  an  agrafe,  an  ornamental  clasp.   Her  features  closely  match  Maximilian's  description  of  his  young  bride:   "snow  white  complexion,  brown  hair  and  gray  eyes,  pretty  and  bright…     Her  mouth  is  rather  high,  yet  clear  and  red."   The  attribution  of  the  Lehman  portrait  to  Master  H.A.  or  A.H.  is  based  on   a  monogram  on  the  reverse  of  the  panel  that,  until  recent  technical   investigation,  had  been  hidden  beneath  a  later  painting  of  the  Virgin.    The   Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art’s  portrait,  which  dates  to  the  late  1520s,   attests  to  the  popularity  of  images  of  Mary  of  Burgundy  well  after  her   death  since  the  Habsburgs  owed  their  Netherlandish  territories  to  Mary’s   marriage  to  Maximilan.  

The Faerie Queens Queen Anne  of  Cleves  

Hans Holbein  the  Younger    

Title: Queen  Anne  of  Cleves     Artist:  Hans  Holbein  the  Younger     Notes:  Anne  of  Cleves  was  born  on  the  fall  equinox  of  1515.    She  became  the  Queen  of   England  after  becoming  the  fourth  wife  of  Henry  VIII.    Her  father,  John,  Duke  of  Cleves,  was   the  leader  of  the  German  Protestants.    After  the  death  of  Jane  Seymour,  Cromwell   considered  Anne  to  be  a  suitable  wife  for  Henry  VIII.     Anne  of  Cleves  spoke  no  language  but  her  own,  had  no  looks,  no  accomplishments  and  no   dowry;  her  only  recommendations  were  her  proficiency  in  needlework  and  her  gentle   temper.    Nevertheless  her  picture,  painted  by  Holbein  at  the  king's  command,  pleased   Henry  and  a  marriage  was  arranged.    A  treaty  to  that  effect  was  signed  on  September  24,   1539.    However  when  the  princess  arrived  in  England,  Henry  was  so  taken  aback  by  her   appearance  that  he  forgot  to  present  his  gift.    The  next  day  he  openly  expressed  his   dissatisfaction  with  her  looks:  "She  was  no  better  than  a  Flanders  mare."   Feeling  forced  to  marry  Anne  under  political  pressure;  Henry  bitterly  acquiesced,  declaring   on  his  wedding  morning  that  no  earthly  thing  would  have  induced  him  to  marry  her  but  the   fear  of  driving  the  Duke  of  Cleves  into  the  arms  of  the  emperor.    Henry  had  reason  to  regret   the  policy  that  had  identified  him  with  German  Protestantism  and  thus  denied  his   reconciliation  with  the  emperor.    After  the  Duke  of  Norfolk’s  insertion  of  a  beautiful,   nineteen  year  old,  Catherine  Howard,  into  court,  Cromwell's  fall  was  swift.    Now  that  the   chief  obstacle  to  divorce  was  removed,  Henry  declared  that  his  marriage  to  Anne  of  Cleves   had  not  been  and  could  never  be  consummated,  while  also  casting  doubts  on  his  wife's   honor.   The  marriage  was  then  declared  null  and  void  by  religious  convocation,  and  an  act  of   parliament  to  the  same  effect  was  passed  immediately.  

Year of the Roses Honora Foah  


Honora Foah  is  the  President  and  Creative  Director  of  the  Mythic  Imagination  Institute  as   well  as  a  member  of  its  Board  of  Directors.    Ms.  Foah  headed  the  development  group  for   the  Mythic  Journeys  Conference  and  Performance  Festivals  held  in  2004  and  2006.      She  was   also  the  chief  producer  and  designer  for  the  UN  Pavilions  featured  in  the  1992  World  Expo   in  Genoa,  Italy,  and  the  1993  World  Expo  held  in  Taejon,  South  Korea.    As  the  artistic  force   behind  Visioneering  International,  Inc.,  Ms.  Foah  brings  to  every  endeavor  her  extensive   training  and  professional  experience  in  the  fine  arts,  including  dance,  music  and  theater.   Ms.  Foah  received  her  bachelor  of  arts  and  master  of  arts  degrees  from  the  University  of   North  Carolina.    In  addition  to  her  university  education,  Foah  studied  dance  under  such   greats  as  Martha  Graham  and  Merce  Cunningham,  trained  extensively  in  drama  and  music,   and  is  an  accomplished  performer  in  each  of  these  areas.   She  employed  her  love  for  the  arts,  as  well  as  her  flair  for  audio  visual  creativity,  as  co-­‐ director  of  her  own  dance  theater  company  from  1976  to  1986.    Schene/Hill  Dancing,  one  of   the  most  innovative  dance  companies  in  New  York  City,  was  known  for  combining  multi-­‐ media  images,  set  design,  dance,  photography  and  voice.    In  1982,  Ms.  Foah  was  awarded  a   prestigious  grant  from  the  National  Endowment  for  the  Arts.   After  seven  years  at  the  helm  of  Schene/Hill  Dancing,  Honora  Foah,  a  teacher  since  the  age   of  15,  immersed  herself  in  educational  studies  for  a  Ph.D.    She  considers  teaching  and  art  to   be  her  two  professional  passions  and  believes  that  the  perfect  combination  of  these  talents   is  her  work,  which  uses  creative,  artistic  tools  in  an  educational  manner.   In  1987,  Honora  Foah  teamed  up  with  her  husband,  Robert  Foah,  to  produce  imaginative   high-­‐tech  audio  visual  projects  that  are  on  the  cutting  edge  of  the  industry.    Together,  they   have  grown  in  this  capacity  and  serve  as  the  principal  multi-­‐media  consultants  to  the  United   Nations  and  several  Fortune  500  companies.  

The Path of Needles or Pins Terri Windling  


Terri Windling  is  a  writer,  editor,  and  artist  specializing  in  fantasy   literature,  fairy  tales,  and  mythic  arts.    She  has  published  more  than   forty  books  for  adults,  teens,  and  children,  winning  nine  World  Fantasy   Awards,  the  Mythopoeic  Award  (for  her  mythic  novel  The  Wood  Wife),   the  Bram  Stoker  Award,  and  placing  on  the  short  list  for  the  Tiptree   Award.    She  also  received  the  2010  SFWA  Solstice  Award  for   "outstanding  contributions  to  the  speculative  fiction  field  as  a  writer,   editor,  artist,  educator,  and  mentor,"  and  has  recently  been  nominated   for  the  2012  Shirley  Jackson  Award.   Her  essays  on  myth,  fairy  tales,  literature  and  art  have  appeared  in   magazines,  art  books  and  reference  texts  in  the  United  States  and   Europe.    Ms.  Windling  co-­‐edited  The  Year's  Best  Fantasy  &  Horror   annual  anthologies  (with  Ellen  Datlow)  for  sixteen  years,  and  The   Journal  of  Mythic  Arts  (with  Midori  Snyder)  for  eleven  years.         Terri  Windling  works  in  the  New  York  publishing  industry,  but  lives  in  a   small  Dartmoor  village  in  England's  West  Country,  with  her  husband   (English  dramatist  Howard  Gayton),  their  daughter,  and  a  dog  named   Tilly.    For  more  information  about  her  books  and  art,  visit  her  website,   her  blog:  The  Drawing  Board,  or  her  Etsy  shop.     Please  visit  Terri  Windling  on  the  web  at    

The Path of Needles or Pins

Haleigh Walsworth    


Haleigh Walsworth  is  a  graduate  of  The  American  University  of  Paris.     She  is  a  professional  digital  strategist,  community  manager,  and   creative  content  producer  known  for  producing  creative  reality   documentaries  and  short  films.    Originally  from  Southern  California,   Ms.  Walsworth  is  now  based  in  Paris  and  speaks  English  and  French.     She  is  a  photo,  copy,  and  film  contributor  to  various  entities   including  Dujour  Magazine  and  Matchbook  Magazine  Lionsgate,   Can't  Forget  Italy,  and  more.     Her  website,  Making  Magique,  is  a  fashion  and  lifestyle  blog   founded  in  2010,  formerly  known  as  Bardot  in  Blue.    It  focuses  on   Parisian  fashion  and  jetset  lifestyles  across  the  globe.    It  is  created   and  run  by  Ms.  Walsworth  whose  style  is  a  mix  of  French   sophistications  and  American  quirks  that  “aims  to  keep  fashion   fabulous  and  fun.”   The  images  used  in  “The  Path  of  Needles  or  Pins”  are  courtesy  of   Ms.  Walsworth.    These  photographs  of  her,  envisioned  as  a   contemporary  interpretation  of  “Little  Red  Riding  Hood,”  are  from  a   photo  shoot  taken  on  October  12,  2011.   Please  visit  Haleigh  Walsworth  on  the  web  at    

The Better to Eat You With D. L.  Ashliman  


As a  folklore  researcher,  D.  L.  Ashliman  has  provided  immeasurable   benefits  to  his  audiences  and  colleagues  regarding  Germanic  myths,   legends  and  sagas,  as  well  as  Indo-­‐European  folk  and  fairy  tales.    Dr.   Ashliman  received  both  his  master’s  degree  and  Ph.D.  from  Rutgers   University.    Further  study  was  conducted  at  the  Georg-­‐August   Universität  in  Göttingen,  Germany  as  well  as  at  the  Rheinische   Friedrich-­‐Wilhelms-­‐Universität  in  Bonn,  Germany.     His  works  include  Fairy  Lore:  A  Handbook;  Folk  and  Fairy  Tales:  A   Handbook;  an  edition  of  Aesop’s  Fables  which  he  edited,  introduced,   and  for  which  he  provided  notes;  Voices  from  the  Past:  The  Cycle  of   Life  in  Indo-­‐European  Folktales;  Once  upon  a  Time:  The  Story  of   European  Folktales;  and  A  Guide  to  Folktales  in  the  English  Language:   Based  on  the  Aarne-­‐Thompson  Classification  System.    He  has  also   written  and  published  numerous  articles  on  the  subject  of  fairy  tale   and  folkloric  stories  and  traditions.   Dr.  Ashliman  retired  from  the  University  of  Pittsburgh  in  2000  and   now  conducts  his  folklore  research  from  southern  Utah.    The  stories   compiled  in  the  section  entitled  “The  Better  to  Eat  You  With”  are   courtesy  of  Dr.  Ashliman.    He  can  be  contacted  at   Most  of  his  web-­‐based  information  is  on  the  University  of  Pittsburg’s   website.    Please  find  Dr.  Ashliman  on  the  web  by  doing  a  search  using   D.  L.  Ashliman  as  the  search  criteria.    

The Better to Eat You With Jeune Femme  à  la  Coiffe  

Serge de  Solomko    

Title: Jeune  Femme  à  la  Coiffe     Artist:  Serge  (Sergei)  de  Solomko  (1867-­‐1928)     Medium:  oil  on  canvas     Dimensions:  13.8  x  10.6  in,  35  x  27  cm     Location:    Unknown,  sold  at  auction  on  March  30,  2007       Notes:  The  end  of  the  19th  century  found  the  Russian  artist  Serge   Solomko  working  as  a  graphic  designer,  illustrator,  and  costume   designer.    His  artwork  includes  The  Procurator  of  Judea  shown  in   1919,  Medieval  Ceremony,  Signore  Eleganta,  Young  lady  walking   through  snow,  and  Portrait  of  Ivan  Mazepa.    He  participated  in   several  newspapers  and  illustrated  numerous  children’s  stories.   After  1910,  Serge  Solomko  was  based  in  Paris  where  he  illustrated   numerous  books  by  French  and  Russian  authors.    His  illustrations   were  used  in  Mademoiselle  de  Maupin,  written  by  Théophile  Gautier   and  published  in  1914;  and  his  lithographies  appeared  in  Fetes   Galantes  by  Paul  Verlaine.   He  is  buried  in  the  Russian  cemetery  of  Sainte  Genevieve  des  Bois.      

The Better to Eat You With Mary I,  Queen  of  England  and  Ireland  


Title: Mary  I,  Queen  of  England  and  Ireland   Notes:  Mary  I  was  born  on  February  18,  1516,  and  later  reigned  as  Queen  of   England  and  Ireland  from  July  1553  until  her  death  on  November  17,  1558.    She   was  the  only  surviving  child  of  the  difficult  marriage  between  Henry  VIII  and   Catherine  of  Aragon,  which  ended  in  divorce  and  her  mother’s  estrangement   from  her.    Catherine  of  Aragon  was  a  staunch  Catholic  and  Mary  followed  in  her   footsteps.   Her  younger  half-­‐brother,  Edward  VI,  succeeded  Henry  in  1547.    But  by  1553,   Edward  was  mortally  ill  and  because  of  religious  differences  between  them,  he   attempted  to  remove  Mary  from  the  line  of  succession  by  naming  their  cousin,   Lady  Jane  Grey,  as  his  successor.    On  his  death  in  1553,  Lady  Grey  became  the  de   facto  monarch  of  England  from  July  10  until  July  19,  hence  creating  the  sobriquet   of  The  Nine  Days’  Queen.   To  secure  the  line  of  succession,  Mary  assembled  a  force  in  East  Anglia  and   successfully  deposed  Jane,  who  was  ultimately  beheaded.    Mary  married  Philip  of   Spain  in  1554  and  thus  became  queen  consort  of  Habsburg  Spain  on  his   accession  in  1556.   As  the  fourth  crowned  monarch  of  the  Tudor  dynasty,  Mary  is  remembered  for   her  restoration  of  Roman  Catholicism  after  the  short-­‐lived  Protestant  reign  of  her   half-­‐brother.    During  her  five-­‐year  reign,  she  had  over  280  religious  dissenters   burned  at  the  stake  in  the  Marian  Persecutions.    This  led  to  her  Protestant   political  opponents  endowing  her  with  the  nickname  "Bloody  Mary."   Her  re-­‐establishment  of  Roman  Catholicism  was  reversed  after  her  death  in  1558   by  her  successor  and  younger  half-­‐sister,  Elizabeth  I.  

The Better to Eat You With Beauty with  a  Parasol  at  a  Garden  Wall  

Alex Belles    

Title: Beauty  with  a  Parasol  at  a  Garden  Wall     Artist:  Alex  Belles  (19th  century)     Date:  c.  1800s     Medium:  oil  on  canvas     Dimensions:  28.75  in  x  23.50  in,  73.00  cm  x  59.70  cm   Location:  unknown,  auctioned  at  Waddington’s  Toronto  in  2009     Notes:  Victorian  Art  refers  to  a  variety  of  artistic  styles  developed  during  the  second  half  of   the  19th  century.    The  spirit  of  the  age  is  personified  by  the  image  of  Queen  Victoria  and   transverses  her  64-­‐year  reign  from  1837-­‐1901.    It  encompasses  Classicism,  Neoclassicism,   Romanticism,  Impressionism,  and  Post-­‐Impressionism.    The  impact  of  the  era  includes  the   development  of  photography  and  new  technologies  in  architecture.   In  the  midst  of  these  artistic  movements,  painters  Dante  Rossetti  and  William  Holman  Hunt   formed  the  Pre-­‐Raphaelite  Brotherhood  in  1848.    These  avant-­‐garde  artists  banded   together  with  the  common  vision  of  recapturing  the  style  of  painting  that  preceded   Raphael,  famed  artist  of  the  Italian  Renaissance.   For  the  purposes  of  appreciating  Beauty  with  a  Parasol  at  a  Garden  Wall,  the  Victorian   influence  appears  synthesized  in  this  artwork:  the  eclectic  revival  of  historic  styles  mixed   with  the  introduction  of  Middle  East  and  Asian  influences.    From  the  Victorian  era  forward,   parasols  have  inspired  artists,  symbolically  resonating  with  mirth  and  mystery,  isolation  and   sorrow.    

The Better to Eat You With A Difficult  Answer  

Sergey Solomko    

Title: A  Difficult  Answer     Artist:  Serge  (Sergei)  de  Solomko  (1867-­‐1928)     Date:  1910     Medium:  paper     Dimensions:  postcard   Location:  for  bid  on  until  May  2,  2012     Notes:  The  end  of  the  19th  century  found  the  Russian  artist  Serge   Solomko  working  as  a  graphic  designer,  illustrator,  and  costume   designer.    His  artwork  includes  The  Procurator  of  Judea  shown  in   1919,  Medieval  Ceremony,  Signore  Eleganta,  Young  lady  walking   through  snow,  and  Portrait  of  Ivan  Mazepa.    He  participated  in   several  newspapers  and  illustrated  numerous  children’s  stories.   After  1910,  Serge  Solomko  was  based  in  Paris  where  he  illustrated   numerous  books  by  French  and  Russian  authors.    His  illustrations   were  used  in  Mademoiselle  de  Maupin,  written  by  Théophile  Gautier   and  published  in  1914;  and  his  lithographies  appeared  in  Fetes   Galantes  by  Paul  Verlaine.   A  Difficult  Answer  was  printed  as  a  Russian  postcard  in  1910.  

The Better to Eat You With Hélène De  Troie  

Gaston Bussière    

Title: Hélène  De  Troie     Artist:  Gaston  Bussière  (1862-­‐1928)     Date:  1895   Notes:  Gaston  Bussière  was  born  in  Cuisery,  France  on  April  24,  1862,  and  died  at   Saulieu,  France  on  October  29,  1928.    He  was  French  Symbolist  painter  and   illustrator  who  studied  at  l'Académie  des  Beaux-­‐Arts  in  Lyon  before  entering  the   École  des  Beaux-­‐Arts  in  Paris.    The  most  famous  of  this  grouping  of  schools  is  the   École  nationale  supérieure  des  Beaux-­‐Arts,  now  located  on  the  left  bank  in  Paris,   across  the  Seine  and  the  Louvre.  The  school’s  history  spans  more  than  350  years,   and  was  the  site  of  training  for  many  of  the  great  artists  in  Europe.    Beaux  Arts  style   was  modeled  on  classical  "antiquities,"  preserving  and  passing  on  these  idealized   forms  and  style.     At  the  École  des  Beaux-­‐Arts  he  studied  under  Alexandre  Cabanel  and  Pierre  Puvis  de   Chavannes.    He  was  honored  as  the  recipient  of  the  Marie  Bashkirtseff  prize  in  1884.       Close  to  Gustave  Moreau,  Bussière  also  found  inspiration  in  the  work  of  French   composer  Hector  Berlioz  (La  Damnation  de  Faust)  as  well  as  in  the  works  of   Shakespeare  and  Wagner.    He  produced  illustrations  for  Honoré  de  Balzac’s   Splendours  and  Miseries  of  Courtesans  published  in  1897,  Théophile  Gautier’s   Émaux  et  camées,  and  Oscar  Wilde’s  Salome.    He  also  illustrated  several  works  by   Gustave  Flaubert.     In  Hélène  De  Troie,  Bussière  has  Hélène  adorned  with  rich  accessories  and  lavish   jewels.    The  ideals  surfacing  through  the  work  center  around  the  concept  of  “the   dream  in  contrast  to  the  reality;  the  ideal  in  contrast  to  the  common.”  

The Better to Eat You With Flora

Alexander Roslin    

Title: Flora     Artist:  Alexander  Roslin  (1718-­‐1793)   Marie  Louise  Élisabeth  Vigée  Le  Brun  (1755-­‐1842)     Date:  18th  century     Medium:  oil  on  canvas     Dimensions:  91.5  ×  72.5  cm  (36  ×  28.5  in)   Location:  Musée  des  Beaux-­‐Arts  de  Bordeaux     Notes:  Alexander  Roslin  was  born  on  July  15,  1718  in  Malmö,  Sweden,  and  died  on  July  5,   1793  in  Paris,  France.    Although  he  was  Swedish,  he  painted  portraits  of  aristocrats  across   Europe  during  the  mid-­‐eighteenth  century.   Born  the  son  of  army  doctor,  he  first  studied  shipbuilding.    After  learning  to  draw  from   Erhenbill,  captain  of  the  Admiralty,  he  devoted  himself  to  the  study  of  miniature.    Having   resolved  to  become  a  painter,  he  left  home  at  the  age  of  sixteen  to  live  in  Stockholm.    The   Swedish  capital  was  then  a  major  intellectual  and  artistic  center.    Queen  Christina  of   Sweden  had  established  close  relations  between  Paris  and  Stockholm  and  many  French   artists  and  intellectuals  had  moved  there  and  thereby  popularized  French  art  and  literature.     Over  the  course  of  his  travels  Roslin  visited  Venice,  Bologna,  Ferrara,  Rome  and  Naples.     When  he  arrived  in  Florence,  he  was  asked  to  present  his  portrait  to  the  Uffizi  Gallery.   A  special  exhibition  of  his  works  was  made  available  at  the  Palace  of  Versailles  in  the  spring   of  2008.  

Notes From the Editor

Mary Davis    


Mary Davis  chairs  Publications  for  the  Mythic  Imagination  Institute   and  serves  as  the  Editor  of  Mythic  Imagination  Magazine.    Ms.   Davis  was  elected  five  times  to  the  Atlanta  City  Council,  serving   there  twenty  years,  making  a  difference  for  the  people  of  Atlanta.   Consultant  in  public  policy,  campaigns,  strategic  planning,  public   relations,  marketing,  writing,  editing,  and  real  estate;  yoga   teacher;  actress;  fundraiser;  manager;  civic  leader  and  activist.     "You  name  it,  I  have  done  most  of  it!"  she  says.   Mary  especially  enjoys  her  three  adult  daughters,  seven  young   grandchildren  and  her  friends,  plus,  of  course,  her  involvement   with  the  Mythic  Imagination  Institute,  Emory  University,  and  the   Jung  Society  of  Atlanta.    

Notes From the Editor

A Silver  Rose  for  You!    

Mario Lapid    

Title: “A  Silver  Rose  for  You!”     Artist:  Mario  Lapid  (Lapidim)     Date:  May  12,  2005     Medium:  photography     Location:  archived  on  flickr     Notes:  All  of  the  images  used  in  “Mythic  Imagination  Roses”  are  courtesy  of  Mario  Lapid.   “A  Silver  Rose  for  You!”  was  taken  on  May  12,  2005.    His  comments:  “A  Silver  Rose  for  you   from  my  black  and  white  garden.”   “Ladies  in  Red”  was  taken  on  February  22,  2005.    His  comments:  “Karis  Mata  Temple,   Deshnok,  India.    Cutout:  Ladies  in  Red  is  in  one  of  the  most  venerated  shrines  in  India.”   “Ponte  del  Diavolo”  was  taken  on  August  16,  2007.    His  comments:  “Venice,  Italy.”   “Nostalgia  II”  was  taken  on  August  17,  2005  at  Comillas,  Cantabria,  Spain.    His  comments:   “In  remembrance  of  a  time,  when  mankind  still  believed  in  ‘Liberté,  Égalité,  Fraternité,’   before  World  Wars  and  endless  terrorism…”   “Torso”  was  taken  on  September  5,  2005.    His  comments:  “I  found  this  incredible  natural   sculptured  tree  in  broad  moonlight  while  walking  one  night  in  Tel  Aviv.    A  real  marvel  in  the   purest  Botticelli  style.”   Mario  Lapid  is  a  photographer  with  a  portfolio  of  150  images  available  for  review  on  Flickr.     The  images  used  in  “Mythic  Imagination  Roses”  are  courtesy  of  Mario  Lapid  under  the  flickr   Creative  Commons  license  with  some  rights  reserved.    Please  use  his  flickr  name,  lapidim,   when  searching  for  his  work  on  flickr.  

Fairy Tales for Writers

Lawrence Schimel    


Lawrence Schimel  is  an  author  and  anthologist  whose  work  embraces  many  different   genres.    Born  in  New  York  in  1971,  he  received  his  bachelor  of  arts  in  literature  from  Yale   University.    His  short  stories,  poems,  and  essays  have  appeared  in  numerous  periodicals   including  The  Wall  Street  Journal,  The  Saturday  Evening  Post,  The  Boston  Phoenix,  Isaac   Asimov's  Science  Fiction  Magazine,  and  Physics  Today.    Fairy  Tales  for  Writers  was  published   in  2007.   Mr.  Schimel’s  work  has  also  been  incorporated  into  more  than  140  anthologies  including   The  Random  House  Book  of  Science  Fiction  Stories,  Best  Gay  Erotica  1997  and  1998,  The   Mammoth  Book  of  Fairy  Tales,  Black  Thorn,  White  Rose,  The  Sandman  Book  of  Dreams,   Weird  Tales  from  Shakespeare,  Gay  Love  Poetry,  and  The  Random  House  Treasury  of  Light   Verse.   He  is  a  member  of  the  National  Book  Critics  Circle  and  the  Academy  of  American  Poets,  as   well  as  a  founding  member  of  the  Publishing  Triangle,  an  organization  of  lesbians  and  gay   men  in  the  publishing  industry,  which  he  chaired  for  two  terms  from  1996  to  1998.    Mr.   Schimel  has  received  the  Rhysling  Award  and  the  Lambda  Literary  Award  twice.    He  was  a   juror  for  the  2010  James  Tiptree,  Jr.  Award,  and  was  also  a  volunteer  judge  for  the  2011   Lambda  Literary  Award.   Mr.  Schimel  is  a  regular  lecturer  at  Princeton  University,  Yale  University,  Brown  University,   Rutgers  University,  and  Wayne  State  University.   His  poetry  contributions  to  Mythic  Imagination  are  from  his  collection,  Fairy  Tales  for   Writers.    They  include  “The  Princess  and  The  Pea,”  “Sleeping  Beauty,”  and  “Little  Mermaid.”     The  poems  are  copyright  Lawrence  Schimel  with  all  rights  reserved.   Please  find  Lawrence  Schimel  on  the  web  on  Google+.    

Fairy Tales for Writers

Jay Goldman    


Title: “Fairy  Tale”     Artist:  Jay  Goldman     Date:  October  2,  2011     Medium:  photography     Location:  archived  on  flickr     Notes:  “Fairy  Tale”  was  taken  in  Trinity  Bellwoods,  Toronto,  Ontario,   Canada.      “Fairy  Tale”  is  used  courtesy  of  Jay  Goldman  under  the  flickr  Creative   Commons  license  with  some  rights  reserved.     Please  visit  Jay  Goldman  on  the  web  at    

Fairy Tales for Writers

Mario Lapid    


Title: “Fairy  Tale”     Artist:  Mario  Lapid  (Lapidim)     Date:  April  24,  2004     Medium:  photography     Location:  archived  on  flickr     Notes:  “Fairy  Tale”  was  taken  at  Alcázar  de  Segovia.    It  is  a  photograph  of   the  Castilla  y  León  in  Spain.    Mario  Lapid  is  a  photographer  with  a  portfolio   of  150  images  available  for  review  on  Flickr.   “Fairy  Tale”  is  used  courtesy  of  Lapidim  under  the  flickr  Creative  Commons   license  with  some  rights  reserved.   Please  find  Mario  Lapid  on  the  web  at  using  his  flickr  name   Lapdim.    

Fairy Tales for Writers

David Andersen    


Title: “Fairy  Tale”     Artist:  David  Andersen  (dawe2k5)     Date:  May  6,  2011     Medium:  photography     Location:  archived  on  flickr     Notes:  “Fairy  Tale”  was  taken  at  the  Royal  Garden  in  Copenhagen,  Sweden   using  a  Canon  PowerShot  G10.    Mr.  Andersen  refers  to  the  dark  silhouettes   in  the  photograph  as  “gargoyles”  or  “rooftop  statues.”    David  Andersen  is  a   photographer  with  a  portfolio  of  935  images  available  for  review  on  Flickr.   “Fairy  Tale”  is  used  courtesy  of  David  Andersen  under  the  flickr  Creative   Commons  license  with  some  rights  reserved.   Please  find  David  Andersen  on  the  web  at    

Cinderella: Ashes, Blood, and the Slipper of Glass


Christian Louboutin   Designer  

Christian Louboutin  was  born  on  January  7,  1963.    As  a  French  footwear  designer,  he  is   known  for  his  signature  red-­‐lacquered  soles.    Louboutin  began  sketching  shoes  in  his  early   teens.    His  limited  amount  of  formal  training  entailed  drawing  and  decorative  arts  at  the   Académie  d'Art  Roederer.    Louboutin’s  fascination  with  shoes  began  in  1976  when  he   visited  the  Musee  national  des  Arts  d’Afrique  et  d’Oceanie  where  he  saw  a  sign  from  Africa   forbidding  women  wearing  sharp  stilettos  from  entering  a  building  because  of  the  wood   flooring.    This  image  stood  out  in  his  mind  and  he  later  used  this  idea  in  his  designs.    "I   wanted  to  defy  that,"  Louboutin  said.    "I  wanted  to  create  something  that  broke  rules  and   made  women  feel  confident  and  empowered."     Fascinated  by  world  cultures,  he  ran  away  in  his  teens  to  Egypt  and  spent  a  year  in  India.    He   returned  to  Paris  in  1981  where  he  created  a  portfolio  of  elaborate  high  heels,  which  he   took  to  the  top  couture  houses.    The  effort  resulted  in  employment  with  Charles  Jourdan.     Subsequently,  Louboutin  met  Roger  Vivier,  who  claims  to  have  invented  the  stiletto  or   “spiked-­‐heel”  shoe.    Louboutin  became  an  apprentice  in  Vivier's  atelier.    He  later  served  as  a   freelance  designer  for  Chanel,  Yves  Saint  Laurent,  and  Maude  Frizon.   His  first  customer  was  Princess  Caroline  of  Monaco  and  other  customers  include  Diane  Von   Furstenburg,  Catherine  Deneuve,  Jennifer  Lopez,  Madonna,  Gwyneth  Paltrow,  Kim   Kardashian,  and  Sarah  Jessica  Parker.   Louboutin  is  credited  with  bringing  stilettos  back  into  fashion  in  the  1990s  and  2000s,   designing  dozens  of  styles  with  heels  of  4.72  inches  and  higher.    His  single  biggest  client  is   Danielle  Steel,  who  is  reputed  to  own  over  6,000  pairs  and  is  known  to  have  purchased  up   to  80  pairs  at  a  time  while  shopping  at  his  stores.   Please  visit  Christian  Louboutin  on  the  web  at    

Cinderella: Ashes, Blood, and the Slipper of Glass


Gianmarco Lorenzi   Designer  

Gianni Renzi  was  born  to  an  Italian  family  that  owned  a  specialist   children’s  footwear  factory.      Sketching  his  first  shoe  designs  at  the  age   of  five,  he  eventually  joined  the  Renzi  family  business.    In  the  1970s,  he   and  his  brothers,  Marco  and  Renzo,  decided  to  try  some  innovative   approaches.    These  new  concepts  were  to  revolutionize  the  company   and  bring  fresh  ideas  to  the  industry  as  a  whole.    It  was  during  the  shift   from  focusing  on  children’s  shoes  to  women’s  luxury  footwear  that  the   label  Gianmarco  Lorenzi  evolved.       Gianni  Renzi  is  now  the  creative  director  of  Gianmarco  Lorenzi.     Because  of  the  family’s  long  history  in  the  business,  Renzi  feels  that   they  have  an  innate  understanding  of  shoes  and  a  good  sense  of  where   women’s  footwear  is  headed.    Their  headquarters  are  located  in  Porta  Sant’Elipidio  in  Italy’s  Marche   region,  renown  as  a  center  of  excellence  in  the  footwear  industry.   Please  visit  Gianni  Renzi  on  the  web  at        

Cinderella: Ashes, Blood, and the Slipper of Glass


Prada Designer  

Mario Prada  and  his  brother  Martino  started  Prada  in  1913  as  a  leather  goods  shop,   Fratelli   Prada  (Prada  Brothers),  in  Milan,  Italy.    Initially,  the  shop  sold  leather  goods  and  imported   English  steamer  trunks  and  handbags.   As  a  product  of  his  times,  Mario  did  not  believe  that  women  should  have  a  role  in  business,   so  he  prevented  female  family  members  from  entering  the  company.    Ironically,  Mario's  son   harbored  no  interest  in  the  business,  so  it  was  his  daughter  Luisa  Prada  who  took  control  of   Prada  as  Mario’s  successor  and  ran  it  for  almost  twenty  years.    Her  own  daughter,   Miuccia   Prada,  joined  the  company  in  1970  and  eventually  took  over  for  her  mother  in  1978.   Miuccia  inherited  the  company  in  1978  by  which  time  sales  were  up  to  $450,000.    She   released  her  first  set  of  backpacks  and  totes  in  1979.    They  were  made  out  of  a  tough   military  spec  black  nylon  that  her  grandfather  had  used  as  coverings  for  steamer  trunks.   Initial  success  was  not  instant,  but  the  line  would  go  on  to  become  her  first  commercial  hit.   Next,  the  house  of  Prada  sought  accounts  in  upscale  department  stores  and  boutiques.    In   1983,  Prada  opened  a  second  boutique  in  Milan  with  a  sleek,  modern  look.    Expansion   began  across  continental  Europe  with  locations  opening  in  Florence,  Paris,  Madrid,  and  New   York.    A  shoe  line  was  also  released  in  1984;  and  in  1985,  Miuccia  released  the  "classic  Prada   handbag"  which  became  an  overnight  sensation.     Prada’s  ready-­‐to-­‐wear  collection  debuted  in  1989,  and  the  designs  became  famous  for  their   dropped  waistlines  and  narrow  belts.     Prada’s  popularity  also  skyrocketed  because  of  their   designs’  strong,  clean  lines;  opulent  fabrics;  and  basic  colors.   The  logo  for  the  label  was  not  as  obvious  a  design  element  as  those  on  bags  from  other   prominent  luxury  brands  such  as  Louis  Vuitton.    Prada  tried  to  market  its  lack  of  prestigious   appeal,  including  apparel,  with  an  image  of  "anti-­‐status"  or  "reverse  snobbery."   Please  visit  Miuccia  Prada  on  the  web  at    

Cinderella: Ashes, Blood, and the Slipper of Glass


Lauren Tennenbaum   Designer  

Lauren Tennenbaum  is  a  young,  New  York  designer  who  was  formally   trained  in  cognitive  science  and  then  started  her  blog  (IN)DECOROUS  TASTE   three  years  ago  and  shepherded  it  into  an  online  store  featuring  her  wild   creations.    Borderline  fetish,  her  intensely  spiked,  exaggerated  heels,  and   unpredictably  aggressive  jewelry,  combines  feminine  and  the  overtly  hostile   into  dynamic  accessories  and  interiors.   In  a  recent  interview  with  Kate  Kelsali  of  Don’t  Panic,  Lauren  Tennenbaum   describes  her  beginnings  this  way:  “Design  was  always  part  of  my  life.    I   come  from  a  family  that  constantly  indulges  wacky  aesthetic   experiments.    Both  my  mother  and  grandfather  were  classically  trained   painters,  and  so  it's  something  that  happened  very  naturally  for  me,  even  if   my  focus  in  college  was  seemingly  on  a  different  track  (cognitive  science).    I   do  think  that  people  crave  opulence  in  times  of  economic  hardship,  I  also   think  that  (IN)DECOROUS  TASTE  as  a  philosophy  supports  a  different  kind  of   opulence.    It's  about  looking  in  unconventional  places  and  using  your  own   preferences  as  a  guide  to  create  your  own  decadence,  not  about  spending   lots  of  money  to  purchase  the  ‘whole  designer  look’  from  top  to  bottom.     Opulence  is  found,  not  purchased.    Celebrating  the  beautiful  and  delightful   is  opulent.“     Please  visit  Lauran  Tennenbaum  on  the  web  at  


Cinderella: Ashes, Blood, and the Slipper of Glass


Maison Martin  Margiela   Designer  

Martin Margiela  was  born  on  April  9,  1957  in  Genk,  Belgium.    He  studied  at   Antwerp's  Royal  Academy  of  Fine  Arts  along  with  the  legendary  avant-­‐garde   fashion  collective  the  Antwerp  Six.    From  1985  to  1987,  Margiela  worked  for   Jean  Paul  Gaultier  before  showing  his  first  collection  in  1989.    Between  1997   and  2003  he  was  the  creative  director  for  Hermès.   During  the  1980s,  the  Japanese  avant-­‐gardists,  with  Rei  Kawakubo—creator  of   the  label  Comme  des  Garçons—had  turned  the  fashion  scene  upside  down   with  their  eccentric  and  groundbreaking  designs.    Martin  Margiela  and  the   Antwerp  Six  carried  on  their  work,  revolting  against  the  luxurious  fashion   world  with  garments  of  oversized  proportions  such  as  long  arms,  and  with   linings,  seams,  and  hems  on  the  outside.    Margiela  famously  redesigns  objects   such  as  old  wigs,  canvases  and  silk  scarves  into  couture  garments.   Throughout  his  career,  Martin  Margiela  has  maintained  an  extremely  low   profile.    He  has  never  had  his  picture  taken  and  remains  backstage  after  his   shows.    All  media  contact  is  dealt  with  via  fax.    Maison  Martin  Margiela’s  ultra   discreet  trademark  for  years  consisted  of  a  piece  of  cloth  with  the  numbers  0-­‐ 23.    For  their  20th  anniversary,  the  anonymous  tag  was  replaced  by  a   traditional  logo  style.   Diesel  acquired  Mason  Martin  Margiela  in  2002.   Please  visit  Martin  Margiela  on  the  web  at  


Puss in Boots, a Fairy Tale

Dahna Lorrain  Koth    


Dahna Lorrain  Koth  serves  as  Marketing  Director  and  Fellow  of  the  Mythic  Imagination   Institute.    In  this  capacity,  she  has  produced  and  co-­‐written  with  Honora  Foah  over  a  dozen   full-­‐length  podcasts;  served  as  a  creative  consultant  for  Mythic  Imagination  Magazine;  and   designed  and  implemented  the  layouts  for  all  of  the  collateral  material  in  the  Mythic   Imagination  online  store.   Ms.  Koth  is  Director  of  Creative  Services  for  the  international  business  group,  DLK  Ltd.    As  a   writer  and  creative  director,  her  clients  in  corporate  communications  and  business  theater   have  included  Fortune  500  companies  such  as  Coca-­‐Cola,  BellSouth,  Eli  Lilly,  SAAB,  Ritz-­‐ Carlton,  Delta  Airlines,  Cingular,  and  Nortel  Networks.   Prior  to  joining  DLK  Ltd.,  Ms.  Koth  was  Creative  Director  for  two  of  the  nation’s  top   corporate  communications  firms,  PGI  and  The  Jack  Morton  Company.    At  Conduit   Communications,  she  served  as  Vice  President  of  Marketing  &  Development  specializing  in   television  programming  and  joint  venture  relations  with  New  World  Entertainment.   For  seven  years,  Ms.  Koth  worked  as  Development  Project  Manager  for  the  Dollywood   Company  where  she  focused  on  the  development  of  a  world-­‐class  resort  for  Dollywood,  a   $4.5  million  themed  dinner  extravaganza  called  Dixie  Stampede,  and  Dollywood  theme  park   expansions.    After  leaving  Dollywood,  she  was  commissioned  by  Dolly  Parton  to  write  two   movie  scripts,  and  by  Dollywood  to  write  two  musicals.     Other  unique  projects  have  included  entertainment  zones  for  the  states  of  New  Mexico  and   Georgia,  a  major  expansion  of  Marineland,  Florida,  and  a  concert  series  for  the  United   Nations  Earth  Summit  Committee,  Ireland.   Ms.  Koth  is  the  guest  editor  of  this  issue  of  Mythic  Imagination  Magazine.    She  is  currently   working  with  Honora  Foah  on  a  newly  awakening  project  called  The  Art  of  Myth.  

Puss in Boots, a Fairy Tale

The Drury  Lane  Collection    

Victoria and  Albert  Museum    

In June  2007,  the  Victoria  and  Albert  Museum  celebrated  the  150th  anniversary  of  its   opening  in  South  Kensington.    As  the  world's  leading  museum  of  art  and  design,  the  V&A   promotes  knowledge,  understanding,  and  enjoyment  of  the  designed  world  to  inspire   creativity.   To  reflect  this  and  to  mark  the  occasion  of  its  anniversary,  the  V&A  invited  150  leading   designers,  architects,  photographers,  fashion  designers  and  artists  to  contribute  a  page  to   an  anniversary  album.    Selected  prints  were  then  made  available  to  purchase  to  support  the   next  150  years  of  the  V&A.   Over  two  million  people  visit  the  V&A  museum  annually.    In  2006,  V&A  exhibitions  were   shown  in  nine  venues  across  the  UK  and  12  international  venues,  including  Melbourne,   Bangkok  and  San  Francisco.    In  addition  to  these  touring  exhibitions,  approximately  2,300   V&A  objects  were  on  loan  to  UK  venues  in  2006  and  700  objects  were  on  loan  overseas.   Over  19  million  visits  are  now  made  to  the  V&A  website  annually;  there  are  more  than   100,000  pages  available  in  their  Internet  archive.    Archival  categories  at  the  V&A  range  from   architecture,  drawings,  fashion  and  sculpture  to  photography,  ceramics  and  textiles.    The   museum  has  a  unique  category  called  Theatre  and  Performance.   Sir  Henry  Cole,  (1808  -­‐  1882)  organized  and  conducted  the  two  museums  from  which  the   V&A  grew:  the  Museum  of  Oriental  Art  and  the  South  Kensington  Museum,  which  was  its   name  when  it  was  established  in  1857.    It  was  renamed  the  Victoria  and  Albert  Museum  in   1899  when  Queen  Victoria  laid  the  foundation  stone  for  a  new  building.   Please  visit  the  Victoria  and  Albert  Museum  on  the  web  at    

Sleeping Beauty Awakes

Heinz Insu  Fenkl    


Heinz Insu  Fenkl  is  an  associate  professor  of  English  and  Asian  Studies  at  SUNY  New  Paltz.   He  previously  served  as  coordinator  of  the  school's  Creative  Writing  Program  and  was   formerly  the  director  of  ISIS:  The  Interstitial  Studies  Institute,  also  formerly  at  New  Paltz.   After  graduating  from  Vassar  College,  Fenkl  studied  folklore  and  shamanism  as  a  Fulbright   Scholar  in  Korea,  and  also  studied  dream  research  under  a  grant  from  the   University  of   California.    Fenkl  holds  an  M.A.  in  creative  writing  from  the  University  of  California,  Davis,   where  he  was  also  a  Ph.D  candidate  in  cultural  anthropology.   Before  his  appointment  to  his  current  position  at  SUNY,  Fenkl  taught  a  wide  array  of   creative  writing,  folklore,  and  Asian  literature  courses  at  Vassar  College,  Bard  College,   Eastern  Michigan  University,  Sarah  Lawrence  College,  and  Yonsei  University  (Korea).    At   New  Paltz,  Fenkl  regularly  teaches  creative  writing  in  addition  to  courses  on  Asian  literature   and  film,  as  well  as  folklore.   His  fiction  includes  Memories  of  My  Ghost  Brother,  an  autobiographical,  Interstitial  novel   about  growing  up  in  Korea  as  a  bi-­‐racial  child  in  the  1960s.    On  the  strength  of  this  book  he   was  named  a  Barnes  &  Noble  "Great  New  Writer"  and  PEN/Hemingway  Award  finalist  in   1997.    His  second  novel,  Shadows  Bend  (a  collaborative  work,  published  under  a   pseudonym)  was  an  innovative,  dark  'road  novel'  about   H.  P.  Lovecraft,  Robert  E.  Howard,   and  Clark  Ashton  Smith.    He  has  also  published  short  fiction  in  a  variety  of  journals  and   magazines,  as  well  as  numerous  articles  on  folklore  and  myth.   Fenkl  is  currently  at  work  on  a  sequel  to  Memories  of  My  Ghost  Brother,  and  on  a  volume  of   Korean  myths,  legends,  and  folk  tales:  Old,  Old  Days  When  Tigers  Smoked  Tobacco  Pipes.     He  also  writes  regular  columns  on  mythic  topics  for  Realms  of  Fantasy  magazine  and  the   Endicott  Studio  Journal  of  Mythic  Arts.   Please  visit  Heinz  Insu  Fenkl  on  the  web  at

Sleeping Beauty Awakes

Carolyn Dunn    


Carolyn Dunn  is  an  American  Indian  artist  of  Cherokee,  Muskogee  Creek,  and  Seminole   descent  on  her  father’s  side;  and  Cajun,  French  Creole,  and  Tunica-­‐Biloxi  on  her  mother’s.   Primarily  a  poet  and  a  playwright,  Carolyn  began  telling  and  writing  stories  at  a  very  young   age,  being  exposed  to  storytelling  traditions  from  all  aspects  of  her  very  Southern  and  very   Western  background.    Her  work  has  been  recognized  by  the  Wordcraft  Circle  of  Storytellers   and  Writers  as  Book  of  the  Year  for  poetry  (Outfoxing  Coyote,  2002)  as  well  as  the  Year’s   Best  in  1999  for  her  short  story  “Salmon  Creek  Road  Kill,”  Native  American  Music  Awards   (for  the  Mankillers  CD  Comin  to  Getcha)  and  the  Humboldt  Area  Foundation.    In  addition  to   Outfoxing  Coyote,  her  books  include  Through  the  Eye  of  the  Deer  (Aunt  Lute  Books,  1999),   Hozho:  Walking  in  Beauty  (McGraw  Hill,  2002)  and  Coyote  Speaks  (H.N.  Abrams,  2008).   As  an  academic,  Carolyn’s  work  has  primarily  focused  on  American  Indian  women’s   literature  (poetry,  prose,  and  drama),  and  urban  American  Indian  identity  formation  in   California.    She  received  her  Doctorate  in  American  Studies  (with  a  focus  on  American   Indian  Literature  and  Theater)  from  the  University  of  Southern  California,  where  she  was  a   James  Irvine  Fellow,  and  an  M.A.  in  American  Indian  literature  and  folklore  from  UCLA.   Her  essays  have  appeared  in  the  American  Indian  Culture  and  Research  Journal,  Belles   Lettres,  and  the  anthologies  American  Indian  Performing  Arts:  Critical  Directions,  Reading   Native  American  Women,  and  Cultural  Representation  and  Contestation  in  Native  America.   Currently,  Carolyn  is  a  Visiting  Lecturer  at  San  Francisco  State  University,  where  she  teaches   American  Indian  Oral  Literature,  and  serves  as  the  Managing  Director  of  the  American   Indian  Resource  Center  and  the  Ethnic  Resource  Centers  at  the  University  of  California,   Santa  Cruz.    She  lives  in  a  redwood  forest  with  her  family.    Please  visit  Carolyn  Dunn  on  the  web  at  

Sleeping Beauty Awakes

Gayle Ross    


Gayle Ross  is  a  direct  descendant  of  John  Ross,  chief  of  the  Cherokee  Nation  during  the   infamous  "Trail  of  Tears"  relocation.    Through  stories  she  learned  from  her  grandmother,   Gayle  Ross  has  been  telling  her  people's  myths  and  legends  at  schools,  colleges,  and   festivals  across  the  United  States.    Ms.  Ross  is  a  master  storyteller  who  can  provoke   laughter  with  trickster  stories  (How  Rabbit  Tricked  Otter  and  Other  Cherokee  Trickster   Stories)  or  move  listeners  to  tears  with  haunting  Cherokee  creation  myths.     Ms.  Ross  has  appeared  at  almost  every  major  storytelling  and  folk  festival  in  the  United   States  and  Canada,  as  well  as  theaters  and  performance  arts  halls  throughout  the  U.S.  and   Europe.     The  prestigious  National  Council  of  Traditional  Arts  included  Ms.  Ross  in  two  of  their  touring   shows,  “The  Master  Storyteller’s  Tour”  and  the  all  Indian  show,  “From  the  Plains  to  the   Pueblos.”    Internationally  acclaimed  musician  and  composer  Peter  Buffet  featured  Gayle   and  her  stories  in  his  epic  stage  performance  “500  Nations,”  based  on  the  CBS  mini-­‐series   produced  by  Kevin  Costner.    Ms.  Ross  also  produced  and  directed  an  all-­‐Native  show   entitled  “Full  Circle,”  which  featured  the  Grammy  award-­‐winning  Mohegan  musician  Bill   Miller,  as  well  as  the  singing  and  dancing  of  Rob  Greyhill,  Jennifer  Meness  and  the  Great   American  Indian  Dance  Theater.   She  was  chosen  by  Vice  President  Al  Gore,  later  the  White  House,  the  Kennedy  Center  and   the  Library  of  Congress  to  present  Native  American  tales.    In  1995,  Gayle  was  featured  in  a   two-­‐hour  segment  of  the  documentary  How  The  West  Was  Won  on  the  Discovery  Channel.     Gayle  Ross'  voice  may  be  heard  telling  stories  on  National  Public  Radio  programs  such  as   Mythic  Journeys,  Living  On  The  Earth,  and  Mountain  Stage.   Please  visit  Gayle  Ross  on  Facebook  at    

Sleeping Beauty Awakes Terri Windling  


Terri Windling  is  a  writer,  editor,  and  artist  specializing  in  fantasy   literature,  fairy  tales,  and  mythic  arts.    She  has  published  more  than   forty  books  for  adults,  teens,  and  children,  winning  nine  World  Fantasy   Awards,  the  Mythopoeic  Award  (for  her  mythic  novel  The  Wood  Wife),   the  Bram  Stoker  Award,  and  placing  on  the  short  list  for  the  Tiptree   Award.    She  also  received  the  2010  SFWA  Solstice  Award  for   "outstanding  contributions  to  the  speculative  fiction  field  as  a  writer,   editor,  artist,  educator,  and  mentor,"  and  has  recently  been  nominated   for  the  2012  Shirley  Jackson  Award.   Her  essays  on  myth,  fairy  tales,  literature  and  art  have  appeared  in   magazines,  art  books  and  reference  texts  in  the  United  States  and   Europe.    Ms.  Windling  co-­‐edited  The  Year's  Best  Fantasy  &  Horror   annual  anthologies  (with  Ellen  Datlow)  for  sixteen  years,  and  The   Journal  of  Mythic  Arts  (with  Midori  Snyder)  for  eleven  years.         Terri  Windling  works  in  the  New  York  publishing  industry,  but  lives  in  a   small  Dartmoor  village  in  England's  West  Country,  with  her  husband   (English  dramatist  Howard  Gayton),  their  daughter,  and  a  dog  named   Tilly.    For  more  information  about  her  books  and  art,  visit  her  website,   her  blog:  The  Drawing  Board,  or  her  Etsy  shop.     Please  visit  Terri  Windling  on  the  web  at    

Sleeping Beauty Awakes

Alexander McQueen    


Lee Alexander  McQueen  was  born  on  March  17,  1969,  in  Lewisham,  London,  to  Scottish  taxi   driver  Ronald  McQueen  and  social  science  teacher  Joyce   McQueen.    He  was  the  youngest  of   six  children.   McQueen  was  a  British  fashion  designer  and  couturier  best  known  for  his  in-­‐depth   knowledge  of  British  tailoring,  his  tendency  to  juxtapose  strength  with  fragility  in  his   collections,  and  the  emotional  power  and  raw  energy  of  his  provocative  fashion  shows.    He   worked  as  the  chief  designer  at  Givenchy  from  1996  to  2001.    From  there  he  went  on  to   found  the  Alexander  McQueen  label.    His  achievements  in  fashion  earned  him  four  British   Designer  of  the  Year  awards  (1996,  1997,  2001  and  2003),  as  well  as  the  CFDA's   International  Designer  of  the  Year  award  in  2003.   As  part  of  his  creative  genius,  McQueen  started  every  collection  with  an  idea  or  a  concept   for  the  runway  presentation  before  the  fashion.    After  the  initial  concept,  he  would  create   an  elaborate  storyboard  with  various  references  from  art,  film,  and  music.    His  creative   process  in  terms  of  clothing  was  such  that  he  often  designed  directly  on  the  mannequins.   McQueen  was  known  for  not  only  high  fashion,  but  for  viewing  life  cinematically;  and  for   having  a  profound  love  of  nature  in  no  small  part  because  of  its  unpredictability.     McQueen’s  fashions  often  referenced  the  exaggerated  silhouettes  of  the  1860s,  1880s,   1890s,  and  1950s,  but  his  technical  ingenuity  imbued  his  designs  with  an  innovative   sensibility  that  kept  him  at  the  vanguard.   Alexander  McQueen  died  on  February  11,  2010.   Please  visit  the  McQueen  house  of  design  on  the  web  at    

Sleeping Beauty Awakes

Savage Beauty    

The Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art    

Savage Beauty,  the  exhibition  organized  by  The  Costume  Institute,  celebrated  the  late   Alexander  McQueen’s  extraordinary  contributions  to  fashion.    The  exhibition  featured   approximately  one  hundred  ensembles  and  seventy  accessories  from  McQueen’s  nineteen-­‐ year  career.    The  fashions  were  drawn  primarily  from  the  Alexander  McQueen  Archive  in   London,  with  some  pieces  coming  from  the  Givenchy  Archive  in  Paris  as  well  as  private   collections.   The  exhibition  that  was  held  from  May  4  to  August  7,  2010  was  organized  by  Andrew   Bolton,  curator,  with  the  support  of  Harold  Koda,  curator  in  charge,  both  of  The  Costume   Institute.    Sam  Gainsbury  and  Joseph  Bennett,  the  production  designers  for  Alexander   McQueen’s  fashion  shows,  served  as  the  exhibition’s  creative  director  and  production   designer,  respectively.    All  head  treatments  and  masks  were  designed  by  Guido.   The  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art,  known  as  The  Met,  is  an  art  museum  in  New  York  City.    Its   permanent  collection  contains  more  than  two  million  works,  divided  among  nineteen   curatorial  departments.    The  main  building,  located  on  the  eastern  edge  of  Central  Park   along  Manhattan's  Museum  Mile,  is  by  area  one  of  the  world's  largest  art  galleries.    There  is   also  a  much  smaller  second  location  at  "The  Cloisters"  in  Upper  Manhattan  featuring   medieval  art.   The  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art's  earliest  roots  date  back  to  1866  in  Paris,  France,  when  a   group  of  Americans  agreed  to  create  a  "national  institution  and  gallery  of  art"  to  bring  art   and  art  education  to  the  American  people.   We  are  grateful  to  the  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art  for  allowing  us  to  use  images  from   Savage  Beauty  under  their  Educational  License.    The  show  is  copyright  The  Metropolitan   Museum  of  Art  with  all  rights  reserved.   Please  visit  The  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art  on  the  web  at    

The Sleeping Beauty

Walter John  de  la  Mare    


Walter John  de  la  Mare  was  born  on  April  25,  1873  in  Kent,  England.    He  was  descended   from  a  family  of  French  Huguenots  and  later  became  an  English  poet,  short  story  writer,  and   novelist.   De  la  Mare  described  two  distinct  types  of  imagination:  the  childlike  and  the  boylike.    It  was   at  the  border  between  these  two  that  he  felt  Shakespeare,  Dante,  and  the  rest  of  the  great   poets  lay.    He  suggested  that  all  children  fall  into  the  category  of  having  a  childlike   imagination  at  first.    In  his  lecture,  "Rupert  Brooke  and  the  Intellectual  Imagination,"  he   argued  that  children  "are  not  so  closely  confined  and  bound  in  by  their  groping  senses.     Facts  to  them  are  the  liveliest  of  chameleons.    They  are  contemplatives,  solitaries,  fakirs,   who  sink  again  and  again  out  of  the  noise  and  fever  of  existence  and  into  a  waking  vision."     Doris  Ross  McCrosson  summarized  this  passage  as:  "Children  are,  in  short,  visionaries."    This   visionary  view  of  life  can  be  seen  as  either  vital  creativity  and  ingenuity,  or  fatal   disconnection  from  reality—or,  in  a  limited  sense,  as  both.   The  increasing  intrusions  of  the  external  world  upon  the  mind,  however,  frighten  the   childlike  imagination,  which  "retires  like  a  shocked  snail  into  its  shell."    From  then  onward   the  boyish  imagination  flourishes,  the  "intellectual,  analytical  type."   De  la  Mare  proposed  that  by  adulthood,  the  childlike  imagination  has  either  retreated   forever  or  grown  bold  enough  to  face  the  real  world.    Thus  emerge  the  two  extremes  of  the   spectrum  of  adult  minds:  the  mind  molded  by  the  boylike  is  " logical"  and  "deductive,"  that   shaped  by  the  childlike  is  "intuitive,”  and  “inductive."    De  la  Mare's  summary  of  this   distinction  is,  "The  one  knows  that  beauty  is  truth,  the  other  reveals  that  truth  is  beauty."   The  Sleeping  Beauty  is  copyright  Walter  John  de  la  Mare.    It  is  used  by  permission  of  the   Trustees  of  Walter  de  le  Mare,  and  the  Society  of  Authors  as  their  representatives.   Please  find  Walter  John  de  la  Mare  on  the  web  at      

The Sleeping Beauty

Kara Allyson    


Title: “Lost  in  Winter  4/365”     Artist:  Kara  Allyson     Date:  December  22,  2010     Medium:  photography     Location:  archived  on  flickr     Notes:  “Lost  in  Winter  4/365”  was  taken  after  a  snowstorm  on  December   22,  2010.    Ms.  Allyson  writes:   I  just  got  lost  and  slept  right  through  the  dawn   And  the  world  spins  madly  on.     Kara  Allyson  has  a  portfolio  of  540  images  available  on  Flickr.   “Lost  in  Winter  4/365”  is  used  courtesy  of  Kara  Allyson  under  the  flickr   Creative  Commons  license  with  some  rights  reserved.     Please  visit  Kara  Allyson  on  the  web  at    

Rapunzel, Rapunzel, Let Down Your Hair

Terri Windling  


Terri Windling  is  a  writer,  editor,  and  artist  specializing  in  fantasy   literature,  fairy  tales,  and  mythic  arts.    She  has  published  more  than   forty  books  for  adults,  teens,  and  children,  winning  nine  World  Fantasy   Awards,  the  Mythopoeic  Award  (for  her  mythic  novel  The  Wood  Wife),   the  Bram  Stoker  Award,  and  placing  on  the  short  list  for  the  Tiptree   Award.    She  also  received  the  2010  SFWA  Solstice  Award  for   "outstanding  contributions  to  the  speculative  fiction  field  as  a  writer,   editor,  artist,  educator,  and  mentor,"  and  has  recently  been  nominated   for  the  2012  Shirley  Jackson  Award.   Her  essays  on  myth,  fairy  tales,  literature  and  art  have  appeared  in   magazines,  art  books  and  reference  texts  in  the  United  States  and   Europe.    Ms.  Windling  co-­‐edited  The  Year's  Best  Fantasy  &  Horror   annual  anthologies  (with  Ellen  Datlow)  for  sixteen  years,  and  The   Journal  of  Mythic  Arts  (with  Midori  Snyder)  for  eleven  years.         Terri  Windling  works  in  the  New  York  publishing  industry,  but  lives  in  a   small  Dartmoor  village  in  England's  West  Country,  with  her  husband   (English  dramatist  Howard  Gayton),  their  daughter,  and  a  dog  named   Tilly.    For  more  information  about  her  books  and  art,  visit  her  website,   her  blog:  The  Drawing  Board,  or  her  Etsy  shop.     Please  visit  Terri  Windling  on  the  web  at    

Rapunzel, Rapunzel, Let Down Your Hair

Moria Chappell  


Moria Chappell,  the  model  for  Rapunzel  in  “Rapunzel,  Rapunzel,  Let   Down  Your  Hair,”  is  a  world  renowned  bellydancer  who  graces  stages   around  the  globe  bringing  the  art  of  Tribal  Fusion  Bellydance  to  its   utmost  in  elegance  and  intensity  of  expression.    Creating  a  mixture  that   is  enchanting  darkness,  Ms.  Chappell  embodies  the  mythos  of  a  modern   industry  and  a  forgotten  ancestry.   Ms.  Chappell  performs  with  Bellydance  Superstars,  the  world’s  premiere   professional  bellydance  troupe,  which  was  formed  in  2002  by  producer   and  manager  Miles  Copeland.    In  its  first  six  years  of  touring,  Bellydance   Superstars  presented  700  shows  in  22  countries.       Specializing  in  Tribal  Fusion,  Ms.  Chappell  also  studies  and  instructs  in  a   variety  of  dance  forms  from  Polynesian  ethnic  to  classical  Indian  Odissi.     Originally  from  Atlanta,  Georgia,  Moria  attended  the  University  of   California  at  Irvine  where  she  earned  a  degree  in  English,  graduating   summa  cum  laude.    Her  love  of  the  arts  is  underpinned  by  her  love  of   the  mythic,  which  she  incorporates  into  her  choreographies  and   costumes  designs—and  shares  with  her  students  in  workshops  such  as   Archetypes  and  the  Dancer  and  The  Dance  of  the  Chakras.   The  photographs  used  in  the  article  were  taken  by  Dahna  Koth  at  the   Birmingham  Botanical  Gardens  in  Birmingham,  Alabama.    The  images   are  copyright  Dahna  Lorrain  Koth  with  all  rights  reserved.    They  are  used   with  permission.   Please  visit  Moria  Chappell  on  the  Web  at    

The May Queen

Alfred, Lord  Tennyson    


Alfred Tennyson,  1st  Baron  Tennyson,  was  born  on  August  6,  1809.    He   was  to  become  the  Poet  Laureate  of  the  United  Kingdom  during  much   of  Queen  Victoria's  reign  and  remains  one  of  the  most  popular  poets  in   the  English  language.   Tennyson  excelled  at  penning  short  lyrics,  such  as  "In  the  Valley  of   Cauteretz,"  "Break,  Break,  Break,"  "The  Charge  of  the  Light  Brigade,"   "Tears,  Idle  Tears,"  and  "Crossing  the  Bar."    Much  of  his  verse  was   based  on  classical  mythological  themes,  such  as  Ulysses,  although  In   Memoriam  A.H.H.  was  written  to  commemorate  his  best  friend  Arthur   Hallam,  a  fellow  poet  and  fellow  student  at  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,   who  was  engaged  to  Tennyson's  sister,  but  died  from  a  brain   hemorrhage  before  they  could  marry.    Tennyson  also  wrote  some   notable  blank  verse  including  Idylls  of  the  King,  "Ulysses,"  and   "Tithonus."    During  his  career,  Tennyson  attempted  drama,  but  his   plays  enjoyed  little  success.   A  number  of  phrases  from  Tennyson's  work  have  become   commonplaces  of  the  English  language,  including  "Nature,  red  in  tooth   and  claw,"  "'Tis  better  to  have  loved  and  lost  /  Than  never  to  have  loved   at  all,”  "Theirs  not  to  reason  why,  /  Theirs  but  to  do  and  die,"  "My   strength  is  as  the  strength  of  ten,  /  Because  my  heart  is  pure,"   "Knowledge  comes,  but  Wisdom  lingers,"  and  "The  old  order  changeth,   yielding  place  to  new."      

The May Queen

Silvia Padovan    


Title: “Like  a  Fairy  Tale”     Artist:  Silvia  Padovan  (Siza  Padovan)       Date:  February  13,  2010     Medium:  photograph     Location:  archived  on  flickr     Notes:  “Like  a  Fairy  Tale”  was  taken  at  the  Venice  Carnival.    Ms.  Padovan   is  a  photographer  with  a  portfolio  of  over  650  images  available  for  review   on  Flickr.   “Like  a  Fairy  Tale”  is  used  courtesy  of  Silvia  Padovan  under  the  flickr   Creative  Commons  license  with  some  rights  reserved.   Please  visit  Siliva  Padovan  on  the  web  at  

The May Queen

Sam 17    


Title: “Fairy  Tale”     Artist:  Sam  17       Date:  January  10,  2009     Medium:  photograph     Location:  archived  on  flickr     Notes:  “Fairy  Tale”  was  taken  in  Poitiers,  Poitou-­‐Charentes,  France,  using  a   Konica  Minolta  DiMAGE  Z10.    He  comments  that  the  upright  columns  are   “ice  stalagmites,”  and  he  adds,  “When  I  discovered  this  place,  it  really  felt   like  a  fairy  tale.”    Sam  17  has  a  portfolio  of  over  140  images  available  on   Flickr.   “Fairy  Tale”  is  used  courtesy  of  Sam  17  under  the  flickr  Creative  Commons   license  with  some  rights  reserved.   Please  find  Sam  17  on  the  web  at  

The May Queen

Alice Popkorn    


Title: “Are  We  Alone?”     Artist:  Alice  Popkorn  (Cornelia  Kopp)       Date:  February  12,  2008     Medium:  photograph     Location:  archived  on  flickr     Notes:  “Are  We  Alone?”  was  taken  using  a  Conon  PowerShot  A720  IS.    Ms.   Popkorn  has  a  portfolio  of  over  a  thousand  images  available  on  Flickr.   “Are  We  Alone?”  is  used  courtesy  of  Alice  Popkorn  under  the  flickr  Creative   Commons  license  with  some  rights  reserved.   Please  find  Alice  Popkorn  on  the  web  at  

The Land  of  Faery,   Where  nobody  gets  old  and  godly  and  grave,   Where  nobody  gets  old  and  crafty  and  wise,   Where  nobody  gets  old  and  bitter  of  tongue.     WILLIAM  BUTLER  YEATS


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The Subject Was Roses  

Mythic Imagination Magazine explores the archetypal world of Fairy.

The Subject Was Roses  

Mythic Imagination Magazine explores the archetypal world of Fairy.