Under the Ice

Page 1

Under the Ice Written by Jenny Feely


Under the Ice Text type: Personal narrative Level: P (38)* Word count: 1,068 Content vocabulary Arctic ballast tanks compass diving rudders expedition depths ice drill jagged magnetic mission Nautilus navigate North Pole plummeted pressure recharge shortwave radio submerge Key concepts • Exploration requires ingenuity and courage. • Exploring is often dangerous and difficult. Reading strategy • Recognizing language that links sentence parts Paired book Professor Valdor and the Giant Laser © 2012–2020 EC Licensing Pty Ltd. This work is protected by US copyright law, and under international copyright conventions, applicable in the jurisdictions in which it is published. All rights reserved. The trademark “Flying Start to Literacy” and Star device is a registered trademark of EC Licensing Pty Ltd in the US. Purchasers of this book may have certain rights under applicable copyright law to copy parts of this book. Purchasers must make the necessary enquiries to ascertain whether and to what extent they have any such right in the jurisdiction in which they will be using the book. Photograph on cover © Xedos4, page 1 (background) © Erectus, (left) © Alexander Potapov, pages 2–3, 22–25 (top) and 28 © Jvdwolf, pages 4–5 (top) © Xedos4, pages 6–7 and 26–27 (top) © Erectus, page 8 (bottom) © Irochka, page 9 (bottom) © Tifonimages, pages 10–13 (top) © Erectus, page 11 (bottom) © Jvdwolf, pages 12–13 (bottom) and page 24 (bottom) © Alexandr Konstantinov, pages 14–15 (top) © Dmitry Panchenko, pages 16–17 (top) © Guido Vrola, pages 18–21 (top) © Alexander Potapov, page 19 (bottom) © Steve Allen, all from Dreamstime; page 7 © Steven Kazlowski, pages 8–9 (top) © Tobias Bernhard, from Photolibrary; pages 2–5, 15, 17 (bottom background) © Ozerina Anna, page 5 (bottom) © Suto Norbert Zsolt, pages 13, 16, 25 © ARENA Creative, pages 26–27 (map) © L. Watcharapol, all from Shutterstock; page 3 (inset) from Wikimedia; pages 1 (right), 4 (inset), 8 (top inset), 11–12, 14 (bottom), 15, 17, 18 (bottom), 20 (bottom), 21 (bottom), 22–23 (bottom), 25 (top) © The Ohio State University, Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, Papers of Sir George Hubert Wilkins; page 4 (bottom) © Underwood & * Levels indicated by letters are Okapi’s unique measurements, comparable to the Guided Reading levels of Fountas and Pinnell. Numerical levels in parentheses align with DRA.

Developed by Eleanor Curtain Publishing Designed by Derek Schneider Printed and bound in China through Colorcraft Ltd, Hong Kong Distributed in the USA by Okapi Educational Publishing Inc. Phone: 866-652-7436 Fax: 800-481-5499 Email: info@myokapi.com www.myokapi.com www.flying-start-to-literacy.com ISBN: 978-1-74320-118-3 9 10 11 12 13 14 20 21 22 23 24

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Under the Ice

Written by Jenny Feely


Contents Prologue

3

Chapter 1: An exciting mission

4

Chapter 2: Many challenges to overcome

6

Chapter 3: A shaky start

10

Chapter 4: Into the unknown

18

Chapter 5: One final attempt

22

Timeline: 1931

26

A note from the author

28


Prologue The explorer Sir Hubert Wilkins took an  expedition to the Arctic in 1931.  During this  expedition, Wilkins and his scientists collected  important new information. This information was so accurate that it  helped to save a US submarine in 1958.   This submarine, the USS Skate, was patrolling  the Arctic ice when its compasses stopped  working.  The captain of the submarine used  information from Wilkins’s expedition to figure  out the location  of the submarine, saving it  from disaster.

The USS Skate in the Arctic

3


Chapter 1

An exciting mission On June 4, 1931, a submarine  called the Nautilus left the  United States.  Its mission  was to cross the Arctic Ocean  under the ice to the North Pole.   Sir Hubert Wilkins

The Nautilus submarine was  christened in New York City.

4


No one had ever tried to go under the Arctic ice in a submarine.  Many people said that it was impossible.  But the captain of the Nautilus – Sir Hubert Wilkins – was certain that it could be done.  North Pole Arctic Ocean

United States

5


Chapter 2

Many challenges  to overcome Exploring the Arctic in 1931 was very  dangerous.  The sea ice was always  moving and no one knew how far down  into the water it reached and whether  there was land underneath or just ocean. There were only a few months each year  when such an exploration could be  attempted, because it was only during  the summer that breaks in the sea  ice existed.  Wilkins needed these breaks  so the submarine could come to the surface.   As winter approached, the patches of open  water would freeze and disappear.

6


Icebergs can be dangerous for submarines  because they can extend a long way down  underneath the water. 7


shortwave radio

The only contact the Nautilus had with the  outside world was through shortwave radio,  and it was not certain that this would work  properly through the ice.  To find their way  under the ice, Wilkins and his crew would  need to rely on a compass.  But being so  close to the magnetic North Pole caused  compasses to become unreliable.

compass

The Nautilus could submerge  to depths of about 200 feet,  but going deeper was very  risky as the water pressure  could squeeze the submarine  until it collapsed.  If the sea ice  went deeper than 200 feet, it would  be very difficult to navigate around it. 8


When underwater, the Nautilus was powered  by batteries.  It had to surface for 8 out of every 24 hours to refresh the air supply and to run the diesel engines, which recharged the submarine’s batteries.  To do this, the crew had to find breaks in the sea ice. As this could be difficult, Wilkins had the  Nautilus fitted with an ice drill, which could  drill through the ice so that the Nautilus  could reach the surface.  But no one knew for sure if this would work.

breaks in  the Arctic ice 9


Chapter 3

A shaky start For the expedition, Wilkins leased a submarine from the US Navy and called it Nautilus.  This submarine  had never been to the Arctic and had  to be remodeled to make it suitable.   It took many months and, before  it was even finished, the project was  running late. When the submarine was ready, it had  to be tested.  Filled with all of the  equipment needed to explore the Arctic,  the Nautilus was heavier than expected,  and it plummeted  downwards, finally  getting stuck in the mud 260 feet  below the surface.  10


The Nautilus is being prepared  for its expedition.

11


The Nautilus is at  the dock for repairs.

12


The Nautilus was in danger of being crushed  by the pressure of the water.  The captain and  crew tried everything to free the Nautilus  from the ocean floor – using engines, emptying  the ballast tanks that weighed it down, even  having the crew run from side to side to try  to rock the submarine out of the mud.  Nothing  seemed to work.  Then suddenly, without any  explanation, the Nautilus began to rise to the  surface.  Disaster had been avoided – this time.

Explorer facts Wilkins named the submarine  after the submarine Nautilus in the  book  Twenty Thousand Leagues Under  the Sea by Jules Verne. 13


After more tests, and now two months  behind schedule, the Nautilus set off across  the surface of the ocean for Norway.  This  was where Wilkins planned to launch his  expedition.  But after only three days at  sea, they sailed into a frightening storm.

The Nautilus sails  through stormy seas.

14


The Nautilus bucked and rolled as the huge  waves tossed it around.  All the members of  the crew became seasick.  Water seeped into  one of the submarine’s engines and it  stopped working.  Soon the second engine  failed as well.

A crew member checks  machinery on the submarine.

15


For three days the storm raged.  The crew  needed to send for help, but there was not  enough power left to run the radio.  The radio  operator worked on the radio, changing it so  that it could send out a low whistling sound  using the small amount of power left.  For  18 hours he tapped out a message in Morse  code: SOS, SOS, SOS. Eventually the Nautilus was rescued by a  US navy ship and was towed to safety.

Explorer facts SOS is the  traditional message used  in emergencies and means  help is needed.  It stands  for Save Our Souls. 16


The Nautilus was taken to a  dock in England to be repaired.

17


Chapter 4

Into the unknown The Nautilus needed many repairs.  These  took one month and set the expedition even  further behind schedule.   At last the Nautilus was ready and set off for  the Arctic ice.  After battling another vicious  storm, the submarine reached the Arctic ice.  The crew celebrated stepping onto  the Arctic ice for the first time.

18


When Wilkins ordered the crew to prepare for  the first dive under the ice, they discovered that the diving rudders were missing.  These were vital because they were used to steer  the submarine when it was underwater. No one knew if they had been lost in the storm or if a crew member, frightened of going under the ice, had tried to ruin the expedition on purpose.

19


But Wilkins was determined that the  expedition would not be a total failure.   Although it was impossible to cross the Arctic  Ocean under the ice, he ordered that the  scientists collect as much scientific information  as they could. Scientists set up their  equipment on the Arctic ice.

20


The scientists began to collect data about the depth of the Arctic Ocean floor, the flow of the ocean water and the direction in which it moved, and the level of salt in the water.  They took samples of the mud on the ocean floor and made observations of the animal life.  This was the first time such data had ever been collected. A scientist collects information.

21


Chapter 5

One final attempt Summer was nearly over and the ice was  getting thicker – time was running out for  the expedition.  But Wilkins was still  determined to succeed.  When the weather  was clear, he gave the order to dive under  the ice.  This was very brave and perhaps  very foolish – without the diving rudders,  no one knew if the submarine could get  back to the surface.

22


As the Nautilus moved slowly forward, a  loud, terrifying noise reverberated through the  submarine.  The top of the submarine was  scraping along the underside of the ice.  The  crew checked the inside of the submarine, but  they found no damage.  So the Nautilus  continued on.

The Nautilus sails through ice before diving.

23


As the submarine floated under the ice,  Wilkins and the crew saw the jagged shapes  of the bottom of the ice – a sight that had  never been seen by humans before.  They  were astounded by the colors and shapes, as  the clouds moved above the ice and the  sunlight shone through. A view from under the ice.

24


The Nautilus crew

When it was time to come out from under  the ice and go back to the surface, everyone  on the submarine waited nervously.  The  captain set the engines for slow and the  Nautilus slowly glided forward, out from  under the ice and into the sunshine. Wilkins and his crew had succeeded!  They were the first people to travel under  the Arctic ice in a submarine.

Explorer facts In 1958 the USS Nautilus (named after  Wilkins’s  submarine)  made  the  first  crossing  of the Arctic Ocean under the ice. 25


Timeline: 1931

June 4 The Nautilus departs  New York and is  damaged by a storm.

26

New York

June 15 The Nautilus is rescued and  towed to England for repairs.


August 31

August 23

The Nautilus dives  under the ice.

The Nautilus reaches Arctic waters,  600 miles from the North Pole.

August 11

The Nautilus returns  to Spitsbergen; all  the crew survive.

The Nautilus arrives  at the island of  Spitsbergen, Norway.

No rwa y

September 20

August 5 The Nautilus leaves  Bergen, Norway.

England July 28 The Nautilus is repaired and leaves England.

27


A note from  the author As a writer I find that the very best, most compelling stories are those about real people and the astonishing things they have done.  When I read the biography of Sir Hubert Wilkins, I found a wealth of amazing stories. I was especially interested in his submarine voyage under the Arctic ice. I had not realized how difficult such a voyage would be or that submarines were so dangerous and isolated. But mostly I was impressed by the ways that Wilkins persisted in terrible circumstances, not giving up when most people would.    28


EARLY EMERGENT STAGE

EMERGENT STAGE

EARLY STAGE

Level A Level B Level C Level D Level E (1) (2) (3–4) (6) (8)

TRANSITIONAL STAGE

Level F Level G Level H (10) (12) (14)

EARLY FLUENT STAGE CHAPTER BOOKS

Level I (16)

Level J (18)

FLUENT STAGE CHAPTER BOOKS

Level K (20)

FLUENT PLUS STAGE CHAPTER BOOKS

Level L Level M Level N Level O Level P (24) (28) (30) (34) (38)

Fluent Plus Level N (30)

FLYING START TO LITERACY Paired books

Perspectives books

Amazing Salamanders

Owning a Pet: What Should You Think About?

Salamander Surprise! Corn Crazy The Great Corn Invention Food Rescue: Making Food Go Further The King of Waste Saving Wild Wolves Wolf Secret Famous Finds The Lost Tomb Working in the Wild The Goodmans Go Camping

Fluent Plus Level O (34)

Riding the Waves Wipe-out! Deadly Venom: Killer or Cure? The Stubborn Princess The Question of Water Ming Saves the Day Seasons in the Kelp Forest Thunder Cave Nature’s Red Flags Bring Back the Frogs! Dragons Dragon Tales

Fluent Plus Level P (38)

Incredible Underground Homes The Wild Caves Wildfires A Hard Choice We Must Protect Old-Growth Forests Dan’s Trees Under the Ice Professor Valdor and the Giant Laser The Plastic Plague The Plastic-free Challenge Electric Wind: The Story of William Kamkwamba Marvelous Maddie

Food: What’s Good? What’s Bad? Stop Wasting Food! How Can We Do It? The Big, Bad Wolf: True or False? What is Treasure? What Do You Value? Wildlife in the City: Why Should We Protect It? Being Brave: What Does It Mean? Dangerous Animals: What Do You Need to Know? Water: The Key to Life? Planet Ocean: How Important is It? Mini Beasts: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly Scary Stories: The Scarier the Better? Places People Live: When is a Home a Home? Fire: Friend or Foe? Trees: Why Do We Need Them? Setting Goals: What’s Important? Plastic: Helpful or Harmful? Thinking Outside the Box: What Does It Mean?


Flying Start to Literacy: Level P (38)

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