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Newspapers Nick Knight Illustration Influencers Burberry Celebrities Internet Zara Social Media Louis Vuitton Vogue Condé Nast Audrey Hepburn Journalism

Coach Magazines Fashion Shows Influence Cosmopolitan Chanel Kendall & Kylie Rene Gruau Catwalk Anna Wintour Chiara Ferragni Posters PLT Harper’s Bazaar

During the start of the 20th century media in fashion began to increase. All of the fashion magazines began featuring pictures of different creations in fashion and they became more influential on people than they ever had before. These magazines were selling fast all over the world and having a big effect on peoples taste in clothing. However, the internet and social media has had a huge effect on paper based advertisement. People used to flick through glossy pages of a magazine and today they have access to the fashion world through the tiny screen of their mobile phones. The industry has gone from artists illustrating magazine covers because photography didn’t exist to accessing all things fashion using the internet. In my zine I’ve chosen a timeline format to show just how much the internet and certain people (celebs and influencers mostly) have had an effect on fashion, how it used to be and how rapidly it has changed over the years. It’s gone from physical to digital in quite a short space of time. It’s a lot easier for my generation because everything is more technical and easier to access wherever and whenever you want. It’s made me realise that myself and generations to come will never know what it was like to have no internet, I’m used to being able to pick up my phone and shop or look at the latest trends and news online, that didn’t used to be an option and illustration was more valued by people who used to rely on fashion magazines for all those things.






Cosmopolitan Magazine was originally launched as a fictional magazine for the family in 1886. It included articles about home, cooking and family. All cover art was illustrated- even the ones featuring celebrities. The introduction of Television effected Magazine sales and it wasn’t until Helen Brown took over the role as editor and started replacing the covers images with pictures of younger women in very minimal clothing resulting in an increase of sales. As of 2011, ‘Cosmo’ magazine included a whole range of different articles. Relationships, health, fashion, beauty, sex, celebrities. The magazine currently has 64 national editions, printed in 35 different languages and is distributed to more than 100 different countries. Every cover page features a celebrity along with an interview with inside. Today you can access all things Cosmo online on their website.


HARPER’S BAZAAR Harper’s Bazaar was the first ever women’s fashion magazine, founded in 1867 and celebrated 150 years in 2017. The magazine was founded by Harper & Brothers, siblings who owned a publishing firm in New York. The magazine was aimed at a particular audience, the middle and upper classes. It was used to showcase fashion from Germany and Paris in a newspaper kind of format. Right now you can access everything Harper’s Bazaar online, the only downside to that is it’s not a physical copy, if you’re a collector you won’t benefit from it. To celebrate 150 years of Harper’s Bazaar, the directors of the magazine published a 712 page anthology ‘An American Album: One Hundred and Fifty Years of Harper’s Magazine’.


Burberry is currently 162 years old, the brand was founded in 1856 by Thomas Burberry in Basingstoke and by 1891 the first store was opened in London. In 2006 Burberry’s creative director wanted them to become the very first fully digital luxury company and it’s currently the main component of how they run the business. They use Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat and Periscope for all their advertisement. Before this they would rely on posters and magazines as a source of advertisement. It was also well known as a brand ‘football hooligans’ would wear causing them to lower their prices because of the change in their reputation.

Chanel is actually the brand with the most social followers. It’s the leading luxury brand on all platforms despite it being a late adopter of social media. In 1953 is when Coco first met Harper’s Bazaar’s editor-inchief Carmel Snow- making connections to the women’s fashion magazine. The brand relied on famous people (then) to be on their advertising campaigns and runway shows to showcase their newest creations. Because Chanel has a huge range of beauty products as well as clothes/bags/shoes and accessories, they have a lot of video context which is a lot more effective when they are generating social engagement.

Image: The original Burberry pattern and logo (but pink instead of black, brown and cream).




Spring 1996, Miuccia runway show made it 3rd on the list of ‘The 25 most unforgettable Runway Show’s of the 90’s’ ranked by the editors of vogue. com. It was considered quite ugly and not sexy at all, unattractive colours and patterns that clashed but it was all intentional so it would be remembered. The brand has always challenged ‘Barbie-perfect’ standards by exploring what she described as “the good taste of bad taste” basically saying it might have been ugly but it was the best ugly. It wasn’t until July 2016 that Prada started selling it’s ready-to-wear online, they have basically been forced




into selling online because every other brand is now using digital media and they need to be noticed to do well. It’s one big competition and they’re all forced to keep up with one another if they don’t want the brand to fall through. I would personally want to see what I’m buying and have it right in front of me before a purchase is made but the rich are too rich to worry about that.


A TIMELINE. Vogue was originally created to be a weekly newspaper in America founded by Arthur Turnure. Right now Vogue stands as a monthly Fashion Magazine and Anna Wintour is the woman behind it all (literally). Vogue over the years. From 1902 - November 2018. A timeline in a timeline.

-1897, Nast began his publishing career -Bought Vogue in 1909. -Transformed it into a women’s fashion magazine and made it more exciting to look at. -He hired only the best photographers and illustrators. -1913, He bought vanity fair. -By this time Condé Nast Publications had a magazine for every aspect of society living. Fashion, art, film and literature, Interior design. -Turns out the reason why he had turned vogue into a women’s fashion magazine was because he believed that women should have the opportunity to have the prettiest clothes and the prettiest surroundings to be able to make themselves more attractive. -Although Nast is no longer with us, Condé Nast Publications is and Vogue is still out there and currently one of the biggest international fashion magazines around. He’s definitely made history and is someone that will never be forgotten in Fashion.

C o n d é M o n t r o s e N a s t

2 of ta Vo th ar ma th di In of

Rene Gruau was a very famous fashion illustrator, between 1946 and 1984 he worked with International Textiles, illustrating all of the covers. Christian Dior & the advertising campaigns for their first 3 perfumes, he went onto showing off his work to Harper’s Bazaar and Vogue.

RENE GRUAU 2 years after offering his talent to HB and Vogue he became the exclusive artist for Flair magazine. Over the years Rene created a number of different unforgettable posters. In 2010 a six figure sale was made of an oil on canvas in New York.

From researching and looking at a range of different posters, old and new, I have found that they are generally created and used as a way of advertising fashion events, catwalks, fashion shows, fashion school graduations etc.


Vintage Poster created to promote and advertise Fashion Week in Amsterdam, 1951.

le rouge baiser by Rene Gruau 1948.


Advertisement for the Little Black Dress Project Exhibition in Melbourne, 2013.

Poster advertising a Runway Show and Auction organised to raise money for charity.

Design your own fashion magazine 1. Research- Look at other magazines for inspiration, taking ideas is not copying! Write about what you are interested in. 2. Follow Trends- Write about something new to grab the readers attention. 3. Structure and Layout- Headline (catchy!), Intro (make it interesting, it’s the most important bit), main body (the biggest part, use colours, images, text) add quotes (they’re trendy). 4. Image Captions- Tell the reader what is happening in the pictures, credit photographers etc. Also, always use the best images! 5. Cover Design- Make it look attractive so it stands out, it’s the first thing people will see! 6. Font- Think about your audeince, Vogue uses typefaces that are ‘fancy’ because it’s readers are 20-40 years old . Magazines for younger people might use larger fonts and brighter colours to make the most important bits really stand out.


"Create your own style‌ let it be unique for yourself and yet identifiable for others." -Anna Wintour

“Vogue is a fashion magazine, and a fashion magazine is about to change.� -Audrey Hepburn



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Photographs taken by me in London.


Condé Nast International News is a boutique in London, a friend of the New York based publishing company that produce and offer some of the biggest print and digital brands in the world. Vogue, GQ, Glamour, Vanity Fair and more. If you’re a collector or interested in the latest fashion news it’s the place to go. I’m a typical Kylie Jenner fan so I took interest in her Glamour covers in particular but they offer copies of magazines that you won’t be able to get your hands on anywhere else and Vogue House is just next door!



Celebrities are a huge deal in fashion, they did used to be the biggest influencers out there but ‘professional’ influencers seem to be taking over. Can you believe people actually get paid (A LOT) to promote clothes or just for posting a picture online? It’s a little bit different for celebrities because their way of unintentionally promoting is getting caught or followed whilst out and about by the paparazzi.


Zara is a brand that hasn’t been around even half as long as a lot of other but it’s quite easily just as popular and known by people. The first store that opened features lookalike products of popular higher end brands at a lower price. Despite being one of the last fashion companies to take up e-commerce, Zara has achieved a universal shopping experience that encompasses both its brick-and-mortar locations and its online stores. Other companies have tried but never been as successful, Luxury fashion brands including Louis Vuitton are increasingly using instagram to win over millennials. In 2017, Louis Vuitton was one of the most buzzed about designer brands on the platform. Rather than reports and news in magazines, everything is just posted onto their online website because it will reach a wider audience. Every holiday throughout the year, Louis Vuitton have a different theme and creative video on their website to advertise and get people interested in their new collections. Pretty Little Thing, a completely internet based brand. Shopping in store is not an option because they don’t YET exist. They describe themselves as part of the online savvy shopping generation and their biggest aim is to deliver their product inspired from the catwalk and the coolest celeb muses of the moment. They work with high profile influencers to support the brand and reach the largest audience possible. The only reason they are successful is because of the internet, if that didn’t exist then they wouldn’t either,



Vivienne Westwood has gone from printed campaigns and show casing collections on the runway to relying mainly on the media. Back in 2015 at one of her catwalk shows she decided to open the show a little ~different. Instead of using a traditional soundtrack there were police sirens with a voice over chanting “Hashtag, hashtag, Twitter, Instagram; wake up and hashtag, go crazy everyday.” Every single person in the audience were taking pictures on their phones throughout the entire show to share on social media later on. It was almost a demand and everyone in the audience listened and did exactly what she wanted.

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Just recently Selena Gomez has been the face of Coach, the number of fans she has means it’s a great advertising opportunity for the brand and a new project for Selena in fashion. Proof it’s successful? Me. I recently made a purchase online because of Selena Gomez, I had vaguely heard of the brand before but never really took interest which is funny because it was only recently that coach decided to give social media a chance, they used to rely on people knowing them by their name and traditional designs, unfortunately because of other brands they’ve had to step up their game in the media, it’s a competitive industry meaning as soon as one brand goes forth with something successful, eventually everyone else will have to follow. Coach do still spend a lot of money on print advertisement but they would benefit more from TV commercials because they are more likely to catch someone’s eye.


Mr. Knight, founder and director of and one of the most influential fashion photographers in the world. He made history in 1993 when he took pictures for the cover of British Vogue and continued to be the photographer for another 35 covers. He went on to shoot many different advertising campaigns for Louis Vuitton, Yves Saint Laurent, Alexander McQueen, Vivienne Westwood, Calvin Klein. Magazines have consistently kept Knight at the vanguard of progressive imagemaking for the past three decades. SHOWstudio was created in 2000, a website that enables people to communicate fashion online. Using the latest technology SHOWstudio broadcasts live from catwalks and fashion shoots. This means that their international audience are able to have access to the world of high fashion.


Fashion and catwalks shows are used as a way to promote and show off new collections. Photographers, journalists, influencers and celebrities all attend the big fashion weeks, each one of them will write or post pictures about/of it and it will eventually reach a larger audience.


I chose this image because of the pop of colour but also because pretty much every single person observing has a phone in their hand taking pictures which they will post to one/all of the many social media platforms later or maybe they’ll write an entire blog post about it, either way it will end up online somewhere.

Over the years Fashion and Technology have created a very close relationship which has benefited both. Technology is changing popular fashion, the rise of social media means that it’s not just the designers that choose and decide on the latest looks in fashion. It effects the fashion industry by providing it with so many good opportunities, they’re able to interact with the brands target groups and get customer opinions. It is enabling people to make new patterns and materials. Designers can create structures and designs that never existed before current technology.

At New York Fashion Show in 2013 the audience were spotted wearing Google glass and internet connected glasses to show digital information. Ivan Poupyrev created a smart clothing project for Google. “When somebody calls you, your jacket vibrates and gives you lights and [you] know somebody is calling you.” Technology is taking over, nothing is done the ‘old way’ anymore, before technology photography didn’t exist and everything was done by hand and now we have got people at fashion shows and on catwalks wearing a jacket that tells you when your phone is ringing? It’s literally crazy.

What is BoF? Business of Fashion is an exclusive online resource for everyone in the fashion industry available in over 200 countries. People have described it as ‘indispensable’ and ‘an addiction’. Writer and digital entrepreneur Imran Amed created the website as a project of passion and now it’s a big deal. Used by other fashion writers and stylists to deliver intelligence on emerging designers, global brands and new technology trying to make it big in the industry. How does BoF make their money? They derive majority of it’s revenue from people who subscribe to BoF Professional, their paid news and analysis product meaning they are the first and foremost accountable to their readers, They also have events which users have to pay for such as BoF Voices and commercial partners which advertise, sponsor events or pay for services associated with BoF Careers, their very own platform for jobs and careers advice. They have a way around everything so they can successfully run the website.

What has Social Media done?

Fashion has reached a whole new level since the involvement of social media, it’s revolutionised the industry although, the advantages definitely outweigh the disadvantages. Obviously it has had a big impact on paper-based media because people have become less interested in buying the latest edition of GQ or Vogue, everything is now available at the touch of a button on a tiny little phone screen. The audience/customers have taken to social media, they’ve started fashion blogs, some even become famous on instagram for their photography. By them creating their own styles and sharing them online they’ve managed to gain thousands of social followers who are then influenced by them because they want to be like them and have what they have. Sometimes it’s easier and exciting to take inspiration from someone else. That also means people aren’t looking through magazines for inspo like they used to which then leads to fewer sales, which isn’t an incredibly bad thing it just means there is a lot of room for improvement and a massive competition between all @cosmopolitan @cosmopolitan the different companies and publishing firms. @voguemagazine @voguemagazine Magazine sales have been falling ever since the @bazaaruk @BazaarUK inventor of the internet became relevant BUT I did find @harpersbazaarus @harpersbazaarus @condenast @CondeNast an article from 2017 which claims that sales of certain @cdi_now @condenastint titles are actually going up unfortunately for us its not @winnieharlow @winnieharlow the typical fashion magazines Vogue, Marie Claire, @nick_knight @RealAnnaWintour @showstudio @SHOWstudio Vanity Fair, etc. Right now people want to learn about @bof @BoF factual news and the effects to the economy. @burberry @Burberry Obviously people don’t really care right now if what @chanelofficial @CHANEL @prada @Prada they read online about the latest celebrity gossip is @zara @ZARA fake or not. A lot of people don’t realise what they see @louisvuitton @LouisVuitton or read online is actually isn’t actually the truth its @coach @Coach @viviennewestwood @FollowWestwood just easier to reach a wider audience and its free!

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INSTAGRAM- Chiara Ferragni, one of the many fashion influencers you can find on Instagram and probably every other social media platform available. She promotes both designer and high-street fashion and will no doubt get paid a lot of money for it! According to statistics reported in the Fashion Monitor and Econsultancy report, The Rise of the Influencers, just 27% of US, and 23% of British consumers reported that their purchasing choices were “influenced by ‘great’ brand advertising”. By this they mean they’ve found someone they really like on instagram and copied them, I think everyone is guilty of it, myself included, fashion influencers do have a massive impact on what I buy and the choices I make which on behalf of a brand it’s obviously a massive help and that is why they get paid so much for promoting. TWITTER- Yes, even twitter. So not only are brands using instagram to promote, they are also taking advantage of twitter too (and probably every other platform). You’ll find that most if not all brands today actually have customer help accounts on twitter and on a lot of the brands websites there is actually a direct link to the account, I use these kinds of accounts all the time and they are a lot easier to get through to the customer helpline this way than if you was to call or send an email.

To conclude, I think it’s very obvious that the internet has had a massive impact on Fashion and the way brands now advertise their products, People rely on the internet completely and some people like the ‘old fashioned’ way. I personally do enjoy being able to look at new trends and the latest news online but others prefer a physical copy for keep sake which is a good idea for future reference, if you want to go back and have another look it’s right there, things online aren’t forced to last forever and it’s not always easy to find something in particular you might be looking for, Because of how quickly the media has changed fashion (in my opinion for the better) who knows what is to come in the years following. Something that might sound impossible now could quite literally happen within the next few years, who would have thought 10 years ago that there would eventually be a jacket that lights up when you get a phone call? Social media could take over...or maybe all the famous magazines stop being printed completely. 100 years on and maybe the only way to shop is online? Anything could happen, no one can predict exactly what is going to happen. It’s exciting but also worrying and crazy to think about, I guess we’ll just have to wait and see what happens.

Courtney Simpson Fashion in the Media 2018

Profile for myb8020359

Module 1- Zine  

Module 1- Zine