Christian Special Days

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oHvGifcufaeU bke;f Bu;D bk&iftm;BuKd qdjk cif; (r? 21;1-11? rm? 11;1-11? vk? 19;29-44? a,m? 12;12-19) yocgyG?J yifawukawåyEJG iS hf wJawmfyo JG nf £oa&v vlrsdK;rsm; twGuf rjzpfraewufa&muf&rnfh bmoma&;yGv J rf;obifrsm;jzpfonf/ xdo k v H iG cf ufaeUjzpfymG ;&mumvonfum; yocgumvjzpfonf xdUk aMumifh a,&k&v S ifNrdKUESit hf eD;wpf0u kd f Zeyk'rf sm;wdUk onf bk&m;yGv J m y&dwo f wf rsm;jzifjh ynfEh u S pf nfum;vsuf&o dS nf/ a,&k&v S ifNrdKUESihf rdik f 20 twGi;f &Sd t&G,af &mufNyD;ol ygvufpwdik ;f £oa&vtrsdK;om;rsm;onf rvmrae &jzpfovdk? urÇmtESHUtjym;wGifa&muf&Sdaeaom£oa&vvlrsdK;rsm; vnf;xdk vlrsdK;pkEiS q hf ikd af om bk&m;yGaJ wmfrsm;odUk rjzpfraevma&mufMu onf/ xdo k Ukd aomyGv J rf;obifonf trSet f m;jzifh a,½Ic&pfawmfb&k m; tm;u,fwif&iS t f jzpf wifw h ,fcrf;em;pGm0ifa&mufvmrnfuv kd nf; arQmf vifah eMuaomtcgor,vnf;jzpfonf/ xdo k Ukd aomtcgor,wGif c&pfawmfonf cgwdik ;f jyKaeusESirhf wl wpfru l jJG ym;pGmvkyaf qmifawmfrcl o hJ nf/ c&pfawmfb&k m;onf um;wdik af y: wGiftjypfa<u;,Mwmay;ajcjcif;rjyKrSD £oa&vvlrsdK;rsm;twGuf olonf ppfreS af om u,fcRwf&iS af r&S, d jzpfaMumif;udv k nf; jyo&ef tBuH tpnfawmf&adS wmfral vonf/xdUk aMumifh wynfah wmfrsm;onf vmZ&k\ tdrfwGifc&pfawmfbk&m;ESifh&SdpOf wynfhawmfESpfOD;tm; (&Sifayw&kESifh - 15 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; &Sifa,m[efjzpfzG,f&Sd) Aufzma*&GmodkUoGm;a&mufNyD; jrnf;uav;udk oGm;,l&ef rdeUf >rwfawmfrcl o hJ nf/ emcHjcif;tjynft h 0&Sad om wynfah wmfEpS yf g;uvnf; ocifajym onft h wdik ;f jyKaomtcgwGif jrnf;uav;ESijhf rnf;rBuD;udak wGUMu&onf/ xdkodkUjrnf;uav;udkawGUaomtcgwGif wynfhawmfwdkUonf c&pfawmf bk&m;tvd&k adS omjrnf;uav;jzpfreS ;f odaomaMumifh ,laqmifcMhJ uonf/ c&pfawmfb&k m;onf avmuodUk vlUZmwdc, H &l ef<uvmawmfrpl Ofuvnf; ]tiSg;EGm;pm;cGuf} ay:wGifpHjref;awmfrlcJh&ovdk? a,&k&SvifNrdKUodkU u,fcRwf&Siftaejzifh <ujref;awmfrlonfhtcgwGifvnf; ]tiSg;jrnf;} uav;jzifh <ujref;awmfrcl o hJ nf/ avmuESiphf Mum0Vmwpfcv k ;kH udk ydik o f tkyfpdk;awmfrlaomt&SifjzpfonfhtwGuf &,lvdkorQudkawmif;qdkydkifcGifh vkyyf ikd cf iG &hf adS omfvnf; vlaerItqift h wef;tedru hf sqH;k [k vlwUkd orkwMf u aomwynfah wmfrsm;xHrS yg&rDjznfjh cif;udck , H u l m auseyfEpS o f ufawmfrl cJo h nf/ aAoedoUkd a&mufMuaomtcgwGif wynfah wmfwUkd ü xD;eef;oH;k jzpfonfh eef;0wfeef;pmtaqmifta,mifrsm;r&SMd u? xdUk aMumifh olwUkd \ ociftwGuf olwUkd \0wf&u kH ckd Rwfum jrnf;uav;ay:wGicf if;apvQuf c&pfawmfb&k m;udk pD;eif;apMuonf/ xdo k Ukd aomtaetxm;jzifh c&pfawmf onfjrnf;uav;udkpD;awmfrlNyD; a,&k&SvifNrdKUodkU<uawmfrlcJhonf/ rnforl Q pD;eif;jcif;rjyKao;aomjrnf;uav;udpk ;D eif;&mwGif oefU&Si;f wdusaom tBuHawmfrsm;&Sad eygonf/ ]]tjypfryg? wcgrQxrf;bd;k rwif? uGuu f sm;jcif;r&S?d tqif;eDaom EGm;rysdKudk £oa&v trsdK;om; wdUk onf aqmifcrhJ nftaMumif; qifq h akd vmh}} (awm? 19;2)/ xdUk aMumifh rnfol wpfOD;wpfa,mufrQ pD;eif;vdkufygjcif;rjyKao;aom jrnf;uav;udk - 16 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif c&pfawmfb&k m;toH;k jyKawmfrcl o hJ nf/ vmZ&ktm;aojcif;w&m;rSjyefvnfxajrmufapaom a,½Ionf a,&k&v S ifNrdKUodUk csDwufvmaeNyD[al om owif;pum;rSm awmrD;yrm wr[kwcf sif; jyefUESo H mG ;avawmhonf/ xdt k csdew f iG f vltyk rf mS ESppf jk zpfae onf a,½IEiS t hf wl aAoedrt S wlcsDwufvmolrsm;ESihf c&pfawmfb&k m;udk zl;awGU&efpdwftm;xufoefaeaom a,&k&SvifrSvlpk[líjzpfonf/ c&pf a wmf b k & m;tm; atmif p nf a tmif a rmif ; jzif h x D ; eef ; wuf y G J r S jyefvmaom &Sib f &k iftvm; tkwt f w k af omif;aomif;jzifBh udKqdMk uonf/ vlpt k csdKUwdUk onfc&pfawmfb&k m;xufO;D pGma&SUwGiaf jy;MuNyD; olwUkd \t0wftpm;rsm;udk <uawmfr&l mvrf;wGif cif;usif;xm;Muonf/ xdo k Ukd jyKjcif;onf &Sib f &k ifrsm;udo k mjyKaMumif; ]]olwo Ykd nftvsiftjrefx ojzif?h toD;toD;rdrw d Ukd 0wfvu kH , kd í l avSum;xdyaf y: a,[k atmufrmS cif;vsuf? a,[konf &Sib f &k ifjzpfawmfr\ l [kwyH ;kd rIwí f [pfaMumfMu\}} ( 4 &m? 9;13) wGiaf wGU&ygonf/ tjcm;aomvlpw k Ukd onf oHviG cf ufrsm;udk udik af qmif a0SU,rf;vQufEiS hf c&pfawmfb&k m;\<ucsDawmf rlvmjcif;udk aomif;aomifjzjzBudKqdMk uonf/ xdkodkUvlxkwdkUc&D;OD;BudKjyKjcif;onf &Sifbk&ifwpfyg;taejzifh c&pfawmfb&k m;tm; &dak ocefUjim;jcif;? zl;arsmfMunfnKd jcif;ESihf tm;ud;k tm;xm;jyKjcif;wdkUudkjyKaMumif;rnfrQtav;xm;aMumif; ay:vGif aeonf/ £oa&v vlrsdK;rsm;twGuf oHvGifcufonf ]Nidrfcsrf;rIESifh aysmf&iT f 0rf;ajrmufr}I udu k , kd pf m;jyKjcif;jzpfonf/ Asm'dwt f em*wåu d srf;pmwGiMf unfyh guvnf; oefU&Si;f olwUkd onf aumif;uifZt d ek Nf rdKUodUk oHviG cf ufrsm;udk udik af qmifNyD;atmifjrifpmG csDwuf vmrIukd az:jyxm;ygonf/

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- 18 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif jzpfaumif;jzpfaomfvnf;? ta&SUtv,fydkif;\,Ofaus;rIt&rlum; ppfjrif; &xm;pD;eif;aomolxuf Nidro f ufat;csrf;pGm om,m0ajymaom bkef;orÇmjzifhjynfhpHkaom bk&ifrsm;om jrnf;udkpD;eif;avh&SdMuonf/ xdUk aMumifh a&G;EIwu f ,fwifjcif;wnf;[laom aus;Zl;awmf tuRwfw&m; vrf;udk aqmifusOf;awmfral omt&Sicf &pfawmftaejzifh jrnf;uav;udk pD;jcif;onf vGefpGmyeH&aom omoemha&mif0gxGef;vif;jcif; trSwf vu©Pmjzpfonf/ vlxkBuD;rSc&pfawmfbk&m;tm;csD;rGrf;axmremjyKoHudkMum; aomtcg zm&d&w JS Ukd onf aMumuf&UHG jcif;ESit hf wl a'gorxdr;f Edik f jzpfMu onf/ taMumif;rSm a&mrbk&ifonfow l Ukd tm; owday;xm;NyD; jzpfonfh twdik ;f awmfveS yf ek u f ef&efcsDwufjcif;a&SUajy; tjzpfjrifomG ;rnfukd pd;k &drf Muonf/ odkUaomfvnf; vlxkwdkU\ [pfatmfoHwdwfqdwf oGm;rSom jzpfEikd af Mumif; aumif;pGmodaomaMumif]h ]vltpkta0;üygaom zm&d&JS tcsdKUwdUk u? t&Sif bk&m;? ud, k af wmf\wynfw h Ukd udk qH;k ryg[k avQmufMu aomf? a,½Iuvnf;?igqdo k nfum;/þolwUkd onf wdwf qdwpf mG aevQif ausmufcw J o Ykd nf csufjcif;a<u;aMumfvrd rfh nf[rk ed aYf wmfr\ l }}(vk? 19;3940)/ xdo k rYkd ed Uf awmfrjl cif;onf bk&m;\vl £oa&vvlrsdK;ESihf a,&k&v S if NrdKUrS {uef pifppf<ucsDvmaom u,fwif&iS f tm; jiif;y,fjcif;jyKonf [laom ya&mzuf jyKcsufujkd ynfph akH pjcif; yifjzpfonf(a,m? 1;10-11)/ xdo k Ukd csDwufMu&mwGif eHeufreG ;f wnfv h ek ;D yg;a&muf&v dS monfh twGuf a,&k&SvifNrdKU\jrifuGif;onfyDjyifpGmpu©Ktm&HkwGifxif[yf aeonf/ NrdKUawmfonf&aI rmzG,v f yS usufoa&&Sv d NS yD;? cefUnm;aom eH&H tkwf&dk;BuD;rsm;ESifh a[&k'frif;\aysmfpH&m eef;awmfBuD;onfvnf; vufvufjzm aeonfomru a&uef? MumESifh yef;rmvmrsm;uvnf; - 19 -

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif £oa&vacgif;aqmifrsm;onf MuufysHrusjzpfaeaom vltyk f BuD;udjk rifaomtcgwGif ]tu,fívlxw k \ Ykd qE´twdik ;f c&pfawmfonf &mZo&zluv kd ufcNH yD; Edik if aH wmfukd a&mr vufr}S jyef,rl nfupkd ;kd &drrf uif; jzpfaeMuonf/ olwUkd vGepf mG ylyefaerdonf/ a,½Ionf wpfaeUaomtcg wGif 'g0d'\ f &mZyv’iu f t kd rSeyf ifxikd af wmfrrl nfjzpfaomfvnf; ,ckum; r[kwaf o;yg/ vuf&cdS &pfawmfonf aus;Zl;awmf\t&Sio f ciftjzpf &mZ yv’iaf y:odUk roGm;ao;bJ u&meDuek ;f xufoUkd vSr;f <uaejcif; jzpfonf/ c&pfawmfonf NrdKUawmfwiG ;f odUk <uawmfrNl yD; wpfyg;trsdK;om; rsm;cef;rudMk unf&h aI wmfro l nf/ xdUk aemuf0ef;usiftm;Munfah wmfrNl yD; aerif;onf a[&k'rf if;\eef;awmfjyó'ftm;jzmqif;aecsdew f iG f xdak e&mrS xGuf<uawmfrlNyD;aemuf wynfhawmfrsm;ESifhtwl oHvGifawmif&Sd&modkU xGu<f uawmfrNl yD; vGepf mG yifyef;qif;&Jawmfrrl nfh vrf;pOfjzpfaomfvnf; ]'ku&© p&d,m} vrf;awmftwGujf yifqifum toif&h adS wmfrcl yhJ gonf/ c&pfawmfbk&m;\oufawmfpOfudkMunfhjcif;tm;jzifh oif,l avhvmp&mtcsufo;kH csufuakd wGUjrifMunfnKd Edik yf gonf/

1/ &J&ifwh nfMunfr/I c&pfawmfbk&m;\&J&ifhwnfMunfrIudkjrifawGU&jyefygonf/ NrdKUawmfoUkd 0ifa&mufjcif;onf cufc&J ikd ;f jyaomMur®mqd;k udk 0ifw;kd aerSe;f odjrifawmfro l nfomru vlxrk rS ek ;f wD;jcif;? tmPm&Srd sm;rS rvdrk ek ;f xm; jzpfjcif; taoowf&efBuHpOfMujcif;rsm;udk odjrifawmfro l nfw h ikd af tmif c&pfawmfonf vlom;xkwpf&yfv;kH twGuf rqkwrf wGeb Yf J wpfvrS ;f jcif; wufvrS ;f awmfrcl yhJ gonf/

2/ ar&S,d u,fcRw&f iS jf zpfjcif;? uwdawmfvmar&Sd,u,fcRwf&Sif jzpfaMumif;jyqdkaejcif;/ - 21 -

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- 23 -

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- 27 -

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t*FgaeU pyspOf ,smOf&iS f (r? 21;33-46? rm? 12;1-12) toD;roD;aomoabFmozef;yifp&D ifjcif;udk rdeUf >rwfawmfrNl yD; aemuf a,½Ic&pfawmfonf AdrmefawmfoUkd oGm;a&mufí oefU&Si;f apawmf rlonf/ wpfzef a,&k&v S ifNrdKUawmfupkd eG cYf gG awmfrcl NhJ yD; aAoedoUkd jyefxu G <f u awmfro l nf/ aemufaeUwGif c&pfawmfonfAdrmefawmfodkUoGm;um ol\ avmuD omoemtqH;k owftwGuf aemufq;kH aom oGeo f ifjcif;udjk yKawmf rlonf/ vGecf ahJ om ESp&f ufo;kH &ufcefUuNrdKUawmftwGi;f 0,foeG o f ifco hJ nf/ ol\'kw, d taMumh AdrmefawmfoUdk oGm;a&mufum oGeo f if&mü bmoma&; acgif;aqmifrsm;? ,Zfyak &m[dwrf sm;? AdrmefawmfrLS ;rsm;ESihf oufqikd &f m bmoma&;wm0ef&SdvlBuD;rsm;udk &J&J&ifh&ifhjzifhoGefoifawmfrlcJhonf/ xdUk aMumifh ,cktcsdew f iG f xdo k rl sm;rS c&pfawmfb&k m;tm; raumif;aom tBuHjzifh tEdik yf ikd ;f &ef? vloal v;yg;a&SUwGif t&Suu f aJG p&ef pDpOfaqmif&u G f Muonf/ AdrmefawmfoUkd 0ifjyefíqH;k rMo0g'ay;awmfrpl OfwiG ?f ,Zfyak &m [dwt f BuD;wdUk ESiv fh w l Ukd wGit f BuD;tuJ jzpfaomolwUkd onf txHawmfoUkd csOf;uyfí]]udk,fawmfonf þtrIrsm;udktb,f tcGifhESihfjyKoenf;? xkt d cGiu hf t kd b,foal y;oenf;}} [kar;Muonf (r? 21;23)/ xdt k cga,½I c&pfawmfonf Oyrmtm;jzifrh ed Uf awmfrcl ahJ vonf/ pyspfO,smOftm; vlxu k rkd ed Uf awmfro l nfrmS tjcm; wpfyg;aom Oyrmjzpfonf/ pyspfv,f,mjzpfxeG ;f aom £oa&vvlrsdK;rsm;twGuf

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif bk&m;ocif\ r[mu&kPmawmfukd az:usL;&eftjcm;Oyrm&SmrawGUEdik /f 'g0d'fonf £oa&vvlrsdK;udk pyspfEG,ftjzpf wifpm;usL;&ifhcJhonf? a[&Sm,u awmawmifwpfcv k ;kH jynfph o kH nfpyspfyiftjzpf ya&mzuf jyKcJh onf?a,&rdu ppfreS af omrsdK;ESiahf wmf0ifpyspfyiftjzpfyakH qmifco hJ nf/ AdrmefawmfodkUvma&mufolwdkif;twGuf £oa&vudkpyspfEG,ftjzpf az:usL;xm;onfukd txl;wv,fajymjy&efrvdyk g/ taMumif;rSm Adrmef awmf\ t0ifXmeawmfwiG f EG,, f u S af eaom pyspfyifyw kH Ukd u aiGEiS 4hf if;? a&TEiS 4hf if; touf0ifaeatmifxiG ;f xkxm;Muonf/ xdOk yrmwGif pyspfNcHyikd &f iS o f nf bk&m;ocifjzpfNyD;? pyspfNcHum; bk&m;ocifu, kd af wmfwikd f pdu k yf sdK;xm;aom uwdawmfajr&Sd £oa&v vlrsdK;awmfrsm;yif jzpfonf (a[&Sm? 5;1-7)/ NcHtiSg;orm;rsm;onfum; vlrsdK;awmfut kd yfEx HS m;jcif;cH&aom £oa&vacgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfonf/ tapcHrsm;onfum; olwdkUaxmufxm;n§mwmjcif;r&Sd &ufpufpGm? owfjzwfjcif;cHMu&aom bk&m;ocif\ ya&mzufrsm;jzpfonf/ om;um; c&pfawmfa,½Iu, kd af wmfwikd o f mjzpfonf/ toD;rJah omom"ursmonf £oa&vvlrsdK;awmfukd qdv k jkd cif; jzpfonf/,ckpyspfOyrmonfvnf; xyfrí H &Si;f vif;aponf/ £oa&v vlrsdK;awmfrsm;onf ]]pyspf&dkif;? cg;aomtoD;udkoD;}} olrsm;tjzpf qdx k m;onf/ ,ckwpfzef c&pfawmfonf £oa&vacgif;aqmifrsm;tm; uwdy#dnmOftwdkif;wdkif;oljynfom;rsm;tm; bk&m;ocifxHodkU ray; tyfEikd jf cif;udo k eG o f ifaejcif;jzpfonf/ tapcHrsm;tm;n§i;f yef;EIyd pf ufjcif; onf ya&mzufrsm;tay:olwUkd jyKaomtrItwdik ;f ajymMum;jcif;jzpfonf/ {vd,acwfumvwGif a,ZaAvonf bk&m;ocif\ ya&mzuf rsm;udo k wfjzwfco hJ nf/ aemufwiG af y:xGe;f aom ya&mzufrsm;jzpfonfh a[&Sm,rSm vTjzif4h if;? a,&rdrmS EGm;ajc;wGi;f ü4if;? tjcm;aomya&mzuf - 31 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; rsm;rSmvnf; enf;rsdK;pHjk zif4h if;? wzefZmc&durkd u l m; AdrmefawmfoefU&Si;f &m Xmeüyif taoG;oGe;f umowfjzwfcMhJ uonf/ xdt k &mwdUk onf bk&m;ocif apvTwaf wmfral omwpfO;D NyD;? wpfO;D apvTwv f u kd af om i,fom;tapcHrsm; yifjzpfonf/ wdkif;wpfyg;uRefcH&mtjzpfrSvGwfajrmufvmonfhwdkifatmif £oa&vvlrsdK;awmfrsm;onf uwdawmfy#dnmOftwdik ;f bk&m;ociftxH awmfodkU ay;tyf&efysufuGufMujyefonf/xdkUaMumifh bk&m;ocifonf jyefvnfoifjh rwfapa&;twGuf aemufq;kH wGif om;udak pvTw&f ef BuHpnf qHk;jzwfawmfrlcJhonf/]]aemufqHk;O,smOf&Sifu? xkdolwdkUonf ighom;udk tm;emMuvdrrfh nf}} ( r? 21;37)[kxifrw S u f m apvTwv f u kd af omfvnf; olwUkd onf ]]om;udjk rifvQif? þolonf tarGcjH zpf\/ vmMu? olukd owfí ol\ tarGOpömudk ,lMuuket f }hH } [kqMkd uavonf/ xd k o d k U Oyrmud k a y;vQuf a[mMum;awmf r l a omtcgwG i f c&pfawmfb&k m;\ ygwf0ef;usifü £oa&vacgif;aqmifrsm;&Sad eMuonf/ omoema&;vGwfawmf? bmoma&;vGwfawmf? EkdifiHa&;vGwfawmf acgif;aqmifrsm;&Sad eMuonf/ xdo k Ukd rdeUf awmfr&l jcif;rS olwUkd \xm;&Sad om tBuHtpnftwdkif; wpf&uf (0g) ESpf&uftwGif c&pfawmfbk&m;tm; rormaomenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh owfjzwf&ef taumiftxnfaz:rIonf tqH;k wdik f NyD;jynfph akH wmhrnfukd odawmfral eygonf/ ]]tcsif;csif;wkid yf ifí? O,smOf \ om;udb k rf;,lNyD;rSO,smOfjyifoUkd xkwí f owfypfMu\}} qdak om pum;twdik ;f c&pfawmfb&k m;tm; w&m;Z&yfrS ESix f w k x f m;NyD;jzpfovd?k rMumrjrifrh rDS mS vnf; ]jyifoUkd xkwo f wf} MuayOD;rnf/ c&pfawmfb&k m;\om"uudMk um;aomtcg zm&d&EJS iS hf usrf;jyK q&mwdkUonf c&pfawmf>rwfMum;onfh teuft"dyÜg,fudk aumif;pGm - 32 -


q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif oabmaygufem;vnfMuonf/ b,folUudkajymaerSef;vnfodMuonf ]]xkOd yrmpum;udk ,Zfyak &m[dwf tBuD;ESifh zm&d&w JS Ukd onf Mum;&vQif? rdrd wdUk ud&k nfaqmifí a[majymawmf rlonfuo kd Md u\}}(r? 21;45)/ vlxw k Ukd onfc&pfawmfukd rnfojl zpfreS ;f rodMuaomfvnf; xkad cgif;aqmifrsm;um; c&pfawmfukd ya&mzuftjzpfox d m;Muonf/ xdOk yrmwGif <u,f0aom 0dnmOfa&;&m oifcef;pmrsm;yg&Sdaeonf/ xdkUaMumifh bk&m;ociftm; atmufygtwdik ;f az:usL;xm;onf/

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2/ trIawmfjrwftwGutf oif&h jdS cif;/

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Ak'¨[l;aeU toifrh &Sad omr*FvmyGJ (r? 25;1-13)

oHvGifawmifwGifa'oemawmfudka[majymawmfrlNyD;aemuf tarSmifBuD;pd;k aecsdew f iG f wynfah wmfrsm;ESit hf wl aAoedoUkd twl<uvm cJo h nf/ xdt k &yfüyif c&pfawmfb&k m;wpfnwmukev f eG af pawmfrcl o hJ nf/ r[mu&kPmawmf&ufowåygwfumvtwGif; Ak'¨[l;aeUwGif ocifc&pfawmftb,ftrIrsm;udv k yk af qmifawmfro l nfukd rSww f rf;rSw&f m taeESijhf yKxm;jcif;rawGU&yg/ odUk aomfyocgyGu J u kd m; tjcm;olrsm;enf; wlvx l w k iG yf g0ifawmfrjl cif;jyKawmfrrlbJ wynfah wmfrsm;ESit hf wlta0; wpfae&mwGio f m&Sad eygonf/ xdUk twGuaf Mumifv h nf; wynfo h m0ursm; ESit hf wlww d q f w d pf mG jzifh tcsdeu f t kd oHjk yKawmfrcl o hJ nf/ yHrk eS w f iG w f ynfah wmfrsm;onf c&pfawmfb&k m;\ bk&m;ocif\ Edik if aH wmf? 0dnmOfqak us;Zl;? od;k ESiq hf w d pf onfh Oyrmom"ursm;tm; oD;oefUa[majymavwdik ;f ar;jref;avh&o dS nf/ c&pfawmfonfa'oemudk ]]xdt k cgaumif;uifEidk if aH wmfonf um;? r*Fvmaqmifvkvifudk c&D;OD;BudKjyKtHhaomiSgrD;cGufudkudkif ,lí xGuo f mG ;aomowdUk orD;wusdyEf iS w hf \ l }}(r? 25;1)[kpwif>rwfMum;awmf - 36 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif rlonf/ xdkOyrmom"utm; taemufwdkif;,Ofaus;rI (0g) Oa&my ,Ofaus;rIrsm;jzifMh unfyh gu obm0rusEdik yf g? odUk aomfvnf; ,aeUxuf xdwikd u f sifo h ;kH aeaom ygvpöwikd ;f \,Ofaus;rIEiS hf £oa&vwdUk \ tjrif jzifMh unfyh gu tcsdet f cgumvra&G;jzpfavhjzpfx&Sad om om"ujzpfonf/ r*FvmyGo J nfBuD;us,fcrf;em;pGmusif;jyMuonf/ r*FvmjyKav wdik ;f owd;k om;onf zciftrd rf S taygif;az:rsm;ESit hf wlwuG xGuv f mNyD; owd;k orD;tm; rdbrsm;vufrcS , H u l m zciftrd o f Ukd twlwuGcsDwufMuNyD; r*FvmyGu J u kd sif;yavh&MdS uonf/ xdek nf;wlpmG c&pfawmfb&k m;onf ol\ toif;awmfwnf;[laom owd;k orD;udk crnf;awmfxuf&yfeef; tdraf wmfrS aumif;uifwrefrsm;NcH&v H Qufvma&muford ;f qnf;ygrnf/ þae&mwGif ,HMk unforl sm;onf owd;k orD;taejzifh c&pfawmf bk&m;tm;apmifah rsmfaeolrsm;r[kwrf b l J t&Hrsm;taejzifv h u kd yf gMurnf/ ]unm} [laompum;onf oefU&Si;f jcif;? pifMu,faom,HMk unfjcif;? bk&m; ociftay:opöm&Sjd cif;? avmuESio hf ;D jcm;wnf&jdS cif; ponfwUkd udk yHak qmif ygonf/ qDtjynfhjzifhrD;cGufudkifxm;aomt&monf c&pf,mefwpfOD; taejzifh c&pfawmfb&k m;<uvmawmfrjl cif;udv k ufawGUususapmifah rsmfrI udo k wday;aejcif;jzpfonf/ vSyaomrD;tdru f av;onfr;D jzifv h if;aejcif; r&Syd gu tcsnf;ES;D jzpfouJo h Ukd uREkyf w f Ukd onfvnf; ocifb&k m;twGuf 0dnmOf tvif;rxGe;f vif;Edik yf gu tcsnf;ED;S oufoufjzpfonfom/ £oa&vvlrsdK;rsm;\ qD;rD;cGuo f nfao;i,fvNS yD;? qD;vnf; rMumrMumjznf&h efvt kd yfygonf/ xdek nf;wlpmG uREkyf w f Ukd toufwmwGif oefU&Si;f aom0dnmOfawmf\wHqyd cf wfjcif;udck x H m;&aomfvnf; 0dnmOf awmfEiS jhf ynf0h aomtoufwmudu k m; aeUpOfjznfq h nf;ae&ef ta&;BuD;vS - 37 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; ygonf/ xdo k m"uwGicf &pfawmfonf ig;OD;tm;ynm&St d jzpf? usefig;OD; udu k m; rdu k af omowd;k orD;taejzifrh ed Uf qdx k m;onf/ ynm&So d wd;k orD; ig;OD;onf olwUdk rD;cG,if ,fEiS t hf wl qDjznf&h efvnf;,laqmifvmMuonf? xdt k &monf owd;k om;vmjcif;twGuf toif&h adS eaom toufwmjzpfNyD; tcsderf a&G;jyifqifaejcif;yifjzpfonf/ rdu k rf aJ omig;OD;rlum; xdo k Ukd r[kwyf J zdwfac:jcif;udkcHxm;&NyD;oljzpfonfhtm;avQmfpGm xdktcGifhta&;udk vGJrSm;pGm udkifpGJNyD;aeaomaMumifhrD;cGufwGif qDukefoGm;aomtcgwGif tm;vH;k xifrw S rf xm;aomtrIjzift h cufawGUMu&onf/ xdkOyrmwGifowdk;om;onftcsdeftawmfMumonftxday: rvmaMumif;az:jyxm;onf/ xdUk twGuaf Mumifv h nf; tdyaf ysmf? idu k jf rnf; oGm;Mujcif;jzpfonf/]]oef;acgif,HüMunfhyg? r*Fvmaqmifvkvifonf vmNyD? c&D;OD;BudKjyKjcif;iSgxGuo f mG ;Muuket f }hH } [laompum;oHuMkd um;Mu &onf/ xdt k cgolwUkd \qDr;D cGuo f nf qDr&St d vif;rJah eMuonf/ xdt k wl vlrsm;pGmwdUk onf avmuDraI &;wGiaf ysmfarTUaeaomaMumifh 0dnmOfawmfEiS hf jynf0h jcif;twGuf OD;pm;ray;aomaMumifh 0dnmOfwefc;kd r&Sd crf;ajcmuf aeMuonf/ owday;oHpum;aMumifh rdu k rf aJ om owd;k orD;wdUk onf or®mowd &Sad omowd;k orD;wdUk tm; ]]igwdUk qDr;D aoygNyD? oifwUkd qDut kd enf;i,fay; yg}} [kawmif;aomtcg]]oifwUdk tbdUk ESifh igwdUk tbdUk qDravmuf? xkad Mumifh qDa&mif;aomol&&dS modUk oGm;íud, k o f ;kH bkUd 0,fvQif omíaumif;onf}}[k qdak vonf/ xdk0dnmOfa&;oifcef;pmonftxl;yifowdjyKoifhonfrSm aus;Zl;awmfaMumifh cHpm;&aomqkaus;Zl;toD;oD;udk wpfO;D ESiw hf pfO;D a0iS - 38 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif oufaocHEikd af omfvnf;? qkaus;Zl;udak y;jcif;rlum; qkaus;Zl;&Sijf zpfonfh c&pfawmfb&k m;xHoUkd vrf;nTejf cif;rS wpfyg; rwwfprG ;f Edik yf g/ taMumif;rSm rdu k af om owd;k orD;wdUk onf qDu&kd mS awGUonf[al omt&mudk rawGU&yg/ ]]xm0&bk&m;trdeUf awmfukd rMum;&aom rGwo f yd jf cif;ab;jzpfvrd rhf nf/ vlwUkd onf yifv,fwpfyg;rSonf yifv,fwpfyg;wdik af tmif vSnv hf nfí awmifajrmufajy;oGm;aomfvnf;rawGU&Mu}} ( tmrkw?f 8;11-12)/ ,aeUaus;Zl;awmfumvwGif qDtm; tcsderf a&G;&Edik af omtcGihf udv k w l ikd ;f &&Sad omfvnf;? tav;rxm; xifovdak eygu wpfaeUaom tcg wGif ]]t&Si?f t&Si?f uRefrwdUk tm;wHcg;udzk iG yhf g[kawmif;avQmuf Muaomf? t&Siu f vnf;? igtrSeq f o kd nfum;? oifwUkd udk igrod[jk yefajym av\}}[l aompum;onf &aomtcGit hf a&;tm; wefz;kd rxm;aomolwUkd \tqH;k owfvrf;pOfyifjzpfonf/ ,aeUc&pfawmfb&k m;onf u,fwifjcif;wHcg;udu k s,fpmG zGiv hf pS f um vlwikd ;f udBk udKqdv k ufurf;aeaomfvnf; wpfaeUaomtcg xdu k ,fwif jcif;wHcg;ydw&f maeUudak &muf&v dS mayOD;rnf/ xdUk aMumifv h nf; c&pfawmf bk&m;u ]]odUk jzpfívlom;onf <uvmtHah omaeU&uftcsdeef m&Dukd oifwUkd onf rodaomaMumifah pmifah eMuavmh}}[kred Uf qdx k m;jcif;jzpfonf/ xdkUodkU avmu\neufcsdefa&mufvkeD;onfjzpfaomaMumifh uREkyf w f Ukd \ qDr;D cGurf sm;wGif qDtoif&h o dS nf? r&So d nfujkd yifqifjcif;jzifh ]t&Sed jf zifh awmufyaeaomrD;tdr&f iS rf sm;}jzpf&efqifjciftwk,pl &myifjzpf onf/

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tapmydkif;Muoyaw; wynfah wmfrsm;ajcudak q;awmfrjl cif; (&Siaf ,m[ef? 13;1-17)

wynfah wmfrsm;ESi4hf if; crnf;awmfb&k m;ESi4hf if; rdwo f [m,NyD; qHk;aomtcgc&pfawmfbk&m;onf Mumoyaw;reufapmapmydkif;wGif omoemtwGuf awGUBuHK&rnfh 'ku&© p&d,mvrf;pOfu&kd ifqikd &f ef toif&h dS aeawmfrcl o hJ nf/ wynfah wmfrsm;u c&pfawmftm; yocgESiyhf gwfoufí b,foUkd tvd&k o dS enf;[kar;aomtcgwGif a,&k&v S ifNrdKUodUk oGm; jyifqif&ef wynfah wmfEpS yf g;udak pcdik af wmfrcl o hJ nf? &Siaf yw&kEiS hf &Siaf ,m[ef jzpfEikd f ajc&So d nf (rmuk? 14;13-15)/ yocgtcsdefwGif {nfhonfrsm;tm; rdrdwdkUtdrfwGifyocgyGJudk jyifqifay;jcif;jzifBh udKqdjk cif;rSm a,&k&v S ifNrdKU\ "avhx;kH wrf;jzpfonf/ xdUk twGuf wynfah wmfEpS yf g;onf tvG,yf if yocgyGu J jkd yifqifEikd Mf uonf/ yocgtwGujf yifqifNyD;aomtcgwGif c&pfawmf&&dS m aAoed&mG odUk oGm;um owif;ay;ydUk Muonf/ xdt k csdeo f nfarSmif&yD sdK;pjzpfaomaMumifh yocg twGuf apmifq h ikd ;f aeapawmfrcl o hJ nf/ arSmifaomtcgwGif c&pfawmfEiS hf wynfah wmfwUkd onf yocgjyifqifxm;&modUk 0ifa&mufvmMuonf/ aAoed zkex f x l yfaomae&mrS vmMuojzifh tdrOf ;D 0wGif a&td;k ESihf a&ZvHo k nf tqifoifh&Sdaeygonf/ Mum;od&oavmuf ygvpöwdkif;&Sdvrf;wdkUonf - 40 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif zket f vdr;f vdr;f jzifh &SNd yD;? xdak cwfxt kd cgu zdeyfq&kd mwGiv f nf; ajcz0g;wGif om&SNd yD; BudK;rsm;jzifo h ikd ;f &pfxm;jcif;jzpfaomaMumifh c&D;oGm;jynfow l ikd ;f zkeftvdrf;vdrf;? &THUEGHayawpGmjzifh npfayaeMuonf/ xdkUtwGuf tdrfwdkif;wGif a&tdk;ESifh a&ZvHktoifh&SdNyD; taptyg;rsm;rS vmaom {nfhonfawmfrsm;tm; ajcaq;ay;jcif;ESifhtwl ajcudkokyfay;&ef y0gvnf;toifu h ikd v f Quf wHcg;teD;wGi&f adS ewwfMuonf/ odUk aomfvnf;c&pfawmfb&k m;ESihf aemufvu kd w f ynfo h m0ursm; rSmtapcHi,fom;rsm;&Srd aeMuovd?k wynfah wmfrsm;uvnf; wpfO;D ESihf wpfOD;tapcHvdkpdwfr&SdMu/ wynfhawmfwdkUonf ajcaq;jcif;rjyKMubJ c&pfawmfEiS t hf wl pm;yGw J iG f ae&mtoD;oD;,lvu kd Mf uonf/ xdjk rifuiG ;f wGif wpfO;D ESiw fh pfO;D tNydKiftqdik pf w d o f abmxm;ESihf tjyKtrlrsm;u c&pfawmf pdwaf wmftm;NidK;EGr;f aponf/ olwUkd pdwt f pOfonfEikd if aH wmf wnfaxmif aomtcgwGif &&SEd ikd rf nfh &mxl;&mcHtwGuo f m&Sad eao;aMumif; odjrifawmf rlonf ( vk? 22;24)/ wynfah wmfwUkd tm;ESrd chf saomolonf csD;ajrmufjcif; cHpm;&NyD;? rdru d , kd u f ckd sD;ajrmufjcif;onf ESrd chf sjcif;odUk a&mufapaMumif; oGeo f ifay;awmfrcl o hJ nf/ &Siaf ,m[eftm;ol\vuf,mbuf? aemuf&iS af yw&k? wpfzef ,k'&Sum,k't f m; olu, kd w f iG rf aDS eapawmfro l nfw h ikd af tmif wdwq f w d pf mG aeawmfro l nf/ ,cktcsdeo f nfum; c&pfawmfb&k m;\ omoemtqH;k ydik ;f odUk a&muf&adS eayNyD;? reufjzefwiG f BuHKawGU&rnfh zrf;qD;jcif;? ESyd pf ufjcif;? toufawmfpeG Uf vSLjcif;ponfwUkd udBk uHKawGU&NyD; omoemtrIvnf;tqH;k wdik af wmhrnfuckd &pfawmfojd rifawmfro l nf/ xdo k Ukd tem*gwfuakd rsmfawG;odjrifawmfral omf ol\wynfah wmf wpfO;D onfoUl tm;opömazgufrnf? wynfah wmfwUkd onfpeG cf gG oGm;Murnf/

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif ighut kd &Sib f &k m;[lí4if;? ocif[í l 4if;ac:wwfMu\/ xdpk um;vnf; [kwrf eS af ompum;jzpf\/taMumif;rlum;? oifwUkd ac: Muonftwdik ;f igrSe\ f /igonf ocifjzpfvsuf? t&Sib f &k m;vnf;jzpfvsufEiS hf oifwUkd \ ajcudkaq;vQif oifwdkUonftcsif;csif;wdkU\ajcudk aq;&rnf/igonf oifwUkd üjyKouJo h Ukd oifwUkd onfjyKapjcif;iSg yHo k ufaoudjk ycJNh yD? igtrSef tuefqo kd nfum;? uRefonf ocifxufomíBuD;jrwfonfr[kw?f wref onfvnf; apvTwaf omolxufomíBuD;jrwfonfr[kw?f þt&mrsm;udk oifwUkd odíodonftwdik ;f usifv h Qif r*Fvm&SMd u\}}(a,m? 13;12-17)/ vGefpGmMunfndKzG,fjzpfaom bk&m;jzpfaMumif;awGU&onf/ c&pfawmfonfr[m'ku&© p&d,mvrf;pOftwdik ;f vlom;xkwu G f um;wdik f vrf;avQmfvrS ;f NyD;aemuf r[mcsD;ajrmufjcif;wnf;[laom bke;f toa& udk vnf;odjrifawmfrx l m;ygonf/ xdo k Ukd aumif;qd;k ESpw f efujkd rifawmfrNl yD; vQufErdS chf saomtoufwmjzifh wynfah wmfrsm;\ajcudak q;awmfrjl cif;rSm cEåaD wmft&mwGiv f eG pf mG wifw h ,fvaS yonf/ tjrifq h ;kH aomcsD;ajrmufjcif; udck pH m;&awmhrnfjzpfaomfvnf; tjrifq h ;kH aomESrd chf sjcif;jzifah exdik af wmf rlco hJ nf ( zd? 2;5)/ wpfcgwpf&HvlwdkUonf ao;odrfaomtvkyf? ta&;rygaom tvky[ f ck jJG cm;Muaomfvnf;a,½Ixo kd Ukd rjyKcJyh g/ olonfcyford ;f aomt&m wdkU\t&SifocifjzpfaMumif;odaomfvnf; ESdrfhcsjcif;wefqmqifvQuf ajcaq;ay;awmfrcl o hJ nf/ c&pfawmfonfxuf&yfeef;crnf;awmfxrH v S moljzpfNyD;? jyefomG ; awmhrnfo h jl zpfonft h wGu?f avmuESihf avmuDom;wdUk tm; txifao; p&m? tjrifao;p&mjyKvdu k jyKEdik yf gonf/ aemufq;kH tcsdef crnf;awmfxH odkUoGm;a&mufawmhrnfjzpfonfhtwGuf ao;i,faomtrIrsm;udkvnf;

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aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm;

a*oa&SrmefO,smOfawmfüzrf;q;D Mujcif; (r? 26;46-56? rm? 14;42-52? vk? 22;47-53? a,m? 18;2-12) wynfah wmfrsm;tm;rdeUf >rwfawmfrNl yD;? npmNyD;aomaemufwiG f c&pfawmonf txufcef;rSm xGucf gG vmMuonf/olwUkd onf *dww f cH g;0 twdik ;f qif;vmMuNyD; vQdKtwdik ;f xGuv f mMu&mwGif auj'Kefacsmif;twdik ;f jzwfu;l vmMuonf (a,m? 18;1)/ xdak e&mwGif yHak qmifcsufoifcef;pmrsm; udkoif,lEdkifonf/ yocgyGJwdkif; ,Zfyv’ifxufwGif odk;aygif;rsm;pGmudk owfjzwfum,Zfyal ZmfMu&onf? xdo k Ukd ,Zfyal Zmf&mwGif oGe;f avmif;&aom aoG;wdUk onftb,frQjynfv h QHaernfenf;? xdUk twGuf AdrmefawmftwGi;f rS xdt k aoG;rsm;tm; ajrmif;az:&mrSp;D qif;vmaomaoG;wdUk onf auj'Kef acsmif;wpfavQmuf eD&Jaomtqif;jzifhjynfhaeygonf/ xdkUaMumifh c&pfawmfb&k m;onf auj'Kefacsmif;udjk zwfu;l awmfral omtcgwGif &J&eJ D aeaomxdt k aoG;wdUk onfc&pfawmf\ud, k w f iG pf eG ;f xifvmNyD;? c&pfawmf bk&m;ud, k af wmfwikd o f nfrMumrSt D csdet f wGi;f xm0&,Zftjzpf rdrjd yK&rnfh trIrsm;udv k nf; jrifa,mifaerdaeayvdrrhf nf (a[NAJ? 10;5-10)/ auj'Kefacsmif;udjk zwfu;l vmonfah emuf c&pfawmfonf oHviG f awmifay:odkUa&mufMuonf/ xdkoHvGifawmifajc&if;ü a*oa&Srmef O,smOf&o dS nf/ a*oa&Srmef\teufrmS ]]qDq}kH }jzpfonf/ vlrsm;wdUk onf xdt k &yfwiG rf o d m;pkqq D rkH sm;jyKvkyx f m;&SMd uonf/ xdUk aMumifh c&pfawmf bk&m;a*oa&SrmefO,smOfoUkd oGm;aomtcgwGif trnfraz:jyxm;aom c&pfawmf\ todaemufvkdufolaX;rsm;rS oGm;vmvG,fula&;twGuf - 46 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif NcHwcH g;aomhay;xm;ayrnfxUkd twGu0f ifxu G o f mG ;vm&efv, G u f jl cif;yif/ c&pfawmfEiS w h f ynfah wmfrsm;onfxt k d &yfoUk d rMumrMumoGm;avh&ad S Mumif;vnf; awGU&S&d onft h wdik ;f ,k'&Sum&k'o f nf c&pfawmfb&k m;tm; tb,foUkd zrf;qD;&rnfuakd umif;pGmod&adS ejcif;jzpfonf/ qkawmif;NyD;aomtcg wynfah wmfrsm;tdyaf ysmfaeonfuMkd unfh aepOf? cyfvrS ;f vSr;f rSvmaomvlx\ k toHukd c&pfawmfMum;odawmfr\ l / vlUZmwdc, H pl OfBuHKawGU&rnfrh [mu,fwifjcif;vrf;pOfonf usa&mufvm NyDjzpfaMumif;odjrifawmfro l nf/ xdo k Ukd c&pfawmfb&k m;tm;zrf;qD;&mwGif xl;qef;aomtrIwpfc&k adS eonf/ xdt k &mrSm ppfonfawmfrsm;ESihf 0dik ;f &H csDwufvmaomolrsm;wdkUonf zm&d&SJ? usrf;wwfyk*¾dKvf? usrf;jyKq&m? acgif;aqmifBuD;rsm;jzpfaejcif;yif/ vjynfn h jzpfaeaomfvnf; c&pfawmfonfxu G af jy;wdr;f a&Smif awmfrloGm;ygu oHvGifawmif\t&dyftm0goatmufwGif c&pfawmf bk&m;tm; vG,u f pl mG &SmazGzrf;qD;&efv, G u f al pa&;twGuf rD;'kwrf sm;? rD;tdrf rsm;udo k ,faqmifvQufvmMuonf/ xdo k Ukd c&pfawmftm;zrf;qD;&mwGif opömazgufonf ,k'&Sum&kwf jzpfonf/ vlpktm;ac:aqmifvmNyD;aemufuG,fwGifaevdkaomfvnf; ppfonfawmfwUkd onfa,½Ib&k m;tm;rodaomaMumifh vlpEk iS t hf wl a&SUodUk csDwufvmNyD; tpOftvmtwdkif; ]erf;jcif;} udkjyKvsuf trSwfay;&ef ,k'&Sum&kwt f wl yg&Sad e&jcif;jzpfonf/]],k'&Sum&kwo f nfvt l aygif; wkUd udv k rf;jyvsufvmí?a,½Iuekd rf;jcif;iSgcsOf;uyfav\/ a,½Iuvnf;? ,k'oifonferf;jcif;udk jyKvsufvo l m;udt k yfoavm[k ar;awmfr\ l }}/ ppfonfawmfwdkUonf trSwftom;twdkif;a,½Ic&pfawmfudk odomG ;onhaf emuf zrf;qD;&efuyfvmusaomtcg c&pfawmfonf ,k'tm;

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; Munfah e&mrS olwUkd xHtMunfu h v kd v JG u kd Nf yD;]]tb,fou l &kd mS Muoenf;[k ar;awmfrl\/ emZ&ufNrdKUom; a,½Iudk&SmMuonf[kqdkvQif a,½Iu igonfxo kd jl zpf\[k rdeUf awmfr\ l /ud, k af wmfut kd yfEaHS om ,k'&Sum&kwf onfvnf; xdo k w l Ukd ESit hf wl &yfae\/igonf xdo k jl zpf\[k rdeUf awmfrv l Qif? xdkolwdkUonf aemufodkUvSefíajray:üvJMu\}} xdkodkU ar;cGef;udk ESpBf udraf jrmuf ar;NyD;aemufwiG f c&pfawmfb&k m;tm;zrf;qD;Muavonf/ xdt k cgayw&konfocift h m;zrf;qD;aomtcgwGif bk&m;tBuHawmftwdik ;f toifrh jzpfaomaMumifh "g;jzift h eD;&Sd ,Zfyak &muf[w d \ f vl,akH wmf rmvck em;&Gujf ywfomG ;avonf/ c&pfawmfonf ayw&ktm; wm;jrpfawmfrNl yD; aemufrmvckem;&Gufudk aoG;oH&J&JrSaumuf,lNyD; rdarG;wdkif;zarG;wdkif; taumif;yuwdjyefjzpfaponf/ xdkae&mwGif &efolawmfjzpfaomolwdkU tay:wGix f m;&Sad om tHMh obG,f tema&m*gNidr;f jcif;um; rxdu k w f efaom c&pfawmfb&k m;\ r[moem;jcif; u&kPmESihf aus;Zl;awmfoufoufyif jzpfonf/ c&pfawmfonfol\aemufawmfvdkufrsm;tm; ol\emrawmf tzdUk tvdUk iSg uJ&h UJ jcif;? jypfwifjcif;? n§i;f qJjcif;? rke;f wD;jcif; ponfwUkd cHMu &rnfjzpfaomfvnf; vufeuftm;ud;k jzifh rdrw d Ukd b0touf&iS o f efaexdik f Edik af &;toH;k jyKumuG,&f ef oGeo f ifawmfrjl cif;rjyKcJyh g/ xdUk aemufc&pfawmfonf ppfonfzufoUkd vSnu hf m]]oifwUkd onf "g;jyudk brf;ouJhodkUighudkbrf;thHaomiSg "g;ESihf'kwfrsm;ukd vufpJGvsuf vmMuonfwum;? igonfAdrmefawmfüaeUwdkif;qHk;r Mo0g'ay;vsuf oifwUkd tv,fü xkid af epOftcgoifwUkd onf ighurkd brf;qD;Mu}}[k rdeUf awmf rlNyD; jiif;y,fjcif;r&SdbJ yuwdwnfMunfpGmjzifh ]]odkUaomfvnf;,ck tcsdeu f m; oifwUkd tcsdejf zpf\}}[kred Uf awmfrNl yD;vufuckd snfaESmifjcif;cH&ef

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif twGut f omwMunfyifx;kd ay;awmfral vonf/ acgif;aqmif\trdeUf pum;twdik ;f ppfonfwUkd onf c&pfawmf bk&m;tm;zrf;qD;csnfaESmifMuavawmhonf/ c&pfawmfbk&m;onfrnfuJhodkrckcHbJtomwMunf zrf;qD; cHawm rf o l nft h wGuf a0cGrJ &jcif;? em;rvnfjcif;rsm;ESit hf wl oHviG Of ,smOf awmftwGif;odkUtoD;oD;0ifa&mufaysmufuG,foGm;Muavawmhonf/ xdo k Ukd c&pfawmfb&k m;tm; zrf;qD;Mu&mwGif tkyk pf ak v;rsdK;yg0ifaeonf/

1/ ,k'&Sum&k'f/ olonfb&k m;ociftm;pGeyYf ,fNyD; pmwefrm&fewfEiS hf taygif;toif;zGJUum opömazgufoGm;oljzpfonf/ wpfenf;qdkygu ]]u,fwif&SifudkpGefYcGgNyD;}} wpf'*Fom,mrItwGuf ]]omoemudktvGJU}} toH;k jyKoljzpfonf/

2/ ,k'vlrsm;/ olwUkd onfc&pfawmfb&k m;tm; zrf;qD;&mwGif MowåyÜ pdwfMunfvifpGmjzifhjyKEdkifavmufatmif bk&m;ocif\wpfzufü 0dnmOf tvif;uG,faeolrsm; jzpfonf/ olwdkUonfrdrdwdkU\qE´twdkif; bk&m; ocif\toHawmfudkrMum;Edkifatmif rdrdwdkUem;udkydwfvQuf&Sdjcif;? bk&m;ocif\ vrf;jyrIurkd jrifEikd af vmufatmif rsufpu d ykd w d x f m;jcif;jzifh tqH;k wGif u,fcRwf&iS af vmuodUk <uvmonfukd zl;ajrmfjcif;tcGihf &aomf vnf; t,lvu JG mb0wdr;f yg;olrsm;jzpfMuonf/

3/ wynfhawmfrsm;/

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; xdo k Ukd aomolrsm;&Sad eMuygonf/

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u/ &J&ifhaomt&Sif/ yocgvjynfhnonftcsdefusa&mufvmNyD; n\ tvif;rSm aeU\tvif;uJo h Ukd yifjzpfaeonf/ odUk aomfc&pfawmfukd &efjyK aomolwdkUonfrD;'kwfESifhrD;tdrfESifhvma&mufMuonf/ c&pfawmfonf olwUkd a&mufvmaomtcgwGif yke;f uG,jf cif;jyKawmfrrlbJ a&SUodUk xGuv f m l &kd mS Muoenf;}} [kar;awmfrNl yD; ]] emZ&ufNrdKUom; NyD;aemuf ]]tb,fou a,½Iudk&SmMuonf}}[kqdkaomtcg ]]igonfxdkoljzpf\}}[kjyefvnf >rwfMum;awmfro l nfrmS tb,frQMunfnKd zG,af umif;vSoenf;/

c/ tcGithf mPmwdUk t&Si/f vufeuftjynfph pfonfwUkd vmaomtcg vufeufrhJ jzifh tmPmpuftjynfjh zifh rdeUf awmfral omtcg ppfonfwUkd onf toD;oD; ajrjyifoUkd vJusMuonf/ c&pfawmfb&k m;onf vufeufrjhJ zifh wpfyg;wnf; &Sad eaomfvnf; tiftm;rsm;pGmaom ppfonfwUkd xuf omvGeaf om tcGihf tmPmESihf Adv k af jctaygif;wdUk udk atmifEikd pf rG ;f &Sad wmfro l nf/

*/ pGeUf vLS &efoEéXd mefjyKaomt&Si/f

b0toufwmwGiftcdkuftwefUrQbk&m;ociftm; arhavQmxm;wwforl sm;udu k , kd pf m;jyKonf/ ,aeYtoif;awmfwiG v f nf;

tvdak wmf&ydS gu xdu k m;wdik v f rf;udk vGaJ &Smifjcif;jyK&ef olwUkd tm;xd;k azgufumxGucf gG oGm;jcif;jzifh avQmufvrS ;f Edik af omfvnf;? c&pfawmf a&SmifvaJG wmfrrlbJ tjypfom;rsm;twGuf toufpeG Uf vSLylaZmf

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif jcif;jyK&efa&G;cs,fawmfrcl o hJ nf/

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm;

C/ pHvk ifaomemcHjcif;/ ]]"g;udk tdrüf oGi;f xm;avmh?crnf;awmfonf ightm; ay;awmfral omcGuu f kd igraomuf&m oavm[k ayw&ktm; rdeUf awmfr\ l }} xdo k Ukd avQmufvrS ;f &eftwGuf bk&m;ociftvdak wmf&rdS eS ;f aumif;pGmodjrif awmfrlonfh xdkUtwGufaMumifhvnf; toufpGefUawmfrlonfhwdkifatmif emcHjcif;jzifhc&pfawmfjyKawmfrlcJhonfh enf;wl tb,frnfaomolwGif awGUEdik yf grnfenf;/

aomMumaeU c&pfawmftm;ppfaMumpD&ifawmfrjl cif; (r? 26;57-68? 27;15-31? a,m? 18;12-14? 39-19;16)

c&pfawmfbk&m;onf ppfonfawmfrsm;? ,Zfyka&m[dwfrsm;? usrf;wwfy*k Kd¾ vfrsm;ESihf NrdKUawmfoUkd vmaomtcsdeo f nf reuf 1 em&Djzpf onf/ c&pfawmftm; omreftrIonfrsm;uJo h Ukd yocgNyD;onfw h ikd af tmif csKyfxm;NyD;rS trIppf&efomjzpfonf/ odUk aomfvnf; c&pfawmfb&k m;tm; zrf;qD;jcif;udt k rsm;odomG ;ygu tjzpfreS u f v kd x l rk o S o d mG ;NyD; vGwaf jrmuf oGm;rnfudkpdk;&drfaomaMumifh xHk;wrf;pOfvmtwdkif;rjyKMu/ xdkrQru trItcif;pD&ifyikd cf iG &hf adS om aumfrwDt0ifjzpfaom edaum'ifonfvnf; xdo k Ukd c&pfawmfb&k m;tay:rw&m;jyKonfukd vufyu kd Mf unfah eEdik rf nf r[kwrf eS ;f ,Zfyak &m[dwt f BuD;tuJrsm;odMuonf/ xdkUaMumifh um,zonf c&pfawmftm; nwGif;csif;zrf;qD; ppfaMumapNyD; ao'gPfay;jcif;jzifh aemufaeUreufwiG f a&mrNrdKU\ r*Fvm tcsdeu f akd &muf&adS prnf[k qH;k jzwfvu kd jf cif;jzpfonf/ xdrk Qru c&pfawmfukd tqH;k pD&ifvu kd jf cif;onf yocgyGrJ wdik cf ifvnf; udpNö yD;qH;k NyD;jzpfayrnf/ xdktcsdefu ,Zfyka&m[dwfrsm;tMum;wGif tmPmt&SdqHk; - 51 -

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif vkyyf ikd cf iG t hf &Sq d ;kH [k,q l &aom ,Zfyak &m[dwf tEétxHoUkd c&pfawmftm; ac:aqmifomG ;Muonf/ xdt k csdeu f m eHeuf 2 em&Djzpfonf/ trIppfco H nf xdik cf w kH iG f xdik cf iG rfh &Sad omaMumifh c&pfawmftm; xdik cf rH ay;bJ pif[NJ 'de;f aumifp0D ifrsm;a&SUwGif tcefUom;jzifh trIukd jrefEikd o f a&GU? jrefatmifp&D if ar;jref;aejcif;jzpfonf/tEéonf c&pfawmf\aemufvu kd rf sm;taMumif;? ,HkMunfcsufrsm;taMumif;udkar;jref; (a,m? 18;19)aomtcgwGif c&pfawmfb&k m;u ]]xif&mS ;pGma[majymNyD? ,k'vltaygif;wdUk pnf;a0;&m w&m;p&yfü4if;?Adrmefawmfü4if; tpOfrjywfq;kH rMo0g'ay;NyD? rxif&mS ;bJ tvsif;ra[mrajym}}[kred Uf awmfro l nf? xdt k cgteD;tyg;&Sd t&m&Sw d pfO;D onfc&pfawmftm; &du k Ef u S af vonf/ tjcm;aom ar;jref;jcif;rsm; jyKNyD; onfah emufwiG f a,½Ic&pfawmfütjypfrawGUaMumif;tEéo&d o dS mG ;onf/ xdUk aMumifh ,Zfyak &m[dwrf if; um,zxHoUkd jyefyUkd aponf/ um,z\trdeUf tm;jzifh pif[NJ 'deaf umifp0D ifrsm;onf twlwuG pk&;kH vmMuNyD; c&pfawmftm;ppfaMumMujyefonf/ odUk wdik af tmif oH;k ESp0f ef; usifrQc&pfawmfb&k m;\ tjyKtrl? toGm;tvm? ta[mtajymwdUk wGif wwfEikd o f a&GU ]tjypfr&St d jypf&mS } pGypf MGJ uaomfvnf; c&pfawmfb&k m;tm; ao'gPfay;tHah omiSg vrf;p&SmrawGUMu/ xdUk aMumifh um,zonf rSm;,Gi;f aomoufaorsm;udk rw&m;iSg;&rf;um pGcJ sufwifjcif;jzifh tm;ay;tm; ajrmufjyKawmhonf/ xdUk aMumifh tiSg;wdUk onf c&pfawmfb&k m;\ ]Adrmef awmfNzdKzsufjcif;} ]Oyk'af eUwGit f rIaqmifjcif;} ]NrdKUawmfoUkd 0ifa&mufjcif;} ]u,fwif&iS [ f b k &k m;ESiw hf pf*P dk ;f wnf;xm;jcif;} ponfwUkd jzifh ajymqdMk u avawmhonf/ odkUaomfvnf; vkkyfBuHxm;jcif;rsm;jzpfaomaMumifh ]ta&SUESihf taemufrnD} aomaMumifh xdpk yG pf cJG sufrsm;wdUk onf ]cJavorQ oJa&us} jzpfomG ;Muonf/

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; xdo k Ukd rw&m;pGypf cJG sufrsm;onfvnf; t&mra&mufaomaMumifh aumifp0D ifrsm;onf pdwcf &pfawmfwpfzufü pdwaf jcmufjcm;Mu&onf/ xdUk aMumifh aemufq;kH BudK;pm;onft h aejzifh ,Zfyak &m[dwrf if;um,zonf olxikd af omae&mrS qif;vmNyD; c&pfawmfxo H Ukd csOf;uyfvmNyD; atmufyg twdik ;f ar;jref;avonf ]],Zfyak &m[dwrf if;uvnf; oifonfc&pfawmf wnf;[laombk&m;ocif\ om;awmfrSefonf rrSefonfudkigwdkUtm; ajymapjcif;iSg? touf&iS af wmfral ombk&m;ocifukd igwdik w f nfíoifu h kd usdeq f adk p\}} [kqakd omtcg vlxBk uD;onf c&pfawmfajzrnfph um;udk trSm;&Sm&eftoifah pmifah eMuonf/ a,½Ibk&m;tm; tjypfwif&ef &SmrawGUEdkifMuonfh tqHk; c&pfawmfonf olwUkd twGuaf emufq;kH or®mw&m;ESihf tjzpfawmfujkd yqd&k ef atmufygtwdik ;f EIw>f rwfawmfral vonf]] oifqo kd nftwkid ;f rSe\ f ? xkrd Q ru igqko d nfum; aemifuvüvlom;onf wefc;kd awmf\ vusfmbufü xkid v f sufrC kd ;f wdru f pkd ;D í<uvmonfukd oifwUkd jrif&Mu vwH}h }[kred Uf awmf rlav\/ xkdtcg,Zfyka&m[dwfrif;onfrdrdt0wfudk qkwfvsuf þol onf bk&m;ukdvGefusL;í ajymNyD? tb,foufaoudk vkdao;oenf;? bk&m;udk vGeu f sL;íajymaompum;ukd ,ckyifoifwUkd Mum;&NyD? tb,foUkd xifrw S Mf uoenf;[kar;jref;vQif? xko d w l Udk u ]]þolonf taocHxu dk f ay\}} [kjyefípD&ifMu\/xkdtcgrsufESmawmfudk wHaxG;ESifhaxG;Mu\ vufo;D ESifh xk;d Mu\/ xdrk Qru rsufEmS udt k 0wfEiS t hf yk Nf yD; &du k Ef u S u f s&m wGiv f nf; ]]tb,foyl w k o f enf;[k ya&mzufjyKyg}} [kqu kd maemufajymif Muonf/

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aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; þa'o t&yfEiS hf rpyfqikd }f }[kqakd omtcgwGif ]]oifonfb&k m;rSeo f avm}} [kjyefar;awmfral omfvnf; uJombk&iftm; ykeu f efrnfh olr[kwaf om aMumifh pdwaf t;oGm;&avonf/xdUk aMumifh ydvwfrif;onf a,½Itm; tdraf wmfO;D odUk oGm;í]]þolütb,ftjypfurkd Q igrawGU}}[kqakd vonf/ xdo k Ukd qdak omtcgwGif ,Zfyak &m[dwrf if;wdUk onf tvdrk usrIrsm; xGuaf y:vmavawmhonf/ xdUk aMumifh NrdKU0efrif;ydvwfonf ab;usyf eHusyfa&muf&avawmhonf/ xdUk aemuf a,½ItaMumif;tm; pOf;pm;aom tcgwGif *gvdvw J iG v f nf;a[majymaMumif;jyefowd&aomtcgwGif a,½I jyóemtm;ajz&Si;f a&Smifv&JG efonf *gvdvu J t kd yk cf sKyfaeaom a[&k'f tEåyd xHvaJG jymif;jcif;rSwpfyg;tjcm;rawGUEdik /f taMumif;axmufrpGmjzifh a[&k'o f nfvnf; yocgyGu J v kd monfh tcGit hf cgESiBhf uHKBudKufaeonf/ xdo k Ukd vmaomfvnf; bk&m;udMk unfnKd aomaMumifv h mjcif;r[kw?f &Srm&dujym;jzpfonft h m;avQmfpmG r@myfwikd f wuf&efoufoufomjzpfonf/ xdkUaMumifha,½Ic&pfawmftm; a[&k'f xHoUkd wpfzefapmifMh uyfapjcif;jzifyh Ukd Mujyefonf/ a[&k't f Eåyd onf ,pfr;l wGio f m,maomrif;jzpfNyD;? ESpjf cif;q&m a,m[efuo kd wfjzwfaom a[&k'rf if;? a[a&m'd\ZeD;onfukd tydik o f rd ;f aom a[&k'w f *&dw\ f ti,fq;kH aomom;jzpfomru a,m[efjyef&iS v f m onftxifjzifhaMumufvefUaeNyD; a,½Ic&pfawmfudkvnf;awGUjrifcsif aeoljzpfonf/ xdUk aMumifch &pfawmftm; ar;cGe;f rsm;pGm ar;jref;aomtcg c&pfawmfonf wpfceG ;f wpfyg'rQrajzbJ EIwq f w d af eawmfro l nf/ xdo k Ukd jyK jcif;aMumif;c&pfawmftay:wGif vGepf mG trsufa'goxGuv f Quf&o dS nf/ olUtxifwiG af ,½Ionfbmoma&;vkypf m;aom bmoma&;orm;txif jzifh ysuf&,fjyKjcif;jzifh rxDrJhjrifjyKum eDaomt0wftxnfrsm;jzifh

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q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif qifjref;apvQufyrmrcefUjyKavonf/ a,½Ionftrd af wmfO;D odUk wpfzefa&mufjyefaomtcgwGif ydvwf rif;onfvGefpGmpdwftaESmuft,SufjzpfNyD;ESvHk;romr,mjzpfaeonf/ ]qkyv f nf;pl;? pm;vnf;&l;} qdak omtaetxm;odUk ydvwfrif; usa&muf aeonf/ w&m;rQwjcif;t& olonfa,½Itm;vGwaf y;&rnfjzpfNyD;? vGwf ay;yguvnf; £oa&vacgif;aqmifrsm;onf olUwpfzufwiG f x<uawmf vSerf nfuv kd nf;pd;k &draf e&onf/ xdUk aMumifq h ;kH jzwf&cufpmG &Sad eaomtcsdef wGif wGe;f tm;ozG,Zf eD;onfxrH S pma&mufvmonfum; ]]xdak jzmifrh wf aomolut kd b,foUkd rQrjyKygESihf ,aeUyifuRefronf xdo k al Mumift h yd rf ufü jyif;pGmcH&ygNyD[k rSmvdu k \ f }}(r? 27;19)/ jyóemjzpfymG ;aecsdeaf &muf&v dS maom xdo k wif;onf ewfb&k m; rsm;xHrS u,fraomxGuf&yfvrf;tjzpfydvwfrif;cH,lvdkufonf/ ewf bk&m;wdUk udck efUjim;aomtaejzifah &mr wdUk \xH;k wrf;pOfvm&So d nfh twdik ;f &mZ0wfom;rsm;txJrS ]vGwNf idr;f csrf;omcGi}hf ay;&efa,½Iuv kd nf; oH;k oyf vdu k rf o d nf/ xdo k Ukd tm;jzifah ,½Itm; u,fwifEikd rf nf[k ,HMk unf rdonf/ xdt k csdew f iG af xmifwiG ;f üemrnfBuD;olc;kd "g;jy Am&AÁ&adS vonf/ w&m;enf;vrf;t& Am&AÁonf jypfrx I if&mS ;aomoljzpfaomaMumifh a,½I rSwpfyg; Am&AÁEiS t hf aygif;tygwdUk tm; bmoma&;acgif;aqmifEiS hf Edik if aH &; acgif;aqmifrsm;rS awmif;rnf[kxifp&mtaMumif;r&Sd/xdkaMumifh NrdKU0efrif;onf? þolEpS af ,mufwUkd wGif oifwUkd onf tb,fou l kd vTwaf p csifoenf;[k vlrsm;udw k zefar;aomtcg? Am&A‘udv k w T af pcsif ygonf[k avQmufMu\/ydvwfrif;uvnf;? odUk jzpfvQif c&pf[ak c:a0:aoma,½Iukd tb,foUkd jyK& rnfenf;[kar;jyefaomf?xdo k t l aygif;wdUk u?olonf vuf0g; uyfwdkifrSm&dkufxm;jcif;udk cHygavap [kqdkMu\?NrdKU0efrif;uvnf; - 57 -

tdrfrh uforcifsm; aexl h ;aejrwf tb,f aMumifeh nf;? tb,ftjypfujkd yKbdoenf;[kar;vQif?xdo k o l nf vuf0g;uyfwdkifrSm &dkufxm;jcif;udkcHygavap[k vlrsm;wdkUonfomí [pfMu\/ ydvwfrif;onfvnf;ol\tBuHrxajrmufaMumif;udkodjrif aomtcgwGif tdraf wmfO;D odUk oGm;NyD; Am&AÁukd vlrsm;wdUk tm; vTwaf v\ a,½Iuu kd m; um;wdik t f wGuf jyifqifonft h aejzifh rw&m;rSe;f odoBd uD;jzifh &du k Nf yD;vQif vuf0g;uyfwikd rf mS owfapjcif;iSgtyfvu dk af v\/ £oa&v acgif;aqmifrsm;onf vlxak &SUwGif c&pfawmfb&k m;tm; t&Suw f uGJ jzpfap jcif;iSg ajrwGix f m;vQuf a&mrwdUk \t&ufpufq;kH jzpfonfh oHq;l rsm;jynfh aeaomMumyGwfjzifh&dkufESufMuavonf/t0wfawmfudk cRwfíeDaom 0wfvu kH jkd cHKapMu\/ ql;yifEiS &fh ufaomOD;&pfukd acgif; awmfüwifMu\/ usLwvHk;ukdvnf; vusfmvufawmfESihf udkifapNyD;vQif? a&SUawmfrSm 'l;axmufvsuf ,k'&Sib f &k if/ uk, d af wmfonf r*Fvm&Sad pownf; [lí uk, d af wmfujkd yuf,,fjyKMu\/uk, d af wmfuw dk aH xG;ESiafh xG;Mu\?usLvH;k udk ,lí acgif;awmfudk&dkufMu\/xkdodkUudk,fawmfudkjyuf,,fjyKonf aemuf rif;0wfvHkukdcRwfí t0wfawmfudk 0wfjyefapNyD;vQifvuf0g; uyfwidk rf mS &du k x f m;jcif;iSgxkwo f mG ;Mu\/ xdo k Ukd jyKMuaomfvnf; c&pfawmfonf wpfceG ;f rQjyefawmfrrlb?J bk&m;cifxw H iG u f , kd pf m;cH,al ejcif;omjzpfonf/ aoG;wdUk onfvnf; &Ijrif raumif;jzpfaeNyD; ud, k t f a&wdUk onfvnf; yGe;f yJpw k jf ywfvQuf&o dS nf/ ydvwfrif;onf&w I cf saomtaetxm;jzifv h ufwpfcsu af 0SUum ]]oifwUkd \ &Sib f &k ifukd vuf0g;uyfwikd rf mS &du k x f m;&rnfavm}}[k ar;jyef vQif ,Zfyak &m[dwt f BuD;wdUk u]]tuREfyk w f üYkd uJombk&ifrw S yg; tb,f &Sib f &k ifrQr&Syd g}}[kqMkd uonf/ - 58 -

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif NyD;owfjyifqif&eftvdUk iSg eHUomESihf tarT;tBudKifrsm;udjk yifqifMuonf/ Oyk'af eUonf£oa&vvlrsdK;rsm;twGuf &kyk yf ikd ;f ? pdwyf ikd ;f ? 0dnmOf ydik ;f tm;vH;k twGuf ocifb&k m;tzdUk jyifqif&if;tem;,l&maeYjzpfonf/ c&pfawmfb&k m;>rwfMum;awmfral om ]]igonfaojcif;rSxajrmufvrd rhf nf}} qdak ompum;awmfuakd rhavQmhum c&pfawmfb&k m;toufawmfpeG Uf vSL&if; cE¨mcsKyfNidr;f oGm;onfukd rnforYkd v S ufrcHEikd jf zpfaeMuonf/ olwt Ykd wGuf xdOk yk'af eYonf pdwaf jcmufjcm;p&mESihf twd'u k w © EYkd iS o hf m ukeq f ;kH ap&jcif; oufoufomjzpfaeonf/ xdUk aMumifOh yk'af eUvGeaf omtcgwGif tavmif; awmftm;tNyD;owfjyifqifNyD; oN*ØK[fjcif;jyKvQuf tkw*f t l m;ydw&f efom jzpfawmhonf/ wynfhawmfwdkUonfc&pfawmfbk&m;\&Sifjyefxajrmufawmf rlrnfh uwdpum;awmfuakd rhavQmhaeMuaomfvnf; rarhaomolrsm;um; ,Zfyak &m[dwt f BuD;tuJEiS hf bmoa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;? Edik if aH &;acgif; aqmifrsm;yifjzpfonf/ olwUkd onfc&pfawmfb&k m; {uefpifppfxajrmuf vmrnfurkd ,HMk unfMuaomfvnf; wynfah wmfwUkd onf tavmif;awmfukd vma&mufcdk;,lí aojcif;rm&fudkatmifjrifawmfrlNyD[k a<u;aMumfNyD;? olwUkd \ ,HMk unfro I nfreS u f efaMumif; oufaojyKrnfukd pd;k &draf eMuonf/ xdUk aMumifv h nf; Oyk'af eUae0ifcsdew f iG f ydvwfrif;xHoUkd wpfaMumhjyefum awmif;qdMkf uonf/ ]]tbdwaf eUvGeí f eufjzefaeUa&mufvQif? ,Zfyak &m[dwf tBu;D ESihf zm&d&w JS Ukd onfyv d wfrif;xHüpka0;í? xdv k n S jhf zm;aomolu igonf oH;k &uf ajrmuf aomaeYüxajrmufrnf[rk aorSaD jymonfukd tuREfyk w f Ykd rSwrf yd gNyD? xdkaMumifh ol\wynfhwdkYonf ntcgvmítavmif;udkcdk;,lNyD;vQif olonfaojcif;rS xajrmufawmfrNl yD[k vltaygif;wdt Yk m;ajymqdMk uaomf -63-

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; a&SUtrSm;xuf aemuftrSm;omíBuD;rnf[k pdk;&drfp&mtaMumif;&Sd onfjzpfí? ocsØKif;wGi;f udo k ;kH &ufajrmufatmif vHNk cHKpGmapmifph rd ahf omiSg trde&Yf adS wmfryl g[k avQmufMuvQif}} (r? 27;62-66)/ odkYwdkifatmifydvwfrif;onf xdkt&mtwGuf pDrHay;aMumif; rawGU&yg/taMumif;rlum; c&pfawmfb&k m;ESiphf yfqikd í f olUb0wGif ylyif aomuyGm;rsm;aeNyD;r[kwyf gvm; xdUk twGuaf Mumifv h nf; c&pfawmfEiS hf ygwfoufí xyfrrH ygwfoufvakd omaMumifh ]]ydvwfrif;uoifwüYkd vlapmifh wwyf &S\ d /oGm;MuwwfEikd o f rQtwdik ;f vHNk cHKpGmapmifah pMu}} (r? 27;65) [kqadk v\/ xdkUtwGuf acgif;aqmifwdkYonf trdefU&onfESifhwpfNydKifeuf wnf; oGm;íausmufuw kd q H yd cf wfNyD;vQif tapmifx h m;vsuf ocsØKif;wGi;f awmfukd wwfprG ;f Edik o f rQ tpGr;f ukev f NkH cHKpGmjyKMu\/ olwo Ykd wdrjyKrdonfh t&mwpfcrk S avmuDvo l m;rsm;jzpfMuaom t0dZmÆ e,fom;awGtwGuf ocsØKif;onf csKyfxm;jcif;iSg pGr;f Edik af omfvnf; ]]wpfqw l nf;aombk&m;? touf&iS af wmfral ombk&m;wumwdUk &JUbk&m;t&Sit f m;}} csKyfaESmifxm; Edik rf nfah ojcif;w&m;ESihf ocsØKif;awmfonf þurÇmavmuwGi&f rdS aerI yifjzpfonf (qm? 82;1? a[NAJ? 13;8)/

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif

we*FaEGaeY &Sijf yefxajrmufawmfral ombk&m; (r? 28;2-15? rm? 16;1-11? vk? 24;1-12? a,m? 20;1-18) ,Zfyka&m[dwfESifh EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmiftBuD;tuJrsm;onf ocsØKif;awmftm; pDraH qmif&u G rf rI sm;tm; tao;pdwjf yKNyD;onft h cgwGif pdwfauseyfrItjynfhjzifh c&pfawmfonfjyKawmfrlcJhaomtrIrsm;tm; onfaeU onftcsdefrSpwifNyD; tqHk;ed*Hk;wdkifoGm;awmhrnfjzpfaMumif; pdwcf srItjynfjh zifh toD;oD;ud, k pf u D , kd if jyefomG ;Muawmhonf/ tkw*f t l m; vnf;tpd;k &rif;\wHqyd af wmfjzifh cwfEydS x f m;NyD;jzpfonfomru? tapmifh tMuyfrsm;udv k nf; ppfwyfjzifx h m;aomaMumifh ]&Sijf yefxajrmufjcif;} yHjk yif onfvnf; wynfah wmfrsm;twGurf nforYkd S taumiftxnfaz:aqmif&ef vrf;pr&Sad wmh/ &Siv f u k mwGif ]]tm&kPw f ufaomtcsdeüYf }}[kqNkd yD;? &Sirf óJwiG f ]]rd;k vif;tHq h q J t J csdeüf }}[kqx kd m;onf/ xdUk aMumifh reuf 4;00 0ef;usif wGijf zpf&ayrnf? taMumif;rlum; a&mife;D OD;rwdik rf ?SD tm&kPrf vmrSD qdak om aMumif?h xdt k csderf wdik rf w SD iG f ajrBuD;onfBuD;pGmaom wke[ f jD cif;jzifh r[m yx0DajrBuD;onfvyI cf goGm;avawmhonf/]]xdt k cg ajrBuD;onf jyif;pGm vIyfav\/taMumif;rlum; xm0&bk&m;\aumif;uifwrefonf aumif;uifbrkH q S if;vmí wGi;f 0üydwaf omausmufukd vSrd v hf eS Nf yD;vQif xdak usmufay:rSmxdik af e\}}/ ocsØKif;awmftm; ydwq f Ukd xm;onfah usmuf - 65-

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; tm;aumif;uifwrefonf jrLrIeyYf rmvufuq kd efv Y Qufz,f&mS ;vdu k o f nf/ xdaYk Mumifh tapmifw h o Ykd nf vGepf mG wkev f yI af jcmufjcm;jcif;jzpfum vlao rsm;yrm&SMd uavonf/ ppfonfwo Ykd nftaMumif;pHu k jkd yefowdjyKrdaomtcg aumif;uif wrefEiS hf c&pfawmfonf aysmufjcif;rvSaysmufu, G o f mG ;MuNyD;jzpfonf/ tapmifph pfonfacgif;aqmifonf rD;'kwu f , kd u l m; ocsØKif;awmfwiG ;f odUk oGm;a&mufMunf½h aI omtcgwGif olwpYkd ;kd &dryf yl efxm;onft h wdik ;f ocsØKif; awmfonf A[m[if;vif;jzpfaeonfudkawGUMu&onf/ xdkcPcsif;wGif ]]Avm[if;vif;}}jzpfomG ;aomocsØKif;awmftwGuf txufvBl uD;rsm;tm; tb,foUkd qifajcay;&rnfuBkd uH&mr&jzpf&avonf/ odUk aomfxo kd wif;tm; ,Zfyak &m[dwrf if;ESihf tBuD;tuJrsm;xH odaYk &mufomG ;awmhonf/ xdt k cg,Zfyak &m[dww f o Ykd nf ]{uefxajrmuf} cJyh gu olwu Ykd m;wifowfcahJ omolonf ppfreS af omya&mzufjzpfonfukd vlxw k o Ykd o d mG ;yg xdt k usdK;w&m;twGuf vlxBk uD;onf olwt Ykd ay:wGif awmif;qdrk rI sm;jyKvmMuayawmhrnf/]]vlapmift h csdKw Y o Ykd nf NrdKx Y o J 0Ykd ifí jzpfavorQaomtjcif;t&m wdu Yk kd ,Zfyak &m[dwt f BuD;wkt Yd m; jyefMum; Mu\/,Zfyak &m[dwt f BuD;wdEYk iS v hf t l BuD;tuJwo Ykd nf pka0;íwdik yf ifNyD;rS ppfo&l w J t Ykd m; aiGtrsm;udak y;í? nOft h cgigwdt Yk yd af ysmfpOfwiG f xdo k \ l wynfw h o Ykd nf vmítavmif;udk cd;k oGm;Muonf[k oifwaYkd jymMuavmh? xdt k aMumif;udk NrdK0Y efrif;Mum;jyefvQif? igwdo Yk nf olu Y akd zsmif;zsí oifwüYkd trIr&Sad pjcif;iSgjyKrnf[?k oGeo f ifonfEiS t hf nD ppfo&l w J o Ykd nf aiGu, kd í l jyKMu\xdpk um;ud, k ckwikd af tmif,'k vlwo Ykd nftESt YH jym;ajymqdMk u\}}(r? 28;11-13)/ vGecf ahJ om&uftenf;i,ftwGi;f uvnf;Adrmefawmf&dS b@m - 66 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif tvSLawmfaiGtm;c&pfawmfb&k m;udrk w&m;pGrpf &JG eftwGuf ,Zfyak &m[dwf rif;onftoHk;jyKcJhonf/,ckvnf;xdkppfonfawmftm; rw&m;owif; trSm;udk Mum;ajym&eftwGuf ay;vdu k af om aiGonfvnf;xdb k &k m; b@m awmfaiGrsm;yifjzpfrnfrmS vH;k 0oHo,jzpfp&mtaMumif;r&S/d ppfonfawmf wdo Yk nfvnf;rdrw d t Ykd m;rSmMum;onft h wdik ;f owif;jzefu Y sawmhonf/ ,Zfyak &m[dwEf iS hf ppfonfawmfwo Ykd nf r[kwrf rSev f yk Zf mwfrsm; cif;um c&pfawmfb&k m;\&Sijf yefxajrmufjcif;or®mw&m;udk ajczsufEikd f rnf[ak rQmfvifMh ucsde?f c&pfawmfb&k m;onfum; ol\wynfo h m0ursm;xH od<Yk ua&mufum atmifjrifawmfrcl ahJ om ]aojcif;rm&f} udo k ufaojyKvQuf ppfreS af omarsmfvifjh cif;? ppfreS af omvGwaf jrmufjcif;? ppfreS af om ud;k uG,f jcif;? ppfreS af omuwdawmfrsm;udt k wnfjyKcsD;jrifah wmfral eawmfrcl o hJ nf/ we*FaEGaeYeeH ufa0vDa0vif;wGif rm*'vrm&donf eHo Y mrsm;yg vQuf oHviG af wmifwpfzufrv S mc&pfawmfb&k m;tm;jrKyfE&HS mocsØKif;awmf odUk a&muf&v dS monf/ c&D;a0;rSvm&aomfvnf; rm*'vrm&donf ocsØKif; awmfot Ykd OD;qH;k a&mufojl zpfonf/ ta0;rSocsØKif;awmftm; vSr;f Munfh vdu k af omtcgwGio f csØKif;awmfonfyiG v hf pfaeNyD;jzpfaomaMumifh teD;uyf Munfjh cif;rjyKawmhyJ &Siaf yw&kEiS hf &Siaf ,m[efwx Ykd H tvQiftjrefajy;vQuf ajymMum;avonf/ qHak wGUMuaomtcgwGiu f m; ]]ocsØKif;awmfrS ocifukd ,lomG ;MuNyD tb,frmS xm;Muonfurkd od}}[kqo kd nf (a,m? 20;2)/ rm*'vrm&dxu G cf gG oGm;onfah emuf rMumrDrmS yif tjcm;aom trsdK;orD;rsm;jzpfaom ,muky\ f trdjzpfaom rm&dEiS hf &SmvHw k o Ykd nfomG ;í tavmif;awmfuv kd rd ;f jcif;iSg eHo Y mrsdK;ud0k ,fNyD;vQif? ckepf&ufwiG f yXr aeY&ufeeH ufapmapm aexGuf aom tcsdeüf ocsØKif;awmfoo Ykd mG ;MupOfwiG f ]]wGi;f 0üydwaf omausmufukd tb,fov l rdS v hf eS í f ay;rnfenf;}}[k tcsif; - 67 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; csif;ajymqdkNyD;rS Munf½IvQif xdkausmufonf vSdrfhvSefvsuf&Sdonfudk jrifMu\/ xdt k rsdK;orD;wdo Yk nf wGi;f xJo0Ykd ifMuNyD;vQif vkvifwa,muf onf jzLpif&Snfvsm;aom tusÐudk0wfvsuf vusFmbufüxdkifonfudk jrifíxdwv f efrY ed ;f armjcif;odaYk &mufMu\?xdo k u l vnf;]] xdwv f efY rde;f arm jcif;r&SMd uESiv hf uf0g;uyfwikd rf mS owfaom emZ&ufNrdKo Y m; a,½Iukd oifwYkd &SmMu\/xdo k o l nfxajrmufawmfrNl yD? þt&yfür&Sd tavmif;awmfxm;&m t&yfuMkd unfMh uavmh}} [kqakd vonf (rm? 16;6)/ rm*'vrm&da&mufvmaomaemuf &Siaf yw&kEiS hf &Siaf ,m[efwYkd onfocsØKif;awmfou Ykd , kd w f ikd o f mG ;Munfo h ifah Mumif;odjrifNyD;? twlwuG ocsØKif;awmfodkYoGm;Mu&mwGif? &Sifa,m[efonfocsØKif;awmfodkY OD;pGm a&muf&o dS mG ;NyD; xdt k cgrm&dajymonft h wdik yf if ausmufw;kH onfa&GUvQuf&dS aeonf? wzeft0wfawmfonfvnf;&kycf E¨mawmfr&Sd yuwdygwfpnf;vQuf &So d nfukd jrifaomtcg r0ifbaJ eav\/ &Siaf yw&konf tvsOf;wkeq Yf ikd ;f jcif;r&Sb d J aemufraS &mufvm aomfvnf; ocsØKif;awmfxo J t Ykd vQifa&mufaomtcg c&pfawmfb&k m; ocsØKif;wGif;rSmr&SdawmhbJ tavmif;ywfpnf;&momusef&pfaeaMumif; awGUjrifMu&onf/ xdaYk emufocsØKif;awmfoOYkd ;D pGm a&mufaeaom &Siaf ,m [ef0ifavonf/ xdkYaemuf&Sifayw&kESifh &Sifa,m[efonf xdktrIrsm; olwdkY\ wynfhawmfpkrsm;rS4if;? c&pfawmf\&efolawmfrsm;rS4if; jyKxm;jcif; r[kwo f nfuekd m;vnfoabmaygufMuonf/ xdaYk emuftjcm;aemufvu dk f az:rsm;tm;oGm;ajym&efxu G cf gG oGm;Muonf/ wzefrm*'vrm&donfum; ocsØKif;awmfow Ykd pfzefjyefMunf&h mwGif rMumao;ciftjcm;aom trsdK;orD; - 68 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif rsm;tm;pum;ajymcJhaomaumif;uifwrefESpfyg;udkjrifawGUavonf/ olwo Ykd nf &Siaf yw&kEiS hf &Siaf ,m[eftm;ud, k x f ifrjyaomfvnf; ,ckwiG f ocifb&k m;twGuif akd <u;aeaom rm&dtzdrYk u l m; ]]aumif;uifwref ESpyf g; wdo Yk nf jzLaomt0wfu0kd wfqifvsuf/ a,½I\tavmif;awmfavsmif;&m t&yf? acgif;&if;üwyg; ajc&if;üwyg; xkid Mf uonfujkd rif}}av\ (a,m? 20;11-12)/ rm&donfiakd <u;aepOf]]xdo k w l u Ykd tcsif;rde;f r tb,faMumifh idak <u;oenf; [kar;vQif? uRefr\ocifukd ,lomG ;MuNyD? tb,frmS xm; Muonfudkrodyg[k ajymqdk\/ xdkodkYqdkNyD;rS aemufodkYvSnfhvQif a,½I &yfvsufaeawmfro l nfujkd rifaomfvnf;a,½Ijzpfawmfro l nfurkd od? a,½I uvnf;tcsif;rde;f rtb,faMumifih akd <u;oenf; tb,fou l kd &Smoenf; [kar;awmfr\ l / rm&duoifonfou Yl akd qmifomG ;onfreS v f Qif tb,frmS xm;onfukd uRefrtm;ajymyg/ uRefr,lomG ;ygrnft&Si[ f x k o kd u l kd O,smOf apmifh jzpfonf[x k ifrw S v f sufq\ kd /a,½Iuvnf; rm&d[ak c:awmfrv l Qif rm&donfvnf; ocifb&k m;udrk w S rf v d Qufvn S í hf &AÁKed[x k ;l av\/ xdkYaemufrm&donfc&pfawmfbk&m;tm;jyyf0yfvQufvufjzifh udik af wmfral omtcgwGif ocifb&k m;u]]ighurkd bufEiS Ohf ;D ? igonf ighcrnf; awmfxo H Ykd rwuf&ao;? ighnw D &Ykd &dS modo Yk mG ;avmh? ig\ crnf;awmfwnf; [laomoifwdkY\crnf;awmfig\bk&m;ocifwnf;[laom oifwdkY\ bk&m;ocihfxHawmfodkY igwuf&rnftaMumif;t&mudk Mum;ajymavmh}} [kred Uf >rwfpum;qdak wmfro l nf/ a,½Ic&pfawmfonfwynfah wmfrsm;tm; rMumrMum aojcif;rS &Sijf yefxajrmufawmfrrl nft h aMumif; BudKwifa[majymNyD;jzpfonft h wGuf xdo k wif;w&mudyk if wynfah wmfrsm;xH,al qmifomG ;&ef rm&dtm;apvTwf

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; awmfro l nf/ a,½Ionfcrnf;awmfxo H Ykd oGm;rnfv h rf;awmfwiG f rm&donf um; ]]ocifb&k m;udzk ;l awGUcJ&h NyD}} [laomowif;pum;udk wynfah wmfrsm; tm;Mum;ajymaejcif;jzpfonf/ rm&dajymqdak om pum;onf ]]c&pf,mef wd\ Yk toufaoG;aMum}}jzpfNyD; tm;vH;k aom,HMk unforl sm;u ]]igonf c&pfawmfb&k m;udzk ;l awGU&NyD}} [ka<u;aMumfEikd &f efvt kd yfygonf/ c&pf,mef [lonf ]]c&pfawmfb&k m;taMumif;}}odjcif;r[kwyf g ]]c&pfawmfb&k m;tm; zl;awGUjcif;}}omjzpfonf/ t"dygÜ ,frmS oufawmfxif&mS ;a,½Ic&pfawmfukd oduRrf;jcif;jzpfonf/ {uefpifppfc&pfawmfb&k m;onf&iS jf yef xajrmufjcif; r&Scd yhJ gu 0rf;ajrmufz, G &f mowif;pum;udMk um;em&eftcGit hf vrf;r&Sad wmh xdt Yk wGuf ]&Sijf yefxajrmufjcif;} onfc&pf,mefw\ Ykd tcsKyftjcmvnf; jzpfae&jcif;jzpfonf/ xdt Yk wGuu f REkyf w f t Ykd wGuf ]]&Sijf yefxajrmuf&m}} aeYonftrSef jzpfaMumif; uREkyf w f o Ykd &d x dS m;Mujcif;jzpfonf/ ocsØKif;awmfEiS hf tpd;k w& jzpfaomtmPmpufjzpfaom tpd;k &rif;rsm;wdo Yk nf4if;? aojcif;w&m;\ t&Sif rP&mrif;onfvnf;c&pfawmfb&k m;tm; csKyfaESmifjcif;iSg rpGr;f Edik f cJh/ ordkif;xufwGif c&pfawmfonf aojcif;rpÑKrm&eftm;txajrmuf atmifjrifawmfrcl yhJ gonf/ c&pfawmfb&k m;onf aojcif;rm&efuakd tmifjrif xajrmufawmfonfah emuf olcspfaom wynfah wmfrsm;xHoYkd ud, k x f if&mS ; jyoawmfrcl o hJ nfukd owd&yg/ xdaYk Mumifch &pfawmfb&k m;\ &Sijf yefxajrmuf jcif;wefc;kd awmfonf c&pfawmfb&k m;udk pdwEf v S ;kH trSejf zifh MunfnKd ud;k pm; aomolrsm;tay:wGif ordik ;f tpOftqufrS ,aeYxufwikd f xif&mS ;awmfrl aeNrJjzpfonf/ ]]&Sijf yefxajrmufjcif;w&m;}}onf tpöwmqef;a' wpf&ufom apmifx h ed ;f atmufarhMu&efr[kwyf g/ uREkyf w f \ Ykd aeY&uftoufwm? tcsdef

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif em&Dtm;vH;k wdo Yk nfaejcnfrmS a&T&nfavmif;onft h vm; xGe;f vif;awmufy ae&rnfh wpfcw k nf;aom 0rf;ajrmufz, G &f m w&m;&wemyifjzpfonf/ &Sijf yefxajrmuf&maeYuu kd sif;yjcif;onf wpfenf;tm;jzifh ]]uREkyf w f o Ykd nf &Sijf yefxajrmufjcif;t&Si\ f om;orD;rsm;jzpfNyD;? xm0&eef;trwrSm td?k em? aojcif;uif;vQuf okcbHek ef;wGif xm0&bk&m;ESit hf wl pd;k pHMu&rnfh bk&m;tEG,0f ,fjzpfaMumif;}} a<u;aMumfaejcif;yifjzpfygonf/

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aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm;

c&pörwfr*Fvm ESppf Of'ZD ifbm 25 &ufaeYa&mufwikd ;f c&pörwfyaJG wmfuu kd sif;y Muygonf/xdck &pörwfyaJG wmfonf avmuDom;wdYk tm;tjypf i&JrS u,fcRwf aptHhaomiSg c&pfawmfa,&Ibk&m;vlUZmwdudk cH,lvQuf <uvmawmf rljcif;udk taMumif;jyKvQufpnfum;odu k Nf rdKufpmG jzifh usif;yjyKvkyf Muaom c&pf,mefw\ Ykd yGv J rf;wpfcyk ifjzpfygonf/ xdu k o hJ Ukd c&pfawmfb&k m; vlUZmwd cH,ljcif;udk taMumif;jyKvQufusif;yaom xdkc&pörwfyGJonf ueOD; c&pf,mefjzpfvmolw\ Ykd "avhx;kH wrf;rsm;jzifh qufE, G v f mcJjh cif;vnf; jzpfonf/ xdt k csdew f iG f vltrsm;wdo Yk nf c&pörwfopfyifrsm;pdu k jf cif;? tdru f kd tvSqifjcif;? rdom;pkrsm;xHodkUvSnfygwfMujcif;? todrdwfaqGrsm;xH tvnfomG ;jcif;? vufaqmifypön;f zvS,jf cif;wdv Yk nf; jyKvkyMf u ygonf/ rdom;pkrsm;pHkpHknDnDjzifh wufnDvufnDtwlwuG c&pörwfyGJrsm;udk aysmf&iT pf mG usif;yavh&MdS uygonf/ vlwo Ykd nf c&pörwfyu JG ekd nf;vrf;toG,o f , G jf zifh usif;yavh&dS Muygonf/ c&pörwfrwdik rf DS &uftenf;i,frpS wifí aomfvnf;aumif; &ufowåygwfrsm;pGmtvdu k vnf;aumif; rdrw d \ Ykd tdrrf sm;udk oefU&Si;f a&; jyKvkyjf cif;? tvSqifjcif;eJU tdrNf cHeUJ yeH&ap&ef a&mifprkH ;D rsm;udv k nf; xGi;f n§jd cif;rsm;jyKvkyaf vh&MdS uonf/ xdrk Qru c&pörwfopfyif pdu k jf cif; rsm;eJcY &pörwfeUJ qufE, G af omypön;f wefqmyvmrsm; jzifv h nf; rGr;f rHMu onf/ rdom;pkrsm;twlwuG pkaygif;vufppkH m;Mujcif; ponfrsm;eJUtwl rdom;pk?rdwo f *F[rsm;eJUrdwo f [m,zGjJ cif;rsm;eJY vufaqmifay;jcif;rsm; -72-


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif jyK vkyMf uygonfrmS vnf; txl;yifxif&mS ;aom umvtcsdet f cgqdv k nf; rSeyf gonf/ txl;ojzifh uav;oli,frsm;onf rdbaqGrsdK;tod rdwaf qG rsm;xH rSvufaqmifrsm;udk ydik q f ikd cf iG t hf &qH;k aom &moDvnf;jzpfonf/ '‘@m&Dqpkd um;rsm;twdik ;f pefwuavmhpx f rH S vufaqmifypön;f rsm;udk &&So d nf [kvnf; qdpk rSwjf yKMuonf/ xdck &pörwfyaJG wmfonf wpfjznf;jznf; usif;yjcif;rsm;vmonfah emuf urÇmESit hf 0Sr;f twGuf bmoma&;qdik &f m tm;vyf & uf j zpf v mcJ h o nf omru rd o m;pk 0 if r sm;twG u f v nf ; qkvufaqmifrsm;eJU zG,fzG,f&m jyifqifjcif;twGuf aiGukefaMu;us rsm;aom bmoma&; yGjJ zpfvmavawmh onf/ ausmif;rsm;? toif;awmfrsm;eJU vlrt I zGUJ tpnf;rsm;tMum;wGif yGJvrf;obifrsm;udkvnf; txl;xl;taxGaxGjyKvkyfvQufusif;yaom tcsdet f cgor,vnf;jzpfonf/ xdck &pörwfyv JG rf;obifonf tdref ;D jcif;? aps;0,fxu G jf cif;? c&pörwfopfyifpu kd jf cif;? jyZmwfrsm;ujcif;? "r®aw; yG J a wmf r sm;jyKvk y f j cif ; ponf j zif h t xl ; wvnf j yKvk y f M uonf / ]]c&pörwf}}[laom acgif;pD;atmufwiG f jyZmwfrsm;? aw;usL;{jcif;rsm;? pmrluAsm aqmif;yg;rsm;NydKifyGJrsm;vnf;jyKvkyfMuonf/ tcsdKUaom olrsm;u tkyfpkvdkufzGJUum wJxdk;oGm;vmvQuf tvSL'gersm;jyKjcif;? ae&mxdkifcif;r&Sdolrsm;tm; ae&mxdkifcif;ay;jcif;? oufBuD;olrsm;udk az;rjcif;ponfh aumif;aomr*Fvmw&m;rsm;udjk yKvkyMf uonf/tpd;k & rif;rsm;? toif;tzGUJ rsm;? tvkyo f rm;rsm;? tvky&f iS rf sm;? ausmif;rsm; vnf; >cif;csufr&So d avmuf &yfem;ydwx f m;Muonf/ vltrsm;pkwo Ykd nf a0;uGmaeMuaom rdom;pkrsm;xHoUkd oGm;a&muf vnfygwfawGUqHMk uonf/ ae&yfXmaeodUk vnf; wpfcgwpfacguf ta&mufomG ;um b0c&D;ESijf cif;jzifh tyef;ajzum qifEMJG uonf/ xdUk twGuf oGm;vma&;twGu?f um;? &xm;?

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; av,Of ponfch &D;pOfwYkd onfvnf; ae&mvGwrf &Sd oGm; vma&;twGuf vufrvnfaomtcg or,vnf;jzpfonf/ c&D;pOfrsm;onf xdck &pörwf umvwGif yHrk eS t f wdik ;f oGm;vm Edik &f eftwGuf vGepf mG cufcjJ cif; jzpfavhjzpfx &So d nft h wGuf BudKwifum pDpOfxm;avh&MdS u&onf/ xdck &pörwfumvwGif vlxpk ak 0;&m? pHn k &D mpaom pH&k yfrsm;onfvnf; ydwyf if&yfem;avh&o dS nf/

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- 74-

c&pörwfordik ;f aMumif; c&pörwfyGJawmfonf NydKifbufuif;atmifBuD;jrwfcrf;em;vS onfrmS wpfurÇmvH;k qdik &f mjzpfaeNyD; ,HMk unfo?l r,HMk unfot l m;vH;k ESihf qufE, G af eonfyh jJG zpfonf/ xdo k Ukd wpfurÇmvH;k u usif;yaeaomfvnf; vltenf;pkuom c&pörwft"dygÜ ,fEiS hf tESpo f m&udo k Md uonf/ ESpaf ygif; 300 0ef;usifxw d ikd af tmifc&pörwfurkd usif;ycJMh uyg? taMumif;rSm c&pfawmfbk&m;\arG;aeYawmfudkusif;yjcif;onftjypf jzpfonf[u k eOD;toif;awmfacgif;aqmifrsm;u cH,cl MhJ uonf/ xdaYk Mumifh vnf;c&pörwf\rlvtp&ufukd twdtusajymqd&k efveG pf mG cufcv J o S nf/ vGecf ahJ om ESpaf ygif; 1550 cefu Y wpfEpS w f m\aeY&ufrsm;wGif c&pörwfyGJusif;yMuonfh&ufonf uGJjym;jcm;em;Muonf/ wpfcgwpf&H 'DZifbmv 25 &uf? Zefe0g&Dv 6 &uf? rwfv28 &uf? {NyDv 19 &ufEiS hf 20 &uf? wpfzef Ed0k ifbmv 17 &ufponfjzifh uGjJ ym;jcm;em;pGm usif;ycJMh u ygonf/ c&pfouú&mZf 361 0ef;usifwGif yk'f&[ef;rif; *sKvD,pfu 'DZifbmv 25 &uftm; c&pörwfusif;y&ef c&pfawmfb&k m;\ arG;aeYawmf tjzpfowfrSwfaMujimcJhygonf/xdkodkYjyK&mrStoif;awmftrsm;pkrSm c&pfawmfb&k m;\arG;aeYawmfukd *kPjf yKonfh taejzifh tm;vH;k rSvnf;tod


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif trSwjf yKvufcu H sifo h ;kH vmcJMh uonf/ odkYaomfvnf; toif;awmftm;vHk;uvufcHvmMuonfum; r[kwaf y/ *&datmfoakd 'gpfEiS hf tar&dueftoif;awmfrsm;u c&pörwftm; Zefe0g&D 6 &ufEiS hf 18 &ufwEYkd iS t hf oD;oD;usif;yMuonf/ tbpö;D eD;,m;&Sd toif;awmfwpfyg;wGiu f m; c&pörwfukd wpfEpS w f iG f 11 Budrw f ikd w f ikd f usif;y cJMh uonf/ c&pfawmfvZYl mwdc, H &l m AufvifNrdKw Y iG f toif;awmfo;kH yg;u Adrmefawmfwpfcw k nf;udt k oH;k jyKMuaomfvnf; c&pörwf&ufuo kd ;D jcm;pD &ufowfrw S u f musif;yMuonf/ 'DZifbmv 25 &uftm; c&pörwf&uftjzpfrowfrSwfrDwGif wpfurÇmvH;k qdik &f mwGif tESt YH jym;&uftoD;oD;uGjJ ym;pGmusif;yavh&cdS hJ Muonf/ c&pörwfusif;yjcif;jyK&mwGiaf ocsmavhvmoH;k oyfMunfyh gu rwlujJG ym;jcm;em;aom oGijf yifvu©PmESihf bmomw&m;[kajymqd&k efcufcJ aomt&mrsm;udv k nf;awGUjrif&ygvdrrhf nf/ Oya&myodcYk &pfawmfb&k m;\omoemra&muf&rdS D yGv J rf;obif usif;yrIonfveG pf mG pnfum;vStxl;ojzifh aqmif;v,f&moDyjJG zpfonf/ aeYwm&SnfaomumvjzpfNyD; aeonfajrmufrSawmifodkYa&TUvQm;aom umv jzpfonfEiS t hf arSmifrt S vif;aqmifrnfh t"dygÜ ,fjzifyh v JG rf;obif aeY&ufrsm; usif;yMuonf/ a&mrawGtaejzifh xdak qmif;v,fyt JG m; olw\ Ykd bk&m; Saturn udkMunfndKav;pm;aomtm;jzifh Saturnalia [kac:qdkorkwfMuonf/ vufaqmifrsm;tcsif;csif;zvS,jf cif;? ay;jcif;jyKonfomru xdt k cg or,wGif vlvw G Ef iS hf uRef;csif;[lícGjJ cm;jcif;r&Sd yuwdvo l m;csif; wef;wl &nfrQaysmf&TifpGmqifEGJusif;yavh&SdMuonf/ a&mrwGif c&pf,mefonf Edik if aH wmfbmomjzpfvmonfah emufwiG f xd&k ;kd &m&S&d if;pGb J moma&; yGv J rf; - 75 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; obifonf The Mass of Christ (0g) Christ Mass &pörwfot Ykd oGiu f ;l ajymif; vmcJo h nf/ ajrmufyikd ;f Oa&myrS *smrefvrl sdK;EG,pf rk sm;taejzifh 'DZifbm 25 &ufaeYwiG u f sif;yMuonf/ xdu k mvtcgwGif aeonf 'DZifbm 21 &ufaeY wdik af tmifaeYwmudw k akd pNyD;wnf&adS eonf[, k MkH unfMuonf/ xdaYk emuf av;&ufMumaomtcgwGif aeonf,cifo\ l &Sx d m;onfph rG ;f &nfEiS hf yifukd obm0jzpfwnfrludk0rf;ajrmufpGmjyefvnf&&SdoGm;onf[kqdkMuonf/ xdkrQru Oa&myajrmufydkif;wGiftjcm;yGJvrf;obifvnf;&Sdaejyefonf? xdyk t JG m; Zool okYd Yule [kac:Muonf/c&pf,mefomoem0ifa&mufvmonfh aemufyikd ;f wGix f &kd ;kd &myGo J nfc&pörwfyt JG jzpftpm;xd;k cJMh uonf/ £oa&v vlrsdK;rsm;twGuf ]rD;xGe;f yJ}G tm;'DZifbm 25 &ufwiG u f sif;yMuNyD; olwYkd pum;tm;jzifh Hanukkah [kac:qdMk uonf/ c&pörwf[o l nf pum;vH;k ESpv f ;kH tm;aygif;pyfxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ Christ ESihf Mass [laompum;jzpfonf/Christ [laompum;onf*&dbmom pum;rSqif;oufvmNyD; teufrmS ]]bdoyd &f iS }f } jzpfNyD;? Mas [laompum;rSm a[NAJpum;jzpfNyD; ]]av;jrwfjcif;}} [líteuf&onf/ aemufyikd ;f umvwGif xdkpum;vHk;wdkYonf a&mrumodkvfvdyftoif;awmf&Sd bmoma&; Mass pum;vH;k ESihf vlxt k Mum;a&maxG;cJí h &pfawmfb&k m;tm; ''The festival to the memory of Christ ''atmufarhz, G f tcrf;tem;[kac:qdv k mMuonf/ ,aeYumvwGif tcsdKUuvnf; c&pörwfonf c&pfawmfEiS hf vlxak ygif;pnf; jcif;[k ac:qdo k ;kH EIe;f Mujyefygonf/ xdaYk Mumifh Christ +Mass=Christmass [kqu kd m c&pfawmf+vlx=k bk&m;ESiv hf al ygif;pnf;jcif;[lí qdpk rSwjf yK Muol rsm;vnf;&SMd uonf/ t*FvefEikd if H ueOD;toif;awmfrsm;wGif xdyk v JG rf;obiftm; - 76 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif "Christo Mass" [kvlodrsm;cJhMuonf/ pydefEdkifiHwGif "Natividad"[k4if;? tDwvDrsm;u "Natale" [k4if;? jyifopfwu Ykd "Noel"[k qdMk uNyD; *smreDrsm;u "Weihnacht" [kac:qdu k m oef&Y iS ;f aomyGaJ wmfntjzpf txG#t f jrwfxm; usif;yMuonf/ rsufarSmufacwfwGif c&pörwfonf bmoma&;txG#ftjrwf tae jzifo h mru wpfurÇmvH;k yGaJ wmftjzpfusif;yaeMuygonf/ xdaYk Mumif c&pörwfonf urÇmt0Sr;f &Sd ,Ofaus;rI? aemufc?H bmoma&;tm;vH;k jzifh qufEG,faeonfhtcgor,&ufwpfckjzpfonfhtwGuf pefwmuavhmpf? c&pörwfu'f? vufaqmifypön;f rsm;rQa0jcif;?0,fjcrf;jcif;? c&pörwfopfyif? c&pörwfacgif;avmif;? c&pörwfMu,f? c&pörwfza,mif;wdik ?f c&pörwfyef;? c&pörwfwiG f rdom;pkqq kH nf;jcif;? c&pörwfEmG ;pmcGu?f c&pörwfpm;yGEJ iS hf ponfh yGv J rf;obiftaqmifta,mifrsm;yg0ifae&jcif;jzpfonf/ xdaYk Mumifu h rÇmESit hf 0Sr;f c&pörwfonf rl&if;ordik ;f ü4if;? vuf&dS tajctaeü4if;BuD;us,fcrf;em;pGmjzifh tpnfum;qH;k jzpfonf/ c&pörwf tpudMk unfyh gu rdom;pkqq kH nf;jcif;taMumif;rSmoli,fawmf a,½Ic&pf vlUZmwd cH,cl jhJ cif;jzpfonf/ xdaYk Mumifch &pörwfonf rdom;pkwikd ;f ydí k pkpnf; &mumvvnf;jzpfaeonf/ tDpwm? ESpo f pfponfh tjcm;tjcm;aom yGw J Ykd wGirf o d m;pk0ifwpfO;D OD; ta0;odo Yk mG ;a&mufaeMu&onfukd yrmrjyKMu onfw h ikd af tmif c&pörwfumvwGiu f m; xdo k rYkd jyKwwfMu/ rwlnaD om,Ofaus;rI? uGjJ ym;aom"avhrsm;twdik ;f c&pörwf onfomítESpo f m&av;eufru I akd y;pGr;f Edik yf gonf/ ]]bk&m;pifppfonf vlUZmwdtoGiu f ckd , H al wmfrjl cif;}} jzpfaomaMumifh vlom;wdik ;f twGuf trSew f u,faysmf&iT 0f rf;ajrmuf&aom umvvnf;jzpfonf/ - 77 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm;

c&pörwf"avhx;kH wrf;rsm; c&pörwftBuKd c&pörwftBudK[lonf c&pörwfuBkd udKwifjyifqifjcif;jzifh jyKavh&dS aomyG&J ufrsm;jzpfonf/ tdraf xmifro d m;pkrsm;onf za,mif;wdik rf sm;tm; xkyyf ;kd jyifqifxm;NyD; c&pörwfrwdik rf aD v;ygwftvdu k yif jyKavh&o dS nf/ c&pörwfyef;acGrsm;tMum;wGif xdkza,mif;wdkifav;wdkiftm;xm;&SdNyD;? tygwfpOfwe*FaEGaeYwikd ;f rdo;pkwo Ykd nftwlwuG 0wfjyKMuvQuf c&pörwf ESifhpyfqdkifaomoufawmfpOfrsm;udkzwfMum;jcif; c&pörwfuJvf&dkvf aw;rsm;udk usL;{jcif; wdjYk yKMuNyD; za,mif;wdik rf sm;udv k nf;tpOfvu kd f xGef;n§dMu&m yxrtygwfwGifuav;ti,fqHk;rSxGef;n§donf? aemuf we*FaEGaeYrsm;wGif tjcm;za,mif;wdik u f x kd eG ;f Mu&mrS aemufq;kH aom za,mif;wdik t f m; c&pörwfwiG f xGe;f n§jd cif;jyKMuonf/ c&pörwfyef;acG\ puf0ikd ;f oP²mefonf bk&m;ocif\ xm0& wnf;[laom tjzpfawmfujkd yqdjk cif;jzpfNyD;? za,mif;wdik o f nfum;avmu \tvif;&Sifjzpfaom c&pfawmfbk&m;udk ukd,fpm;jyKjcif;jzpfonf/ ]]arSmifru kd üf tvif;&Siaf y:xGe;f awmfral omtcg? tarSmifonf qdwo f Ok ;f uG,af ysmufí tvif;&Sio f nf atmifjrifawmfrcl o hJ nf}} [laom pum;yHu k kd -78-


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif toH;k jyK&Guq f akd vh&MdS uonf/ qG'D ifEikd if w H iG f c&pörwfMu,frsm;udk c&pörwftBudKyxrtygwfü tdrw f cH g;aygufrsm;wGif pwifcsdwq f aJG vh&MdS uonf/

c&pörwfza,mif;wdik f za,mif;wdik rf yg&Syd gu c&pörwftvSqif,ifjcif;onf NyD;jynfph kH Edik v f rd rhf nfr[kwf taMumif;rSm c&pörwfonf ]]tvif;awmfay:xGe;f jcif;}} wnf;[laom vlwikd ;f twGuf ppfreS af omu,fcRwfawmfrjl cif; tvif;udk ay;onfjh y,k*jf zpfonf/ tarSmifcef;xJwiG f uav;i,frsm;rS rD;xGe;f aom tcgtvif;udkjrif&jcif;onf AwdåZHq&ma,m[eftm;owd&oifhNyD;? c&pfawmf bk&m;\ tarSmifuNkd zdKcGi;f um tvif;aqmifatmifjrifawmfrcl hJ jcif;udv k nf; owd&MunfnKd o'¨gyGm;rsm;&efjzpfonf/ ,aeYurÇmwGif ]]rD;xGe;f yGaJ wmfrsm;}}onf ajrmufOa&myrS tajccH qif;oufvmMujcif;jzpfonf/ *smreDawmifyikd ;f wGiu f m; axmifch sdK;ckEpS cf k ygaomMu,fudktoHk;jyKavh&SdMuNyD;? tcufckESpfckygaom za,mif;wdkif xGef;n§d&mpifrsm;udkvnf;c&pörwfaeYwGif tdrfwdkif;vdkvdkwGifxGef;n§dNyD; noef;acgif,üH AdrmefawmfoYkd ,laqmifvmavh&MdS uonf/ qD'G ifEikd if w H iG f tcufo;kH ckygaom za,mif;wdik x f eG ;f n§&d mpifukd &dk;&m"avhozG,ftoHk;jyKMuonf/ xdkrQru tcufig;ck? ckESpfckESif q,fhESpfckponfygaom za,mif;wdkifxGef;n§d&mpifrsm;vnf;toHk;jyK Muonf/ ckEpS cf ufygaom za,mif;wdik x f eG ;f n§&d mum; a,&k&v S ifNrdKw Y iG f awGU&aom tpOftvmyifjzpfonf/ trsm;pkr;D xGe;f n§&d mwGif tjym&if&h if?h teD;&if&h ifh wdu Yk v kd yS pGmqif,ifvQuftoH;k jyKMuonf/ - 79 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; a&mrvlrsdK;rsm;onf olwdkY\ Saturnalia yGJudkusif;y&mwGif olw\ Ykd tdrrf sm;tm; tpdr;f a&mifqefqefjyKvkyMf uNyD; rD;rsm;jzifh tvSqif Muonf/ c&pf,mefwdkY\ueOD;ordkif;wGif yk'f&[ef;rif; *JvfpD;,pfrS ]]rD;xGe;f yG}J } udk azaz:0g&D 2 &ufaeYwiG t f oif;awmftwGi;f aMujimcJo h nf/ ,aeYuREkyf w f q Ykd if,ifusif;y&mwGif toH;k jyKaom za,mif;wdik rf sm;ESihf rD;vHk;uav;rsm;onf rmwifvkomrS ol\rdciftoif;awmfjzpfcJhaom a&mrumodv k v f yd f toif;awmf\"avhx;kH wrf;rsm; rSo,faqmifvmaom tcrf;tem;jzpfonf/ b,ftcsdefwGifrqdk c&pörwfusif;yMu&mwGif za,mif;wdik o f nfrygrjzpf yg0ifaeMuonfrmS aEG;axG;rIujkd zpfaponf omru uJ v f & d k o D c sif ; onf r sm;tm;jzif h v nf ; c&pf a wmf b k & m;ud k ESv;kH wHcg;zGiv hf Quf BudKqdak ejcif;jzpfonf/

c&pörwftBuKd jyu©'ed ^f &kyyf rkH sm; ordik ;f aMumif;t& jyu©'ed ^f &kyyf rkH sm;onf *smreDEiS hf qD'G ifEikd if H wGif uav; oli,frsm;tm; MunfE;l ap&eftwGuf c&pörwfumvtBudKwGif tdr&f dS eH&rH sm;wGix f m;ay;jcif;jzpfonf/ jyKwif;ayguf (odUk ) wHcg;aygufwiG f oifah vQmfaom usrf;yk'd Ef iS hf oifah vQmfaom&kyyf u kH m;csyfuav;rsm;udk wpfpkH wpfcjk zifzh ;kH tkyx f m;&SMd uonf/ xdaYk Mumifh b,ft&mudk olwYkd &rnfukd rodMu? uav;rsm;onfaeYpOf owfrw S x f m;aom ae&mrS rdbrsm;xm;ay;onfh t&mudo k mG ;,lMu&jcif;jzpfonf/ xdt k cguav;rsm;onf aeY&ufEiS hf vdu k f avQmnDaxGpmG ygonfh &kyyf u kH m;csyfuav;rs;ud&k &SMd uum MunfE;l cGihf &&Sd cJMh uonf/ - 80 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif

c&pörwfiuS rf sm; 'de;f rwfEiS fh aemfa0;Edik if rH sm;wGif olw\ Ykd tm;vyf&ufrsm;wGif iSurf sm;tm; auR;arG;jcif;? tpmauR;jcif;? tdraf e&may;jcif; ponfwjYkd zifh tcsde, f u l mMunfE;l avh&MdS uonf/tdrNf cH0if;rsm;wGif iSut f wGuw f ikd rf sm; xlxm;ay;MuNyD; pyg;ESEH iS hf oD;ESrH sm;udv k nf;twlxm;&Sad y;Muonf/ tcsdKU rSmtdraf qmufMu&mwGiyf if jywif;wHcg;ESiehf ;D aom tudik ;f tcufrsm;udk ckwx f iG jf cif;rjyKMuyJiu S rf sm;em;ae&ef? toku d v f yk &f ef ponfjzifh oD;oefY xm;um pm;p&mrsm;ESit hf wljyKvkyaf y;Muonf/ 'de;f rwfEikd if rH S xd"k avhrsm;onf MunfE;l zG,?f pdwcf srf;omaponfh t&mjzpfonft h m;avQmfpmG c&pörwfrwdik rf t D BudKumvrsm;wGif rdrw d \ Ykd aetdrrf sm;wGif aus;iSuu f av;rsm;tm; tpmay;jcif;? todu k v f yk &f ef ae&mjyifqifay;jcif;rsm;udjk yKvkyaf y;vmcJMh ujcif;jzpfonf/ c&pörwfn tcgor,wG i f c&pf a wmf b k & m;tm; &d k a ocef Y n m;aomtm;jzif h iSuaf v;rsm;twGuyf g rusef MunfE;l zG,f tavhtxtaejzifh ,aeYwikd &f dS aejcif;jzpfonf/

c&pörwfEiS ;f yef;rsm; c&pörwfumvwGif acgif;avmif;yef;uav;ozG,fjzpfonfh ESi;f yef;tEG,0f if jzL?eD?0g? jymponfjzifh ta&miftaoG;pHv k aS om [dik , f m - 81 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; qifyh ef;? acwåmyef;av;rsm;vnf; rjzpfrae yg&Sad ejcif;rSm qD'G ifEikd if rH S c&pörwftBudKü rdrw d t Ykd rd t f oD;oD;ü tvSqifavh&MdS u&mrS ,aeYrsuf arSmuf acwfwikd af tmif qifu h rf;vmaom "avhwpfcyk ifjzpfonf/ yxr qH k ; aom c&pö r wf t Bud K twG u f z a,mif ; wd k i f u d k x G e f ; n§ d N yD ; aemuf rdom;pk0ifrsm;onf twlwuG ]]ocifb&k m;twGuv f rf;c&D;udk jyifqif Muyg}} [koNH ydKif[pfa<u;avh&MdS uonf/ c&pörwfyef;rsm;udv k nf; tdrw f cH g;? jyKwif;rsm;teD;wGif pdu k x f l xm;avh&MdS uNyD; pdr;f vrf;pdak jyaeonfh c&pörwf\tESpo f m&onf rdom;pk 0ifrsm;\wpfOD;csif;pdwfESvHk;udkat;csrf;aponfhoauFowpfcktjzpf pwifcMhJ uonf/

c&pörwfopfyif ,aeYjrifawGaY e&aomc&pörwfopfyiftm; yxrOD;qH;k taejzifh tar&duef tdraf xmifro d m;pkwpfprk S 1847 ckEpS w f iG f pwifusif;y cJjh cif; jzpf&m ,ckacwfwiG cf &pörwf&moDürygrjzpfta&;ygaom tcef; u@ wpfct k oGio f Ukd a&muf&v dS mcJo h nf/ a&S;OD;'@m&Drsm;t& c&pfawmfzmG ;jrif&mteD;wGif pGeyf vGyH if? oHviG yf if? xef;yifEiS hf xif;½I;yifwt Ykd wlw&l adS ecJMh uonf/ c&pfawmfb&k m; zGm;jrifaomtcgwGif c&pfawmfb&k m;udk &dak ocefn Y m;av;pm;aom tm;jzifh pGefyvHGyifonfvnf;ol\toD;rsm;tm;ay;vSLvdkufonf? wpfzef oHviG yf ifuvnf; xdek nf;wlpmG rdrüd &Sad omoHviG q f t D m;ay;vSLvdu k o f nf/ xef;yifuvnf;rdrüd &Sad omtoD;udak y;vSLonf? odaYk omfvnf; xif;½I;yif onfum; rdrw d iG b f mrSay;vSLp&mr&Sjd zpfaeonf/ xdt k jzpftysufrI tm;vH;k - 82 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif udk aumif;uifxuf0,f&Sdaeaom Mu,fpifav;rsm;u jrifMu&aom tcgwGif vGepf mG pdwrf aumif;jzpfMuojzifh olwu Ykd , kd o f w l Ykd ]]vSLzG,t f jzpf}} owfrw S Mf uNyD; c&pfawmfb&k m;tm; ylaZmf&efjyifqifNyD; xif;½I;yif\tudik ;f tcufav;rsm;ay:wGif qif;oufcMhJ uavonf/ 'kw, d '@m&Dt& c&pfawmfb&k m;vlZY mwduckd , H u l m zGm;jrifaom aeYwiG f &S&d o dS rQaom opfyifyef;rmvmwdo Yk nfz;l yGiMhf uonf[q k Mkd uonf/ wwd,'@m&Dt& wpfcgu om;orD;rsm;pGm&Sad om rdcifwpfO;D &So d nf/ c&pörwfnaecif;wGif om;orD;rsm;twGuf c&pörwfopfyifukd jyifqifay; xm;&m? na&mufaomtcgwGif yifu h rl sm;a&mufvmNyD; c&pörwftwGuf jyKvkyx f m;aomopfyif&&dS modv Yk ma&mufum olwcYkd snfrQifrsm;jzifh yifu h l tdrfrsm;udk aqmufvkyfcJhMuonf/ aemufaeYreufa&mufaomtcg rdcifBuD;onf c&pörwfopfyiftm;Munfhaomtcgü yifhulrQifrQm;onf aiGBudK;rsm; tjzpfajymif;oGm;NyD; vSyaooyfaom c&pörwfopfyifjzpfae onfukd awGjY rif&onf[q k Mkd uonf/ xdt Yk wGuaf Mumifh tjcm;opfyifrsm; enf;wl toD;tyGiu hf kd ray;pGr;f Edik af omfvnf; c&pörwfopfyifonf '@m&D rsm;pGmjzifh ,aeYxufxw d ikd t f a&;ygaomtcef;u@wGi&f adS ejcif;jzpfonf/ *smreDwdkY\'@m&Dpum;t& wpfcgu opfckwform;tzdk;tdk wpfOD;onf olYrdom;pkrsm;ESifhtwl c&pörwfnwGif rD;yHkteD;wGif xkdifaeMuonf/ xdkpOf wHcg;vmacgufoHaMumifh zGifhMunfhaomtcg ]EGr;f e,fjcif;} ]csrf;jcif;} ]qmavmifjcif;} toGiaf qmifaeonfh oli,f wpf O D ; ud k a wG U &onf / Muif e moem;wwf a om opf c k w f o rm;onf oli,ftm; tdrt f wGi;f odYk zdwaf c:um tpmauR;jcif;? aEG;axG;ap&ef twGut f 0wftpm;ay;jcif;? MuifempGmvufcjH cif; ponfjzifah umif;pGm {nfch aH uR;arG;NyD;rdrt d rd w f iG af e&may;tdypf ufaponf/

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; aemufaeYreuftdyf,mrSEdk;aomtcgü xdkoli,fteD;wGif om,mvSyaom aw;*DooHrsm;ESit hf wl aumif;uifwrefrsm;\ {usL;rI udjk rifawGUMu&onf/ trSet f m;jzifh oli,fav;onf c&pfawmfu, kd w f ikd f jzpfaejcif;jzpfonfuakd wGUMu&onf/ xdt k cgoli,fawmfonf teD;em;&So d pfyifrS tudik ;f wpfcu k , kd u l m teD;em;ajrwGipf u kd v f u kd o f nf/ xdaYk emuf ,ckopfyifonf ]]oifrh o d m;pk twGuf <u,f0aompnf;pdrfcsrf;omESifh usef;rmjcif;okccsrf;omudk umvoH;k wefv;kH ü r*Fvmud, k al qmifay;vdrrhf nf}}[k>rwfMum;cJo h nf[q k kd Muonf/ wpfzeftjcm;aom a'owpfcrk S '@m&Dpum;udMk unfrh nfqykd gu? qD'G ifEikd if üH tzd;k tcrrsm;bJ ta&miftaoG;pHak om c&pörwfopfyifukd jyKvkyu f sif;yMuonf/ txl;ojzifh xif;½I;oD;tm;aiGa&mifjyKvkyjf cif;? eD&J aeaomyef;oD;? aowåmi,fuav;? ta&miftaoG;pHak om Edik if aH wmftvH rsm;ponfjzifh a0qmpGmjyKvkyMf uNyD; tyfcsnfjzifo h u D mtvSqifMuonf/ ,aeYacwfwiG f tjcm;aomwdik ;f Edik if EH iS hf xdw k ikd ;f Edik if w H \ Ykd vIy&f mS ;rIonf aeYpOf xrif;pm;a&aomufajymp&mrsm;jzpfvmcJyh gNyD/ xdaYk Mumifh Edik if t H oD; oD;\tvHrsm;tm; c&pörwfopfyifwiG cf sdwq f jJG cif;onf rnfrQ wifw h ,f avQmufywfaeNyD;jzpftoday;az:jyygNyD/ *smrefEikd if EH iS hf aemfa0bmompum;rwljcm;em;aeaom aemfa0; EG,zf mG ;wdo Yk nf c&pörwfnaecif;tm;,ckwikd f xdo k jYkd yKaeMuNrJjzpfNyD;? tvS qifNyD;ygu rdom;pkuav;oli,frsm;tm;vHu k akd c:í xdck &pörwfopfyif teD;wGit f m;vH;k rwfwyf&yfvQuf 0dik ;f ygwfumc&pörwfuv J &f o kd cD sif;rsm; tm;twlwuGou D sL;Muonf/ rdom;pkrsm;wGif c&pörwfopfyifESifhygwfoufívkyfaqmifrI

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif trsdK;rsdK;&SMd uonf/ tcsdKu Y c&pörwfopfyiftm;tcsdet f awmfMumonfh wdik rf rd w d t Ykd rd w f iG x f m;&SMd uNyD;? tcsdKUrSmc&pörwfrwdik rf D ESpyf gwfcefrY Qjyifqif xm;avh&MdS uonf? xdaYk emuf c&pörwfa&mufonfEiS chf sufjcif; tjyifoYkd xkwf xm;Muonf/ tcsdKu Y c&pörwfNyD;onftxdxm;&SMd uonf/ Oa&my,Ofaus;rIuu dk sifo h ;kH Muaomolrsm;u c&pörwfopfyifukd c&pörwfnaewGio f mjyKvkyMf uonf/ tcsdKu Y ESpo f pfwikd af tmifxm;&SNd yD; tcsdKUrSm Zefe0g&D 5 &ufaeYtxd 12 ESp&f ufwikd w f ikd x f m;&SMd uonf? olw\ Ykd ,HkMunfrIt& ynm&Sdrsm;a&mufvmí oli,fawmfudk tvSLb@mrsm; ylaZmfonfh tcsdex f ad pmifah rQmfaejcif;[kqMkd uonf/ rsufarSmufacwfwGifc&pörwfopfyifonf ]]c&pörwf0dnmOf}} tjzpfaz:usL;aeNyD;? pdr;f pdak eaom&Gujf ywfonfum; &moDOwkrnfoyYkd if ajymif;vJygap rajymif;rvJprd ;f pdak eNrJjzpf tNrJtpOfprd ;f vef;aeaomaMumifh ]]azgufjyefru I if;jcif;}} udyk akH qmifaejcif;jzpfonf/ q,fEh pS &f uf vGeaf jrmuf vmaomaemufc&pörwfopfyiftm;tcsdKw Y o Ykd nf rD;½IUd pGeyYf pfjcif;r&Sb d J rdrd wd\ Yk tdr0f if;NcHxw J iG f iSuu f av;rsm;em;aeEdik &f eftwGu?f todu k o f zG,f jyKvkyaf y;jcif;jzifh iSuu f av;rsm;twGuf c&pörwfopfyifjzpfvmjyefonf/ iSuu f av;rsm;twGuv f nf; vHNk cHKonft h odik o f zG,jf zpfvmNyD; iSut f rsm; vnf;ESpNf cdKufpmG jzift h odu k t f jzpftoH;k jyKMuonf/

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aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm;

c&pörwfu'f c&pörwftcgor,wGif txl;ojzifh wpfO;D ESiw hf pfO;D arwåmudk tjyeftvSezf vS,Mf u&mwGirf &Srd jzpftoH;k wnfMh uonfu c&pörwfu'fyif jzpfonf/ tzd;k enf;aomc&pörwfu'fukd t*FvefEikd if rH S &d;k vef'af [;vfu 1837 ckEpS w f iG pf wiftoH;k jyKcJjh cif;jzpfonft h wGuf ,ckacwfwiG f urÇmESihf t0Srf;wGifwGifus,fus,fjyefYjyefY jzifh vlxkwpf&yfvHk;twGuf ae&m,l vmonfrmS pD;yGm;a&;avmutxdae&ma&muf atmifwiG u f s,fvmjcif; jzpfonf/ xdo k aYkd omtcsderf wdik cf ifu u'f[o l nf <u,f0csrf;omolrsm; todkif;t0dkif;wGifom pmwdkufrS ay;ydkYtoHk;jyKEdkifMuonfhtwGuf c&pörwfu'f[o l nf vloal v;yg;wdu Yk rod jzpfcMhJ uonfrmS 1840 ckEpS f txdyifjzpfonf/ t*Fvyd t f Ekynm&Sif 0DvQHt'fvrD S 1842 (od)Yk 1848 ponfjzifo h uú&mZftwdtusrod&aomfvnf; pwifzefw;D cJo h nfu trSef yifjzpfonf/ olvyk cf ahJ omu'frsm;udk ,cktcsdew f iG f vef'ef 0dw&kd , d ESihf tJvb f wf jywdu k w f iG , f aeYjrifawG&Y efxm;&SMd uonf/ 1843 ckEpS w f iG f a*s? pD? a[mufpv f q D o kd nfh tEkynm&Sit f m; q&m[ife&D udv k rf S apcdik ;f csufjzifh tjzLtrJEiS u hf 'fupkd wifvyk af qmifcNhJ yD; a&mifpu kH v kd ufjzifh jznfo h iG ;f cJo h nf/ xdku'fwGif rdom;pkpHknDpGmjzifh c&pörwfnpmpm;aomuf aejcif;ESifh r&Sdqif;&Jom;rsm;tm;ay;urf;aejcif;? az;ulaejcif;wdkYudkyHkaz:jyo a&;cs,fxm;NyD;? pmwrf;udkvnf; ,aeYacwfjrifawGYae&onfhtwdkif; "Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year" [ka&;xd;k xm;onf/ - 86 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif apmifa&wpfaxmifxw k af 0cJ&h mrS vuf&jdS ywdu k w f iG f 15 apmifukd txift&Sm;jrifawGEY ikd Nf yD;? xdk 15 apmiftm; vef'ef 0dw&kd , d ESihf tJvb f wf jywdu k w f iG jf yoxm;vQuf&ydS gonf/ vuf&SdumvwGifum; c&pörwfumva&mufaomtcgwGif c&pörwfu'frsm;udk r&dk;Edkifatmifqef;qef;jym;jym;jzifh tvG,fwpful &&SEd ikd o f vd?k a0rQay;urf;jcif;jzifv h nf; arwåmudjk yoEdik yf gonf/ tcsdKu Y c&pörwfnaecif;wGiaf y;avh&MdS uNyD;? tcsdKu Y c&pörwfaeYwiG jf yKavh&MdS uo vd?k tcsdKUaomc&pörwfu'frsm;onf oHpOfvv S jS zifv h ufc&H &So d rl sm;pdwu f kd MunfE;l apEdik o f nfh tHMh ozG,&f mu'frsm;udyk ifay;ydt Yk oH;k jyKaeMuonf/

pefwmuavmhpf a[mvefro S al wmfpOfeaD umvyfpo f nf aemiftcgü tar&duef\ pefwmuavhmpftjzpfodkYajymif;vJoGm;cJhonf/ pdefYeDaumvyfpfonf av;&mpkEpS t f wGi;f rD&mrS bD;a&Smyh w f pfyg;jzpfonf/ &d;k &mtpOftvmt& olYb0toufwmwpfavQmufvHk;wGif olydkifqdkifaom aiGaMu;rsm;udk olwpfyg;tm;ay;urf;jcif;? vdak eolrsm;twGurf pjcif;wdjYk yK&mwGif vlol av;yg;rod&&dS avatmifay;urf;vSL'gef;avh&o dS nf/ olonf teDa&mif bD;a&Smhyf0wfvHkudk0wfqifNyD; aooyfvSyaomtjzLa&mif odk;arG;udk cs,foqifjref;xm;onfah emufwiG f 'DZifbm ig;&ufaeYwiG f jrif;jzLudpk ;D eif; vQufomG ;vmavh&o dS nf/ xdkodkYoGm;vm&mwGif vdr®ma&;jcm;&Sdaomuav;rsm;twGuf - 87-

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; vufaqmifvSvStopfrsm;udk ay;a0avh&SdNyD;? vdr®ma&;jcm;r&Sdaom uav;rsm;twGuf oifah vQmfaomwpfygwf&pfvufaqmifrsm;udk ay;avh &Sdonf/ c&pörwfumvonf uav;rsm;twGuftrSefyifvGrf;armzG,f? ESpfNcdKuf MunfEl;aponfhumvwpfckvnf;jzpfonf/ c&pörwfnaewGif pefwmuavmhpfonf vufaqmifypönf;rsm;jzifhqif;vmavh&Sdonf[k ajrmfvifMh uonf/ c&pörwfrwdkifrSDnaecif;onfrdom;pkrsm;tm;vHk;twlwuG yg0ifqifEUJG avh&MdS uNyD;? uav;rsm;onfvnf; olw\ Ykd ajctdw&f n S rf sm;udk tdyf,mr0ifcifcsdwfqGJavhjyKNyD;rS tdyf,m0ifavh&Sdonf? taMumif;rSm pefwmuavhmpfonf olwt Ykd wGuf olw\ Ykd ajctdw&f n S rf sm;udx k o kd Ykd csdwq f JG xm;ygu pefwmuavmhprf v S mNyD; olwt Ykd wGuf c&pörwftBudK vufaqmif ypön;f rsm;udv k ma&mufjznfq h nf;ay;rnf[x k ifrw S f ,HMk unfMuonf/ tjcm;aom'@m&Dpum;t& pefwmuavhmpfonf oriftBuD; pm;rsm;jzifw h yfqifxm;aompGwzf m;udpk ;D vQuf olEiS t hf wlem;,Ofaeonfh ]Jingle bells, jingle bells}aw;oHviG v f iG jf zifh vSnv hf n S o f mG ;vmaeonf[k qdMk uonf/ olonfveG pf mG oem;Muifemwwfojl zpfNyD; r&Sq d if;&Jom;rsm;\ tdro f o Ykd mG ; a&mufNyD; aiGaMu;rsm;udck say;jcif;jzifu h n l rD pjcif;trIujkd yKavh &So d nf/ wpfzeftjcm;aom'@m&Dpum;rsm;vnf;&Sad o;onfrmS olMunfh &Iae&aomtoif;awmfwiG f vGepf mG qif;&Jonfh zcifwpfO;D &SNd yD; olürdwpfq;kd orD;ysdKoH;k OD;&So d nf/ tdraf xmif&ufom;us&eftcsdeaf &mufvmaomfvnf; &d;k &m"avht& 'd&k w D ifawmif;&efaiGr&So d jzifh orD;rsm;onf tdraf xmif&uf om;rusEdik b f &J adS eMuonf/ xdo k jYdk zifo h rD;rsm;onf tysdK[dik ;f rsm;tjzpf odaYk &muf rSe;f roda&muf&awmhrnft h ajctaersm;rSm qif;&JEjkH cmvSaom - 88 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif zcif\qif;&JraI Mumifjh zpfaeavonf/ xdrk o d m;pktajctaeudk bD;a&Smyh ef aD umvyfpo f nf xdrk o d m;pk twGuf vdt k yfru I jkd znfq h nf;ay;jcifonf/xdaYk Mumifh c&pörwfnaecif;wGif rnforl rS odatmif xdq k if;&Jom;tdro f o Ykd mG ;a&mufvm tdwaf o;uav; oH;k ckvyk Nf yD; xdt k w d af o;uav;oH;k cktwGi;f üa&Trsm;udx k nfNh yD; rD;vif;zdk teD;üoGm;a&mufxm;ay;cJo h nf/ c&pörwfeeH ufapmapmwGif zcifBuD;onf xdak &Txyk rf sm;udak wGU&Scd NhJ yD; bk&m;ociftm;vGepf mG aus;Zl;wifvQuf rMumrD tcsdew f t kd wGi;f rSmyif twdik ;f rod0rf;ajrmufaysmf&iT pf mG jzifh orD;rsm;\ tdraf xmifa&;udk zcif0wå&m;ESit hf nD aphpyfaocsmpGmjzifh pDraH qmif&u G f ay;vdu k af wmhonf/ xdo k aYkd omtjyKtrlrsm;onf bD;a&Smyh ef aD umvyfp\ f ppfreS o f nfh u&kPmpdwx f m;ESihf Muifemoem;wwfru I o kd &d v dS mMu&mrS Saint qdak om pum;vH;k udk St.Nichol tjzpfac:qdv k mMuNyD; ,cktcgwGif umv a&TUvQm; onfEiS t hf rQ St.Nichol rS Santa Claus tjzpfov Ykd w l ikd ;f Ekwu f sdK;um toGif ajymif;vmcJjh cif;jzpfonf/

c&pörwfuvJ &f vkd f yXrOD;qH;k aom c&pörwfocD sif;rsm;tm; vufwifbmomjzifh crf;em;pGma&;zGUJ oDqckd MhJ uonfrmS rSww f rf;rsm;t& a&mr umodv k v f yd f toif;awmf\ av;&mpkEpS t f wGi;f omoemhyv JG rf; obifrpS wifco hJ nf[k qdpk rSwjf yKMuonf/ odkYaomfuJvf&dkvfoD;csif;rsm;\ ordkif;aMumif;udk - 89 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; avhvmMunfhvdkufygu omoemyrsm;rS pwifcJhjcif;jzpfonfudk awGU&Sd Mu&onf/ omoemyyGv J rf;obifrsm;wGif *&dvrl sdK; rsm;u a&;pyfou D ;kH MuNyD; a&mrrsm;uwcrf;wem;jzifh tav;xm;oDqckd MhJ uonf/ &mpkEpS f av;&mpkawmtwGi;f ü toif;awmfrsm;wGif uJv&f v kd f qdjk cif;udk omoemyrsm;ESihf qufE, G af eaomaMumifh ydwyf ifwm;jrpfcMhJ u onf/ toif;awmfordik ;f wGif rSwo f m;xdu k o f nfh uJv&f v kd rf mS q,fo h ;kH &mpk tpöprD S pdezYf &efpY pftm;jzifh c&pörwfumvwGif uJv&f v kd t f m; jyefvnftouf oGi;f NyD; pnfum;odu k Nf rdKufpmG usif;ycJo h nf/ c&pörwftBudKnOD;ydik ;f wGif a&mrNrdKY\ta&SUajrmufbuft&yfü&Sdaom *a&UcsD,dkOrifteD;wGif pdezYf &efpY pfrS OD;aqmifjyKvkycf o hJ nf/ xdu k v J &f v kd f oDcsif;wGif aumif;uif wrefrsm;rS od;k xde;f rsm;xH ay:vmaomtcsdew f iG f usL;{aomt&mudk z&du k , f mrS a&;zGUJ ay;cJNh yD;? xdo k cD sif;onf uJv&f v kd o f cD sif;wGif yXr OD;qH;k aom uJv&f v kd "f r®aw;tjzpfawGU&Scd MhJ uonf/ odaYk omfuv J &f v kd u f sL;{jcif;udk y&dw k pfpwifrh sm;vufxuf 16 &mpkwiG u f s,fjyefpY mG jzifo h &d v dS mMuNyD; yl&w D efrsm;u uJv&f v kd o f nf c&pörwf tpdwt f ydik ;f wpfct k jzpf xnfo h iG ;f toH;k jyKvmcJMh ujcif;jzpfonf/ t*Fvyd f ppfyu JG mvaemufyikd ;f wGif uJv&f v kd u f sL;{jcif;onf arS;rSed o f mG ;cJ&h jyefonf/ odaYk omfvnf; 'The First Nowell' paomoDcsif;rsm;udk t*Fvefw\ Ykd ueOD; usL;{rIrsm;wGif jrifawGUEdik cf iG &hf cJMh uonf/ acwftajctaexdo k Ykd qd;k ,kwf oGm;aomfvnf; uJv&f u kd sL;{jcif; tavhtxonf aysmufu, G rf oGm;cJyh g/ aemufyikd ;f wGif c&pörwfuv J &f v kd t f m; t*Fvef? jyifopf? *smreDponfjzifh jyefvnftoH;k jyKvmcJMh uNyD; ,cktcsdet f cgwGif uJv&f v kd o f u D sL;jcif;tm; toif ; awmf r sm;\ tpD t pOf t & &uf t oD ; oD ; owf r S w f vQuf c&pörwfa&mufavwdik ;f oDusL;aeMujcif;jzpfonf/ odaYk omf vuf&u dS sL;{ - 90 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif aeMuaom uJv&f v kd o f cD sif;rsm;onf 0dw&kd , D bk&ifrBuD; (1837-1901) vufxufrmS a&;pyfou D ;kH cJah om "r®aw;rsm;yifjzpfonf/

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm;

rdcifrsm;aeY ,aeYrsufarSmufacwfwiG u f rÇmESit hf 0Sr;f wpfav;wpfpm;jzihf usif;yjyKvkyaf vh&adS om rdcifrsm;aeYonf bmoma&;ordik ;f aMumif;wGi4f if; bmoma&;oGeo f ifcsufrsm;wGi4f if; tajcjyKtpwnfcjhJ cif;r[kwMf uyg/ rdcifrsm;tm; av;pm;orIjyKvQuf *kPjf yK&efom;orD;wdpYk w d t f wGi;f 0,f epf½idI ;f pGmtjrpfw, G af eaomfvnf; taumiftxnftaejzifh ordik ;f wGif r&SdcJhyg/ odkYaomfvnf; rdciftwGufb0udkESpfjrKyfyHkatmepfjrKyfNyD;? rdciftm;tav;ay;onfh orD;vdr®m wpfOD;onf rdcifr&Sdawmhonfh aemufwiG f rdciftm;av;pm; cspfjrwf Ed;k aMumif; oufaojyK&ef tmoDo jyif;jyaompdwfrS urÇmoHk;jyu©'defwGif ae&mwpfcktajctjrpfwnf&ef tpysdK;cJjh cif;jzpfonf/

rdcifrsm;aeYordik ;f aMumif; ueOD;toif;awmfwGif bmoma&;wGifpwifNyD; rdcifrsm;udk trSw&f *kPjf yKjcif;rsm;&Scd o hJ nf[k qdMk uaomfvnf; trsm;pkrS tar&duef ausmif;q&mwpfO;D jzpfonfh tEé*smApfrS arv 'kw, d tygwfwiG f rdcifrsm; aeYukd w&m;0iftodtrSwjf yK&ef aphaqmftpjyKcJo h nf[v k ufc, H MkH unf xm;Muonf/ vlwikd ;f \b0wGif vH;k 0rarhEikd af om&ufrsm;&SMd uygonf/ tcsdKu Y MunfE;l p&mrsm;jzifjh ynfEh u S af eonfh aeYwpfaeYjzpfaumif;jzpfrnf? tcsdKu Y twd'u k j© zifjh ynfEh u S af eonfh aeYwpfaeYjzpfaumif;jzpfrnf ponfjzifo h m uGmjcm;aeygvdrrhf nf/ xdak eY&ufwo Ykd nf arwåmw&m;ESihf aus;Zl;w&m;udk - 91 -

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif t&if;cHjzpfwnfvmNyD; pHjyKxdu k af omolrsm;xJrS rdcifwo Ykd nf &ifqikd Bf uHK awGU&onfh tcuftcJtwm;tqD;rsm;Mum;xJrS rdcifw\ Ykd 0wå&m;ESihf tnD om;orD;rsm;tay:BuD;rm;aomarwåmpdwjf zifh ay;qyfcMhJ uonf/ tEé*smApfonf 1864 ckEpS w f iG af rG;zGm;cJNh yD;? arG;csif;nDtpfrESpf a,mufwGif orD;OD;vnf;jzpfonf/ orD;rsm;tay:wGif vQpfvQL ½Iwwfaom zcifBuD;aMumifh olronfrcd ifEiS o hf mí&if;ES;D cGi&hf cJo h nf/ cufcJ onft h ajctaewGif rdcifEiS hf tdru f ykd pfíta0;odYk xGurf oGm;Edik af tmif olt Y wGurf cd iftay:wGif pmemoem;rdonf/ odaYk omfxo kd aYkd omtajctae wGif olt Y ylr;D udk rdcifjzpforl od&adS pbJEiS hf Budwrf w dS cf pH m;um twef;ynmudk avhvmqnf;jcif;jzifh tqH;k wGif q&mjpzfoiefwef;udak tmifjrifco hJ nf/ q&mjzpfoifwef;atmifjrifNyD;aemuf ae&yfXmaeodjYk yefvmí XmaewGif ausmif;q&mrtjzpfvyk u f ikd cf o hJ nf/ tEé*smApftaMumif;udk tao;pdwu f REkyf w f rYkd odEikd af omfvnf;? olrb0wGif &ke;f uefae&jcif;? rdciftay:xm;&So d nfh pmempdwaf Mumifh tdraf xmifa&;udyk if OD;pm;ay;jcif;iSg awG;awm&eftcsderf ay;Edik cf o hJ jl zpf aMumif; tpOftvmrsm;t&od&onf/ xdrk Qru olb Y 0wGif tdraf xmifjyK jcif;r&Sb d J aemufq;kH xGuo f uftxd tysdKBuD;b0jzifh t&k;d xkwaf wmhrnf[k cdik rf monfo h EéXd mefuv kd nf; csrSwcf o hJ nf/ touf 38 ESpo f aYkd &mufaomtcgwGif olzY cifq;kH yg;oGm;cJo h nf/ 1902 ckEpS w f iG f zcifq;kH yg;oGm;NyD;aemuf tEé*smApfwo Ykd nf t&yfwpfyg;odYk ajymif;a&GUcJMh u&NyD;? arv? 9 &uf? 1905 ckEpS w f iG f rdcifBuD;qH;k yg;oGm;cJo h nfh twGuo f t Yl wGuf aomuylaqG;jcif;rsm;ESit hf wl ajzrqnfEikd f jzpfco hJ nf/ rdcifBuD;twGuf taumif;qH;k auR;arG;? axmufrum orD;0wå&m;ausyGef cJ h a omf v nf ; qE´ & S d o avmuf rd c if t ay:wG i f

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; aumif;pGmwm0efausyGecf ahJ omorD;r[kwcf jhJ cif;rsm;twGuf ,lusHK;r&jzpf cJo h nf/ tEé*smApfonf &ufowåygwfaygif;rsm;pGm rdcifq;kH yg;rItwGuf ,lusHK;r& wpfu, kd w f nf;aexdik cf o hJ nf/ rdru d , dk u f rkd rd v d nf; rajzodyEhf ikd ?f tjypfwifcpH m;rIrsm;ESit hf wl txD;usefpmG aexdik cf o hJ nf/ jyefjzpfrvmEdik f awmhaomfvnf; rdcifBuD;ESit hf wl ukeq f ;kH cJah omaeY&ufrsm;udk jyefvnf trSw&f atmufarhaecJo h nf/ aeYu&kd ufpm;? &ufuv kd pm;jzpfvmonfw h ikd ?f olt Y aejzifh cHpm;ae &NrJjzpfonf/ rdcifBuD;qH;k yg;oGm;onfah emuf ESpEf pS af jrmufaomtcgwGif tEé*smApfpw d w f iG f tawG;wpfc&k &Sv d mcJo h nf/ 1907 ckEpS ?f ar? 'kw, d ygwf onfrcd ifBuD;qH;k yg;jcif;twGuf ESpEf pS jf ynfjh zpfaeonf/ xdt Yk wGuf taygif; toif;rsm;udk olpY w d u f ;l udrk Qa0jcif;jzifh ]rdcifrsm;aeY} udt k pjyK&mrS ESppf Of wpfurÇmvH;k rdcifrsm;ud*k P k jf yK&maeYpwifco hJ nf/ taygif;toif;rsm;uvnf; olq Y E´uo kd abmwlvufcMH uNyD;? twlwuGy;l aygif;aqmuf&u G jf cif;jzifh taumiftxnfaz:Mu&ef qH;k jzwf oabmwlcMhJ uonf/ xdpk w d u f ;l tm; zcifrsm;ESihf uav;? vlBuD;rsm;yg rusef ESpaf xmif;tm;&0rf;ajrmufcMhJ u&onf/ xdkYaemuftEé*smApfonf aiGaMu;tm;jzifh ulnDay;rnf[k qdck ahJ om rdwaf qGuek o f nf *Ref0PÖru d mú tm; oG;a&mufumawGUqHck o hJ nf/ xdEk pS w f iG f rdcifjzpfol tESpEf pS q f ,fv;kH vH;k oifMum;ay;cJah om rufo'pf toif;awmf&Sd uav;Oyk'fpmajzXmeodkY olYpdwfultm; a&;om;ay;ydkY cJo h nf/ ]rdcifjzpfot l m; *kPjf yKjcif;oufoufomr[kw?f rdcifrsm;tm; *kPfjyK&mvnf;rnfygonf} [laompum;csyfudkvnf; xnfhoGif;ay;ydkY cJo h nf/

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif

ay;pmtm;jzifOh yk'pf majzXmerSvnf; vGepf mG ESpaf xmif;tm;& jzpfum vufccH NhJ yD;? 1908 ckEpS ?f ar? 'kw, d tygwfwiG f rdcifrsm;aeYtjzpf uav;aygif; 400 jzifh rdcifrsm;tm; atmifjrifpGm*kPfjyKcJhMuonf/ xdak eYwiG f oif;tkyq f &mrS vnf; &Siaf ,m[ef? 19;26-27 udt k ajcjyKum rdcifrsm;taMumif;udk a[majymcJo h nf/ 0wfjyKud;k uG,jf cif;NyD;qH;k aom tcgwGif tEéonf toif;awmf&Sdrdcifrsm;tm;vufaqmifrsm;udk uav;rsm;ESifhtwlay;um olYrdcifvGefpGmESpfoufaom aZmfrTm;yef;udk ay;cJo h nf/ xd"k avhonf ,aeYwikd af tmif rdcifrsm;aeYwiG f aZmfrmT ;yef;u oufaojyKaeygonf/ aZmfrmT ;yef;onf ndK;EGr;f oGm;onfw h ikd f yHrk ysufvyS aejcif;u t&G,rf nfoyYkd ifajymif;ajymif; om;orD;rsm;twGuf wnfMunfwnfNrJjcif; &Sad eaomrdcifarwåmudu k , kd pf m;jyKjcif;toGiu f akd z:usL;cJo h nf/ arv? 'kwd,tygwfudk rdcifrsm;aeYtjzpf*kPfjyKjcif;wGif atmifjrifpmG jyKvkycf o hJ nfw h ikd ?f tEéonf xdrk QESirhf auseyfEikd cf ?hJ rdcifrsm; aeYukd toif;awmfwiG o f mru wurÇmvH;k wGif &Sad eapcsifonf? jyKvkyf usif;yapjcifonf/ xdt Yk wGuaf Mumifv h nf; rdcifrsm;aeYukd wpfurÇmvH;k twdik ;f twmjzifjh yKvkyEf ikd &f ef ay;pmaygif; 10000 wdwu d kd tar&duefwpfEHS wpfvsm;a&;om;ay;ydcYk o hJ nf/ tEéonf tpdk;&rif;rsm;? vTwfawmftrwfrsm;? owif;ESifh pme,fZif;rS t,f'w D mrsm;? t&yfzufrsm;? vkyif ef;&Sirf sm;? trIawmf aqmif

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; rsm; ponfjzifh twwfEikd q f ;kH vufvrS ;f rDorQ rdcifrsm;aeY jzpfajrmuf a&;udk &ifziG w hf ikd yf ifajymqdak vh&o dS nf/ xdo k jYkd yKcJjh cif;wdo Yk nf tcsnf;ES;D rjzpfc/hJ xdkYtwGufaMumifhvnf; vlwdkif;ESvHk;om;wGif tjrpfpGJoGm;NyD; jzpfonfh twGuf owif;? *sme,f? r*¾Zif;? w&m;yv’i?f a[majymyG?J pifjrifw h w Ykd iG f olu Y , kd pf m; rdcifrsm;aeYukd a&;om;a[majym? az:jyvmcJMh uonf/ rdcifrsm;aeYonf w&m;0ifr[kwo f nfw h ikd af tmif NrdKU&Gm? Zeyk'?f ]]vSn;f aeavSatmif; jrif;apmif;rusef}}usif;ycJMh uonf/ tEé*smApf\ BudK;pm; tm;xkwrf t I & aemufq;kH wGif tar&duefq;D edwv f w G af wmfrS arv? 'kw, d tygwfukd rdcifrsm;aeYtjzpf orwBuD; 0k'&f ;kd 0Dvq f efrS 1914 ckEpS f arv? 8 &ufaeYwiG f arv? 'kw, d ygwfukd rdcifrsm;aeYtjzpf usif;yMu&ef vufrw S af &;xd;k twnfjyKay;cJo h nf/ tar&dueforw\ twnfjyKcsuf &NyD;aemuf Edik if w H ikd ;f tm;vH;k eD;yg;u rdcifrsm;aeYuu kd sif;ycJMh uonf/ vuf&t dS csdew f iG f tar&duefü rdcifrsm;aeYtwGuf oef;aygif; rsm;pGmaomaZmfrmT ;yef;rsm;0,f,jl cif;? rdcifrsm;aeYu'frsm;udk 0,f,jl cif; onf tjcm;aom yGJvrf;obifrsm;xuftjrifhqHk;aompHcsdefwGif&Sdae ygonf/ rdcifrsmaeYukd ordik ;f pmrsufEmS wGif wifw h ,fpmG wifay;cJah om tEéonf rdcifrsm;twGuf vSypGma&;cs,fEikd cf ahJ omfvnf; olb Y 0ae0if&D tcsdeu f m; rvSycJyh g/ pD;yGg;a&;vkyif ef;&Sirf sm;u rdcifrsm;aeYukd taMumif;jyKNyD; tjrwf xkwrf u I kd w&m;&ifqikd Mf u&m? w&m;&H;k wGif ½I;H Edyk cf NhJ yD;? tdr, f myif vufvw G f cJh&onf/ xdkrQru nDrjzpfol t,fpDEdkonf usef;rma&;raumif;&mrS? tjrifuG,fcJh&ojzifh rdcifBuD;r&Sdonfhaemufydkif;wGif rdcifBuD;udk,fpm; nDri,fudk Munfh½IjyKpkjcif;jzifh olYaemufqHk;b0udk ay;qyfjcif;jzifh touf&iS af exdik cf o hJ nf/

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yxrOD;qH;k aomrdcifrsm;aeYusi;f yjcif;


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif nDri,fqHk;yg;oGm;onfhaemufwGif tEéonf vGefpGmtcuf awGU&NyD;? txD;usefqefco hJ nf/ rdrb d 0udk rdrb d mom wpfyg;olukd tylray; vdak omfvnf; tEé\aemufq;kH usef&cdS ahJ om av;ESpw f mumvonf vlx\ k apmifrh Munf½h rI u I kd vufcaH exdik cf &hJ onf/ tEétjzpfuo kd &d o dS mG ;Muaom oli,fcsif;rdwaf qGrsm;u oem; u&kPmoufMuum olaY emufq;kH tcsdeu f mvwGif vdak vao;r&Sad tmif tppt&m&mulnaD xmufrulnaD y;cJMh uonf/ usef;rma&;vnf; odod omomqd;k 0g;vm&mrS tMum;tm&Hu k if;rJv h mNyD;? tjriftm&Hv k nf; jrifonf qd&k rkH QomjzpfvmcJo h nf/ avmuwGif aus;Zl;&Sijf zpfaom rdcifukd wpfurÇm vH;k twlwuG MunfE;l pGmjzif?h *kPjf yKMu&ef? rdcifarwåmw&m;udk az:usL; Edik &f ef taysmfrsm;ud, k al qmifvmay;cJah om tEéonf ud, k u f sdK;riJ&h mS yJ touf&iS af exdik cf NhJ yD; 1948 ckEpS w f iG f touf 84 ESprf Q touf&iS cf &hJ onf/ uREkfyfwdkYjzpfapcsifonfhtwdkif; tEéonf b0ed*Hk;tqHk;owf rvScEhJ ikd &f mS aomfvnf; rdciftwGub f 0udt k epfemcHco hJ ?l wpfurÇmvH;k &Sd rdcifrsm;udk *kPjf yKap&efvrf;zGiphf rG ;f aqmifay;cJah om tEétm; aus;Zl; wif&ayrnf/ xdaYk Mumifh rdcifuakd y;aom bk&m;ocifEiS hf rdcifrsm;aeYukd jzpfay:ap&ef pGr;f aqmifcahJ om tEétm;trSew f u,faus;Zl;wifygu rdcifrsm;\ aus;Zl;w&m;udk pdwt f wGiu f omr[kwf vufawGjY zifh aus;Zl; wifaMumif;jyo&ef wurÇmvH;k utnDtnGwaf xmufcaH eygonf/

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aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm;

rdcifrsm;xHrS tarGtESpf ]]xdt k cg aZaA'J\om;wdt Yk rdonf om;wdEYk iS t hf wl txHawmf odkYcsOf;í jyyf0yfvsuf qkaus;Zl;udkawmif;yefav\/ udk,fawmfu oifonf tb,fqak us;Zl;udk tvd&k o dS enf;[k ar;awmf rlaomf? ud, k af wmf \EdkifiHwGif uRefrü þom;ESpfa,mufwdkYonf vusfmawmfbufü wpfa,muf? vuf0J awmfbufü wpfa,muf xdik &f aomtcGiu hf kd ay;awmf rlyg[k avQmufav\/ a,&Iuvnf;? oifwo Ykd nf tb,foYkd awmif;yef onfudk oifwdkYrodMu/ igaomuf&tHhaomcGufudk aomufjcif;iSm4if;? igcHaom AwÅZd u H ckd jH cif;iSm4if;? oifwo Ykd nf wwfprG ;f Edik o f avm[k ar;awmf rlvQif? tuGßEfyk w f o Ykd nf wwfprG ;f Edik yf g\ [k avQmufMuaomf? ig\cGuu f kd oifwo Ykd nf aomuf&Muvdrrhf nf/ igcHaom AwÅZd u H v kd nf; oifwo Ykd nf cH&Mu vdrrhf nf/ odaYk omfvnf; ig\vufsmbuf? vuf0b J ufrmS xdik &f aom tcGihf udu k m; tMuifow l t Ykd bdYk tvdik gS ighcrnf;awmfonf jyifqif\? xdo k l wkYd tm;om igay;ydik o f nf[k rdeaYf wmfr\ l }}(róJ 20;20-23)/ uREkyf w f Ukd tay:í rdbrsm;oGeo f ifay;aomt&mrsm;udk zwf½I qifjcifygu atmufygtwdik ;f jrifawGU&ygonf/ ìtem*gwfujkd rifEikd w f wf&ef]]vrf;jzwfu;l &mwGif owdrvpfEiS hf rawmf wq ,Ofwu kd rf jI zpfwwfw,fom;}} ìvufawGUususjrifwwf&ef]]opfyifay:wufvUk d us&ifajcaxmufawGvufawG usdK;oGm;Edik w f ,fjzpfNyD;rSvmridjk yeJUaemf}} ìMuD;xGm;&ifu h sifv h m&ef]]tpm;taomufuykd rkH eS pf m;? 'grSm om;ud, k cf E¨m usef;rmoefprG ;f BuD;xGm;vmrSm}}ponfjzif4h if;/ - 98 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif ìbmomw&m;ESihf ygwfoufí ]]t&m&mudk qkawmif;jcif;jzifh ajz&Si;f yg? tqd;k tm;jzifh t½H;I rcHEiS hf taumif;tm;jzifh tEdik , f al emfom;}} ìtcsdeZf ,m;rsm;ü ]]om;'gudk NyD;atmifrvkyx f m;bl;qd&k if? ararom;udk onftwdik ;f vufyu kd Mf unfah erSmaemf}} ìjywfom;pGmoGeo f ifay;jcif;]]yg;pyfyw d Nf yD;? pm;rSmompm;prf;ygom;}} ìrsuf&yd rf sufjcnfjzifo h eG o f ifjcif;]]eifv h ,f*w k u f *sD;udek ifjyefjrifcsifvm;¿}} ìqH;k jzwfrrI sm;twGu]f ]om;pm;&r,ft h &mudk ukeaf tmifrpm;&if xroGm; &bl;}} ìtarGtESpu f o kd ifMum;ay;jcif;]]om;u om;azazESihf odyw f w l myJ}} ì&moDOwktm;oGeo f ifay;jcif;]]om;tcef;u avrIew f ikd ;f 0ifxm;ovdk ½Iyyf G aewmygvm;uG,}f } ìb0taMumif;oGeo f ifay;jcif;]]om;udak rararG;cJw h myJ? ‘onfawmh om;udk ararydik w f maygh}} ponfjzifh tajctaeESihf tcsdet f cgudk vdu k af vQmnDaxGpmG jzifh qH;k roGeo f ifay;aom rdcifrsm;\ apwem? ÓPft&mwdu Yk kd tm;vH;k aom ,HMk unforl sm;jrifawGUodjrifMuayrnf/

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; upm;enf;udo k ifay;aomfvnf;? rdcifonfom ta&;ygaom aMumifjh zpf onf/onft h wGuaf Mumifyh if av,Ofc&D;pOfwikd ;f ü av,Ofarmifrf sm;\ EIwrf x S u G af om pum;trsm; pkrmS ‘]tar? tarhuo kd m;cspfw,f}qdak om pum;yifjzpfonf/rdcifrsm;onf rdom;pkwikd ;f wGif rdru d , kd u f sdK;udrk iJu h u G yf J rdom;pktwGuf ay;qyf&mwGiaf a&SUwef;rS yg0ifaeonf/ xdUk aMumifv h nf; uREkyf w f Ukd zwf½u G cf ahJ om usrf;pmwGif trsm; tm;jzifh tEkwfvu©Pm? taygif;vu©Pmpaom ½IaxmifhpHkrS ajymqdk zwf½u G f aeMuyifjzpfonf/ OD;pGm &Suaf Mumufp&mtjzpf trsdK;orD;wpfO;D onf ol\ &ifaoG;rsm;twGuf aumif;uifEikd if w H iG f vuf0?J vuf,mwGif xdik af pjcif; tvdUk iSgcGiahf wmif;cHjcif;yifjzpfonf/omreftm;jzifh qd&k ygrI xdkrdcifonf c&pfawmfbk&m; rdefUMum;awmfrlaom aumif;uifEdkifiHudk *CeP aojcmpGm odjrifem;vnfEdkifjcif;r&Sd[kjrifrd onf?xdkUtwGuf olr\tjrifwiG f a&mr tifyg,mBuD;tm; arSmufveS í f c&pfawmftyk pf ;kd rnf [k xifrw S af ejcif; jzpfonf/ rdcif&aS vmrd,mukyEf iS hf a,m[efwUkd \ rdcif &SavmrdxrH S oifcef; pm (5) ckukd ußGEyfk w f Ukd avhvmEdik yf gonf/

1/ c&pfawmfxcH sO;f uyfjcif;/

tBu;D rm;qH;k aomrdcifwm0ef/ rdcif\ BuD;av;onfw h m0efwpfcrk mS om;orD;rsm;tm; oifMum; ay;jcif;yifjzpfonf/i,f½, G af ommtcsdet f cgwGif rdbrsm;\ tajymtqd?k tjyKtrlrsm;udk twkjriftwwfoifponfjzifh om;orD;rsm;b0wGGif vGr;f rd;k cJo h nf/xdUk aMumifv h nf; tm;upm;orm;rsm;u uifr&mrsm; a&SU wGif ]tar} qdk aom pum;udo k m ajymqdw k wfMuonf/zcifonf abmvH;k

þae&mwGif om;ESifhrdcifrsm;tMum; qufEG,fvQuf&Sdaom arwåmw&m;taMumif;tm; avhvmaomtcgwGif ,HkMunfolrdom;pk tdraf xmifwikd ;f wGif twk,zl , G &f m 0dnmOfa&; tcsuftvufaumif;ESihf pHjyKp&mtaMumif;t&mrsm;pGmudk ußGEyfk w f Ukd avhvmEdik f onf/ ì c&pfawmfb&k m;tm;ud;k pm;ol/ c&pfawmfonf rnfoUkd aomyk*Kd¾ vfjzpfonfukd aumif;pGm odjrif xm;jcif;jzpfonft h wGuf wdusaom &nfreS ;f csufjzifh txHawmfoUkd a&muf&dS

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif vmjcif;yifjzpfonf/ ESpfaygif;MumvmaomtcgwGif xdkrdciftwGuf aw;oD;csif;rsm;pyfqckd MhJ uonf/i,f½, G pf OfwiG f rdcifjzpf ol\ qkawmif; csufukd uREkyf w f Ukd jyefvnfí &kyv f ;kH az:Edik yf gu rdcif\ qkawmif;jcif;om jzpfonf/zcifjzpfoo l nf um,a&;? 0dnmOfa&;twGuf t"du wm0ef&o dS l jzpfaomfvnf; rdcifonfom twdik ;f tpr&Sd toufwmwGif vGr;f rd;k um tEdik , f cl o hJ nf/ rdcifrsm;onf uREkyf w f Ukd tm; bk&m;xHyg; a&muf&v dS m ap&ef ta&; oGeo f ifay;cJo h nfrmS um,a&;om ru? 0dnmOfa&;twGuyf if tBuHK;0ifco hJ nf/ ì txHawmfoaYkd c:aqmifvmjcif;/ aemufwpfcsufrmS ? om;rsm;udk ajcawmf&if;(odUk ) txHawmf odUk ac:aqmifvmjcif;yifjzpfonf/ taumif;qH;k aom oifcef;pm wpfcrk mS om;orD;rsm;tm; tjrwfq;kH aom bk&m;&wemudk ay;pGr;f jcif;yifjzpfonf/ pOf;pm;Munfyh g olr\ pdwx f m;onf rSeu f efonfjzpfap? rrSeu f efonf jzpfap t"duoifcef;pmrSm olr\om;wdUk onf t½G,af &mufNyD;olrsm; jzpfaeMujcif;yifjzpfonf/f olrjzpfapvdak om tajctaeodUk a&muf&ef twGuf c&pfawmfxyH g;odUk OD;pGm olrb0toufwmudk ,laqmifvmNyD; om;orD;rsm;tm; txHawmfoUkd tygac:aqmifvmEdik jf cif;yifjzpfonf/ or®musrf;pmu uREkyf w f Ukd \vdt k yfrrI sm;twGuaf omf4if;? rdom;pkta&; aomf4if;txHawmf odUk ,laqmif vm&ef rdeUf qdx k m;onfr[kwyf gvm;/ ìc&pfawmf\xm0&tvdak wmf/ ]]ighxo H Ukd vmavm (odUk ) ighxo H Ukd ,laqmifcahJ vm}}qdak ompum;yif jzpfonf/rdcifjzpfox l H uREkyf w f Ukd udk oGeo f ifaomt&mrsm;xJwiG f t"du usaom oGefoifay;jcif;rSm jzpforQ trIt&mtm;vHk;udk c&pfawmf xHyg;odUk ,laqmifvmjcif;yifjzpfonf/ - 101 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm;

2/ c&pfawmfxcH sO;f uyfaompdwof abmxm;/ rdcifrsm;onf om;orD;rsm;ta&;twGuf *&kpu kd jf cif;wdUk onf vGepf mG pdw0f ifpm;p&maumif;vSNyD;? om;orD;rsm;rSvnf; wpfjyef rdbrsm; xHrS qifu h rf;o,faqmifMujcif;jzpfonf/rdbrsm;onf qd;k arG? aumif;arG rsm;udk o,faqmifcyhJ guvnf; om;orD;rsm;onf twkjrif twwfoifMu um xyfwx l yfrQ qifurf;,lomG ;Muavonfom/ xdUk aMumifv h nf; jrefrm pum;yHkwGif ]]om;orD;raumif; rdbacgif;}}[lí4if;? ‘]]trd,kwfu EIwfMurf;? tz,kwfuvufMurf;}} ]BuufrSmt&dk;? vlrSmtrsdK;}}qdkaom pum;rsm;jzpfay:vmjcif;yifjzpfonf/4if;onf &mEIe;f jynfrh eS u f efonf[k qd&k ayrnf taMumif;rSm rdcifjzpfoo l nfom om;orD;rsm;ESihf tcsdejf ynfh ae&avh&NdS yD;? zcifonfum; rdom;pkta&;twGuf tcsdet f enf;i,fom ay;Edik pf rG ;f &Sad vonf/odUk aomf &Savmrdvkd rdcifrsdK;\ pdwo f abmxm;udk owdjyKoifo h nf/ ì'l;axmufcpm;/ HCSB qdkolu ]]&Savmrdonf a,½Ic&pfawmfa&SUawmfwGif 'l;axmufcpm;cJo h nf}}[kqo kd vdk trsm;aom bmomjyefrsm;wGif olronf jyyf0yfudk;uG,fcJhonf[kqdkonf/ KJV wGifvnf; xyfwlxyfrQ jyyf0yf ud;k uG,o f nf[q k o kd nf/ &d;k om;pGmajym&ygrl olr\ vkyaf qmifcsufonf rSm;onf[x k ifjrifrMd uonf? olr\ om;rsm;tm; rnfoUkd c&pfawmftm; OD;xdyx f m;&dak o&rnfukd oifMum;ay;aejcif;yifjzpfonf/ ìjyyf0yfu;kd uG,jf cif;/ txufygjyyf0yfu;kd uG,jf cif;[laom pum;wGif erf;½Iyjf cif; (odUk ) vQmjzifhvsufjcif;[líwdkuf&dkufbmomjyefqdk&ayrnf/ vGefcJhaom - 102 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif ESpfrsm;u? trsdK;orD;i,fwpfOD;tm; xdkuJhodkU jyKrl&efvufawGUjycJh bl;ygonf/ jyyf0yfí vufuekd rf;½Iyjf cif;jyKjcif;u olrtm; tb,frQ cspfcif av;jrwfaMumif;udk vufawGUususjyqdjk cif;yifjzpfonf/ ìxdo k Ukd jyKjcif;onf omrefxufx;l uJjcif;udjk yqdak Mumif; ,aeU tm;vH;k odMuygonf/ odUk wdik af tmif xdo k Ukd aomtaejzifh c&pfawmfukd &dak o av;jrwfjcif;onf uG,af ysmufvrk wwfjzpfaeayNyD? txl;ojzifh ,HMk unf olrsm;tMum;wGiyf if uG,af ysmufvek eD ;D jzpfonf/c&pfawmftm; trSeyf if xdu k o hJ Udk &dak oav;jrwf&ef vdt k yfonf[k oif,MkH unfygovm;¿ ußGEyfk w f Ukd tjcif;jcif;Mum;wGif &Sad eaom &dak oav;jrwfrrI sdK;yif ußGEyfk w f Ukd toufwm wGif xif[yfyg&Jv h m;¿

3/ c&pfawmftm;awmif;qdjk cif;/ tcef;i,f 21 wGif ESv;kH oGi;f qifjcif&ef tcsuftvufrsm;pGmudk jrifawGUEdik yf gonf/ ìrSeaf om&nf&, G cf suf/ þae&mwG i f ,H k M unf o l w d k i f ; tvG e f t zd k ; xd k u f w ef a om oifcef;pm&Sad eygonf/ owdjyK&efrmS ? c&pfawmfb&k m;xHawmfoUkd rSeu f efaom &nf½, G f csuf? rSefuefaompdwfaepdwfxm;jzifh a&muf&Sdvmjcif;yifjzpfonf/ oifbmudt k vd&k ydS goenf;¿[laom c&pfawmf\ tar;pum;udMk um;& jcif;onf tb,frQtHhMobG,fjzpfygoenf;/ avmuDvlom;rsm;onf bk&m;ocifudk ausmcdkif;xGufcGgvmum ]]ighjrif;igqdkif;? ppfudkif; a&mufa&muf? ighavSigxdk; yJcl;a&mufa&muf}} [kqdkaeMuaomfvnf;? bk&m;ocifum; xdo k rYkd [kwyf g/ xm0&bk&m;&Si\ f om;awmf? u,fwif&iS ?f - 103 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; ar&S, d ? tjypftwGu<f uqif;vmolaom a,½Ic&pfawmfonf uREkyf w f Ukd vdt k yfrt I wGuf tb,frQ *&kpw kd af wmfro l nfukd jrifawGUEdik o f nf/xdx k uf omvGeaf om tHMh obG,&f mtvif;onf ußGEyfk t f wGuf r&Sad wmh/ ì]bmudt k vd&k o dS enf;}/ txufygqdak ompum;wGif uREkyf w f Ukd \ vdt k yfr?I awmif;qdrk ?I qE´ESifh tjcm;tjcm;aomt&mrsm;vnf;yg0ifygonf/ xdkae&mwGif rdcifjzpfo\ l vdt k ifqE´rsm;udk ajymMum;avQmufxm;&ef c&pfawmfonf trSeyf if oem;u&kPma&SUxm;um rdeUf qdck o hJ nf/ þae&m wGif t"du tcsuftaejzif?h c&pfawmfonf bk&m;Zmwdtm;jzifrh l ar;&eftaMumif; &Sdawmfrrl/okdUwdkifatmifar;awmfrlcJhonf/4if;onf uREkfyfwdkUtm; owday;xm;aom tcsufyifjzpfonf c&pfawmfxaH wmfoUkd a&mufvmaom tcgwdik ;f c&pfawmfonf uREkyf w f Ukd \ pm;? 0wf? aea&; paom ta&;oH;k yg; omrum vlraI &;? pD;yGm;a&; paomt&mrsm;udk pdwEf v S ;kH tuRrf;rJjh zifh aumif;onfjzpfap? qd;k onfjzpfap Mum;avQmuf&ef tvdak wmf&adS ejcif; yifjzpfonf/ ì ]&d;k om;pGmpum;qdyk g}/ rdcifjzpfo&l aS vmrdonf jzpfEikd af jctm;jzifh olr\ om;rsm;\ aemifa&;udk wm0ef,al pvdjk cif;? odUk wnf;r[kwf &d;k om;pGmyif avQmufxm; vdk onfrmS olrESihf olr\cifyeG ;f onf qH;k yg;oGm;onfh aemufwiG f olr\ om;rsm;tm; c&pfawmfbk&m;u wm0ef,lapvdkjcif;wdkUjzpfayrnf/ bk&m;&Sio f nf uREkyf w f Ukd tm;&Siv f if;pGmyif olürDw S , G ?f ud;k pm;&ef tvdak wmf &Sad yonf/ uREfyk b f 0wGif 0rf;enf;p&maumif;aom tcsufrmS c&pfawmf bk&m;xHawmfoUkd wd;k 0ifcsOf;uyfaomtcgwGirf &d;k rom;jzifh oGm;a&mufjcif; rsdK;&Scd o hJ nf/ xdt k &monfum; uREfyk &f iS ;f vif;pGm rdrzd mom rdrjd rifvmrdjcif; - 104 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif yifjzpfonf/xdt k &monfb&k m;&Sit f m; upm;jcif; oufoufomjzpfNyD; xdo k Ukd jyKjcif;onf rdru d , kd u f rkd rd d zH;k uG,jf cif;yifjzpf onf/tjcm;vrf;jzifh ajym&ygu bk&m;xHawmfoUkd &d;k om;pGm csOf;uyf vmaomtcgwGif bk&m;&Sif onf uREkyf t f oufwmwGif wdus&Si;f vif;pGm jzifyh if uREkyf w f Ukd awGU& aom þusrf;csufrS rdcifonf bk&m;ESio hf ifjrwfNyD;? cdv k u HI ;kd pm;aom touf wm&So d nf/

4/ c&pfawmftaMumif;udok xd m;jcif;/ tcef;i,f 22 wGif c&pfawmf\ pum;oHudkMum;aomtcg? rdcifjzpfoo l nf EIwq f w d af eonfuakd wGU&onf/ tb,fah Mumifeh nf;¿ OD;pGm olrqifjcifrdonfrSm olr\ om;wdkUonf c&pfawmfbk&m;ESifhtwl avQmufvrS ;f Edik rf nf? ravQmufvrS ;f Edik rf nfukd pOf;pm;awGa0aejcif;vnf; jzpfaumif;jzpfEikd af yonf/ yxrOD;qHk; olrtaejzifh olrom;rsm;twGuf yv’ifawmf teD;wGif aejcif;onf om;jzpforl sm; b0toufwmü rnfrQ qufuyf &rnf? tzd;k tc rnfrQay;qyf&rnfukd c&pfawmf\ pum;awmfEiS hf twl rsufESmawmfü tajz&Smaejcif;vnf; jzpfEdkifayonf/ xdkpum;awmf Mum;aomcPü olr\ awmif;qdv k ckd suftm; jyefvnf&yk o f rd ;f vdak umif; &kyo f rd ;f vdak yrnf/ ìpum;pjrnfajymjcif;udq k ifjcifrjI yKjcif;/ c&pfawmfb&k m;rdeUf awmfro l nfum; ‘]oifonf tb,ft&mudk awmif;qdo k nfu4kd if;? tb,frQcufco J nfu4kd if;oifrod}[kqakd om tcg wGif rdcifjzpfoo l nf EIwq f w d o f mG ;jcif;jzpfonf/ xdjk rifuiG ;f udk jrifa,mif rdcsdefwGif &mxl;BuD;BuD;? txufwef;usufjzpfaom tvkyftudkifukd - 105 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; om;orD;rsm;twGuf awmif;cHaeaom rdcifwpfOD;tjzpfjrifa,mif rdonfomru? om;orD;rsm;twGuf*kPf,lrqHk;jzpfaeonf/c&pfawmf bk&m;uom;jzpfolrsm;tm;‘rifhwdkUrdcifawmif;wJhae&mtwGufrif;wdkU trSev f ckd sifygovm;¿ qdak omtar;pum;udk Mum;aomcPcsif;wGif a,½I c&pfawmfonf rnfojl zpfonfukd olrawGa0aeaumif;aernfjzpfonf/ ìb0twGu&f yfwnfr/I ESprf sm;pGmu a*guf&u kd jf cif;wGif toufarG;0rf;ausmif;jyKrnf[k pOf;pm;rdygw,f/ a*gufwu H av;udik u f m vSvv S , G v f , G f uav;&du k jf cif;? 0wfaumif;pm;vSrsm;0wfum? ausmhausmhuav;aexdik Nf yD;? jrufcif;jyif uav;rsm;udk jzwfñy§ u f wfí Zdru f srnf[k xifrw S rf mS ;cJo h nf/ avhusifh oifMum;vm&onfESifhtrQ uRefawmfxifxm;ovdkjzpfrvmcJh/ wpfrsdK; awmhrxifygeJU uRefawmfu h kd jyKpkysdK;axmif ay;cJw h hJ a*gufuvyfyikd &f iS u f uRefawmfhtay:rSmrdom;pkvkdygyJ/ odkUwdkifatmif vkyf&if;udkif&if;ESifh xifovdrk vG,u f w l mudk odvm&wJt h wGuf uRefawmf tHMh orSio f uf&wJh txdygyJ/ ìqifjcifrad omt&m/ vlawGb,favmuftxdtHhMordMurnfudktBudrfBudrf pOf;pm; rdonf/c&pfawmfaemufudkvdkufrnf[kpdwfqHk;jzwfum aemufawmfodkU vdu k &f mwGif tqH;k ü xifovdrk [kwrf eS ;f odjrifvmMurnf/ tcsdKu xdo k Ukd qufuyfjcif;onf wpfb0vH;k twGuf r[kwb f J yv’iaf wmfa&SUwGif jyefcs xm;&pfolrsm;vnf;&Sdayrnf/tcsdKuESpfjcif;r*Fvm cH,lcsdeftwGufyif xifjrifrdMuayrnf/tcsdKvnf;toif;awmf\ a0,sm0pörsm;twGuf avmufom owfrSwfaumif;owfrSwfMurnf/ odjrifvmcsdefü vlwdkU tHMh orSio f ufrMd uayrnf/ - 106 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif

5/ c&pfawmfb&k m;vufcaH wmfrjl cif;/ tcef;i,f 23 wGif uREkyf w f Ukd zwfaomtcgwGif ta&;BuD; vSaom aumif;uifEikd if aH wmf\ &kyv f ;kH ay:vmcJo h nf/ rdcifjzpfoo l nf c&pfawmf bk&m;ESihf pum;&nfvnf;rvk? tajctwifvnf;rajymMum;bJ c&pfawmf\ pum;awmfukd t&St d wdik ;f vufccH o hJ nf/ bke;f wefc;kd ESihf jynfph akH wmfral om c&pfawmfb&k m;udk rsufEmS csif;qdik zf ;l awGU&jcif;tcGio hf nf tvGejf rwfvS aom tcGix hf ;l yifjzpfonf/ aZaA'J\ ZeD;? ,mukyEf iS f a,m[efwUkd \ rdcifjzpfol &SavmrdtaMumif;tm; or®musrf;pmwGif tao;pdwaf z:jy rxm;aomfvnf;?c&pfawmf\ yv’ifawmfokdU csOf;uyfcJhonfhenf;wl? aemufq;kH wGiv f nf;ocsØKif;awmfoUkd ta&mufomG ;cJah om &Savmrd tjzpf rSww f rf;wifxm;Muonf/ uRefawmft h wGurf u l m; c&pfawmfb&k m;tm; zl;awGU&jcif;onf c&pfawmfb&k m;tm; u,fwif&iS t f jzpf vufcu H ;kd uG,f oGm;onfukd tusdK;&vm'ftaejzifh jrifawGU&ygonf/ ìom;orD;rsm;twGut f arGppf/ rdcifrsm;wwfprG ;f Edik af omt&monf olr\b0wGif c&pfawmf bk&m;tm; toufocifu,fwif&iS t f jzpfvufc, H MkH unfNyD;? opöm&S&d jdS zifh olr&&Sx d m;aombk&m;&wemtm;om;orD;rsm;udjk yefvnf ay;a0Edik jf cif; onf tBuD;jrwfq;kH aomr[mtrIyifjzpfonf/ ìMoZmtjynf&h adS omarwåm/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf?&Sd&SdorQ aomt&mwdkYxufrdcifonf om;orD;rsm;tay:wGif vGr;f rd;k Edik af om ‘]]vufO;D q&mrnfxu kd pf mG ykAÁ p&d ,rdEiS zhf }}qdo k nfph um;twdik ;f om;orD;rsm; tay:wGif qd;k arG? aumif;arG udk ay;urf;&ef tdraf xmifwiG t f "dutcef;u@wGif &Sad eaom aMumifjh zpf onf/rdcifrnfonf bk&m;&Si\ f txl;cGcJ efUjcif;cHxm;&onfh enf;wl rdcif - 107 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; wdik ;f bk&m;&Six f m;&Sad wmfral om ac:jcif;twGuf jynfph akH p Edik af omolrsm; yifjzpfonf/ ì&Savmrday;aomtarG/ ìrdcifu;kd uG,af om a,½Ic&pfawmfuo kd m;jzpforl sm;qef; odjrif cJhMuonf/ ìb0toufwmtwGuf &nfreS ;f csufukd &SmazGyg/ ìaumif;aom qH;k jzwfcsufuckd sEdik cf MhJ uonf/ ponft h rIrsm; onfrdcifwpfOD;\tHhrcef;pGrf;aqmif&nfudkjrifawGUodjrifEdkifMuygNyD/ xdkenf;wlpGmyif bk&m;ocifay;oem;awmfrlaom aoG;om;&if;jcm awmfpyfrrI sm;tm; aoG;om;jzifo h mawmfpyfjcif;ESiahf useyfjcif;rjyKrlMuyJ 0dnmOfyuwdtm;jzifhvnf; c&pfawmfüawmfpyfjcif;&Sd&ef bk&m;ocif tvdak wmf&ydS gonf/

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zcifrsm;aeY zcifrsm;aeYukd pwifco hJ rl mS rdcifwpfO;D rS tpjyKcJjh cif;jzpfonf/ xdrk cd if\emrnfrmS rpöpq f Edk &kd mprwfoaf 'g'fjzpfonf/ tar&duefEikd if ?H 0g&Siw f ef&?dS pykwu f ef;NrdKw Y iG af exdik Nf yD; rnfozYkd cifrsm;aeYukd atmufyg twdik ;f pwifcyhJ gonf/ zcifrsm;aeYvyk &f jcif;twGuf zcifjzpforl mS 0DvQH*sufqifprwf jzpfNyD;? 1860ckEpS w f iG ?f tar&duefEikd if H awmifyikd ;f ESihf ajrmufyikd ;f wyfrsm; uRefupd Eö iS hf jynfwiG ;f ppfjzpfymG ;pOfu ajrmufyikd ;f wyfwiG f wyfom;tjzpf trIxrf;aeoljzpfonf/ zcifBuD;onf ZeD;onf uG,v f eG o f mG ;NyD;aemuf tdraf xmifrjyKawmhbJ vlrr,fom;orD; (6) a,mufukd BuD;jyif;vmonf txd auR;arG;okwo f ifvrf;jyxde;f ausmif;ay;cJo h nf/ zcifwpfO;D uJo h Ykd pm;0wfaea&;twGuf BudK;pm;&ke;f uef&if;? rdcifwpfO;D uJo h v Ykd nf; teD;uyf vrf;jyoGeo f ifay;onfh zcifvnf;rnfovd?k rdciftjzpfvnf; tEGt H wmcH vQufwnfrh wfay;oljzpfonf/

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avmu"r®wmtwdik ;f zcifBuD;r&Sad wmhonfah emuf zcifjzpfo\ l aus;Zl;w&m;rsm;udk owd&vGr;f qGwaf eumrQjzifh auseyf ESpo f rd rhf u I kd r&&Sd cJ/h 1909 ckEpS f arv? 'kw, d ygwfwiG f rdcifrsm;aeYtjzpf owfrw S *f P k jf yKonf udak wGU&NyD;? rdcifrsm;ESihf oufqikd af om *kPaf us;Zl;udk az:jyonfh w&m;

rdcifjzpfoo l nf olwYkd armifErS ajcmufa,muf vlrr,ft&G,w f iG f avmuBuD;rSxu G o f mG ;csdef zcifonf topfr&SmbJ om;orD;rsm;twGuf jyKpkysdK;axmifay;jcif;jzifh ol\t&G,af umif;csdeu f u kd ek v f eG af pcJo h nf/ xdYk twGuf 1910 ckEpS ?f ZGev f ? 5 &ufaeYonf zcifjzpfo\ l arG;aeYjzpfonfh twGuf tEéuo hJ Ykd yif rdrzd cifuv kd nf; *kPjf yK&efqE´&cdS ahJ omfvnf; oif;tkyf q&mrS xdo k jYkd yKvdyk gu jyifqifjcif;twGuf tcsdev f v kH akH vmufavmuf &So d ifh aMumif;tBuHay;aomtcg ZGefv? wwd,tygwf? we*FaEGaeYudk 0g&Sifwefjynfe,fwGif yXrOD;qHk;aom zcifrsm;aeYtjzpf pwifusif;y cJo h nf/ xdo k pYkd ykwu f ef;NrdK&Y dS toif;awmfrsm;rS zcifrsm;aeY tpjyKjcif; owif;onf wr[kwjf cif; Edik if EH iS t hf 0Sr;f awmrD;yrmjyefEY UHS oGm;cJNh yD;? vlBuD;? vli,f? vl&, G ?f vlvwfra&G;pdwEf v S ;kH wGif tjrpfw, G cf o hJ nf/ xdkYaemuf tar&duefjynfaxmifpk ajrmufydkif;e,frsm;wGif zcifrsm;aeYukd ESppf Ofusif;ycJMh uonf; ,ckumvwGif zcifrsm;aeYjzpfaom ZGev f ? wwd,ygwf? we*FaEGaeYtm; 1972 ckEpS rf pS í Edik if EH iS t hf 0Se;f wpfnD wpfnw G w f nf; zcifrsm;taeYtjzpfowfrw S Nf yD; *kPjf yKcJMh uonf/ xdaYk Mumifh urÇmay:&Sd Edik if aH wmfawmfrsm;rsm;uvnf; zcifrsm;aeYukd xdek nf;wlpmG usif;yvmcJMh uonf/ qdEk &kd monf toufxif&mS ;&Sad eaom zcifrsm;tm;

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zcifrsm;aeYordik ;f aMumif;


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif ESi;f qDteDa&miftm;ay;cJo h nf? xdt k eDa&mifonf toufxif&mS ;&Sad eaom zcifwdkY\ ]&JpGrf;owåd} udkaz:usL;udk,fpm;jyKNyD;? tjzLa&mifESif;qDudk avmuwGif r&Sad wmhonf zcifrsm;tm; ud, k pf m;jyKumtoH;k jyKcJo h nf tjzLa&mifrmS zcifw\ Ykd ]jzLpifjcif;} udu k , kd pf m;jyKjcif;jzpfonf/ vuf&t dS ar&duefjynfaxmifpw k iG f arvqef;ESihf ZGev f qef;aeYrS pwifí rdcifrsm;aeY? zcifrsm;aeYrsm;taMumif;udk aqmfaMomfonft h aejzifh &kyjf rifoMH um;? owif;? *sme,f? pmapmif? r*¾Zif;rsm;wGif ]rdcifrsm;aeY} ]zcifrsm;aeY} a&mufvmawmhrnf arwåmjy? vufaqmifay;zdYk rarhygESi[ hf k ponfjzifah MumfjimMuonf/ zcifrsm;aeYukd 1924 ckEpS w f iG f orw uJvAf ifuv l 'd *f sfuvnf; oabmwlaxmufccH o hJ nf/ ]rdcifrsm;aeY} tjzpfowfrw S *f P k jf yKonfeh nf;wl ]zcifrsm;aeY}udv k nf; usif;y&efoabmwlay;&efwifjyrIu?kd 1966 ckEpS w f iG f orwvif'efbv D ufxufrv S nf;axmufccH NhJ yD;? 1972 ckEpS w f iG f zcifrsm; udt k av;xm;*kPjf yK&ef w&m;0ifjyXmef;ay;cJo h nf/ xdaYk Mumifh zcifrsm;aeYwiG f rnfojYkd yKvkyo f ifyh govJ[k ar;jref; aomtcgwGif ]]zcifrsm;aeYwGif? rdom;pkvdkufbk&m;ausmif;rSm 0wfjyK ud;k uG,Mf u&if;? vufaqmifay;jcif;ESit hf wl zciftm;ajymrnf[k pdwu f ;l xm;aom arwåmpum;udk zGiahf jymjcif;uydí k r*Fvm&Srd mS yg}} [k rpöpaf 'gh'rf S ajzMum;cJo h nf/

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm;

cspof rl sm;aeY ,aeYvil ,frsm;tMum;wGiaf &yef;pm;aeaom Amvifwikd ;f aeY [kac:aom aeY cspforl sm;( arwåm&Si)f aeYonf c&pf,mefbmomw&m;rS pwiftajccHjzpfay:vmaomaeYjzpfonf/ toif;awmfordik ;f rsm;t& xdak eYukd c&pfouú&mZf 498 ckEpS rf S pwifí toif;awmf\aeYjrwfwpfct k jzpf pwifusif;ycJMh uonf/ þuJo h Ykd usif ; y&jcif ; rS m ord k i f ; aemuf c H r sm;&S d c J h o nf / a&mrumod k v f v d y f toif;awmfwiG f cspfjcif;arwåmESihf qufE, G af om olawmfpOfo;kH yg;&So d nf xdo k ;kH yg;wGif Amvifwikd ;f onfvnf;yg0ifygonf/ ,aeYxd xdo k al wmfpOf Amvifwdkif;toufpGefYcJh&aomaeYudk tpGJjyKvQuf Saint Valentine urÇmhcspfolrsm;aeYudk Valentine Day ]]Amvifwdkif;aeY}}[kac:qdkMujcif; jzpfonf/

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif [ktrdefYcsrSwfcJhonf/ tdrfaxmifonfrsm;onf vlvGwfavmuf trI rxrf;aqmifEdkif[kppfwrf;rsm;t& Oya'udkxkwfjyefcJhNyD;? tjcm; wpfzufrmS vnf; touf 14 ESp&f adS om trsdK;om;wdik ;f ppfrrI xrf;rae& trdex Yf w k jf yefco hJ nf/ xdkYtwGuf ppfonfwdkif; cspfaomolESifh auGuGif;Mu&onf/ xdo k aYkd omtjzpftysufuMkd um;od? awGjY rifae&aom tcg Amvifwikd ;f [k trnf&adS om bke;f awmfBuD;wpfyg;onf ppfonfrsm;tm; oem;u&kPm oufum rdrd\toufudkriJhuGufyJ toif;awmfwGif;ü wdwfwqdwf vufxyfxrd ;f jrm;jcif;jyKay;avh&o dS nf/ xdkowif;aygufMum;oGm;aomtcgwGif a&mrwdkYtmPm&Sif uavm'd,yfprf S a&mrOya'udck sdK;azgufonf[q k u kd m a&mrwd\ Yk tcspf ewfb&k m;[ktrnf&aom *sdKEdek wfuykd al Zmfaomtm;jzifh c&pfouú&mZf 307 ckEpS ?f azaz:0g&D 14 &ufaeYwiG f uGyrf sufco hJ nf/ xdt Yk wGuf ordik ;f rSww f rf;rsm;t& c&pfouú&mZf 496 ckEpS rf S pwifum xdak eYuo kd al wmfpOfAmvifwikd ;f aeYtjzpf w&m;0if jyu©'ed w f iG f xnfo h iG ;f um a&mrumodv k v f yd t f oif;awmfwiG f usif;ycJMh uaomfvnf; 1969 ckEpS w f iG f yxryk'&f [ef;rif; a*vmqD;,yfprf S jyu©'ed w f iG x f o hJ iG ;f cJah om xdak eYukd qXryk'&f [ef;rif; aygvfryS ,fzsufco hJ nf/ vlrsm;pGmu Valentine's Day aeYut kd rsdK;rsdK;usif;yMuaomfvnf; ppfreS af om cspforl sm;aeYonf rdr\ d toufurkd iJu h u G yf J wpfyg;oltwGuf &yfwnfomG ;aom olawmfpOfAmvifwikd ;f onf a&mrwd\ Yk xH;k wrf;pOfvm twdik ;f toufay;qyfco hJ nf/ xdt Yk wGuaf Mumifv h nf; axmifwiG ;f ay;pm rsm;wGif rdrad &;om;vdak omt&mrsm;udk a&;om;NyD;aemuf From Your Valentine [k vufrw S af &; xd;k avh&MdS uonfrmS ,aeYwikd jf zpfonf/

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; tar&duef? t*FvefEikd if rH sm;wGif cspforl sm;aeYwiG f u'frsdK;pHu k kd a&G;cs,fay;ydMYk uonf/ tcsdKaY omtaemufEikd if rH sm;jzpfMuonfh 'de;f rwf? aemfa0 wdw Yk iG Ef iS ;f qD;yef;rsm;udak y;avh&MdS uNyD;? tjcm;tjcm;aomwdik ;f Edik if H toD;oD;rsm;wGiv f nf; tvm;wlcspfjcif;arwåmudak z:usL;jyoMuonf/ trsm;odaomcspfolrsm;aeY\vufaqmifonf cspfolrsm;qdkif&mu'f? yef;ESihf acsmuvufwjYkd zpfMuonf/

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,k'oefaeY q&m,k'oef omoemjyK &ef jrefrmjynfoYkd pwifa&muf&dS cJo h nfh 1813 ckEpS ?f Zlvikd f 13 &ufaeYukd tpGjJ yKvsuf ESppf Of Zl vdik v f odaYk &mufwikd ;f ,k'oefaeYuu kd sif;yMuonf/ rufqmcsL;qufjynfe,f? armfwifNrdKUuav;&Sd tdrw f pftrd w f iG f xdNk rdKU&Sd ,kMH unforl sm; pka0;avh&MdS uNyD; xdt k rd üf jrifawGU&rnfh t&m wpfck rSm atmufygpmom;rsm; xGi;f xkxm;onfh ausmufjym;wpfcsyf aywnf;/ ]]owd&vsuf}} odum© awmf&q&m t'dekf &D rf*syfqif arG;ouú&mZf - 9 Mo*kwf 1788 tdraf wmfjyefaeU - 12 {NyDv 1850 jrKyfEo HS N*ØK[f - ork'&´ ma&jyif jrefrmvlrsdK;wdUk \ toufwmudk ajymif;vJapcJjh cif;ESihf jrefrm or®musrf;pmonf olUtm;trSw&f aprnfh ausmufwikd jf zpfNyD; txuf aumif;uifü ol\rSww f rf; &Sad yonf/

,k'oefordik ;f aMumif; 1788 ckEpS ?f Mo*kwv f (9)&ufaeUwGiu f eG *f &ufa*;&Si;f rS "r®q&m wpfOD;wGif ]t'dkeD&rf*syfqif}[laom om;&wemudkxGef;um;onf/ xdkuav;i,f (3)ESpft&G,fuyif tHhMozG,f&m xl;jcm;rIrsm;udkpwif - 115 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; awGU&SdcJh&ygonf/ ol\zcif c&D;xGufaepOfumvrsm;ü rdcifjzpfolrS om;i,fav;udk pmzwfwwfatmif oifMum;ay;xm;NyD; ol\zcifjyef a&muf&v dS maomtcg or®musrf;pm tcef;BuD;wpfcef;vH;k udk om;i,fu zwfjyEkid af yonf/ olwUkd rdom;pkonf armfwifNrdKUü (4)ESpcf JG aexdik cf MhJ uNyD; yvdik ;f armuft&yfodkU ajymif;a&TUcJhMu\/ xdkt&yfü q&m,k'oefonf rdrd oli,fcsif;uav;rsm;ESihf upm;Mu&mü toif;awmfvyk w f rf; upm;cJMh uNyD; olurl oif;tkyq f &mtjzpf upm;cJMh uay\/ oli,fpOfu tESpo f ufq;kH aom oDcsif;rSm]]oGm;í ig\{0Ha*vd w&m;udk a[majymavmh/ ocifb&k m;rdeUf awmfr\ l }} [laom "r®ocD sif; jzpfay\/,cktcsdeüf ba&mif;wuúov kd [ f k ac:aom a&mh';D tkid , f mvef aumvdyw f iG f (1804)ckEpS rf S pwifíynmoifMum;&m tNrJwap olwyg; xuf omíBudK;pm;cJah omaMumifh wpfcgrQ pmar;yGJ ruscJah y/ (1807)ckEpS f wGif wuúov kd b f UJG udk &&Scd NhJ yD; xkEd pS üf yif yvdik ;f armuft&yfü tvGwyf nm oifausmif;udk zGiv hf pS í f rdru d , kd w f ikd f oifMum;ykUd cs cJo h nf/ xdUk jyif t*Fvyd ?f o'´gESio hf csFmvufppJG mtkyf (2)tkyu f kd a&;om;jyKpk yHEk ydS x f w k af 0Edik cf ahJ y\/ BuD;rm;aom &nfreS ;f csufxm;cJah omol jzpfonft h avsmuf q&m,k'oef\ i,fpOfb0 arQmfvifch sufrsm;onf wpfcsdeEf iS w hf pfcsdef rwlyaJ jymif;vJíom aeavonf/ q&m,k'oefonf a&ajr&yfjcm; omoemjyK&eftwGuf touf (21)ESpt f &G,w f iG f pwif pOf;pm;cJo h nf/ tef'Akd mausmif;ü "r®ynmoifMum; aepOf tdE, d´ jynf&dS NAdwo d Qta&SUtdE, d´ ukrP Ü v D yk if ef;wGif csufyvifwpfO;D taejzifh oGm;a&mufwm0efxrf;aqmifcahJ oma'gufwm uavmuf 'D;,yf (pf)bkcsfref\ t*Fvefjynfb&pfpwdv k t f oif;awmfü a[mcJah om w&m; - 116 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif a[m csufukd yHEk ydS x f m;aompm&Gurf mS q&m,k'oefxH rarQmfvifb h J a&muf &Scd o hJ nf/ xdw k &m;a[mcsuf pm&Gurf mS ]ta&SUjynfrMS u,f}[k trnf&NyD; ta&SUEkdifiHrsm;ü bk&m;&SifrnfodkUaom tHhzG,ftrIrsm;jyKaeaMumif;? tdE, d´ Ekid if üH {0Ha*vdvyk if ef;rsm; rnfrQatmifjrifvsuf&adS eaMumif;udk az:jyxm;ojzifh zwfvu kd &f aomtcg ol\pdw0f n d mOftxJü rD;tvif; xGe;f awmufouJo h Ukd jzpfcahJ vawmh\/ xd"k r®a'oemudk zwfc&hJ NyD; (6)v tMumwGirf rd o d nfvnf; omoemjyKwpfO;D tjzpf trIawmfaqmifrnf[k qH;k jzwfcsuf csvdu k af wmh\/

q&m,k'oef\r*FvmyGJ omoemjyK&eftwGuf i,fpOfryS if pdwt f m;vGepf mG xufoefaom q&m,k'oefonf 1812 ckEpS ?f azaz:0g&Dv 5 &ufaeUwGif rpöpt f eJ ;f ESihf q&m ,k'oefwUkd bJvzf Ukd 'fNrdKUü pHzk ufcMhJ uNyD;aemufwpfaeU azaz:0g&Dv 6 &ufaeUwGif q&m ,k'oefonf vufwif r*Fvmudk cH,&l &Scd hJ ayonf/

jrefrmjynfodkUa&muf&Sdvmjcif;/

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm;

jrefrmpmaytwGufBudK;pm;tm;xkwfrI &efuek Nf rdKUodaYk &muf&NdS yD; 3 ESpt f MumwGiq f &m,k'oef\ pmay ykid ;f qdik &f m BudK;yrf;rIatmifjrifjcif;wpf&yfrmS jrefrmo'´gpmtkyu f kd a&;om; jyKpkEidk cf jhJ cif;yif jzpfonf/ 1816 ckEpS f Zlvikd v f (30)&ufwiG f jrefrma0pmudk OD;pGmxkwEf ifdk cf o hJ nf/ pD&rJ yf ;l t*Fvyd Ef pS jf cif; wynfah wmfrsm;rS vufaqmif tjzpf ay;ydUk vdu k af om jrefrmyHEk ydS pf ufonfvnf; &efuek o f Ukd a&muf&v dS m cJo h nf/ odum© awmf&q&m *sDtt kd yd cf sfa[mufEiS o hf \ l ZeD;rSm vnf; yHEk ydS f vkyfief;jzifh omoemjyK&eftwGuftar&duefEkdifiHrS jrefrmjynfodkU vmcJMh uayonf/ xdt k csdew f iG f rpöwm½du k pf o f nf ESpjf cif;omoemvkyif ef;ü pdw0f ifpm;rI&v dS mNyD; aiGtm; vltm; yg0ifEikd &f eftwGut f ar&duefjynfoUkd jyefum vSnv hf nfE;dI aqmfvsuf &Sad yonf/ 1816 ckEpS f atmufwb kd mv 15 &ufwiG f q&ma[mufro d m;pk &efuek o f Ukd a&muf&v dS mNyD; yHEk ydS v f yk if ef; udk tpjyKcJ&h m a0pmrsm;udk axmifaygif;rsm;pGm yHEk ydS x f w k af 0Ekid cf o hJ nf/

or®musrf;pmtkyfjyKpkjcif;

olwUkd ESpOf ;D tar&duefrS xGucf mG vmonfrmS 15 v MumcJNh yD; vuf&Sdtaetxm;rSm 0dk;w0g;tdyfrufyrmjzpfaeMuonf/ tdEd´,odkU a&mufNyD;rS arm&doQuRef;odUk a&TUajymif;cJ&h NyD; wpfzef tdE, ´d odUk jyefvmcJh &onf/ xdUk aMumifh bk&m;&Six f rH S vrf;jyñTeMf um;rIukd cH&ygrnf taMumif; ,HkMunfpGm qkawmif;cJhMu&mrS aemufqHk; Zlvdkifv 13 &uf aeUwGif a*smf*sD,m;em;oabFmjzifh jrefrmjynf &efuek Nf rdKUodUk a&muf&dS cJMh u onf/

q&m,k'oef jrefrmjynfa&mufonfEiS hf tygwfwukwf oif,l avhvmqnf;yl;rIrsm;jyKvkyfonfhtm;avQmfpGm xm0&bk&m;\ or®m usrf;pmtm; jrefrmvlrsdK;rsm;vuf0,fydkifqdkifEdkifap&ef tm;xkwfvm cJo h nfrmS touf 56 ESp?f 1834 ckEpS ?f Zefe0g&Dv 31 &ufwiG f or®musrf;pm wpftyk v f ;kH udjk yefqEkd ikd cf NhJ yD; 'l;axmufíaus;Zl; awmfcsD;rGr;f cJo h nf/ 1840 ckEpS ?f atmufwb kd mv 24 &ufwiG f jrefrmor®musrf;pm udk yHEk ydS x f w k af 0&ef pmyHEk ydS w f u kd o f Ukd tyfEEHS idk cf o hJ nf/ 3 &mpkcefUu ]rmwif vlom}onf y½dw k uf pwifrh sm;twGuf or®musrf;pm udk *smrmefbmomjzifh jyefqEkd idk cf o hJ uJo h Ukd ?

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif q&m,k'oefonfvnf; jrefrm wdUk twGuf aqmif&u G Ef idk f cJo h nf/ q&m,k'oef jrefrmjynfoUkd a&muf&í dS omoemjyKaepOf tar&d uef&Sd ,HkMunfoltcsdKUrSm ]q&m,k'oef\ pGefUpm;jcif;onf rdkuf½l;&J qefaom? twif&h rJ o I mjzpfNyD; aus;Zl;rsm;pGm jzpfxeG ;f Ekid rf nfh atmifjrifrI rsm; &&ef taMumif;r&S}d [k txif&MdS uonf/ q&m,k'oefurl ]jrefrmjynfwiG f omoemjyKjcif;udpö rnfrQ atmifjrifoenf;}[k wpfO;D OD;u ar;vsif ]tE´, d jynfwiG f q&maomrwfpf 17-ESpfMumomoemjyK&m b*Fvm;e,fwGif u&pöem;qdkol yxrOD;qHk; c&pf,mefjzpfvmcJo h nf/ ,ckvnf; teEÅwefc;kd &Sio f pömawmf&iS f jrwfpmG bk&m;ocif\ wefc;kd awmf&o dS avmufatmifjrifjzpfxeG ;f rnf}[k xkwaf zmf aMujimavonf/]q&m,k'oef} jrefrmjynfoUkd a&mufNyD; 6 ESpef ;D yg; tMum? touf 31 ESpw f iG f jrefrmvdk pwifa[mMum;Ekifd cf o hJ nf/ xdo k Ukd a[mMum;NyD; aemuf ajymif;vJaomtoufwmrsm; pwifawGUvm&onf/ 1819 ckEpS f ZGev f 27 &ufaeUwGif omoemvkyif ef;\ tOD;oD;jzpfaom ]armifaem}udk ESpjf cif;r*Fvmay;cJ&h ayonf/ rsuf&nfusvsuf BuJjzefcY &hJ m ,ck 0rf;ajrmuf pGm pwif&w d o f rd ;f &ayNyD/ ]q&m,k'oef}onf olppD Of a&;om;vsuf&adS om jrefrmtbd"mef\tzH;k wGiaf tmufygtwdik ;f t"dygÜ ,f &onfh pmom;rsm;udk cJwjH zifh a&;om;cJo h nf/ 0rf;omomjzpfap 0rf;enf;onfjzpfap? usef;rmonfjzpfap zsm;onfjzpfap? rnfonft h cgrQ vufravQmh tyifraygufEikd af om jrefrmjynf\ awmifwef;rsm;ay:wGif BuJí Zdtek af wmifay:wGif &dwrf nf/

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; jrefrmjynfwiG f c&pf,mefomomemhordik ;f udt k pjyKvdu k af om ajymif;vJvmonfo h rl sm;rSm armifaem?armifjym;? armifomvS? armifa&T a*gif;ESihf armiftif;wdUk jzpfMuNyD; tajctae trsdK;rsdK;aMumifh ESyd pf ufjcif; udk cHcMhJ u&onf/ q&m,k'oef touf 40 &Scd hJ avNyD/ vlUb0oufwrf;tv,foUkd a&muf&cdS NhJ yD;jzpf&m ol\toufwmordik ;f udMk unf&h mwGi/f Ä 19ESpw f iG f wuúov kd rf S bGUJ &cJ\ h / Ä 20 ESpw f iG f toufwm ajymif;vJcNhJ yD; Ä 22 ESpw f iG f wkid ;f wyg;ü omoemjyK&ef pdwq f ;kH jzwfco hJ nf/ Ä 24 ESpw f iG f tJe;f ESihf vufxyfcNhJ yD; tdE, d´ odUk c&D;jyK\/ Ä 25 ESpw f iG f &efuek Nf rdKUodUk a&muf&cdS \ hJ / Ä 31 ESpw f iG f tOD;oD;aom ]OD;aem}udk ESpjf cif;r*Fvm ay;cJo h nf/ Ä 35 ESpw f iG f tif;0ü tusOf;uscJo h nf/ Ä 38 ESpw f iG f usdur© üD ]tJe;f } aoqH;k onf/ Ä 39 ESpw f iG f orD;av; ]rm&D,m} aoqH;k onf/ rdr\ d rdom;pk wpfa,mufrQ rusefawmhonft h csdew f iG f &efuek f NrdKU&Sd bk&m;&Siu f kd ,HMk unfvufcaH omjrefrmwdik ;f &if;om; tenf;i,fEiS hf toif;awmfuav;rSm aysmufu, G af wmhrwwf jzpfaeonfukd owdxm; rdavonf/ 1845-46 ckEpS w f iG f q&m,k'oefonf tar&duefoUkd tvnf tywf jyefcNhJ yD; 'kw, d ZeD;onf pdeUf [,fveD muRef;wGif zsm;emíqH;k yg;cJh onf/ q&m,k'oef\ wwd,tdraf xmifzufrmS ]tJrrf vD}jzpfNyD; tar&duef c&D;pOfü zDvm'Jz;D ,m;NrdKUwGif awGUqHck jhJ cif; jzpfonf 1846 ckEpS f Ed0k ifbmv 30 &ufaeUwGif armfvNrdKifoUkd jyefvmcJ&h m 18 vwdik f cGcJ mG cJ&h aom om;

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- 120 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif [ife&DEiS hf tuf'0yfukd jyefvnfí qHak wGUydu k af yGUcJ&h onf/ 1850 ckEpS ?f {NyDv 3 &ufwiG f q&m,k'oefonf usef;rma&; tajctae vGepf mG qd;k 0g;vmojzifjh yifopfoabFm t&pfcw f u kd rf m&D,m jzifh armfvNrdKifrjS yefvnfxu G cf mG vmcJ&h m vdu k v f yH Ukd aqmifMuaom wdik ;f &if; om;wynfah wmfrsm;rSm rsuf&nfrqnfEikd jf zpfcMhJ uonf/ q&m,k'oefonf vGepf mG rusef;rrmjzpfaeaomfvnf; ol\ ZeD;onftm; ]tvkyv f yk &f wm rarmyg? avmuBuD;udv k nf; rNiD;aiGUyg? odUk aomf jyifqif&mtdraf wmfoUkd c&pfawmf jyefac:vsif 0rf;ajrmufpmG vdu k f ygrnf}[k ajymcJ\ h / teD;&Sd q&m&efet D m;vnf; ]oif tem;rSm &So d nfukd 0rf;ajrmufygonf/ uREfyk f pGeUf ypfcaH e&onf[k rxifyg/ uREfyk t f em;rSm c&pfawmf&adS eonfukd pdwcf sygonf}[k wd;k wd;k av; ajymcJ\ h / aemufq;kH rsuf&nfusvsuf&adS om ol\wynft h m; ]omoemvkyif ef;NyD;NyD? uREfyk f oGm;awmhrnf}[kqakd vonf/ 1850 ckEpS f {NyD 12 &uf? aomMumaeUrGe;f vGt J csdew f iG f q&mBuD; ,k'oefonf trIawmfjrwfrS em;cGi&hf um tdraf wmfoYkd jyefomG ;avawmh\/ ol\ ½kyu f vmyfukd jrefrmjynfurf;ESio hf yd rf a0;aom a&ocsØKif;yifv,fü jrKyfvu kd Mf uonf/

q&m,k'oefay;cJhaomtarGtESpfrsm; olonf or®musrf;pmudk tqH;k wdik f jyefqEkd idk cf o hJ nft h jyif tvGef toHk;0ifonfh t*Fvdyf+jrefrm tbd"mefudkvnf; jyKpkEkdifcJhavonf/ tqH;k wdik f rjyKpkEikd cf ahJ om jrefrm+t*Fvyd t f bd"mef jyefqjkd cif;tvkyu f rkd l pdwcf s&aom rdwaf qG rpöwmpwDAifvuf0,f tyfEcHS ahJ vonf/ &efuek üf 10 ESpw f ikd f aexkid í f omoemjyKjcif;?tif;0ü 2 ESp?f - 121 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; armfvNrdKifwGif 23 ESpfMum aexdkifíqif;&Jyifyef;jcif;BuD;pGmjzifh trIawmfudkaqmif&GufcJhNyD;rSaumif;uifEkdifiHodkYoGm;cJhjcif; jzpfonf/ q&mBuD;,k'oef uG,v f eG Nf yD;aemufwiG f c&pf,mefO;D a&rSm & axmifausmf? toif;awmfrSm 63 yg; jzpfvmcJhonf/ ,if;aemuf omoemjyKq&m ryaysmufEidk o f nfh c&pf,meftajccHtw k jf rpfupkd u kd x f al y;cJah vonf/ 1850 jynfEh pS ?f qm&mwd*k gNrdKU omoemjyKtpnf;ta0;BuD;wGif omoemjyKq&mBuD; a'gufwm*spGyu f ]uREfyk t f m; ac:awmfrjl cif;cH&í aumif;uifoUkd a&mufvsif wrefawmfaygvkukd t&if EIwq f ufrnf/ NyD;vsif uREfyk f csufcsif; EIwq f ufcsifaomol aemufwpfO;D rSmq&m,k'oefaywnf;} [k "r®trIawmfaqmifwUkd tm;EI;d aqmftm;ay;cJh avonf/ q&m,k'oeftaMumif;udk zwf&aom e,l;a,mufNrdKUrS olaX; wpfO;D onfvnf; ]bk&m;&Si\ f trIawmfjrwfukd wpfoufv;kH xrf;aqmif ygawmhrnf} [kt"dXmefjyKavonf/ jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; omoemjyKaepOfumv jrefrmtpdk;&ESifh t*FvdyfwdkYtMum; ajyNidrf;rI&&Sda&;twGufvnf; pum;jyeftaejzifh yg0ifvyk af qmifay;&mwGif q&mBuD;tm;? t*Fvyd rf sm;u rufavmufp&m aiGaMu;jzifh odr;f oGi;f aomfvnf; ]]uRefawmfrh mS ydu k q f &H mS zdYk tcsderf &Syd gbl;? jrefrmjynfudkvm&jcif;u c&pfawmfbk&m;&JU u,fcRwfjcif;w&m;udk a[majymzdyYk g}} [kwek jYf yefco hJ nf/ q&monfomoemjyKtaejzifhjrefrmEdkifiHudka&muf&Sdvmaom tcgwGif jrefrmpmudt k ywfwukwaf vhvmoif,Nl yD; jrefrmEdik if t H wGuf tzd;k rjzwfEikd af om t*Fvyd -f jrefrm? jrefrm-t*Fvyd f ponft h bd"gefrsm;ESihf twl ,aeY omoemydkif;qdkif&mrS vufa&G;pif or®musrf;pmpm&if; jyKpk&mwGif 1-10 twGif;odkY q&m,k'oef\bmomjyefqdkrIudk vGefpGm - 122 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif aumif;rGev f aS Mumif;todtrSwjf yKvufcx H m;Muygonf/ taumif;qH;k bmomjyefusrf;pm&if;rsm;wGif Edik if w H umu todtrSwjf yKxm;&aom jrefrmor®musrf;pmonfvnf; wpfct k ygt0if jzpfonf/ q&m,k'oefonf jrefrmEdik if jH ynfo^l jynfom;rsm; c&pfawmf bk&m;udktoufocifu,fwifydkif&Siftjzpfod&SdvmMu&efta&;udk a&S;&IvQuf tcuftcJtwm;tqD;rsm;pGm&Sad omfvnf; OD;vnfrwkeaf om pdwfjzifh ]udk,fusdK;pGefY} touf&SifcJhonfrSm? toufwm\aemufqHk; acgif;cs&efyif ae&mr&Sd yifv,fjyifüomoN8ØK[fcMhJ u&ygonf/ q&m,k'oef omoemjyK &ef jrefrmjynfoYkd pwifa&muf&dS cJo h nfh 1813 ckEpS ?f Zlvikd f 13 &ufaeYukd tpGjJ yKvsuf ESppf Of Zl vdik v f odaYk &mufwikd ;f ,k'oef aeYuu kd sif;yMujcif;jzpfonf/

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aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm;

vli,frsm;aeY vli,fEiS ahf cwfopfurÇm avmuwGi&f ifaoG;wpfO;D arG;zGm;vmonfEiS hf xd&k ifaoG;i,f\ todik ;f t0dik ;f &Sd ,Ofaus;rIEiS hf "avhx;kH wrf;pOfvmrsm;u &ifaoG;i,ftm; tvdv k ykd o kH iG ;f &efwmqlaeNyD;jzpfonf/ &ifaoG;i,fonf BuD;jyif;t&G,f a&mufvmaomtcgwGif xdkygwf0ef;usif? "avhxHk;wrf;rsm;twdkif; tavhtusif&h aeNyD;omjzpfonfomru ud, k w f ikd u f , kd u f svnf;vkyaf qmif aeNyD;jzpfonf/ ,aeYuREkyf w f o Ykd nftzufzufwiG w f ;kd wufjcif;ESit hf wl &Iyaf xG; rIrsm;tMum;wGit f ouf&iS af eMu&jcif;jzpfonf/ qifjcifawG;ac:wwf aomolwrYkd u l m;? twdwt f aMumif;udpk Of;pm;qifjcif&if;? ypöKyÜeu f t kd ajc wnfum? tem*gwfudktoifhtaetxm;jzifh&ifqdkifaeMuonf/ ,aeY vli,ftrsm;pkonf &ky0f w¬Kydik ;f qdik &f mrsm;tMum;wGif epfreG ;f aysmf0ifaeMu onf/ acwfumvonftxl;ojzifh vli,frsm;tay:wGif qd;k usdK;rsm;pGm jzift h usdK;w&m;rsm;pGmudt k wkta,mifjyumqGaJ c:aeonf/ xdt Yk wGuf aMumifv h nf; ,aeYvil ,frsm;onf rl;,pfaq;0g;? t&ufaopm? vk,uf jcif;? vlowfjcif;? rw&m;aomarxket f rI? aoaMumif;BuHpnfjcif; ponf wdjYk zifh b0epfreG ;f aeMu&onf/ xdaYk Mumifh ,aeYacwfonf vli,frsm;tzdYk ud, k u f sifw h &m;? &d;k om;wnfMunfrEI iS hf b0vHNk cHKrIukd tirf;r& azG&mS aeMu onf/ - 124 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif rsufarSmufvil ,fwu Ykd ]]reufjzeftwGuaf jrmfvifch sufr&Sad wmh}} [kEw I u f sdK;uma&&Guaf eMuonf/ uREkyf w f t Ykd eD;wGif ajrmfvifch sufrahJ eaom vli,frsm;pGm&Sad eonf/ xdo k v Ykd il ,frsm;b0wGi&f yI af xG;aeMu&jcif;onf trSww f &m;yifr[kwyf gvm;/ ]]ighb0rSmigomocif}} ]]oabmwdik ;f jyKrlyg}} ]]ud, k v f yk rf u S , kd &f wm}} ]]igESiihf gomEIid ;f p&m}} [laompum;onf ,aeY vli,frsm;tMum; vufo;kH wnfu h m rif;rlaeaompum;rsm; yifjzpfae ygonf/ odaYk omfvnf;,aeYurÇmBuD;\qd;k npfru I jkd rifawGaY om vli,f rsm;pGmvnf;&Sad eygao;onf/ olwo Ykd nfurÇmBuD;twGuf taumif;qH;k ay;qyfjcif;jzifh om,mvSyaomurÇmt h rd Bf uD;udw k nfaqmuf&ef qdik ;f jyif; aeMuygonf/ oifonfvnf;xdo k w l u Ykd o hJ Ykd tcGit hf a&;udo k jd rifwwfygu oifonfavmuBuD;twGuf ay;pGr;f rnft h cef;u@u b,fu@vnf;? b,fvdkenf;rsdK;jzifh oifhurÇmBuD;wdk;wufpnfyifatmifvkyfrvnf;/ rsufarSmufacwfwiG f rnDrQrIrsm; ]ajymrqH;k aygif awmoH;k awmif}jzpfonf/ csrf;omolrsm;onfqxufxrf;ydk;csrf;omvmNyD;? qif;&J olrsm;uvnf; omíqif;&JwGif;eufvmMuonf/ uREkfyfwdkYoGm;vm&m ae&m wdik ;f wGif rw&m;rIrsm;? vdrn f mrIrsm;? rkom;pum;udo k iG o f iG o f ;kH aerIrsm;? rkom; rygvuFmracsmqdu k m bk&m;pum;udk rsufu, G jf yKolrsm;? vbfpm; rIrsm;? &ufpufowfjzwfrrI sm;? BuD;Edik if ,fni§ ;f ponfrsm;udk jrifawGaY e&onf/ tvkyk v f ufrjhJ zpfjcif;onfvnf; 'Da&tvm;wd;k yGm;vm aeonf/ trsdK;orD;ESifh trsdK;om;rsm;tMum;cGJjcm;rIrsm;uvnf; ajymrqH;k Edik af wmh/ uREkyf w f t Ykd oif;awmfrsm;tMum;Munfyh guvnf; *kP d *f etcsif; csif;tMum;roifjh rwfrrI sm;? oHo,xm;rIrsm;? remvdrk ek ;f wD;csif;rsm;?

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; em;vnfrrI &Sjd cif;rsm;uvnf; toif;awmf? *kP d ;f *ersm;tMum;? vkyaf z: aqmifzufrsm;tMum;wGiaf &wGuí f yifr&awmh/ uREkyf w f o Ykd nf qkawmif; Muonf? usrf;pmoifwef;oGm;Muonf? "r®nv D mcHrsm;wufa&mufonf? rGr;f rHoifwef;rsm;vnf;tBudrBf udrw f ufa&mufMuaomfvnf; vufawGY toufwmwGio f r®musrf;pmtajccHaomc&pf,meftoufwm&Sad Mumif; avmuESihf avmuom;rsm;tm;rjyEdik Mf u/ xdt k jzpfq;kd ? pepfq;kd rsm;udk ,aeYvil ,frsm;vufxufwiG cf sdKzY u hJ m tEdik , f El ikd Mf u&ayrnf/ vli,frsm;onf trsdK;ESihf ,Ofaus;rIrsm;aysmufu, G v f ek ;D eD; jzpfaeMuonf/ bk&m;ocifay;xm;aom vlrsdK;ESihf "avhx;kH wrf;pOfrsm;? *Dwrsm;? bmompum;rsm;udyk ifarhaysmufvQuf&MdS uNyD;/ rsdK;&d;k pOfquf bd;k bGm;ESihf trsdK;tEG,u f ykd if arhavsmhaeMuonf/ vli,frsm;onf uREfyk f wd\ Yk r[mtrSm;rsm;tm;jrifwwfMu&efvt kd yfygonf? jrwfE;kd xdu k af om? ,Ofaus;rIEiS hf "avhx;kH wrf;tpOftvmaumif;rsm;vm;vnf; wd;k wuf pnfyifatmifjyKpkysdK;axmifMu&ayrnf/ ],aeYvil ,f reufjzefacgif;aqmif} qdak ompum;yHt k wdik ;f vGrJ mS ; aeaomt&mrsm;udpk pfaq;jcif;jyKNyD; tem*gwfvyS ap&efrmS vli,frsm; twGuyf cH;k ajymif;wm0efjzpfvmygNyD/ ,aeYacwfynmwwfvil ,frsm;onf rSm;,Gi;f aomEdik if aH &;tjrifrsm;aMumifh rSm;,Gi;f aom vrf;ay:wGiaf &muf&dS ukeMf uonf/ ,aeYvil ,frsm;onf xdt k rSm;rsm;udjk rifNyD; jyKjyifjcif;r&Syd gu uREkyf w f t Ykd em*gwfonfrnfoaYkd omenf;ESirhf S om,mvSyaomEdik if aH wmf jzpfvmrnfr[kw/f rsufarSmufacwfwiG rf sufpzD iG Mhf unfygu aps;qdik rf sm;? pwd;k qdik f rsm;? ukepf q kH ikd rf sm; ponfwo Ykd nf r,HMk unforl sm;\ qdik cf ef;? qdik w f ef;rsm; jzpfMuNyD;? toif;awmf&v dS il ,frsm;onf rdrw d \ Ykd a>c;enf;pmjzifh &&Sx d m;

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif aomaiGaMu;rsm;jzifh um&mtdak u? Edu k u f vyf? bD,mqdik ?f rl;,pfaq;qdik f rsm;oGm;a&mufum b0udek pfreG ;f rSe;f rodepfreG ;f aeMuonf/ ]tvky[ f o l rQ*kP&f pdS }G [kavmuDom;rsm;u vufuikd pf u JG m vkyf aqmifMuaomfvnf; ,aeYtoif;awmf&dS vli,frsm;onf? tvkyw f iG o f m BudK;pm;tm;pdu k rf nft h rItpm; ]&d;k om;ae&ifiwfrnf} [k wpfvx JG ifum raumif;rIrsm;üom tm;pdu k af eMuonf/ tvkyt f udik rf &Sb d ?J pm;rnf? aomufrnfqdkaomtoufwmjzifh aexdkifygu rnfodkYaomvlrsdK;BuD;? jrifjh rwfaomol? <u,f0aomoljzpfvmEdik pf &m&Syd grnfenf;/ a&'D,Ekd iS hf &kyjf rifoMH um;? owif;rsm;udMk unfyh guvnf; aq;vGef ía&Smjh zpfomG ;jcif;? ud, k 0f efzsufcsjcif;? ud, k 0f efay:jcif; ponfwo Ykd nf txl;tqef;owif;rsm;r[kwfawmh/ ,aeYxdkodkYaom urÇmBuD;xJwGif bk&m;ocifukd ud;k pm;vQufqufuyftyfEaHS om vli,fq&m0efrsm;? vli,f pD;yGm;a&;orm;rsm;? vli,ftBuHay;yk*¾dKvfrsm;? vli,fusrf;wwfrsm; txl;vdt k yfaeygonf/ pm&dwyå ikd ;f wGif c&pfawmfajcawmf&mwGi&f adS om c&pf,mefvil ,frsm;vdt k yfaeonf/ vli,fwikd ;f onfrrd w d u Ykd b kd &k m;ay;xm;aom? vlrsdK;? Edik if ?H ,Of aus;rIukd cspfjrwfE;kd &ygrnf/ xdo k q Ykd jkd cif;jzifh Edik if aH &;acgif;aqmifjzpf&rnf? awmfveS af &;acgif;aqmifjzpf&rnf? olaX;ol<u,fjzpf&rnf[k rqdv k ykd g/ odaYk omf oifonf ausmif;om;? tdraf xmifonf? tvkyo f rm;? aemufvu kd f i,fom; ponfwjYkd zpfaumif;jzpfaomfvnf; rdr&d o dS nfah e&mwGif bk&m;ay; xm;onfhae&mwdkif;twGuf rsdK;cspfyk*¾dKvfjzpfEdkifcGifh&Sdaeygonf/ ]]Edik if aH wmfu oift h wGub f mvkyaf y;rvJ[k rar;ygESihf xdt k pm; Edik if aH wmf twG u f oif b mvk y f a y;Ed k i f r vJ o mar;yg}}[k John.F.Kennedy \pum;onf vGepf mG twk,pl &maumif;onf/ xdaYk Mumifh rsdK;cspfy*k Kd¾ vf

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; wdik ;f onf rdrd 0ef;usifwiG &f adS eaom rw&m;rIrsm;ESihf qlyrl rI sm;twGuf rnfov Ykd yk af qmif&rnf udo k m tm&Hpk u kd t f av;xm; vkyaf qmifoifh vSonf/ acwftqufqufudkMunfhygu bk&m;toHk;awmfcHrsm;onf vli,frsm;yifjzpfonfuakd wG&Y ygonf/ Lenine onfueG jf rLepfrsm;ESit hf wl raumif;BuH aomtcgwGif ol\qE´rmS &&Smvli,frsm;xHomG ;&efom pum; qdck o hJ nf ]]vli,frsm;xHomG ;yg? AH;k udb k ,fvv kd yk &f rnfuo kd ifjyNyD; vlb,f vdo k wf&rnfuo kd jd rifatmifEikd af pí? Edik if aH wmfb@mudv k nf; wd;k yGm;ap &efjyKyg}} [kqckd o hJ nf/ Adolf Hitler onfvli,frsm;\pdwf0dnmOfudkt&,lEdkifcJhNyD; *smreDEikd if o H pfukd xlaxmifco hJ nf/ Mao Tseton onfvnf; vli,frsm;jzifh w&kwEf ikd if t H m; arSmufveS f cJo h nfom/ c&pfawmfbk&m;onfvnf;ol\omoemawmftwGuf wynfh om0ursm;udak &G;cs,faomtcgwGif trsm;pkrmS i,f&, G af om vlrsm;yif r[kwyf gvm;/ olwo Ykd nf ud, k u f sdK;pGe&Yf ef? qufuyf&ef? vH;k 0aemufawmf vdu k &f efac:jcif;cHcMhJ u&onf/ vli,frsm;onf rdrb d 0udrk rd jd yefMunfjh rif wwfouJo h Ykd c&pf,mefwpfO;D \qufuyftyfErHS u I v kd nf;rjywfMunfjh rif oifo h nf/ Linen, Mao Tsetong,Adolf Hitler wd\ Yk aemufvu kd Mf uaom olrsm;onf olwdkYudk,folwdkY plygpwm;rsm; tjzpfa<u;aMumfcJhMuonf? 0efccH MhJ uonf? vkyaf qmifcMhJ uonf? odaYk omf olwo Ykd nftrSepf ifppf plyg pwm;wef;0ifrsm;r[kwcf MhJ uygonf/ olwo Ykd nf olw\ Ykd e,ferd w d t f wGiüf ]0g;vH;k acgif;xJvomjcif;} omjzpfMuonf/ olwaYkd <u;aMumfouJo h Ykd urÇmplygpwm;wef;0ifjcif;udk c&pfawmf bk&m;\aemufvu kd rf sm;rSomwwfprG ;f Edik cf iG ?hf jzpfEikd cf iG &hf MdS uonf/ &Siaf ygvk bmajymcJo h nfukd em;pGiMhf unfyh g]]igonfc&pfawmftm;jzifh cyford ;f aom

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif trIwu Ykd kd wwfprG ;f Edik \ f }} (zd? 4;13)/&Siaf ygvkonf omrefvo l m;r[kwcf /hJ olonfawG;ac:ynm&Si?f usrf;wwfy*k Kd¾ vf? ynmwwf? a&mrvlrsdK;? *kP&f edS f owif;ausmfaZmaomol? wefc;kd ? tmPmESihf jynfph akH omoljzpfí vlwikd ;f olU aemufov Ykd u kd af eMu&onfo h jl zpfonf/ odaYk omfxo kd aYdk omvlpm;rsdK;onf c&pfawmfb&k m;tm; rsufEmS jcif;qdik zf ;l arsmfciG &fh &SNd yD;aemufwiG ]f ]igonf c&pfawmftm;jzifh cyford ;f aomtrIwu Ykd kd wwfprG ;f Edik \ f }} [komqdEk ikd o f l jzpfco hJ nf/ &Siaf ygvktwGujf zpfaom xdck &pfawmfb&k m;onf oifEh iS u hf REfyk f wdt Yk wGuf toufxif&mS ;wnf&w dS nfaeawmfrNl rJjzpfonf/ c&pfawmfb&k m; ydik q f ikd af wmfral om bke;f ? wefc;kd ? tmEkabmfrsm;udk udik pf NJG yD;uREkyf w f \ Ykd urÇmavmuBuD;tm; jyKjyifajymif;vJjcif;iSg pGr;f Edik yf gonf/ ,HMk unfot l m;vH;k wdo Yk nf c&pfawmfb&k m;ay;oem;awmfral om vlopf? b0opf? pdwfopfwnf;[laom topfaomtoufwmjzifh avmuBuD;xJwiG f touf&iS o f efum tvif;aqmifap&ef tvd&k ydS gonf/ aeYpOftoufwmwGifc&pfawmfbk&m;twGuf OD;xdyfxm;&Sifoefaom c&pf,mef vli,f? armifr,frsm;\ atmf[pfaomtoHrsm; xGuaf y:vm&ef trSev f t kd yfaeygonf/ c&pfawmfb&k m;\ajcawmf&mtwdik ;f taprcHb?J toufr&Sib f EJ iS hf c&pf,mefjzpfonf[al omtpOftvmonf jzpfEikd zf , G f r&S/d avmuwGicf &pfawmfb&k m;omoemjyKawmfrpl Ofu 0rf;ajrmuf zG,f&m{0Ha*vdowif;w&m;udka[majymjcif;? emrusef;oludk usef;rm apjcif;? qmrGwfaeoludkauR;arG;jcif;?ty,fcHrsm;tm; ESpfodyfhjcif;? txD;useforl sm;twGut f az:jyKay;jcif;? aysmufq;kH olrsm;udk &SmazGjcif;? tm;i,fou l &kd &J ifah pjcif; ponfwo Ykd mru wynfah wmfrsm;\ ajcudyk if

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; aq;awmfrcl o hJ nf/ xdt k &mwdt Yk wGuf c&pfawmfb&k m;tm; rawmif;qdck hJ Muyg? odaYk omfc&pfawmfonf rdru d , dk u f ykd ifarhavQmhvsuf? ud, k u f sdK;pGeu Yf m touf&iS af wmfrcl o hJ nf/ xdak jcawmf&mtm; rvdu k af vQmufoifah ybl;vm;/ ,aeYqdknpfaeaomavmuurÇmBuD;xJwGif qufuyfaom c&pf,mefvil ,ftvkyo f rm;? q&m0ef? ausmif;q&m? 0efxrf;? Edik if aH cgif; aqmif? pD;yGm;a&;orm;? vlraI &;acgif;aqmif? w&m;a[mq&m? a&SUae? w&m;olBuD;wdu Yk kd awmif;qdak eygonf/ bk&m;ocifay;xm;aom xdt k pGr;f tprsm;tm;jzifh bk&m;vufuu kd ikd pf u JG m touf&iS rf nfqykd gu tb,frmS vQif bk&m;bke;f awmfrxif&mS ;&Syd gtHeh nf;/ ]]avmuonfoif\ vkyaf qmif rIjzifh wdik ;f wmumrSwaf usmufwifaomfvnf; c&pfawmfum; oif\tap cHjcif;tm;jzifrh w S af usmufwifonf}} [k John Stott uqdck o hJ nf/

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uav;rsm;aeY bk&m;tjrifESifhcspfjcif; (qmvH? 127;3? r? 19;13-14) ,aeYacwfwiG q f ef;ppfMunfah omtcgwGif rdbwdo Yk nfom;orD; rsm;tay:wGif bk&m;ocifjrifaomtjrifrsdK;jzifrh cspfcifMuonfukd awG&Y dS &onf/ rxifrw S x f m;bJ ud, k 0f ef&v dS maomtcgwGif trsm;pkrmS rdom;pk pD;yGm;a&;? wd;k wufa&;? vkyif ef;qdik &f mwufvrf;twGuf twm;tqD;? ql; an§mif?h cvkwu f efoif;taejzifh &IjrifwwfMuonf/ odaYk omfvnf; usrf;pm awmfjrwfü ]]zGm;jrifaomom; orD;wdo Yk nf xm0&bk&m; qkcsíay;oem; awmfral om tarGOpömjzpfMu\}}[k qmvHq&mu qdck o hJ nf/ xdaYk Mumifh &ifaoG;rsm;tm; bk&m;ocifay; oem;onfh qkv'fEiS hf wefc;kd ? pGr;f tm;? aumif;BuD;r*Fvmrsm;\ t&if;tjrpftjzpf bk&m;ocif jrifouJhodkY jrifwwf&efvo kd nf/ tcsdKrY b d rsm;u om;orD;rsm;tm; ]]armifNidKjiif}} ]]N8dKvfq;kd }} ]]tr*Fvmaumif}} ponfjzifjh rifwwf? ac:qdw k wfMuonf/ ,mukyo f nf tpfujkd zpfo{l aomtm; rdwq f ufay;aomtcgwGif rGejf rwfaomzcifpw d x f m;udak wG&Y onf ]]ud, k af wmf\uReftm; bk&m; ocif ay;oem;awmfral om &ifaoG;rsm;jzpfyg\}} (u? 33;5) [kqckd o hJ nf/ xdkYaMumifh&ifaoG;i,frsm;tm; bk&m;tjrifjzifh qkv'ftjzpfrjrifjcif;? - 131 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; vufrcHjcif;onf bk&m;ocif\tvdak wmftm; vH;k vH;k vGaJ &Smifjcif;vnf; jyK&mrnfonf/ uREkyf w f o Ykd nf&ifaoG;i,frsm;tay:wGif bk&m;ocifxm;&Sad om tjrifjzifMh unfrh nfqykd gu uav;i,frsm;onf tjzLxnft&d;k cHoufouf jzpfaeonfujkd rifawGU&NyD; txHawmfrS uREkyf w f v Ykd nf; rxdu k rf wefcpH m;& onfuakd tmufarhumcspfEikd v f mygvdrrhf nf/ w&m;? 7;6-10 wGif ]]oifonf tjcm;aomvlrsKd;xufomírsm;aomaMumif?h xm0&bk&m;onf oifu h kd cspfía&G;cs,fawmfrlonf r[kwf? oifonf tjcm;aomvlrsKd;wum wdx Yk ufomíenf;\/ xm0&bk&m;onfoifu h ckd spfaomaMumif4h if;? oif\ bk;d ab;wdUk tm; usdeq f adk wmfral om tusdeu f rkd zsufvadk omaMumif4h if;? uRefcaH e&m tJ*w k Kå jynf udk tpk;d &aom zga&mbk&ifvufrS tm;BuD;aom vufawmfEiS hf oifu h kd a&G;EIwaf qmif,cl ahJ wmfrNl yD?}}[kqx kd m;NyD;? a&mr? 5;8 wGiv f nf; uREkyf w f o Ykd nftjypf&pdS Ofyifb&k m;ocif\arwåmxif&mS ;awmfrl aMumif;awGUjrifEikd yf gonf/ od&Yk mwGif tjcm;olrsm;xuf uREfyk w f v Ykd rd m® yg;eyfí?awmfí? xufjrwfír[kwfyg bk&m;ocifonft&Sdtwdkif; cspfawmfral omaMumifo h mjzpfonf/ xdkenf;wlpGm &ifaoG;rsm;onfvnf; uREkfyfwdkYcspf&eftwGuf rnfodkYrSjyKjcif;iSgrpGrf;omMu? bmtpGrf;tprSr&Sd ao;aom vlrr,f uav;rsm;omjzpfonf/ cspfMu&onft h aMumif;t&if; rSmuREfyk w f EYkd iS hf oufqikd af eaomaMumifo h mjzpfonf/ &mpkEpS rf sm;pGmoH;k oyfcsuft&rdbrsm;onf om;orD;rsm;tm; olw\ Ykd tusdK;tvdiYk gS pDru H ed ;f wGiaf &;pGjJ cif;cHaeMu&onf/ &ifaoG;i,frsm; twGuaf y;qyfrw I o Ykd nfarhavQmhaysmufu, G af eMuonf/ bk&m;ociftvdk &So d uJo h MYkd unfjh rifwwfygu ud, k u f sdK;twGuo f m;orD;rsm;udt k oH;k csMu - 132 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif rnfr[kwyf g/ uREkyf w f o Ykd nf bk&m;ocif\om;orD;rsm;jzpfygu bk&m; ocif\vrf;pOftwdik ;f om;orD;rsm;tay:wGijf yKrlusifBh uHMurnfom/ &ifaoG;i,frsm;udkcspfjcif;onfcHpm;csuftay:rlwnfNyD; aumif;csnfwpfcgqd;k csnfwpfvn S rhf jzpfoifyh g/ om;orD;rsm;onf uREkyf f wdt Yk ay:wGif tcsdeef m&DEiS t hf rQtm;ud;k ,HMk unf? pdwcf sud;k pm;xdu k af om rdbrsm;jzpf&efta&;BuD;ygonf/ qm? 118 wGiv f monft h wdik ;f bk&m;&Sif arwåmonfum;ajymif;vJjcif;r&Syd g? xdt Yk wl uREkyf w f o Ykd nfvnf; om;orD; rsm;tay:wGix f m0&qkeaf &arwåmjzifh qH;k roGeo f ifjcif;? vrf;jyaz;rjcif;? or®mw&m;ESifhtnDbk&m;tvdkawmfwGifjyKpkay;ygu bk&m;arwåmonf tpOfxeG ;f vif;umwifw h ,fprG ;f &Syd gvdrrhf nf/ rdbtrsm;pkonfom;orD;rsm;tm; pdwf"gwfydkif;qdkif&myHhydk; ay;jcif;r&Sb d ?J &ky0f w¬Kydik ;f qdik &f myHyh ;kd ay; jcif;rsm;jyKonfEiS rhf b d 0wå&m; aus>yefonf[x k ifrw S rf mS ;Muonf/ "r®opfwiG Mf unfyh gu c&pfawmfb&k m; onfuav;rsm;tay:wGiv f ufwifvQufaumif;BuD;ay;onfukd awGjY rif &ygonf (r? 19;13-14)/ aysmufaomom;om"uwGiv f nf; om;jyefvm rnft h csdeu f akd rQmfvifah eonfzh cifonf om;jzpfot l m; ayGUzuf&eftoifh &Sad eonfuakd wGUjrifEikd yf gonf (vk? 15;20)/ xdrk w S w f rf;rsm;udMk unfyh gu rdbwdo Yk nfom;orD;rsm;twGuf taESmiftzGJUuif;aom arwåmvufurf;vifhrI? MuifempGmaxG;ayGUrIESifh El;nHah omayGUcsDrrI sm;udak wGUjrif&onf/ om;orD;rsm;\ &kyyf ikd ;f qdik &f m? qmiwfru I akd uR;arG;&Ho k mru pdwyf ikd ;f qdik &f m? 0dnmOfyikd ;f qdik &f m qmiwfae aomb0rsdK;rsm;udk vQpfvQLr&Ioif?h Oayu©mjyKrxm;oif/h cspfjrwfE;kd aMumif;om;orD;rsm;udt k pOfrjywfem;vnfo&d adS p& rnf/ olw\ Ykd rvdrrf ;kd ? rvdrm® trIrsm;aMumifv h nf; olwt Ykd m;pGeyYf pfjcif;jyK

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif wwf\/vufcaH wmfro l rQaom om;wdu Yk 'kd Pfcwfawmfrw l wf\[k oli,f wdu Yk kd qdo k uJo h Ykd oifwu Ykd akd jymqdak om Mo0g'pum;udk arhavsmhMuoavm}} (a[NAJ? 12;6)/ tcsdKUaomrdbwdkYonf om;orD;rsm;tm; qHk;rjcif;? oGeo f ifjcif;wdjYk yKaomtcgwGif tumtuG,af y;wwfrrI sm;onf cspf&m a&mufonf[t k vGx J ifrw S rf mS ;Muonf/trSerf mS cspf&mrrnf ESp&f momrnf ygonf/]]Budrv f ;kH udrk oH;k aomolonf rdro d m;udrk ek ;f &modaYk &mufom;udk cspfaomolrlum; i,faomt&G,frSpíqHk;rwuf\}} (ok? 13;24) ]]oli,fudk rqHk;rbJ raeESifh/ BudrfvHk;ESifh&dkufaomfvnf; olonfrao BudrfvHk;ESifh &dkufí ol\touf0dnmOfudk r&PmEdkifiHrS u,fEIwf &rnf}}(ok?23;13-14)? ]]Budrv f ;kH ESi&hf u kd jf cif; EIwEf iS q hf ;kH rjcif;tm;jzifh ynmwd;k yGm;wwf\ wwfwikd ;f aeapaomolonf trdut kd &Sucf w JG wf}}(ok? 29;15)? ]]oli,foGm;&m vrf;0YqHk;roGefoifavmh? odkYjyKvQif olonf tdak omtcg xdv k rf;rSrvGJ vdu k o f mG ;vdrrhf nf}} (ok? 22;6)/ xdaYk Mumifh pnf;urf;[lonf rdbESio hf m;orD;rsm;tm;vH;k twGuf aumif;usdK;udo k mjzpfapwwfaMumif;bk&m;ocifaz:jyxm;onf/ bk&m; ocifonfuREkyf w f eYkd mcHjcif;toufwm&S&d jdS zifah emufawmfvu kd &f efawmif; qdo k uJo h Ukd xdak wmif;qdrk o I nf om;pOfajr;quftxdwikd af tmif tusHK;0if aomawmif;qdrk jI zpfonf/ oGeo f ifyjhJ yifjcif;jzifb h &k m;ocifonf olUarwåm udak z:jyouJo h ?Ykd uREkyf w f \ Ykd arwåmw&m;udv k nf; xdek nf;wl om;orD;rsm; tay:wGiaf z:jyEdik &f ygrnf/ uREfyk w f o Ykd nfom;orD;rsm;tm; roGeo f if? rqH;k ryg &J&ifrh ?I vHv k 0D&, d pdw k x f w k rf ?I wnfMunfrw I t Ykd pm; tjcm;aomraumif;onfh pdwaf e pdwx f m;rsm;0ifa&mufvmNyD; bk&m;ocifEiS ahf 0;uGmonfomru? bk&m; ocifay;xm;aom rdbjzpfjcif;\tcGix hf ;l rsm;udv k nf; vufvw G q f ;kH ½I;H

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Oyk'pf majzausmif;


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif jzpfonf/ &Siaf ygvkEiS hf AmeAonf tEÅt d w k Nf rdKUwGif oifMum;ay;cJMh uonf (wref? 11;26? 15;35)/ &Siaf ygvkonf aum&dEoKNrdKw Y iG f wpfEpS cf rJG QoifMum; ay;cJo h nf (wref? 18;11)/ wpfzef&iS af ygvkonf ol\aemufq;kH aomaeY rsm;wGiv f nf; c&pfawmfb&k m;ESiphf yfvQOf;í oifMum;ay;jcif;tm;jzifh b0 qnf;qmcsdeu f u kd ek v f eG af pcJo h nf (wref? 28;31)/ c&pf,mefynma&;\tajccHonf "r®a[mif;ESihf "r®opfusrf;wdYk rSpwifvmjcif; jzpfNyD;? ueOD;c&pf,mefrsm;tm;jzif, h aeYxufwikd w f ;kd yGm; cdik cf efv Y maejcif;jzpfonf/ yxr&mpkEpS t f ukeyf ikd ;f wGif c&pf,mefynma&;onf tvQiftjref wd;k yGm;cJNh yD; ,HMk unfov l o l pfrsm;udk pepfwusjzifh oifMum;ay;&efvt kd yf vmcJo h nf/ ueOD;qH;k aom c&pf,mefynma&;ausmif;onf NcHKiHo k ;kH oyf Munfyh g vufO;D qH;k aomausmif;onf t&G,af &mufNyD;olrsm;tm; oifMum; ay;onfh Alexandria Theological Seminary \ausmif;yifjzpfayvdrrhf nf/ xdkausmif;wGif c&pf,mefwdkY\ tajccH,HkMunfcsufESifh "r®ynmrsm;udk oifMum;ay;NyD;? xdak usmif;rS ausmif;xGurf sm;wGif Origen vnf; wpfO;D tygt0ifjzpfonf/ c&pfouú&mZf 203 ckEpS w f iG f Origen onf Alexandria NrdKUwGi;f odo Yk mG ;um toif;awmftoD;oD;rS uav;i,frsm;udpk pk nf;NyD; oifMum; ay;cJo h nf/ ol\&nf&, G cf sufrmS tem*gwftoif;awmfrsm;twGuf jyifqif jcif;jzpfNyD; uav;i,frsm;tm; or®mw&m;? tajccH,MkH unfcsuf ponf wdkYudkpepfwusoifMum;ay;cJhonf/ tcsdKYusrf;wwfyk*¾dKvfrsm;u xdkodkY oifMum;&mwGif 1 aum? 15;3-5 ESihf tjcm;qufE, G af om usrf;pum;rsm; udt k ajccHum pdwEf v S ;kH wGirf w S af usmuf wifaponfv h il ,frsm;jzpfaponf [k qdpk rSwjf yKMuonf/

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; xdkodkYaomoGefoifjcif;rsm;jyK&mrS toif;awmftoD;oD;odkY epf&ikd ;f pGm pD;qif;oGm;cJo h nfh twGuf toif;awmftoD;oD;rS trsdK;om;? trsdK;orD;ponfh pGrf;Edkifolrsm;u oifMum;ay;cJhMuonf/ odkUaomf tarSmifacwf umv[kqMkd uaom umvwGif Oyk'pf majzausmif;rsm;onf wpfjznf;jznf;arS;rSefaysmufuG,foGm;cJhMu&NyD;? oifMum;a&;onf bke;f awmfBuD;rsm;twGuo f m uefo Y wf vmcJMh uawmhonf/ &Sp&f mpkumv wGiu f m; Oyk'pf majzausmif;rsm;wGif oifMum;ay;olrsm;ud, k w f ikd u f or®m w&m;ESihf c&pf,mef,MkH unfcsufwiG t f m;enf;aomaMumifh omoemonf qkw, f w k v f mcJo h nf/ odUk aomfvnf;aus;Zl;awmfonfuek rf oGm;aomaMumifh jyefvnf jyKjyifjcif;wnf;[laom Edk;xrIavonf toif;awmfrsm;tMum;wGif or®mw&m;avudk touf00&I&u dI Ef ikd &f eftcGit hf vrf;yGiv hf mcJo h nf/ 1524 ckEpS w f iG f rmwifvo l monf or®mw&m;tm; vlBuD;? vli,f? vlvwfra&G; tm;vH;k u oif,al vhvmtyfaMumif;odjrifvmNyD; jyefvnfí Oyk'pf majz ausmif;onf aejcnfoef;vmcJah wmhonf/vlomvkyaf qmifro I nf vGepf mG xda&mufcNhJ yD;? or®musrf;pmtm; teufziG q hf rkd ?I avhvmrIEiS hf yHEk ydS jf cif;rsm; odyYk ifu;l pufum c&pf,mefynma&;onf toif;awmfrsm;wGi;f odYk pD;qif; apvQuf? wd;k yGm;BuD;&ifjh cif;tjzpfukd ,aeYwikd jf rifawGUaeMu&ygonf/

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif

jyefvnfE;kd Mum;vmaom Oyk'pf majzordik ;f aMumif; 1780 ckEpS w f iG f t*FvefEikd if ?H *avmufpwmNrdKw Y iG f a&mbwf&u kd pf f rS qif;&Jom;rsm;? ynmrJrh sm;? csdKUwJo h u l av;rsm;udpk pk nf;um oifMum; ay;jcif;jzifh Oyk'pf majzjcif;udk pwifítouf0ifvmcJo h nf/ &du k pf o f nf acwfopfOyk'pf majzaeY\zcifBuD;[ktodtrSwf jyK xm;jcif;udck &H olvnf;jzpfonf/ olonfqif;&Jom;rsm;? ynmrJrh sm;? csdKw Y hJ olrsm;? qmiwfcifrGwfaeolrsm;? b0ay;tajctaervSyolrsm;\ vlaerIb0udjk rifawGUNyD; 0efwmwpfcv k ckd pH m;&onfMh uifemoem;wwfol jzpfonf/ olUacwfot Yl cgu xdo k aYkd omolrsm;onf vlxt k odik ;f t0dik ;f rS tpGefYy,fcHrsm;oufoufjzpfMuonf/ pufrIESifh pD;yGm;a&;xGef;um;&m *avmufpwmNrdKUwGif txufygvlwef;pm;rsm;onf t0wftcsnf;ESD;? tpm;taomufuikd wfwpfvn S jhf ywfwpfvn S jhf zifh touf&iS o f ef&efveG pf mG cufcv J NS yD;? rao&Hw k pfr,f&ek ;f uefaeMu&onf/ tpd;k &ausmif;rsm;vnf; r&Sad o;ojzifh tajccHvw l ef;pm;rsm;yifvQif ynma&;udk tajccHrQom oifMum;wwfajrmufMuonf/ xdaYk Mumif; eif;jym;qif;&Jom;rsm;twGuf ynma&;onfpw d u f ;l xJyifra&muf&EdS ikd af omumvjzpfonf/ &du k pf o f nfxo kd Ykd BudK;pm;vkyaf qmif&mESpt f e,f;i,fuek v f eG v f m onfah emufwiG f tusdK;w&m;rsm;udjk rifawGUcHpm;cGi&hf cJo h nf/ ESpaf ygif; 25 ESpef ;D yg;&Sad omtcgwGif olonftopfwpfzefBudK;pm;&efq;kH jzwfvu kd o f nf/ xdak cwfu uav;i,frsm;onf puf&t kH vky&f rkH sm;wGif wpfygwfwmvH;k tvkyrf sm;vkyMf uNyD; we*FaEGaeYwiG f vlomG ;vrf;rsm;ay:ü upm;jcif;? - 141 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; &efjzpfjcif;? qJqjkd cif;ponfwjYkd zifh vlwOYkd ayu©mjyKxm;jcif;cHMu&onf/ xdkYaMumifh rdbrsm;tm; tultnDawmif;cHaomfvnf;r&onfhtqHk; &du k pf o f nf xdu k av;i,frsm;tm; oGeo f ifvrf;jyay;jcif;jzifh jyKpkysdK;axmif &efq;kH jzwfcsufcsrSwcf o hJ nf/ 1780 wGio f o l nf yxrOD;qH;k aom poifcef;udzk iG v hf pS cf o hJ nf/ zGifhvSpfcJhaomtcgwGif trnfudkvnf;vdkufavQmnDaxGpGmjzifh ]]Sooty Valley}}[ktrnf ay;cJo h nf/ ol\oifwef;om;rsm;onf tajccHvw l ef; pm;pm&ifwiG af tmufajcrSjzpfMuNyD;? &dik ;f qdik ;f jcif;? Murf;MuKwfjcif;wdjYk zifh raumif;owif;&Sdaomuav;rsm;jzpfMuonf/ tcsdKUuav;rsm;rSm acsmhcsnfwpfvn S ahf jcmufcsnfwpfcgjzifh BudK;csif;yify;l wkyu f m oifMum;ay; cJ&h onf/ t*FvefEikd if \ H yxrOD;qH;k aomOyk'pf majzwef;onf toif;awmf jyifywGif pepfwusoifcef;pmrsm;jyKpkjcif;? oifMum;ay;jcif;jzifph wifcNhJ yD; aemufyikd ;f wGiu f s,fus,fjyefjY yeft Y oif;awmftoD;oD;&S&d m tcef;vGwrf sm; odaYk &muf&o dS mG ;cJo h nf/ Adrmefawmftm;uav;rsm;twGuf toH;k jyKjcif;udk ]rzG,rf &mjyKonf} [kjrifaomaMumif?h tcsdet f wefMumonftxd tzDav; rsm;? uGuv f yfav[mjyifrsm;ESihf vGw&f mtcef;av; rsm;wGio f m jyKcJMh u& onf/ Oyk'fpmajzoifMum;ay;jcif;tm; pmwefESifh taygif;ygwdkY\ vky&f yf[jk rifcMhJ uonf/ pifwefb&l rD S bD;a&Smyh o f nfo\ l aemufvu kd f acgif;aqmifrsm; tm;ac:,lppk nf;apNyD; Oyk'pf majzvkyaf qmifrrI sm;udk wm;qD;&eftrdeYf xkwjf yefco hJ nf/ Willan Pitt onfxt kd rItm; tav;teufpOf;pm;um ygvDrefrxdpma&;cJo h nf/ paumhwvefEikd if w H iG f Oyk'pf majzoifMum;jcif; onfpwkw¬ynmwfawmftm;csdK;azgufjcif;jyKonf[k&IwfcscJhMuonf/ - 142 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif uav;i,frsm;tm; oifMum;ay;aomolrsm;ESi?hf Oyk'pf majzq&m? q&mr rsm;tm; toif;awmfrsm;u tjypfwifBudr;f armif;jcif;jyKonfomru n§i;f yef;ESyd pf ufjcif;rsm;vnf;jyKcJMh uonf/ odaYk omfxo kd aYkd om[efw Y m;rIEiS hf zsufq;D rIrsm;u Oyk'pf majzoif Mum;jcif;rsm;tm; vlxktMum;wGifpdrfh0ifrIudkomjzpfay:apcJhonf/ Robert Raikes \ vk y f a qmif r I u d k r uf o 'pf t oif ; awmf \ zcifBuD;jzpfol John Wesley onft[efUtwm; aESmuf,u S rf rI sm;Mum;rS vlo&d iS Mf um;ulnaD z;ray;cJNh yD; Oa&mywdik ;f Edik if H wGif xd&k u kd pf \ f vkyaf qmif rIonf trSefwu,fyif*kPf,lxdkufonfh omoemh vkyfief;jzpfaMumif; todtrSwjf yKcJah omaMumif; &mpkEpS rf sm;pGm ukev f eG v f monftxd vlord sm; vmcJhonf/ xdkrQru ol\ausmif;wGifvnf; Oyk'fpmajzoifcef;pmudk xnfo h iG ;f toH;k jyKoifMum;apcJo h nf/ ESpt f enf;i,fveG af omtcgwGif toif;awmftoD;oD;rSvnf; rSeu f efpmG &Ijrifo;kH oyfvufcv H mMuNyD;? axmufrulnaD z;rvmMuonf/ xdkYaemuf Oa&myEdkifiHrsm;rSonf tar&duodkYwdkifatmif Oyk'fpmajz oifausmif;rsm; jyefEY UHS oGm; awmhonf/tar&duef&dS Oyk'pf majzausmif;rsm; onftaxmuftrrsm;jzifh pwifcMhJ uaomaMumifh tcsdew f t kd wGi;f rSmyif Oyk'pf majzvkyif ef;onftar&duefü t&Sed t f [kejf zifw h ;kd yGm;vmcJo h nf/ 1827- 1857 ckEpS rf sm;tMum;wGif y&dw k pfpwift h oif;awmfrsm; wGiv f nf;Oyk'pf majzoifausmif;rsm;udu k sifo h ;kH vmMuonf/ rsufarSmuf acwfwiG f Oyk'pf majzoifausmif;onf rsdK;quf? wpfqufrS wpfqufoYkd qifhurf;ay;aom omoemha&pD;vrf;aMumif;[kqdkurSm;rnfr[kwfyg/ Oyk'pf majzausmif;rS usef;rmoefprG ;f aom ppfonf&rJ sm;udk arG;xkwaf y; jcif; jzift h oif;awmfonf wpfaeYwpfjcm; cdik rf mawmifw h if; vmrnfjzpfNyD;

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; tu,fí Oyk'pf majzausmif;rSoifMum;ay;rItm;enf;vmygu xdt k usdK; qufonf toif;awmfow Ykd ikd af tmif&u kd cf wfvmygvdrrhf nf/ "r®mynma&; tm;aumif;rGepf mG jzifh 0dik ;f 0ef;nDnmpGm&Syd guomoemwifw h ,fygvdrrhf nf/

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif

omoemjyKqikd &f maeY toif;awmfEiS ohf moemjyKvkyif ef; toif;awmf[al ompum;rSm *&dbmompum;Kyriakos jzpfNyD;? pu;pk t aejzif h Kyriake Oikia [k o H k ; EI e f ; Muum t"d y Ü g ,f r S m ]ocifb&k m;tdraf wmf} [kqo kd nf/ wenf;qd&k vQifc&pf,mefw\ Ykd 0wfjyK&m tdr[ f q k &kd rnfom/ toif;awmfurkd u l m;xdpk um;vH;k jzifh or®musrf;pmwGif toH;k rjyKxm;yg/ xdt k pm; Ekklesia [laompum;vH;k jzifo h m toH;k jyKxm;onf/ odkU&mwGif xdkpum;vHk;tm; taqmuftOD;twGufvHk;0 toHk;jyKxm;jcif;r&Sdygonf/ xdkpum;vHk;teufrSm [kjzpfNyD;]a&G;cs,f ac:xm;jcif;cH&olrsm;} [kqv kd ykd gonf/ J.R.W.Stott u ]]avmuDEiS rhf qufE, G ?f oD;jcm;bk&m;ydik x f u kd f olrsm;? bk&m;ESiq hf ufE, G í f ? txuft&yfrt S xl;a&G;EIwjf cif;cHxm; &aom omoemhtEG,0f ifrsm;}} [ktoif;awmfut kd eufziG q hf o kd nf/ toif;awmf onfc&pfawmftm;jzifb h &k mocifac:jcif;udk wkejYf yefaomvlpyk ifjzpfonf/ wenf;qd&k ygu toif;awmfonf bk&m;ocifu, kd üf pwifcjhJ cif;jzpfNyD;? c&pfawmfüwnf&u dS moef&Y iS ;f aom0dnmOfawmftm;jzifh pepfwus yHo k iG ;f wnfaqmufaeaomt&mvnf;jzpfonf/ xdik ;f toif;awmfonf bk&m;\ ac:jcif;udck &H NyD; avmuodw Yk pfzefomoemjyK&efapvTwjf cif;cH&olrsm;yif/ ]]toif;awmfonfb&k m;ocifv h rl sm;\c&D;pOfjzpfNyD; vlom;wdt Yk m;bk&m; ocifEiS jhf yefvnfoifjh rwfr&I &Sad p&efaoG;aqmifrjI yKNyD;ocifb&k m;jyef<u vmawmfral omtcgwGiq f q kH nf;&eftoifjh yKaeMuolrsm;}} [k Newbigin uqdo k nf/ - 145 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; toif;awmfEiS o hf moemtb,fah Muifw h aJG e&ovJ¿ avmuwGif toif;awmftm;rnfodkYaomomemjyKvkyfief;udkvkyfaqmifapvdkovJ¿ toif;awmf\vIy&f mS ;rIreS o f rQwdo Yk nf omoemvkyif ef;omjzpf&ygrnf/ omoemr&Sad omtoif;awmfonfppfreS af omtoif;awmf[rk ac:qdx k u kd /f ,aeYacwfwiG t f oif;awmfEiS o hf moemhvyk if ef;tm;&Iyaf xG;pGm em;vnfcH,l aeMuonf/ tcsdKUu {0Ha*vd vkyfief;tm;omoemjyK tjzpfowfrSwfcH,laeonf/ tcsdKUu e,fajra'o? ,Ofaus;rIrwlnD aomae&mwGif {0Ha*vd vkyfaqmifjcif;udk omoemjyKvkyfief;[k qdkMuonf/ tcsdKU toif;awmf\ vkyfaqmifrIrsm;tm;vHk;wdkYonf omoemjyKvkyif ef;[kawG;xifMuonf/ odUk aomf John Stott u]]urÇmtESUH odUk {0Ha*vd owif;w&m;udk tajccs ay;aomtoif;awmfrsm;jzpfonf? omoemjyKjcif;onf toif;awmftm; tvif;ESiq hf m;[laom aqmify'k u f Nkd yD;ajrmufaponfh axG;ayGaY EG;axG; aprI}} [kqu kd mtxufyg xifjrifrrI sm;udyk ,fcscJo h nf (r? 5;13-16)/ xdkYaMumifh omoemjyKjcif;ESifh{0Ha*vdw&m;wdkYonf toif;awmf\ &yfwnfcsufjzpfon f / ajcESpaf csmif;aygif;rSwpfp&kH o dS uJo h Ukd toif;awmf [laom*kPu f jkd ynfph akH pygonf/ toif;awmfESifhpyfvQOf;í George W. Peters uþodkU a&;om;cJo h nf/]]toif;awmfwiG t f ief;twmoH;k &yf&o dS nf/(1) bk&m; ociftm;csD;rGr;f ud;k uG,jf cif;jzifb h ek ;f awmfxif&mS ;apjcif;? (2) twGi;f ü oef&Y iS ;f pifMu,fjcif;? ynmw&m;ESijhf ynfph jkH cif;? pnf;pepf&jdS cif;ESihf rdrt d jzpf rSeu f x kd if&mS ;apjcif;ESihf (3) jyifyodUk {0Ha*vdw&m;a[majymoufaocHjcif; ESit hf wltapcHjcif;wdjYk zpfonf}}/ xdt k &monftoif;awmftwGuf trSeyf if qDavQmfvaS oma&;om;csufjzpfonf/ xdt k &mwdo Yk nftoif;awmfwiG f - 146 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif ta&;ygaomr@dKifyifjzpfonf/ taMumif;rSm toif;om;rsm;tm; bk&m; tvdak wmftwdik ;f oGeo f ifq;kH ray;jcif;? yHyh ;kd ay;jcif;r&Syd gu toif;awmf[k rac:qdx k u kd /f {0Ha*vdw&m;tm;a[majymjcif;r&S?d yHak umif;oufaorjy Edik af omt&mtm;toif;awmf[rk ac:qdt k yfyg/ toif;awmf\xif&mS ;aomtrSwt f om;rSm jyifyod{Yk 0Ha*vd w&m;tm;a[majymvQufb&k m;ESiv hf jl yefvnfoifjh rwfap&efjzpfNyD;? xm0& Edik if aH wmfuw kd nfaxmifaejcif;omjzpfonf/ toif;awmf\t"duwm0ef rSmvnf; toif;awmfwiG ;f omoemjyKjcif;omjzpfonf/twGi;f tjyifEpS &f yf vH;k wGit f "dupHEeI ;f rsm;rSm vlrsdK;wumtm;c&pfawmf\wynfjh zpfapvQuf a'oEÅ&toD;oD;wGifbk&m;ociftm;csD;rGrf;udk;uG,f&efomjzpfonf/ odaYk omftoif;awmfjyifywGio f moGeo f ifq;kH rjcif;[kawG;xifygu vGrJ mS ; oGm;ygvdrfhrnf/ taMumif;rSmtoif;awmfjyifywGifxda&mufaom c&pfawmf\ aemufvu kd rf sm;jzpfvmap&eftoif;awmftwGi;f üompwif Mu&ygrnf/ wenf;qd&k ygua,&k&v S ifárS ,k'jynf ,k'jynfá&Srm&djynf &Srm&djynfárSajrBuD;pGef;wdkif [ka&yGufyrmcsJUum;vQuf omoemudjk zefu Y suf&ygrnf/ tqH;k yef;wdik o f nf ajrBuD;pGe;f wdik [ f k ocifb&k m;rdeq Yf x kd m;onf r[kwyf gvm;/ xdo k q Ykd Nkd yD;toif;awmftrsm;pkrmS uGjJ ym;jcif;om&SNd yD; wd;k yGm;jcif; r&S&d oenf;¿ a'oEÅ&toif;awmfrsm;wGio f moemjyKvkyif ef;uif;rJah eMu ovJ¿ toif;awmf\toufaoG;aMumjzpfaom omoemjyKvkyif ef;tm; tb,ft&mrsm;uqD;wm;aeovJ¿ twdck sKyftm;jzifq h ifjcifMuygrnf/ - 147 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm;

1/ pGr;f &nfrahJ omoif;tkyqf &m/ ]]q&mwlwynf}h } [laompum;yH&k ydS gonf/toif;awmfwiG ;f &Sd toif;om;rsm;\pGrf;&nf&SdrI? r&SdrIonftxl;ojzifhoif;tkyfq&mwGif a&aomufjrpfusa&mufaeygonf/

2/ wpfO;D ydik of moem/ toif;awmftrsm;pkrSmoufOD;qHydkifpepfjzifhtkyfcsKyfMuaom aMumift h oif;om;rsm;onfyMJG unfo h t l jzpfom&Sad eMu&onf/

3/ twå^pD;yGm;a&;q&mrsm;aMumif/h toif;awmfwiG ;f odyYk g0ifqufuyf&mwGif ]yg0ifqufuyfjcif;} tpm; ]0ifygvS;D jzwfjcif;} rsm;aMumifh xdcu kd ef pfemMu&um vltrsm;u a&Smifz,fum a0;a0;odUk xGuo f mG ;wwfMuonf/ xdrk Qru omoemtwGuf bk&m;udck spfvQuf yg0ifqufuyfvykd gaomfvnf; xdo k aYkd omolrsm;aMumifh omoemonfjcpm;aeNyD;? jrifow l ikd ;f twGuv f nf; t&kyq f ;kd tusnf;wef vGe;f vSayonf/ wpfenf;qdk&ygrl Eco-Pastor (odkU) Ego-Pastor [lonf usrf;pmwGi&f rdS xm;yg/

4/ orm;&d;k ustoif;awmf/ toif;awmf&t dS rsm;pkrmS omrefr&d ;kd zvmrsm;jzpfMuaomaMumifh oefY&Sif;aom0dnmOfawmfbk&m;tm;jzifhtopfarG;zGm;jcif;udkrcHpm;&bJ bk&m;ocifEiS v hf ufawGUusustuRrf;0ifjcif;rsdK;r&SMd u/

5/ yHok iG ;f xm;aomtoif;awmf/ tcsdKUaomtoif;awmfrsm;rSmolwdkY\csrSwfxm;aomrlrsm; twdik ;f yHak oenf;twdik ;f oGm;vmMuonf/ xdt Yk wGuo f ;kH oyfavhvmjcif; - 148 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif r&Sad omaMumif]h tarrSmonfq h efwpfco JG ;kH pdwEf iS rhf vJ}yrmtoD;tyGirhf &SMd u/

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8/ NcKH iHok ;kH oyfrrI sm;rjyKvkyjf cif;/ toif;awmf\tajctaet&yf&yfuo kd if;tkyq f &mud, k w f ikd rf S aumif;onf? qd;k onft&mudt k av;teufxm;NyD; tcsde, f rl pOf;pm;jcif; wdjYk zpfonf/

9/ &J&ifjh ywfom;pGmyef;wdik rf xm;&Sjd cif;/ wdusaocsmaomyef;wdik rf sm;rxm;&Sjd cif;aMumifh yHrk eS o f r&d;k us twdik ;f oGm;vmvIy&f mS ;um toif;awmfonfrnfumrwåwnf&adS eMu& jcif;jzpfonf/ wpfzef tjcm;wpfzufüMunfjh rifqef;ppfygu touf0ifvyI &f mS ; aeaomtoif;awmftaMumif;t&if;ubmvJ¿ bk&m;ocif onftoif; awmftm;wefc;kd ygtoif;awmftjzpftoH;k jyK&ef taMumif;t&if; rsm;pGm - 149 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; &Sad eygonf/ touf0ifí Ed;k Mum;rI&adS om toif; awmfrsm;onf ]OHKzG} jzifw h pfcPcsif;jzpfvmMuonfr[kwyf g/ toif;awmf wpfco k nf ]Ek;d xrI} &SNd yD;? wpfzefEpS t f enf;i,ftwGi;f ]aooGm;}jcif;vnf; &SMd uonf? tcsdKU aomtoif;awmfrsm;rSmyHrk eS ]f Ed;k Mum;&Sio f ef}aeMuonfh t&mrSm ]BuD;xGm; aejcif;} ]xda&mufaomoGeo f ifr}I rsm;&Sjd cif; ]wynfah wmf jzpfaprI}rsm;ESihf ]toif;awmf wnfaxmifjcif;} wdu Yk kd ESppf OfEpS w f ikd ;f ocifb&k m; tvdak wmfEiS hf tnDvyk af qmifaeMuaomaMumifjh zpfonf/touf&iS af omtrSwv f u©Pm rsm;rSm-

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2/ yef;wdik &f nf&,G cf suxf m;&Sod nf/ omoemus,fjyefYa&;twGufyef;wdkifonftoif;awmftm; vIUH aqmfay;rnfph uf,EÅ&m;jzpfonf/ toif;awmfwiG v f yk af qmifEikd zf , G f jzpfaoma&wd?k a&&Snpf onfyh ef;wdik rf sm;toD;oD;xm;&S&d rnf/ yef;wdik rf sm; wGiw f u d s&Si;f vif;aomvrf;nTerf u I v kd nf;csrSwx f m;&rnf/ xdyk ef;wdik rf sm; NyD;ajrmufa&;onftm;vH;k wm0efjzpfonfuo kd ad eMuonf/

3/ wynfah wmfjzpfjcif;udqk miwfMuonf/ {0Ha*vdw&m;udkaygufaygufazgufovdkajymqdkvkyfudkifMuNyD; wynfah wmfjzpfjcifuv kd spfvQL&Ijcif;onftoif;awmfukd rBuD;xGm;apEdik /f touf&iS af omtoif;awmfrsm;wGirf u l m; {0Ha*vdw&m;udv k nf; a0iS a[majym&if;wynfah wmfjzpfjcif;udv k nf;qmiwfrt I jynfjh zifh csdecf iG n hf rD Q pGmvkyaf qmifMuonf/ - 150 -


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7/ a'oEÅ&ESithf nDwnf&adS omtoif;awmf/ a'oEÅ&ESifhvdkufavsmfnDaxGrIr&Sdaomtoif;awmfrsm;onf BuD;xGm;jcif;r&SEd ikd /f xdaYk Mumifo h r®mw&m;udt k ajcwnfaom ,Ofaus;rI "avhx;kH wrf;rsm;udv k nf;tav;xm;jrwfE;kd jcif;&SMd uonf/

8/ ud,k uf sKd ;pGeaYf omomoempdw"f gw&f jdS cif;/ c&pfawmfbk&m;onfudk,fusdK;pGefUaomomoempdwf"gwfjzifh uREkyf w f u Ykd u kd ,fcRwfawmfrcl o hJ nf? xdek nf;wlpmG toif;awmfonfvnf; pGev Yf w G t f epfemcHjcif;rsm;jzifw h nfaqmufxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ - 151 -

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; ,aeYrsufarSmufacwftoif;awmfomoemum;rnfodkYenf;¿ 650000 cefrY Qaom {0Ha*vdomoemjyKq&mrsm;onf olw\ Ykd ae&yfXmae rSa0;&mt&yfwiG o f moemjyKaeMuonf/ P.J.John Stone \pmtkyw f iG f az: jycsuft&m ]]omomejyK&mwGio f ;kH onfah iG 56% rSmtar&duefr}S } ay;vSLaMumif;od&onf/ omoemjyKaiGrsm;udk 90% tjynft h 0 axmufyhH ay;cJah Mumif;ESihf omoemjyKq&mrsm;uvnf; &Gy&f yG cf RefcRef tapcHaMumif; od&onf/ tcsdKUaomomoemjyKrsm;rSm ausmif;q&m? q&m0ef? olemjyK? Adokumynm&Sif? pD;yGm;a&;orm;rsm; ponfjzifhtapcHaeMuonf/ tcsdejf ynfrh [kwMf uaomfvnf;olwo Ykd nf {0Ha*vda[majymjcif;? oifMum; ay;jcif;? toHvTifhjcif;? usrf;pma0ay;jcif;? tifwmeufomoem vkyfief;wGiftar;tajzrsm;jyKay;jcif;? pmaya&;om;jcif;? usrf;pm oifMum;ay;jcif;rsm; udjk yKvkyaf eMuonf/ vGecf ahJ omESpt f enf;i,ftcsdex f d wdrjf rKyfaeaom vlrsdK;pkrsm; vnf;&Sad eygao;onf/ omoem\tcuftcJrsm;ESihf ygwfoufí World Mission rS Dr.Ralph Winter u xdv k rl sdK;pkrsm;onf tenf;i,fr[kwf Mu/ olwdkYwGiftoif;awmfr&Sdovdk? 0rf;ajrmufzG,f&m {0Ha*vdowif; w&mudv k nf; rMum;rdMu[kqNkd yD;? xdo k w l \ Ykd touf0n d mOftwGuf toif; awmfrsm;wGiw f m0ef&adS eaMumif;qdck o hJ nf/ ]]rsufarSmufwGif{0Ha*vdq&mrsm;a[majyma0iSoufaocH aeMu olrsm;rSm vlo;kH rsdK;oH;k pm;&Sad Mumif;4if;wdrYk mS (1) wnf&adS eaom toif;awmfrsm;twGi;f (2) toif;awmfopfrsm;twGi;f (3) {0Ha*vdw&m; udek m;&nf0aeaomolrsm;}} jzpfaMumif; Dr.Winter rSwcf sufjyKxm;onf/ "r®q&m 171 a,mufwiG f 1 OD;aom"r®q&monf {0Ha*vdrMum;bl;aom t&yfwiG t f apcHaeonfukd ppfwrf;t&awGU&S&d onf/ - 152 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif omoemjyKq&mBuD;rsm;u {0Ha*vdw&m;udrk Mum;bl;olrsm; tm;oGm;a&mufa0iS&efvt kd yfaMumif;ESpaf ygif;rsm;pGmajymqdMk uaomfvnf; ,aeYjrefrmEdik if w H iG f {0Ha*vdw&m;udrk Mum;bl;? rembl;olrsm;aeYpOfEiS hf trQwdk;yGm;vmaeygonf/ rsufarSmufacwfenf;ynm&yfrsm;ESifhtwl World Wide Web [laom pum;twdi k ;f urÇmtESUH {0Ha*vdw&m;udk us,fjyefEY ikd af &;twGuf toif;awmfwikd ;f wGiw f m0ef&adS eygonf

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- 154 -


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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif tdyt f wGi;f odUk xnfv h u dk o f nf/ xdaYk emufvtwefMumaomtcgwGif olwYkd ZeD;armifEo HS nfow l v Ykd pmrsm;tm;omoemtwGuaf y;vSLvdu k Mf uonf/ aemufq;kH wGio f w l o Ykd nf qkawmif;jcif;BuD;pGmjzifh a[majymoufaocH&mrS rdom;pkomoemvkyif ef;udpk wifvQuf&MdS uonf/ Cowman wdu Yk o hJ Ukd jyK&efrqdv k ydk g/ okUd aomfomoemvkyif ef; twGurf rd w d w Ykd wfprG ;f Edik o f nft h wdik ;f c&pfawmfEiS hf c&pfawmf\omoem udak xmufvQufay;vSLjcif;udv k w l ikd ;f yg0ifEikd yf gonf/ rdom;pk\ toD;tES?H aiGaMu;? tdraf rG;wd&pämefponfh ay;vSLrIrsm;udb k ,frmS ay;vSLyg0ifaeyg ovJ¿ oif\ay;vSLyg0ifro I nfoif\,HMk unfjcif;twdik ;f twmESin hf rD Q aeygonf/ tu,fí wpfusyf? wpf&myg0ifaeygu oif\,HMk unfro I nf wpfusyf? wpf&mESio hf mxyfwu l saeonfurkd arhygESi/hf w&k w f E d k i f i H o d k Y o moemjyKoG m ;cJ h a om Hudson Talor ? tEd, ´ odo Yk mG ; a&mufcahJ om William Carey? tmz&duoko Yd mG ;a&muf omoemjyKcJah om David Living Stone ESihf jrefrmEdik if o H Ukd vma&muf cJah om q&mBuD;,k'oefponfwu Ykd o kd wd&atmufarhvu kd yf g/ tm;vHk;onf rdom;pkjyóemtcuftcJrsm;udk awmBuD; rsufrnf;rsm;twGi;f 0,f BuHKawGUcJMh u&ygonf/ olwb Ykd ,fvcdk pH m;cJ&h ovJ qdw k mudk rnforl S pum;ukerf qdEk ikd cf MhJ u/ pdw'f u k t © BuD;tus,fa&mufjcif;? tdyfysufavmuf atmifcufcJjcif;rsm;ESifh axmifoGif;tusOf;csjcif; wdkYudkarhxm;Muonf/ olwdkYcHpm;BuHKawGUcJh&aomtrIrsm;onf vlwdkY\ tpG r f ; xuf a usmf v G e f cJ h M uonf / trsm;pk r S m ol w d k Y \ ae&yf X mae odyYk ifjyefvmcGirhf &cJMh u/ oGm;& aomae&mXmewGif taoowfjcif;rsm; yifccH MhJ u&onf/

aexl h ;aejrwf h rsm; ]]ud, k af wmfuREkyf &f ydS gw,f/ apvGwaf wmfryl g/ urÇmtqH;k xdwikd f rnfrQyifMurf;wrf;ygap? rnfrQyif&dkif;pdkif;ygapapvTwfawmfrlyg/ txuft&yfrSESpfodrfhjcif;? avmuDt&mESpfodrfhjcif;wdkYay;&eftwGuf aojcif;wHcg;odjYk zpfygap ud, k af wmfEh ikd if u H s,fjyefaY &;twGuf tuREkyf u f kd apvTwaf wmfryl g}} [lí David Brainerd ua&;om;cJo h nf/ ,aeYq;kd ,kwaf eaomavmuwGi;f &Sd tjypfE0HG MJ oCwGi;f rS tjypf om;rsm;onf c&pfawmfb&k m;\ {0Ha*vdw&m;udMk um;emcGi&hf &ef apmifph m; aeMuonf/ tb,foloGm;rnfenf;¿ c&pf,meftdrfaxmifrdom;pkrS om;orD;rsm;udak pvTwí f aysmufq;kH 0dnmOfrsm;xHa0rQajymMum;apyg/ tu,fí oifrh o d m;pkwiG o f m;orD;rsm;tm;rapvTwEf ikd yf gu tjcm;aom omoemjyKq&mrsm;udk qkawmif;jcif;jzifh? aiGaMu;jzifh? ypön;f rsm;yHyh ;kd jcif; ponfwjYkd zifah z;rulnaD xmufrMuyg/ 2 aum? 9;615 wGif &Siaf ygvku ]ay;vSLjcif;jzifq h ;kH &I;H oGm;rIr&S}d aMumif;ajymqdck o hJ nf/ ay;vSLjcif;onf rsdK;aphBuJjcif;ESifhwlNyD;jyefvnf&dyfodrf; &rnfh&moD &SdaMumif;ajymqdkcJhNyD; ,HkMunfolwdkif; &dyfodrf;cGifh&&Sd&efysdK;BuJ&ef vdt k yfaMumif;az:jyxm;onf/ xdkusrf;csufudkzwf&IaomtcgwGif omrefxufydkaom wdus rSeu f efjrefqefaom bk&m;ay;enf;vrf;ESihf razgufr,Gi;f Edik af om enf;pepf rsm;udak wGU&onf/ xdak e&mwGio f ;kH rsdK;oH;k pm;aom ed,mrrsm; udak wGU &S&d onf/

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1/ y&[dwtusKd ;o,fy;kd jcif;/ vdt k yfaeolrsm;&So d nf? xdo k Ukd jyKjcif;u ay;vSLjcif;oufouf omru olw\ Ykd ,HMk unfjcif;udv k nf; wd;k yGm;ap&ma&mufjcif;/


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3/ bk&m;tusKd ;o,fy;kd jcif;/ xdo k Ukd ay;vSLjcif;onf qkawmif;yXemjyKjcif;ESit hf wl aus;Zl; csD;rGr;f jcif;rsm;vnf;txHawmfoUkd oufa&mufaponf/ uREkyf w f \ Ykd tvSL 'getm;jzifv h w l o Ykd nfb&k m;ociftm;csD;rGr;f jcif;jyKMuí bke;f awmfxif&mS ; aponf/ xdrk Qruvlom;wd\ Yk ESv;kH om;rsm;tm;txHawmfoUkd OD;wnfay; &eftcGit hf vrf;yGiahf ponf/ ]]bk&m;ocifonfwpfyg;wnf;&Sad omom;awmfukd omoemjyK tjzpfapvTwaf wmfrcl o hJ nf}} [k David Living Stone qdck NhJ yD;/ Oswald Smith u ]]oifu, kd w f ikd o f moem jyKyg? oifrjyKEdik yf gu oifu h , kd pf m; tjcm;olukd omoemjyKtjzpfapvTwaf y;yg}} [kqckd MhJ uonf/

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tpma&Smifqak wmif;&maeY tb,fah Mumifqh ak wmif;&efvtkd yfoenf;¿ awmifay:a'oemawmfrsm;wGif c&pfawmfb&k m;uuREkyf w f t Ykd m; qkawmif;&efred q Yf x kd m;ygonf/]]qkawmif;aomtcg}} (r? 6;5) [kqx kd m; aomaMumifh c&pf,mefrsm;twGuf tBuHjyKxm;csufoufoufr[kwf qkawmif;jcif;onf c&pf,mef,MkH unfow l ikd ;f ESio hf ufqikd yf gonf/ xdek nf; wlpmG c&pfawmfb&k m;u qkawmif;enf;ay;cJyh gonf/ ]]tb,foYkd qkawmif; &rnfenf;[lru l m;}} (r? 6;9)[ktpcsDumrde>Yf rwfawmfrcl o hJ nf/ c&pfawmf bk&m;\qkawmif;enf;wGif bk&m;ocif\trnfemronf OD;pGm&Sad eonf/ xdaYk emuf Edik if aH wmfwnfaxmif&ef? xdUk aemufrS uREkyf w f Ukd vdt k yfcsufrsm; vdu k v f mygonf (r? 6;9-13? vk? 11;2-4)/ ]]qkawmif;jcif;udk Oayu©mjyKjcif;avmuf c&pfawmfb&k m;tm; pdwn f pf0rf;enf;apatmifjyKEdik af omtrIxuf qd;k 0g;aomtjcm;trIt&m bk&m;om;orD;wdw Yk iG rf &Sad wmh/ qkawmif;jcifukd Oayu©mjyKaomaMumifh c&pf,mefrsm;\0dnmOfa&;toufwmonf ajcmufaoGUvQuf&MdS uonf}} [k O.Hallesby ua&;cJhonf/ ]]igwkdYonfqkawmif;oifhonfhtwdkif; tb,fqu k akd wmif;&rnf[rk odMu? odUk &mwGif igwdq Yk ak wmif;jcif;udk EIwf r>rwfEikd af om nnf;wGm;jcif;tm;jzifh 0dnmOfawmfonf apmifrh awmfr\ l / pdwfESvHk;udk ppfawmfrlaomolonfvnf; 0dnmOfawmf\ pdwfoabmudk - 162 -


h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif od a wmf r l \ / taMumif ; rl u m; 0d n mOf a wmf o nf oef Y & S i f ; ol w d k Y \ qkawmif;jcif;trIukd bk&mcoif\tvdak wmfEiS t hf nDapmifrh awmfr\ l }} ( a&m? 8;26-27) [kqdkxm;aomaMumifh oefY&Sif;aom0dnmOfawmfonf qkawmif;&mwGif q&mt&Siw f pfqjl zpfawmhonf/ qkawmif;jcif;r&Sad om toufwmonf rnfoUdk aom&mxl;ESihf *kpjf 'yf&adS eygap 0dnmOfawmfEiS hf jynf0h aomtoufwmudrk &&SEd ikd /f qkawmif;jcif;\ed,mrudo k jd cif;onf <u,f0aomb@mwdu k u f kd awGU&So d nfEiS w hf v l yS gonf/ or®musrf;pmüqkawmif;jcif;tm; atmufyg twdik ;f &Iaxmifph jkH zifh az:jyxm;ygonf/

1/ bk&m;ociftm;awmif;avQmufjcif;/ qkawmif;&mwGifawmif;avQmufjcif;onf t"dutajccH jzpfonf/ c&pfawmfb&k m;ud, k üf qkawmif;&efred q Yf ckd NhJ yD; awmif;aomtcg &rnft h aMumif;pdwcf srIuwdawmfuv kd nf;ay;xm;cJo h nf/ ]]awmif;Mu avmhawmif;vQif&rnf}} (r? 7;7)/ ]]igemrüawmif;onft h wdik ;f igjyKrnf}} (a,m? 14;13-14)/ uREkyf w f \ Ykd vdt k yfcsufrsm;udjk znfq h nf;ay;&ef twGuf ,HMk unftm;ud;k jcif;jzifh txHawmfü awmif;cHvmap&ef aumif;uifb&kH iS f crnf;awmfonf tvd&k o dS nf/ tmjA[Honf om;&wemtwGuaf wmif; avQmufco hJ nf (u? 15;2)/ rd&, d EH el maysmufuif;ap&ef arma&S qkawmif; cJo h nf (awm? 12;13)/ aumif;uifrrS ;D rd;k us&ef {vd,onf um&arv awmifay:üawmif;avQmufco hJ nf (3 &m? 18;36-38)/ jynforl sm; usef;rm jcif;&&Sad p&efa[Zudawmif;avQmufaomtcgwGiv f nf; bk&m;ociftajz ay;awmfrcl o hJ nf (2 csKyf? 30;18-20)/ - 163 -

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2/ tvdak wmfutkd yfEjHS cif;/ c&pfawmftm;jzifh crnf;awmfb&k m;ESio hf mítuRrf; w0if&v dS m aomtcg uREfyk w f o Ykd nf uREkyf w f t Ykd wGux f m;&Sad wmfral om tBuHtpnf awmfujkd rifawGUvmNyD; omí bk&m;ocifcspfjrwfE;kd ? ud;k pm;wwfvmonf omru txHawmfü rdrb d 0udk vH;k vH;k qufuyftyfEaHS om jzpfvmavyif/ wynfah wmfrsm;twGuf c&pfawmfb&k m;u ]]cvkwrf xd? ql;rnd}} [laom toufwmrsdK;jzifu h wdawmfray;cJyh g/ xdktpm;c&pfawmfbk&m; rdefYawmf rlonfum; ]]tvkdawmfudk 0efcH&mwGif tzdk;tcBuD;onf}} [líyifjzpfonf/ c&pfawmfonf crnf;awmfbk&m;\tvdkawmfaqmif&mü ESpfoufcJhonf/ crnf;awmf bk&m;txHawmfwGifqkawmif;&mü &dk;om;wnfMunfpGmjzifh oHk;Budrf wdkifwdkifþodkUqkawmif;cJhonf ]]þcGufudkvGefvdkuvGefoGm;apyg? odUk aomfvnf; uREkyf t f vdw k ikd ;f rjzpfygapESihf ud, k af wmft h vdak wmftwdik ;f jzpfygap}} (r? 26;39) [líawGU&onf/

3/ bk&m;ocifrsuaf rSmufawmfoUkd 0ifa&mufjcif;/ bk&m;ocif\rsufarSmufawmfudknTef;qdk&ef vGefpGmcufaomf vnf; bk&m;rsufarSmufawmfoUkd a&mufomG ;olwikd ;f tzd;k rjzwfEikd af om 'dX tusdK;w&m;rsm;udck pH m;Mu&onf/ b0wGiw f pfcgwpf&t H cuftcJ? tMuyf twnf;rsm;ESiBhf uHKqH&k NyD; bmvkyí f bmudik &f rnfreS ;f rodavmufatmif ab;awGUcsde&f MdS uygonf/ xdt k csdew f iG t f vHNk cHKqH;k aomae&monf bk&m; ocif\rsufarSmufawmfomjzpfonf/ uREkyf w f o Ykd nftxHawmfoUkd pdwEf v S ;kH tuRrf;rJjh zifv h mjcif;udv k v kd m;ESpo f uftm;&awmfryl gonf/

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4/ bk&m;ocifEiS pfh um;ajymjcif;/ or®musrf;pmtm;uREkyf w f zYkd wf&aI omtcgwGif bk&m;ociftm; pum;ajymapjcif;jzpfonf/ vlom;tcsif;csif;uJo h Ukd aomtoHtm;jzifh awmh uREkyf w f Ukd Mum;&rnfr[kwaf omfvnf; oefU&Si;f aom0dnmOfawmfonf uREkyf w f Ukd ta,mufwikd ;f ü tvdak wmfrsm;udzk iG jhf yajymMum;awmfro l nf/ qkawmif;jcif;trIonfum; bk&m;ociftm;uREkyf w f Ukd rSwpfjyefpum;ajym jcif;jzpfonf/ bk&m;ocif\zGijhf ycsufrsm;ESit hf wl bk&m;ocifjyKawmfrl onfhtrIrsm;twGufaus;Zl;wifjcif;ESifh tb,frQcspfjrwfEdk;aMumif; jyefvnf ajymqdjk cif;jzpfonf/

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h q,fjrL&,fp;kd vGif xdkYaMumifhvnf;tcsdKUu owdk;orD;onf r*Fvmudwftm; oli,fcsif;tysdKaz:rsm;udk ra0rSD tcsdew f iG f vufxyfvufpyG jf zifh ud;k Budrf wdik w f ikd f udwu f akd usmfvmT ;ap&ef jyKwwfMuonf/ xdu k o hJ Ukd aom vkyaf qmif rIrsm;udk 20 &mpk tapmydik ;f rSpwifNyD; us,fus,fjyefjY yefu Y sifo h ;kH vmcJh Muonf/ t*Fvef&t dS pOftvmrsm;t& r*Fvmudwu f kd oli,fcsif;tysdKr rsm;xHay;ydUk &mwGif MuufOtumtESprf smjzift h xl;jyKvkyaf y;ydMYk uonf/ udwo f nftem*gwftwGucf ifyeG ;f avmif;udk ud, k pf m;jyKjcif;jzpfNyD; MuufO jzifjh yKjyifxm;jcif;uowd;k orD;udu k , kd pf m;jyKjcif;[kqMkd uonf/ orD;ysdK taejzifhxdkudwfudk,laomtcgwGif udwfudkcH,l NyD; rdrdtdyfcef;odkU aemufqw k v f Quf,al qmif&NyD; ]]udwu f , dk v l mw,f? zl;pm&Siu f jkd rifawGUzdUk }} [k&u G q f Mkd uonf/ udwt f m;acgif;tH;k atmufwiG x f m;NyD; pum;rajymyJ tdypf uf&ygrnf/ xdkr*Fvmudwfonf a&mrwdkY\ r*Fvmtcrf;tem;NyD;aom tcgwGif pm;yGaJ omufyrJG sm;jzifh jyKvkyaf om xH;k wrf;rSqif;oufvmcJo h nf/ a&mrwdo Yk nf r*Fvmudwt f m; *sHKppfppfjzif?h qm;ESihf a&;oifw h ifph mG a&m xm;NyD; owd;k orD;acgif;ay:üzJMh uonfrmS olw\ Ykd tcspfewfb&k m;rxHoUkd ylaZmfyojcif;jzpfNyD; uHaumif;jcif;ud, k al qmifvm&efjzpfonf/ xdrk S r*Fvm udwu f v kd ma&mufaom{nfo h nfawmfrsm;twGuf uHaumif;jcif;txdr;f trSwt f aejzifah y;a0Muonf/ a&mrwd\ Yk udwzf jhJ cif;"avhx;kH wrf;pOfvmonf paumhwvefEiS hf t*Fvef ajrmufyikd ;f wdüYk &mpkEpS af ESmif;ydik ;f txdvufcu H sifo h ;kH cJMh uonfrmS ,ckusif;yaom r*FvmyGw J ikd rf u DS mvtxdjzpfonf/ trsm;pku xdr;f jrm; r*Fvmonf qif;&Jjcif;wGit f qH;k wdik af ponf[, k MkH unfcMhJ uonf/ paumh - 171 -

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Special Days by Imtijungla Longchar The Christian Holiday Cycle byPaul Ki Vel A Family Instructional Guide by The Ephesian Four Group Strong’s Hebrew and Greek Dictionaries by James Strong Godly Man by Gene Taylor What can I learn from a mom? by Jerry Watts www.sermoncentral.com www.timeanddate.com www.soelwin.info www.religionfacts.com www.wikipedia.org

www.festivals.iloveindia.com www.christianity.about.com www.pastoralnote.com www.cbc.ca www.wilstar.com www.history.com

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