Page 1

MAIN THEME

MAIN THEME: ON LANGUAGE AS VIOLENCE A PROJECT COMPOSED OF A FILM, AN URDU/ENGLISH LANGUAGE EXCHANGE, STREET INTERVENTIONS, A RADIO SHOW, PERFORMANCES, A NEWSPAPER, AND FINALLY, A MONTHLONG FESTIVAL IN LONDON: THE MUSEUM OF NON PARTICIPATION IS THE LATEST ENDEAVOR OF ARTISTS/CURATORS KAREN MIRZA AND 56

MAIN THEME

BRAD BUTLER. THE MUSEUM ORBITS THEMES SUCH AS THE ONE WE PICKED FOR THIS SECTION, ON LANGUAGE AS VIOLENCE, EXPLORED THROUGH AN INTERVIEW WITH EDIT MOLNÁR, AN ESSAY BY BRAD BUTLER, A SPECIAL PROJECT COMMISSIONED BY KALEIDOSCOPE, AND AN EXCERPT FROM A NOTEWORTHY LECTURE. 57


MAIN THEME

MAIN THEME

Playground / battleground Photo: Keren Mirza and Brad Butler

Site of Mishap Photo: Karen Mirza and Brad Butler

Museum banner intervention, Karachi

Flyer from the Shanaakht Festival, Karachi

ABOUT THE TITLE Why are Karen Mirza and Brad Butler questioning the concepts of participation, resistance, architecture and democracy by testing the limits of language? The conversation starts with what they once realized while looking out of a window of the National Art Gallery in Islamabad. interview by EDIT MOLNÁR 58

EDIT MOLNÁR: I’D LIKE TO START THIS CONVERSATION WITH A QUESTION ABOUT THE TITLE OF THE PROJECT: THE MUSEUM OF NON PARTICIPATION. I AM PROBABLY NOT ALONE IN BEING PRETTY PUZZLED BY THIS TITLE. IN THE INTRODUCTION TO THE EVENTS SERIES, KAREN WROTE, “IT’S ALL ABOUT PARTICIPATION AND ENGAGEMENT,” AS IF YOU’D LABELED THE PROJECT AS BEING THE VERY OPPOSITE OF THE WORK AND YOUR STRATEGY. Karen Mirza: It is a very important question, but the “non” in this sense is not conceived as being negative or as an inversion of the project. Rather, it is provocative; it playfully points to the fact that non-participation does not exist in our times, or that it is, in a way, a paradox. The title is proposing a possible impossibility. Brad Butler: We often tell a story that has now became kind of a metaphor for the project. We were standing in the National Art Gallery in Islamabad in the most contested gallery where the nude paintings are displayed… KM: … these were basically works about the body in art, the representation of the body, which included pieces not just about gender but also about homosexuality. Each room from the collection was curated by another art historian or critic.

BB: But when we walked around in this particular room, we looked out the window and saw the lawyers protesting outside the Pakistani High Commission. So we stood within the museum looking through the window onto this gathering mass of lawyers. The protest became violent, so we ended up watching the police beat up all these lawyers who were protesting… KM: …policemen beating up men in black suits, white shirts and black ties. Men with neat haircuts, outside the supreme court, which is an extremely modern piece of architecture. The lawyers protest was really interesting, as it was one of the largest civil non-violent protests in the history of Pakistan. Pakistan was born out of violence, the drawing of a line, Partition, the movement of Muslims and Hindus… We are really interested in its spaces for resistance. BB: We then left the gallery and literally around the corner it was peaceful. The protest was very localized. Then we started to get messages from friends asking if we were okay. They were watching the riot on television— KM: And the television presented it as if the whole of Islamabad was burning… BB: Hence The Museum of non Participation is interested in the “limits of language,” the representation of events, and in questioning how we meet events and ideas. The project also asks where art and 59

artists are situated in all this. The experience in the National Gallery represents being inside one contested space and looking out at another contested space. In Karachi, a city without a museum of modern art, museumhood began to interest us, including the idea that “museum” is a western term that does not translate into Urdu. So we began to work with the concept of a museum without walls, a boundary-less museum. A return to the original Greek idea of the museum, a border-less extension between art and life… In Karachi, you are directly exposed to geopolitical tides, you can feel them in everyday life, but here in the UK, there are intervening structures that insulate us. So, in fact, I think that non participation does exist, that we live in a constant state of non participation, even if we are not aware of it. One could say that the decision to not do something is as relevant as the decision to do something. EM: SO, AT ITS FOUNDATIONS, IS THE MUSEUM OF NON PARTICIPATION ALSO A POLITICAL ATTEMPT TO GET OUT FROM THIS SAFE POSITION AS IT APPEARS IN THE METAPHOR OF THE MUSEUM? KM: Yes, that’s it exactly. EM: HOW WAS THIS CONCEPT OF NON PARTICIPATION TRANSLATED INTO THE PROJECT ITSELF?


MAIN THEME BB: Mostly through dialogue about the concept of resistance. We came up with four different themes: “Architecture of Destruction,” “The Body, the Social Space and the Aesthetic of Resistance,” “Image, Control and Authority” and finally “The Museum of non Participation.” Then we created debates around these themes involving very different people, so each dialogue became manifest in very different forms. For example, Adeela Suleman presented a performance in which she playfully agitated the public space with her body. The performance came out of the discussion on “The Body, the Social Space and the Aesthetic of Resistance” and the question of gender in non participation. EM: WE ARE NOW SITTING IN THE LONDON VENUE OF THE MUSEUM OF NON PARTICIPATION, WHICH IS ACTUALLY LOCATED IN THE BACKYARD OF A BARBERSHOP. IT’S AN INVITING PLATFORM AS A SPACE—THERE’S THE NEWSPAPER THAT HAS BEEN DISTRIBUTED WITH THE DAILY JANG, AND ALL KINDS OF OTHER MEDIA. CAN YOU TELL ME ABOUT THIS SPACE? BB: In Karachi, we used local distribution networks to intervene in the public sphere, including tandoor wallahs, booksellers, public walls and a radio station—an interpretation of the city itself as a museum site. Nevertheless, it was obvious that the same distribution networks we used in Karachi would not work in London, a city with many art museums as well as a long history of radical public art projects. So upon our return to London, The Museum of non Participation presented an opportunity to think about the interconnectedness of things, our un/conscious life choices and the relationship between art and the everyday framed around people’s current relationship with Pakistan. This resulted in the creation of a Museum of non Participation newspaper. Nine thousand copies were sent out as a supplement with the Daily Jang in the UK. We furthermore occupied this temporary headquarters space behind Yaseen’s Pakistani Barbershop on Bethnal Green Road, and have a weekly program of debates and events so that the space itself creates new works and ideas. Inside this temporary space you can find our film The Exception and the Rule on a monitor, documentation of performances from Karachi, the Museum of non Participation newspaper intervention, a sound work, slides, newspaper clippings from local and international newspapers, a program of events and a library of books.

EM: THIS STAGE OF THE PROJECT HAS THE ARTANGEL INSTITUTION BEHIND IT. I AM CURIOUS TO KNOW ABOUT THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK AND THE COMMISSIONS INVOLVED IN THE TWO-YEAR LONG PROCESS. KM: In collaboration with the Artangel curator Rachel Anderson, we challenged certain institutional conventions and the politics of the UK’s cultural policy. For instance, education is a major force behind some of the most interesting art projects of the last five years, which have however been marginalized as “educational programs.” Through this collaboration, we were able to define a community through the art project and not the other way around. BB: A lot of the ideas that we worked on in Karachi came out of limitations—the limits of language and what we could access and what we could not. We could most easily access the elite circles, but we could not at first access other levels of society. That’s where we got obsessed with the notion of accessibility and intervention in different social spaces. Crossing boundaries became one of the leading threads of the project. EM: YOU ALSO HAD A SERIOUS CONCERN ABOUT APPROACHING PUBLIC SPACE AND THE WAY INHABITANTS OF DIFFERENT SOCIAL BACKGROUNDS NAVIGATE WITHIN THE CITY. KM: We first became interested in opening the question of “architecture and democracy” by applying textual interventions to urban structures. Even walking, ridiculous as it sounds, can be a very radical and provocative act within the social space of the middle class. First of all, Karachi does not provide so many outdoor spaces for non-car users; such spaces don’t really exist, thanks to aborted urban plans in the face of huge and rapid population migration. BB: At a certain point, we started to imagine that maybe this urban scenario is the future. That what we are witnessing here is a massive confluence of global capital manifested as architecture. KM: This leads to the issue of basic survival strategies, the brutality of the city versus the economic power of those who have chauffeurs and who can drive around the city in air conditioned cars.

60

MAIN THEME EM: COULD YOU DESCRIBE YOUR REASONS FOR USING TEXT BANNERS IN SUCH AN INVASIVE WAY IN PUBLIC SPACE? KM: The relationship between text and action is another important issue. Karachi has a whole textual narrative written on walls. It runs through the public space in a system that is both informal and formal, legal and illegal… Walls start to seem like surfaces to hold texts. So we mounted our museum with temporary signs that we just can put up ourselves. That minimal intervention opened up the space for conversations. For example, we were in the city center where we put up a sign encouraging people to come over and read the word “museum.” A storeowner thought we were from the heritage industry, so he introduced us to a woman who showed us the back of the building, which had dissolved, and where people were living in horrendous conditions. Others thought we were there to measure the building in order to kick them out and make them homeless. BB: So here we have a situation where we have a text as image, image as object, image as event— KM: —and text as action. BB: I also remember that in Karachi, we really tried to get our sign onto the halffinished Hyatt building. KM.: The Hyatt has stood unfinished for fifteen years and is now a kind of public monument for the failed implementation of planning and property relations, whether that failure be due to corruption, land ownership disputes or just budget deficits. It’s a highly contested space at the heart of the financial district, a half-built structure that is now a military outpost. It is only when you try to get out your camera to photograph the Hyatt—and are promptly stopped by the armed patrol—that you find you are in a controlled zone because of the hotel’s proximity to the Marriott hotel and the recent terrorist attacks on international symbols like the Marriott in Islamabad.

BIO

BRAD BUTLER & KAREN MIRZA’s artistic practice is based on collaboration and dialogue. This manifests itself in a multi-layered practice of filmmaking, drawing, installation, photography, performance, publishing and curating (www.mirza-butler.net). Their work is engaged with challenging and interrogating concepts such as participation, collaboration, the social turn and the traditional roles of the artist as producer and the audience as recipient. Karen Mirza and Brad Butler have been actively involved in the London art scene for over ten years and have participated in exhibitions in leading institutions in Europe and abroad (Serpentine Gallery, Architecture and film Biennale Graz, Thomas Dane Gallery London). They recently won a 2008–2009 production grant from the Museum of Contemporary Cinema Foundation Madrid and are currently nominated for the 2010 Transmediale Award Berlin. Their current work, “The Museum of Non Participation,” was commissioned by Artangel, one of the UK’s leading arts organizations. Mirza and Butler are also co-founders of the radical artist platform no.w.here (www.no-where.org.uk).

AUTHOR

EDIT MOLNÁR is a freelance curator and critic working between Budapest and Berlin. She was the director of the Cairo-based independent nonprofit art institution The Contemporary Image Collective (CIC) between 2007–2009 and a curator of the Műcasarnok/Kunsthalle, Budapest from 2005–2007. From 1999–2004, she was the director of the Studio Gallery, Budapest, a non-profit exhibition space of the Studio of Young Artists Association, which focuses on progressive, emerging artists, establishing and fostering connections with foreign partner institutions. Edit Molnár earned a MA in Art History in 1998 and a MA in Aesthetics and Theory of Art in 2005 from Eötvös Lóránd University, Budapest. In 2002, she participated in De Appel’s curatorial training program in Amsterdam. Her recent projects include co-curating the exhibitions “On Mobility” (200506) in Amsterdam/Berlin/Vilnius/Budapest; “Dreamlands Burn” (2006-07) at Műcsarnok/ Kunsthalle and co-curating “Tales around the Pavement” Chapter 1-2, Cairo. Recently with Aleya Hamza she curated the project “PhotoCairo4: The Long Shortcut” in Cairo.

Boundary wall intervention, Karachi

BB: That’s also why we never need to build a Museum of non Participation, because it is already there—we just have to appropriate the spaces. KM: In some way, we are less about producing new things than about claiming and pointing to what is already there.

61


MAIN THEME

MAIN THEME

Cities Unbuilt Photo: Keren Mirza and Brad Butler

62

63


MAIN THEME

ON LANGUAGE AS VIOLENCE What if television, cinema, education and the news were seen as a vehicle for distorting the truth, to the extent that we were all being colonized? A brief introduction to how language can be a powerful weapon for reinforcing the consensus view of the world. words by BRAD BUTLER

64

MAIN THEME In Algeria, Islamic fundamentalists and the French ministry (unbeknownst to each other) have found consensus. Islamic fundamentalist groups have begun to refer to satellite dishes (antennes paraboliques in French) as antennes para“dia”boliques (devil dishes) because these dishes allow Algerian Residents to view the outside world. Yet in France, the same satellite dishes are now the symbol of “immigrants”—an alien cultural presence, threatening the integrity of French national identity. Replicating the pun of the Algerian Fundamentalists, these dishes are also referred to as antennes paradiaboliques—signifiers of trouble (or evil) for the French. In the words of a French Ministry of Social Affairs report, “We risk those with satellite receivers being manipulated by foreign powers, all the more so in that the number of dishes is constantly growing, particularly in the banlieues… In addition, the various channels are broadcast in Arabic, which could undermine years of literacy classes and other efforts at Gallicising these people. Moreover the religious content of certain programmes will probably increase the Islamisation of the banlieues.” Every morning in Karachi, I read the local newspapers. This became a pattern. The front pages of the international and local news told me how my day might go. In these troubled times, news headlines had direct impact on my sense of freedom around the city, the distance I was prepared to go from home. Most articles were lucid, intelligent, balanced and current, but as the days and opinion cycled past, so my interest in these articles waned. After all, even a cursory look at a map would raise an eyebrow as to the complexity of Pakistan’s neighbors. This is a country where so many (geo-)political points converge that their tides are directly played out in people’s everyday. The pace of daily change piled thoughts on top of one another. When I put this to a learned friend active in Pakistan, he laughed and told me that “to understand Pakistan you must first understand that you cannot rationalise the non-rational.” Paradoxical experiences such as these are being played out every day in a contemporary global condition of inexhaustible layers of mediation and incommensurability. If we had time to acknowledge it, then we would notice that hardly a sentence goes by that does not merit interrogation, hardly an image goes by that does not merit interrogation, unless the decision was taken to suppress precisely that. Which is why so often, for life to proceed, it’s a matter of measures not being taken. But we do not have time; instead, we are constantly

in the process of making ideological decisions to curtail such discussions, in the interest of getting things done. Marc Augé describes this situation as a contemporary crisis caused by a saturation of images that have destabilized our relationship to reality. For Augé, the “fictionalization” of the world is underway, resonant with predictions that have been heightened post-9/11, where a “War of Dreams” is being played out as a “War of Images” by media and governments. This, he describes, is a complex multilayered process of repetition and feedback. The abstract nature of this is impossible to quantify precisely because the scales of this operation are enormous: from satellites bouncing images across the earth, to the rise of chain stores, television, advertising, background music in a supermarket, to the way “surgical strikes” are imaged by the military. To know that on the whim of the remote control, one can move from thousands dead in a flood to a coup d’etat in Africa, to a football league replay, to a motorway accident… These images call on us as viewers to become passive witnesses to a variety of landscapes that are both remote and close. “From time to time, all references to any reality whatsoever disappear. Thus advertising plays upon the supposed effects of its prior repetitions and proceeds by way of allusion, by self-referential quotation: the opening bars of a tune, the outline of a well-known image remind us of a whole sequence and, by extension, of the excellence of a brand of coffee or a car. Television itself willingly becomes its own object and narrates the glorious hours of its brief history as if it were ours too, and indeed it is, inasmuch as we have lived through and by the image” (Auge, 1999). To put it in a nutshell, we all have the feeling that we are being colonized, but we don’t exactly know whom by; the enemy is not easily identifiable, and one can venture to suggest that this feeling now exists all over the world, even in the United States. How is this happening? It is happening because “what we see is inseparable from how we see.” “Fully articulated narratives” are now an established device in television, cinema, education and the news, and our very sentence structure presents ideas as having a beginning, middle and satisfying conclusion. But in a modern period of powerful movements of acceleration and excess, this dependence on narrative cohesion is actually just another form of systemic violence. For his book Flat Earth News (Random House, 2009), Nick Davies spent four years analyzing “how news becomes news.” In this wide ranging

critique of media news reporting, he argues that the fully articulated argument has become a dangerous form of manipulation and fiction: “Contemporary journalism is organised to collect innumerable nuggets of self-contained fact, to report an atomised world of a million tiny tales. These tales now are not merely atomized but, more than ever, they are internally constructed in order to sell. The failure to provide context has multiplied and divided into a preference for human interest over issue; for the current over the historic, for simplicity rather than complexity; for certainty rather than doubt. This applies in both print and broadcast, generating patterns of distortion so consistent as to amount to a bias against truth.” The danger in this is that this use of language simply confirms the consensus view of the world—a framework of popular assumption. This was dramatically presented in articles on the Mumbai attacks. For example, you have the pretend outrage in The Daily Mail that terrorists could use our own technology against us: “Terrorists steered their vessel using GPS equipment. A satellite phone was later found aboard. Once the coordinated attacks began, the terrorists were on their cell phones constantly. They used BlackBerries ‘to monitor international reaction to the atrocities, and to check on the police response via the internet.’” Yet on the other hand, you also have the immediate repeat fictionalization of the same events as reported in The Daily Telegraph: “According to the Indian Motion Pictures Producers Association in Mumbai, at least 18 titles associated with the Nov 26 Mumbai strikes have been registered so far. These include 26/11 Mumbai Under Terror, Operation Five-Star Mumbai, Taj to Oberoi, 48 hours at the Taj and Black Tornado. According to the Producers Association, the first title was registered as early as Nov 28, a day before the siege was finally lifted.” The truth is that we are now all embedded in modernity. This is how the modernist perspective works. We all share conditions of modernity, and at least some identities, with each other. Consequently, we should also take this opportunity to challenge our own embedded structures of realist description. Let us put the verb at the end of the sentence as they do in Urdu, let us try reading our words from right to left. Let us challenge the various structures of racism, sexism and imperialism that are inscribed implicitly and explicitly in the very fabric of our language and its conditions of authority. These are historical structures built into the very production of language by its traditional outlets without 65

recourse. Rather than building texts that present a self-contained universe, let’s acknowledge and present the complexity of discourse “in development.” And given that we are fed these messages and formats every day, how easily can we escape from our own explanatory attachment to authoritarian narrative? Could this article still be valid without a conclusion? INFO

One of Karen Mirza and Brad Butler’s interventions for The Museum of Non Participation was a supplement in Urdu and English of the Daily Jang Pakistani newspaper. Brad Butler’s article titled “On Language as Violence: Where Geopolitical Tides Converge Their Tides Play Out in the Everyday” was originally published in that supplement. Images accompanying the text in Kaleidoscope are the original Urdu pages of the Daily Jang supplement.

CURRENT & FORTHCOMING

Forthcoming projects from Mirza / Butler include a Museum of non participation performance at Le Centre de la Photographie, Genève and the Waterside Project, London. Nominees at Transmediale 2010 Berlin, their work will also be featured in an exhibition at Alexander Zaheb in Berlin and at General Public in Berlin. The performance “The Space Between” will be presented at the Courtisane festival in Ghent Belgium and “The Exception and the Rule” at the Festival Les Inattendus in Lyon. Forthcoming curatorial activities at no.w.here include the Free Cinema School with The Serpentine Gallery Centre for Possible Studies, an online publication collaboration with MIACA Japan, the reading group “The Aesthetics of Resistance” and “Independent Film from Palestine” in collaboration with Arabshorts.net (www.no-w-here.org.uk).


MAIN THEME

MAIN THEME

2

( ci +Zyß) WÐáZjÆVU‚WÅo}uzŠ Ëä ]ØggzZY: s»Z ~ yÎ 0* ä VrZ X Å F,{Š c* iÐ ~ yZ X X]c* D ÌÅ yDgÆ pg7® n ) ,Z Åh e6,ñZ™ c* äh +y " yk ÃV”LZ{z! åwì»Vzh! {”~Š " á&Ô¸ ½!VYXÐ ÃZߊ 7½Ðzz Å ðµ ðÃ{z´Æ~zK7Z! åI»yZXì P¹ 4$ô¸ Å" áÌÆV-zgÆVâZ! â{z Ô7çlOG Xì Zƒ†ŸZ ~ Vz×wyÐzz ÅXÔ¸ Ôxg~wjâ {Š17Z!¶Ìe $Dt7Z Xì@* 7, ** ™^gzZ** ™x » Y 2000!ì ™f. Þ‡Ì]!* t~ekZ Æ Îâ ÏZ áZz äY K ~ Y 20 0 2 gzZ ~ i-zÚZ yZ X¸ Z}gŠ ò}Æ i- zÚZ {z X Hg ÖZ » ]gm6,]© LZ ä Vzh! ¸ xŠ ** Ì6,ä™ÔÅ]÷ZpÅVÍg ) ,LZ ‰ äVZ ã.6,Vð; Æ :7 7Z gzZ áZz äY K ~ ˆ X å o‚ Ì» ]uZz %N{Š c* }Ñç{zX¸Š OZæF i} h!t ~ i- zÚZ :7! å I »yZX¸ìg™W6,„ ! (gzZ g«i‚gzZVÃg0* ä~X}™:y.6, 7Z ÐVß ZzäWVŒ{z! HwZÎÐVß ZzäW6, O zgáZz äYÇg Zzg kCH~}g!* Æ õ)G ~ yZ Ô å Š HHwZÎt Ð Š Z" ÛZ30 ?! D™ Ã{!z Iè gzZ Y !Ð áZjkZ ä {g Š HÐ O zgÆnkZ! å I »yZ Ôc* ~È0* 6,õ)G Š™Šš ! ì wì » õ0*Ð ~ yZ Xce ´Š Î ** ƒ 7Ÿ » ó | ó e ÷ ÷~ Š Z" ÛZ {” ~Š " á ) ±yZ! â¼ ƒ ! t! å I » VÍßkŠ Xce I»Š Z" ÛZ9áZzäWVŒÔì 7YZ aÆ ~p pg]©ÆÎâkZ6,Rm{q -Z! å Å Rm{ kZ ä VrZ Xì 7`w ðà X Å7s # Ÿz kZ™? Ø Ð ~zK!ìt ] !* ÅKVŒ Æ }Ñ çgzZ ?ì ;g ò³ H » ~p~(, Hy "WÆ~p~b6Z`ÑÆV5Z 6, 5™¹!*

á‚ßÖ o2]†Ò

àŠu Í…^Â

V5äxgŠ gzZBZÑZ Å VzàÆ [† Ì » V=p~ V-zg Y !gzZ Ï0 + i i§Æ ! ÃÔõ1IZ m, † eÔ,g»5Ôì YY H{@x wjZ l7 ~ˆ˜Ô¢ QÔwâ Ô3»Š Å e ¯ ñƒ ïŠ (F,Å ~g Zh +y "gzZ VbgE- gzZ ÃcZ™~ekZX !]oλkZ ]Zg 3Z ‰áÆàkZ ë @* Ôì 7Ýq FZ ðÃÌ gzZg ZŠZ Y!Å V±!* ÆZgŠ!ÐkZgzZ gzZ V¸ Šg)ÔV´p~ yDgÆ ²~g Zh +y " 5. 5ÒF ¹g0* Z ~ ] 4yZ X ! ðƒ ’~ çEl½G ~ ±yZ! â{@x »V=px ¬ àZz äƒ úzg ÆV¹‚LZyZ! âtXì YYH6, gîòÀ -Z ~ V¸´ ´‚ gzZ Vi Å VÃg 0*B‚ q {z ]‡zZ ‰X ! D WÃÆB‚Æ}uzŠ ÃÌñƒ g e Çgu6,VâZiÆ}uzŠ q -Z V-zgyZÆyZ!ìt]!* 0Z]ªX !D W ïŠ ™iZ0 +ZÊ Z" ÛZ vŠ áZz äW~ ug0* à B‚Æ VâZ0 +{ LZ ÌŠp]‡zZ ‰gzZ ! -Iw‚ {gG Ð [ Z X ! D WÃÆVŒ J tzgt ~ Vzh! gzZ VzŠ%áZz äW~ VÃg 0* Vzh!áZz äW~ VÃg0* :7 X å @* W7à ! †X ¶g™gë¤ / Ê Z" ÛZvŠáZzäWVŒgzZ ö ~ V˜ ~}ÑçáZzp pg mÐ ¨Z kZgzZì @* Y Hxlí » ~p5kZ ÔVƒ J(, Xì @* Y HtÃÌZ Å ò}Æ kZgzZ ~p Xì ~pÅÎâ~Š ã Ct~wì}÷ ä~aÆ+ Y{!zÅkZgzZyDgÏZ gzZ VÃg0* ~á² ãxgŠÆ Y 2006gzZ Y 2000 ]ÑZÎgzZ-zÚZÐVzh! yZ! âÎ6, g«i‚ X¸ {” ~Š " á} h! 2 8 Ð ~ yZ XK Ð~yZ ÔåZƒxJ eÃVzuLZ ä&Zp 32 X åZƒH@d $i c* „M »8 -g}¤ /c* { (ä21 ! ( θ,Z} h! 18sÜÐ ~ yZ „ o8 "7,,¸Ï(~ ]Zg¶Z {z c* Ô¶ö-FFwŠÐ $ÒZ Å &Zp~ Vzh! yZ X¸ D™I e Vzh! 83 X ¶Ïu" Ð ekZÆ -zÚZ

=i +', gzZ Zi%yP<g W X ^Âq -Z »wø| #Ù

î ) S#²{Š c* i Ð w ‚ 30 { z X å ã !* X ë *iñ»]zŒ gzZ Å ä™ w EZ n Æ œ£ Æ ~gŠ Z', ~!Og: yZ Ðí\ Wƒ ̼ !t $6,yß ~ ˆ x £ t X ; g @* . ™e $× X ÇV î Y c* 0* {Š%~kZ <g WÐ Z Ì[ ZgzZ Š Hƒ sp~- e:Z Ë~[ZpÃÙyYk , ’Ñ!* zgq x Zú!ì {g ZŠ Z jœ)q -Zt X ! D ` 5! Xå@* ™òúŠ »äƒÑzã! ðZ!ä 5k½G ! zZ Ñzã Xì î n Æ Vß¾ èE½G á. $6,Ðb ~ 1974 Ùy Y X åq -ZÐ ~ » \ "

b§Å VzS ~y "WÅgš Dada ¬ X Vƒ \ W ÂVƒ D™: t · Z Ð gškZ \ W¤ /Z ´p ÐgzZ w õ w ¸t X ! D B Dadaist äƒ ï" á~ kZ ~6,gî CZ f Xì êŠ ð3Š xÎñÐ x ** ßÃ*iñkZgzZ Vƒ @* ™g ï ZÐ G +Ã*iñÐ Z ë! @* ƒ4X Vƒ@* ™g¦ »V ðG34‘$ ~qŸg)c* ë *iñ»VØç$ +Ô ë *iñ

Zi%yP" ÛZ¤ /I ¯ X c Z™~gZ- Šg e

ÇÃ|Ìe X ~g Z-Šge

Å c* z}~yßx™Z: Zçg X !Vz

Zi%yP<g W X {g 0* ® à{”y) X¸K yÐ Vð; LZ Špä VrZ ! Ô! ¶fm "yZz6,~²" ágzZ ^gWÔb‚ V˜àt ¶~gY “) CZygzZq¡Îâ ÆyZgzZ Xì [ƒgD»+ M ** Z„KZ[Z H X å Zƒy6,Š ã CÅg¦³)q -Z èE4X3} V˜Ôì {Š™y»Vð; ãK ¨Z¼ƒ ! ~àkZ XìVc* ú¹~gz™Ð]¡ ~ y!* i ã** - & *iñ  Zg ø i HÑ mouseion H¹ museum ~ y!* Š yZ Å V--Š â Å Ñâ -Š ðzg gzZ ã** - |gŠ Vc* -Š ÅšgzZ uñÔ~²" á! ågq » V@ aÆt # Iz cyÆgzŠ kZX !CY ½ X¸ D YK ¦ic* àWZVŒX¸ mº C)~ cwŠ Å uñgzZ ¶CY Å ~²" á XåŠ Hƒg2 +Åx ÂCc* Š !* Wâg¦t » *iñX ‰ 4H & I kG 4 5 j F E G ³#Å}gJŠ ä è g0* y** s W*iñ[Z Xì¿g™éZpÅ}¾~‚ gzZgZzŠ ZƬ Ð kZgzŠh +] .}gø [Z ì Cƒ]ª6,]!* kZ ÂB {^ ,Y »gzŠ Cc* Š!* Wâ Vƒ Cƒ Ån¾]&Å^gW~gzŠ kZ! kZ ~ ]gqq -Z ŠЊ!ì m, ?~gø X Ï

" ! ŠŸ » äw" X ì [tÃVzg 0* {" áÐ ëX !(hZt nÆäg Z ¦ /‰ Üz¼™á : Zgz& X ì @* ™g ï ZÐ ÎâIè Å âZg Ñ Ln Æ ä™[ Z! w ZÎÐDL ZÆ y Z ! Š Z"gzZì @* ”ŠÃVziñWâ!ŠŸ»¿i§ Æ VÍß á Zz äWh +" áX ! Èg „ g r gzZ ì @* ™ ù » VÍß {0 + i Ð ¹ ! ŠŸ » Ô}i 5á Zz ¶ŠÐ VVZ—[ Z! »Vß ZÎ ŠŸ»‘u! Š Z ÂVƒ‰ : wÈë¤ /Z 3 Z éZ} . `Šg U* WgzZ Vzq ãZ6,ÔV â »Š Œ6,`! E" ÛË! ä VŒ1 Å ã0* " wŠ » TgzZ á ÀÐ e $*í é5Hk½5G á ZzÌ ~ ¢ È,],ZgzZ ~jØ{! VƒB; ÆkZƒ~g EZgzZ©!* CZg¦gzZ ÇVŒ ëXì c* Š ¯ {Š x Zg WÃ*iñ gzZ Vƒ D ™• %w~ Avant-Garde ! D Wn Æ úÅ V\WKZ ™ $Ð ŠŸ VÈ~ ] íÂx Ó! ŠŸ »g ï Z 6,gî D „ 3 Ï ¸ZgzZ ë$ +yÃ~y "WÐ ƒ ! X! Xƒ yp~ Vzg Z- Š Å] P! ì Le ú 7!WÅ nÆg ÖZƃ zÕLZ k0* Æ\gX !ChzŠ b§Å E5F 4]Z~Gp! 7p ÖZ HÌ(Z ä V ðG34G ãZ y T $Ú }g ø *iñ }g ø p á±! ª #zŠgzZ ì @* ƒC ٪Рì Ât X ì ÅäZ $ " Æt Z $ Û Šß Wypq -Z { zX 7Ìx9 V¶ Æ 6U*> ¶ K~ß ¤Z gzZ ˆ Kß Seville G : VY ] ÑZÎ 6,yZ n kZ X ! b§ }n g Ñ" Æ Tì  (Zt X ðƒ ¦~ ý Të! ǃ {Šx Zg W 'Yt w q¾ ?N Y ¿ Ð ¹ n Æ ä™yZŠ¤ /Å kZ X ! ~Ó’Ë´ â—‚ »kZ ! D™Ià & ñÅkZ ~ y!* i Å {%izg ëX ! M hY ñ¯ öúÅV ð.gBE +4Æ%%" c* Zƒ uh Æ kZ Xì Chinga Ât X ! D ™kC ÝZ ÁËt gzZ 7xÎñÐ Ék ,5 +¹F,Ë Ô ` Zg @*z ªÔg â ^ß Ô „ n Ô ~gŠ Ó p z „ npX 7_ Z÷Åx ¸~ á$ +Æ g ‡z ÙªÃ(gzZ ‰ C Üz Ðt X ! ‘ugzZÄŠ Ô Ï- â Äp *iñ}g ø ÃsÐ VE¶ KÅ ~Š !* ', ™ ¹ ÌŠŸ» à bX !D ™7g U* ÓÅ ng Z gŠ â La Chingada Xì @* WÆ×gzZ

Ÿæçrß!

CmZ! !s1^Ñ,Z~Š Z®°»ë pg qZ ~g7 Å%1 s ëp! Dƒ Ì n X! (The Muses to Hesiod, Hesiod Theogony 25)

ì uðÃt H ?ì H*iñ »• % ZÑx° w ¸ðà c* ì Vñ ðÃt H ?ì·ù »g U* WgzZ ¼ƒ ! t!ì e?[ ðà c* Ú ´p Ðw õ Vƒ}g 0* ®{Š c* iÐ q -Z c* -Z6,gî{Š ‚ c* q ƒ ~ “ ) n Æ ä™Ýqz ÂÅ VÍß! ! c* ! D™ ] ÑZÎ {¤ ã!* Æ kZ ?Vƒ c*NŠ) ðÃt c* ?!w ZΊpnÆϤ ¹ ?ì tÅlyZÄ»kZ c* ?ì li ‚— » kZ X ! Dƒ Za Ð" µkZ ] ÑZÎÐ Å *iñ gzZ • % ZÑ ë èY ?ì H Ñ X !g66,ä™)gzZ ïÆV- È u ! ! }g ZŠ Z x Z !Z . Þ‡yT $Ú c* *iñ ïŠ x !Z # Ö} .ÅöúgzZ ±ÂÔ«™Å âZ B‚ÃV” yZgzŠ Æ lg !* c* yŠ Æ ”X !

݆Ò] äÞ]ç•…

qZ ðÃ~ | # ÙVâzŠ yZ!ì 'ât Z÷X ¶ ³#Å}uzŠ q -Z VâzŠtp¤ /Z Ôì V7 q gzZìt‚Z÷yÎ 0* Ðb§q -ZX !$ ËWà Â7t‚Z÷¤ /ZgzZVƒSe** ƒo1%ÐkZ~ Ð }uzŠ q -Z VâzŠ ëJ -Z # X 7̼ 7kCåÊp~ J -‰ Üz kZ 7Ð " X$ Ë™ ïgzZ f7,~ }g !* Æ yÎ 0* ~A (Zq -ZtXì ꊙyZª6, hñC Ù=tVƒC™ ~}g!* Æ kZgzZ VzyZ x Ó~÷! ì o Ç~gzZ ì @* ™ÔÅ]Zg¦{Š™ì‡Ð ¬ X$ Ë™7gOZcÚ ŠÐZ~Ï0 + i } 7,bŠ s # Ÿz Å]!* kZ Ì[Z= H Se ** ™VY {@x »yÎ 0* Šp]Z& +~!Ï X 7]gz¢Å3F, ÃiZzWÅlg !* ÔÇ!* ?Vƒ

X ñYHì‡Ã*iñ »Ïi@* z]] .å V˜ì x £(Zq -Z Њ CgˆyxgŠ Æ [fgzZ tæXì M kˆZ R',gzZ ‹" ÛZ Ô«z tæЊ Ð wÅ œ / % pgo1%ÃV!gâ {z´Æð‚gJ p -Lgâ ~ O%Z gzZ ê ¾æXì ;g™ ZŠ Z gZŠ™ëZ Ì~ ;g ™ ZŠZ gZŠ™ ¸ Њ Ì~ eÆ V!g â Vƒƒ ! ogzZ 2Z¸gÇi‚aÆ ÷) , Xì ~ ЊР*Š ~g‚Ðzz Åugz *" ÛAgzZ Xì CY ð0* Y cY Z ‚ ÛZ,ja Æ ~g»tâu ñƒ sZ e {©~ à\ Å” ðƒ Hq -Z w¾ ÆkZ Xì @* –Vªðõ Z {(Ð }n LZ Æ ¡Ð V#Z Á {z Xì li°~ Vð; 8 Š Ã} aZz VZô ñƒ } 9 + $Y ~uzŠ }ñVŒ ñƒ D™'!* Ð ?ë¤ /Z ÷ ÷Xì ?ƒìg™]!* ~÷?H !õ„ »…?‰ „} #kZ sÜgzZÐ,Š N~ã={z Ð o ÃVßZz ä™x » ~ H kZÉ 7 Hz ðõ Z +F, +Æ ÐŠ XÐ ,™C $ Ù!* wï Ág» CZyt ~} ;ÑÐ Lgq -Z ~ 5™¹!* 6,

C™C ÙªÃÄc* gŠ Å *Š 5~ {gzõ8 g- ! ~gŠ VzŠ c* {Š 1 +Z La Chingada pX ì Xì œ6,`Šg U* WÆG!!7ŠzöJ ii +Zt Xì @* WÃ~ Vzàg Ñ"Æ*Š ~Št ] ¸+Zt Xì V © ~ eà CQÆ~g FÅ z 㨠KZ q â§{ Åä¾ œ{Š c* iÐ {Š c* i! ì t Xì „g™ Š !* ,à VD ~¡ Æ ã Z³ ' }g øt Xì Ï0 + i Å ]g ˆ@ ¬ Å Vzg Ï Xì „ ! 6, uvÅVzyT $Ú The Xì d $" ÛgzZ Kz¯ *iñ  Zg ø y!* i HÑ Museum gzZ ( ã** - ) Mouseim Æ6Æ x?ZmG.ñ]|! ! p ÖZÆ E+ GG3G ©G3ÒCÐ kZgzZ ñƒwEZ n tX Zƒrz" Û Ãï Æ ] c* ÃIz c Ô„zg¨Ôy·Š yŠ H6 *iñ (ZXì @* ™C ÙªÃVßßZÆ". Þ‡** Ã`Šg U* WÃ*iñX å(ÅðÅ ~²" áÔD # ! _(,‰ Z Üz kZ ~ gŠ´ùÆ T kZXì pëÆe $g EZ ** ¯(Åp pgpô VÅŠ c* V˜ X ñY á Æ™ ~ga ðÃ7Z s ÜÆ î · ðÅ *iñÆ • % ZÑx° b§ Å wt ë @* }Š h — ^Å „ ÑÆ kZ gzZ g EZ Š!ñ~ kZ Xì sŠ ZáÆ ä¾ Xì C™Šæ~g ø~Ú ŠÃk , ¦ zcgzZ ±Â‰ Üz!nÆq -ZC Ù·ù»w qZ @* hg™Ñ V¹…g¦ » • % ZÑx°p Xì *iñ »g ZŠZt Xì [ ø 7Š n ƃI ï" á~ *iñÆ • % ZÑx°! {Èt gzZ ì É 7»"ht X 7» âZ ËgzZgŠ. Þ‡

ó~ ó ÷ ÷~uzŠ KZ iZzWÅVzãÅ eg1 Å~ 6 x£}uzŠ ˉ , Üz ÏZ! ÔVƒ $ ËÍÌÐ ËÍiZzWÅ áé} q $ -Z ~ Xì ðƒ ù U» kviZzWt àZz ä½Z Щ: X Vƒ ¹q -Zta}÷XìËxÐáËàZz ~(, {Š c* i(ÅC Ù!* Ðx £kZXì/Šï Fi8FwŠ áÐ iZzWÅäZ”ÆVzãÅ eg1ÅgzZì ~uzŠ ~÷Xì }W{Š c* i ~ iZzWŽ Æ ì Y7gzZì ÅìZæ~aÎ~÷äó ~ ó ÷÷ ** ™kCÃV”zŠ LZ X Vƒ —Ì~ H! ™ƒË~V!ZzŠ! Ôì/ŠNŠq -Z X„~V”zŠ ÅŠpªX !D™ðp ÖZ xk B ~uzŠ ! œ /Z% 6 Æ ]c* Š OZ X ! ñƒ ì‡~ ЊgzZ ugzZ ]g¸ ˆ Æ }gøäVrZÐp ÒÆŠ ZZ +YgzZCÔgZzZa X !Kì‡bzZi6 FÆKgzZWÎa Æ8{Æ*Š Åzi!* N !* ˆÆY 1989 „g7¹!* ]¸ðÃàZzä™ ½Ã~gZŠtâuˆ x »#²{Š c* i6,VƒZp@ÁÃV.g»~ Њ Xì {zì ;g 7,×ÃVj ( {i$»Tì ;g 7,** ™ ìg™Vc* g» Å ` îZ ~²â ~gÛ} (,} (,

]‡†Ú á†nÒ

TVƒùa½»{Š ‚q -Zt ‚LZ~ }÷|gŠXì ~¤ /]gßÅwyZÄ» x »}g‚„ +hZR, Ûq -ZÉ 7½»~Ç -Z™gŠ™~Ð +hZ R, q ÛkZXì C™ @¬gzZVƒCYrÅÃ]¬çñZÐ}uzŠ uZgŠ Z » {¢q]Ñq)gfÆQ‚d $z6,R QŠæ ~KÃw Ð kZ = Vƒ C™ Æ ]ÑZÎxÓ LZ )gfÆ , MÚZ ~ Xì ÌyT $Ú »qËÑX Vƒ g™Ýq]!* Z! ëZ q -Z ~ eÆKgzZ WÎ~ iZ0 +Z Z Æwq: âi~œ / %@¬q -ZtXì @* ™ZŠ ZgZŠ™ »Æ TÔì ÒÃÅä!Ã}®ŠÄgÍ GG ©^I ñ; zgŠ gzZ ]Zz) x° Ô èG45 o Ž/~ !Vƒ C™Äc* gŠÐŠp~X ! V© A $Z% ~X Vƒ$ Ë™ØZ' ×~J -u¾gzZ b§¾ ]1)ÔVƒC™)gfÆ^gW~)!ZiZ»kZ bâ + $Y Åyq -Z„ ! (gzZ ]§!ÔB‚Æ x Ó~ TÔì x £ (Z n }÷^gWX Vƒ XìeÇi!* »V‡

& EG-4E yß Ôezg+¤ /ÿ5Ÿ G¯c* ×k¯ÅVâ !* i‹ZzŠg Z 2…ë6,x !ZÆkgÃXì k(,{g e ~ yZ X ! D WB‚ Æ Vâ !* .G i gzZ ] !* Š ä3~ çE E Y Ô! ºÔð` "Ô×7 Ô !²Ô ~y Ô à{ C ‰ Vze gzZ ©‘ gzZ ! D Y a Æ Ô a e Ô ã0* IE 4] 5F Z ÔAN* Z ÔúZ" Û i Ô ø4G ?6,Å zŠgZ KZ Æ ™ ’ A ] !* 6,] ¬çñ KgzZ %1 3!* # ™ŒX ! Dƒ ï" ááZz s W *iñgzZ 3 F, ~ k¯ ~g øX ! D™ yZ ÷ ÷õ7X I » r CƒÝqÌZ ~œ / %Ã] ¬çñ‰Ÿg 0* y** ì Cƒ ]ª™NŠÃà 8gzZ ò}ÆVί /ó Z Ô]*—ZVŒ! VY wŠ {Š c* i ~ ä™lˆpÆ p ÖZ yZ ëXì R(Ô\z¤ o8 }g ø X ! D WáZz ä™x »gzZ vßÆ ~x|ZË~y!* igzZ Ë! !n pg ö-FF k0* Ú Ë6,gîx¬  »¨ #¤X Vƒ Dƒ wEZ ä™x »~Vzg ZŠ Z CZíÔ<gW~Vß ZzäW g !* gzZ å Ç- q -Z Ôi˜ ðZg e Ô}i 5 áZz Xì @* ƒ wEZ a Æ áZz ä™ ÔÆ ', - Ń ! y Z X ! ï" ᄃ ! » y]¤X å @* Y ¹D¨ #¤ÐZ ~ zŠg Z!Z # Ð yZgzZ ðY q -Z W ÙÐ ~ yZ Xì/Šï g ±ZÆy!* igzZì @* ƒw EZ {Š c* i~zŠg Z  C Fi8FwŠ ¹ q _Ô! ²ÔzŠg ZX å7mðÃÐ< -] zŠÃcC ÙXì i Z0 +Z CZ »WÎ »¿ Øè»kZÐ ëJ 4E 7Ô%Z¤ H7ÀF,ðà »y]¤Â~ *Š ÅVß Zz%1 Ôy!* iÔ„ ! ( Ô< Ø è Ôs # (Ôg åH5E /Ôp ÖZ G Ô46,Š ã CòsZ Ât~ *Š ãzÛ!Z # ìŠ H kZ X¸ D™W6,qçñC ÙJ -e ¯gzZ w!* Å 5™¹!* 6, ð¸gzZ 4zŠ yxgŠÆ¥~ËÆwì!Š n

o:†+ç+ oŠfm] oÛnÖ

z kgŠ Å V â !* i ~ m, ôZ gzZ zŠg Z Ð t · Z & EG-4E +¤ /ÿ5Ÿ GÅ^g e‹ [³% ZuzŠ » ög D + egx WX Zƒ qzÑ~ ×ÐÆ \ " á' , g!* gzZ V®ë 6,8{Æ Vί KZ ~ kî ; 5_Z gzZ k Æ Å93 Zg WÐ i æ¾H , z£ Å V9 ¶‚q -Z »Vί~ m, ôZzŠg ZX !} 9t ‚ { zgzZì @* ™x »Ð wÅ' , g !* ~ y»Š kZ· Å ñe gzZ ì @* ™xlí Zgø Ð ¹Ü Z lp { X ! D YÖ + $Y Åú ëXì @* ™¿7 ut ‚ Æ 8Å ' , g !* H Ç Fg0 +Z Æ y»Š w ì g ÖZ ~ Vâ !* i ~ m, ôZ gzZ zŠg Z ñq à Zz äY Åg » ~ - zzMâ X ! Tg D™ Üz kZ ëXì CY Wt ‚}gø „¢ñe ‰

E I4F 5_Kg0* C-#GZ^gWgzZì!Z6, ~yDä½ ZhZ ÿE »=i +' , gzZZi%yP<gWèEjG y** s W*iñ www.artangel.org.uk

66

…·X ! ìg™lˆÅ(aÆ xR, 5KZ ì à {{#q -Z~×Æ\" á ', g !* !ì @* C } 9ò~ lˆÅ yk ´ â 6,gî ~g ¯ë X !Dƒ » Vί ~g ø Ð áZjÆ y»Š Å [ -Z » y»Š kZ!ì Hl! ¶‚D¨ q #¤q -Z Å *Š Zq -Zt [ Z å@* ™ ;gÈ L! { i ZzgŠ ãÍ,i ZzWÅxsVŒ ‹C ÙX Xì •+ $Y YE4É ~ m, ôZ r # ™ Œå óð½5G }g ø X ! Sg ÅäCgzZ ä2¼! yZgzŠÆ3 F, zŠg ZÐ !Cƒg Z ¦ /lÍƃ ! {z!D™Òà How are youX !ù\ W Good byeXƒq Z} . Thank youXt] LZ vß Æ V¸´ Z~ }g ZŠ Z kZ

ìŠ HHk-ez6, gzZ˜ÐZЊæÅÖZ±ÃF6, )gfÆ

** U ÃyÎ 0* s W=r Ð + $Y Å r ú6,,ÅyÎ 0* s W=rXì Ï( Ôì Ï( ** Zz™ú6,yÆo¡ aÔì Ï( ** ™ Ï( ] uZzŠŸ6,áZEƒ ~ cZ™Ã# 12 E4F 7yn, iñ6, WvÔì Ï( ** ™È ÃæEÎ5G z 8Ô¸ 6,y{æqgzZ Š™£Z ZÔì Ï( ** hz%zi !* Æ 6,c* z7 -Z¼Z à<!* ö6,Ô! Ï( Ìç F 6,R~g»u Ôì Ï( Ìf Î » ’ !é ë o¡ a! 6Xì Ï( Ìh +Š F, Å] uZz [NZ »Vzq Z # Ôì Ï(qC Ù~ Ï0 + i! tc* fâ °çVY ðà Âì @* ƒF F6,„ ! (Ì t È » äƒ Ï( Xì 7Ï(t!Œ » kZ X ! ìg éÃíÑ Kg 0* Ë\W! 7 {z ì e ´g ¢ 6,}oq -Z!ì t È Y ¯z! ! ìgÈt vß! gzZ Xƒ ̼ {o -Z ÌŠp {z Â! ìg ™ {Ši „ q ! ( Ã3Z kZ X !ìg}ŠyÒÏ( {z ¸!ì Ht {z Vƒ QÌÐ T~ å ! ì µñ{ z ¸ X Ç ñÑ ~p! ì ‰ Üz t Nz ]!* t ~Xì ꊙspÿq -Z c spÆVÍßF^ »Š !* WP M Z!Vƒ $ ËÈÐ X Zƒk , +x !Z6, 5 äƒ

4]ÔVz f 5G KV $ ÕäH $g7g » q -Z ' ~" Û gzZ y!* öÅØu N* g Zzß q -Z6,~z X !g óÝ»÷Ñ

]ª ðÃ~ kZX åŠ!ñkˆZ o¢¹ q -Z ugz, Mq -Z »V2zŠÐ½yÎ 0* ä~ E -4H & ~ }g!* Æ( +Z ~ gzZ ì c* Š™ qzÑ ** ¯ Å ïH3E. GÚZ~ :!VzzŠÐ ~ë!ì 7 XìVzyn, z8ÇKg~÷gzZVƒVz c* zÅTVƒ „g™Ýq ]â¥× W× W ! ~ *Št H ?N Y VY yÎ 0* p o (Z q -Zt Xì CY Å Ï? „grL~ ƒ -Z) ? ?ì 7o u** ç {Šc* iÐ -ZtXì wâÑâ Ð uñgzZÄpÔõg@* q !ì (]gúq ™VY {gzŠ »o,Z c* z ðƒ C½Z gzZ l!6,~ Tì o (Z x Z!Z »]gú!ƒ Se ** ™7 kZgzZ ! 7h +Š . Þ‡** &ZpV˜ ì ~7& +Z Ðí! ! P Ð ~ ]ÑZÎyZt ?@* -Z # H X¸ D Y i7 Ú VŒ ÔV; X ! ^ ,à Ì6,VzÇëZ {z {z´Æ ~ ö6,J ƒ7¼J -‰ ÜzkZƒ: q:Z iZ0 +Z u +p[Z! ! ]5çÏ(}! ð•Z ~!ì H{z?@* -Z Z÷ ?Vƒ „Y ~ }g !* Æ yÎ 0* w tXì 7k , ¦~g7¸p!ìg Wt ‚Ð q , ¦kZ {zgzZì Lg~ yÎ 0* !ì yZ0 +{ u** ç » *Š ªZzt¤ /Z Ôì o »ŠZ" ÛZ !160 Ék } g * ! Æ y Î * 0 ä [ f ! D , F Z 7 } g 7 6, ãÎ 0* ÒZ ?ÐN Y V¹vßt Âì o +F, ~÷gzZßZ c* zkZXìÅ~ Æ yZ ä VzuzŠ! D™7t· ZÐ ßZ kZ Æ|ãÎ 0* Ç~! c* Š™g6= ä qiÚyxgŠ Xì Hì‡~}g!* ÃyÎ 0* ** ™7lˆyÎ 0* {z~ë@* Vz™ÒÃÅ+Y zŠgZgzZì¸g c* ïÈ q -ZB÷yÎ 0* Z÷ , k +xª~yßgzZ +%Zz}÷! Se 5 ~ ïÈ kZŠ!z!* Æ lgz6,~ yáZz%1 ãÎ 0* LZ ÔpXì Hê »k ½Z : ä ~ J -[Z Ð g7 ÷ Im»Š Z®‚ 90 ÅT) ‹ñ ãÎ 0* LZ ~ ñƒ D™g¨6,äƒ ~â¤' , Æ^ LZ ~É å c* Š hgIw‚ M(ì 7ëZ ÁÐ b§Ë!! ù™iZ0 +Z ÃÃäƒ X VƒSe'YÐZ)gf Æ kZ p! 7yZ! âá Zz /Å w‚ 30 » õZ q -Z q -Z + $Y ÅŠ !* WP M Z 뉉 Z Xì /_ # .» VâZ! â Vzô~ yZ Š!z!* ~Š Z®ÅVÍ߸ìg| (, ÐWÆ™ð, Ã Æ Ùñ{ ä Y ¯z g ZD Ù8  H[ æ ä VrZ ._Æ} i Z0 +Z o ZX å ; g Y @* ƒ†ŸZ Ú E ˆ Æ kZ gzZ ‹ ÐZB‚ Æ ^gà ð; gzZ ÿ5!R,' 60 6 ,uvyxgŠ KZ c +gH Š Z" ÛZ g ZD Ù gzZ e $× Š !ñ LZ

X¸ ^gà ~ îJ +Z ‰ µ ] 2 Ui Z0 XH Ð cZ ÏÁZ g !* à =r V˜ Ã3Z Y ¯z! ˆ~Š ÌZ °»Ã] !* kZ s W=r VŒ X å ** ™[ æ ãZzgzZ VƒVzq -Z~X !ìg™{Ši„ ! ( šÅyÎ 0* ™xsÓ ! ZŠ' ,]¸ÅkZgzZx ³Æ òg WXì 3Z Ï( q -Zt! Vƒ 9~ p ÖZ tX ’ e ** x³ -Z » q g ÖZ Q û%

67

”Å w‚ q -ZB‚Æ { Z 9w‚ kZ ~ yÎ 0* ~ s ~ !{zZ X Vƒ „g Y yÎ 0* ™á ~ Ï0 + i KZ ä ~!ì o {zt X Vƒ „g Y ¬Š ‰ Üz kZg !* -Z sÜ{ Z_Æ: { IZ LZ q ã½V;z ~ [ Z X ¶Å w‚g e ~ Z #ì X! Zg !* kZÔVƒ„g Yˆw‚M VY! Z ~ ?Vƒ „g^ß:Zz VY~ Š!z!* Æ g X aÎ -gzZ ìY ?Vƒ „g Y ÔpXì 7[ Z! ãZz ðÃÌ[Z k0* }÷ Se ** ™{@x»}iuu 0* ~!Vƒ „Y~ Se ** ™ kCÐZ ÔVƒ Se 9 Š ÐZ ÔVƒ Å yÎ 0* gzZ Vƒ S(,- ~6¤' ,~ X Vƒ {zt Xì H kCy.6,Z hðå ÊpÐ zz Hê» ähg=Z ä%Zz}÷&ì o µZñƒ ! o7Z~ yÎ 0* !¸ B{zèY {zt ÷! ÷ ¸ D C =å {zXÐ N W7x » XgzZ ì Zƒ Z½Ð Vzg ZŠ! Y ! ì o åq -Z sÜ· K ì ** XÊ ã Cʼn ܤKZÑ o {z yÎ 0* X óì ó Y X ÃyÎ 0* „ [ zZ Z hg~ÇÅ%Zz}÷ä {%Zz ~÷&ì X !Ù Š6, gî gzZ ã yß~ bZzZ Æ ð;Š ÅY 60 VâzŠ gzZ X c* ¯y *CZÐZ ït[ Z ëñƒ D Ñ~ ykZ ݬÃckZ T h e *iñ Æ • % ZÑ x° ! ! D™ ÆV2zŠ ~â ¤' ,Š Z5,ãÎ 0* }uzŠ LZ DgZ¦ /7~ yÎ 0* VI: Ñ‚ KZ ë@' , ~ Museum of Non Participation EI »äY6, ”: Ñ‚{Z_Æ: {IZ|gŠX¸ gzZ öeÅç.c1!ìt³X !{æ7 V¹p % ZÑÅVßßZ yxgŠÆ*iñÆ• % ZÑx° z » ~Öe Åx™Z! ¶~gÛ{¤)q -Zwì • » äY yÎ 0* {Z_Æ: { IZ= pX ¶7 » ¿! ì pëÆ x°Ôöe Å õZ 25 Xì 8 © ™ g ( Z ^ p * ! D Ð k Z g z Z ì C"M X ¶Åk' , ge~Z # ìŠ c* b§hZ^{z Xì ¿Š!zÃ*iñJ -uÅy!* i¿Zg øXì Æ V@ õ0*! ì @* ƒ {iZ0 +Z = [Z -Z Ôwõw¸q -Z Ôk , ’q -Z Ãá ZzÚ Št C!* .gzZ àâ c +%Zz }÷lgz6,Å yZ0 _ +{ ÔwZÎq -Z ÔÚ q -Z Ô õg @* -Z Ô` îZ q q -Z Ôwìq -Z ðÃgzZ ¶ã.6,àZEY Å kCÐ ]”6,gî q -Z Ô§Zz ] m" ÔØZ' ×x £q -Z Ô¿ ]U* Š qZVIàZEWw‚C ÙX å„** ™ Âê Zq i Æ]¬zÑÅÏ0 + i 5~ yßX ¶q -ZÐ ~ b§ Å W Æ yZÄ~f Ë% ~ y!* % ZÑx°Xì êŠ ð3Š Å V@ õ0* KZ gîDä x™Z ågzZ›B‚ ÒM ~ *iñÆ • -Z6, gî#ÂgzZ ~gÅÔ·µ/µ] Zg¦ IÃV@KZ ä +%Zz}÷X Ålgz6,hZ 6 q ÙªÃ]gß Å w e â Æ *iñ Åq -ZC ÙÐ ~ ëX c* 2** ™›Ð ð! îgzZ Ð T D™C Ùª ] Zz) x° Å h +] .gzŠ Æ äâ i {Š!ñ á ZE™wZ΂f }gø! ðƒ b§kZ lgz6, C Xnƒ Ì» s »Z ~ T¸ ñƒ n k\ ÅDgzZ

Hƒ Ì:Zz gzZ ì ÌZƒ c* Š Š ¿» + M k ~ ÆöeËH ?ì $ ˃ & ¤. Þ‡ùöe .cI1 ~ Tœ]g @* g¦ /Ô Åöet ä çE {zXì öe c* gzZì 6,¿Ëg ®Z »äƒ & ¤. Þ‡ †×9e ;m†e …æG] ]‡†Ú á†Ò YEE( H -ob 1g @* ZgzZ Š ?ì6, áZzÚ Š c* ?ì6, uZgŠ ZÆ 1970 »u ^g W ë5½5Ÿ ~g : çE, 6zZ ÷ ÷ HHVð~Y 1967½»ª)ì [ Å (The Rethinking Art Circa 1970) ÅnVâzŠ 1 :ÆöekZ Ì[Z ë ( Š H Æ _ ZѬÞt X 7] ÑZΗ¡t Ûe Çug â ~ öú Šp™á : e q -Z gzZ ! M h™uZgŠ Z » VaÎ ~Š ZëZÔ: qg Y 7Z gzZ ! {” t6,gî b§¾!ì HyÒä} " .cI1égq~Y 1967 pggZ Œ Û ',ÃV-È u Ï(z èg Z Ô ~g EZÔ LZ)g fÆ_ä çE k0* }g ø X ! M h™öe Å õZ 25n LZ Æp ˜ ÃVz•zŠÆ½»6,g Z-Š Åä{g ó ÚÝZèÑqìŠ!ñöegzZ w ìÔ iÕ Xì @* YHwEZ ÒZ n yZgzZ c* Åk , ’sÜ[ Z! )ì 7œ»ðgzZ}@xc* X ì îŠ ÀÃ]ÑZÎÅ ZgŠ Z —, Z y!* it X åõZ 25, ÃtÔ ÅöeÅA ÃãxgŠÆ ÏŠ!ñ) Å}g 0* ˜ÝZ ( ì Š!ñ~ ^ ãY ð¯ u Å e $g UŠpgzZ ,uupôV¹ öe Ï{ëq -Z ¡ˆÆ¶Šg @* Z½» h VJ M -}g 0* ˜=g fÆ wì c* g¦ë~ p!ñƒ¬_Ð ¹6,qçñkZX ?ì 25 å @* ™ç» ~È u!%ƽ»X ˆ{g ¹!* .cI1!! D™m, .cI1 ?‰ {g HpÆ öe Å õZ kZ Ãöe ÅçE ?[ Z ëX ! ] ÑZÎyZÐmÆ*iñÆ• % ZÑx°~g ø wqÐZ ä çE Ð *iñ ~Š + $Y q -Z(ÅVz•Æ ½»Æ m, ?~g ø Xì YY Hw EZ ~ i Z0 +Z Zà X C™7C ٪̼! c* Šg Z Œ Û ?Š +Zq -Z~„ .cI1 ~È u Å• N o n % ZÑ x° + • $Y ~uzŠ gzZ Æ çE % ZÑx°gzZ *iñ!ì t ]gßt ~ wìÆ Íel "g Z h',ñgY 6,gîLZ X ñY c* Š w$ +Ð Participation Å õZ 25 ªöe yxgŠÆ Vz•zŠÆ ½» Æ Vz•Xì îŠ ÀÃ] ÑZÎÆ b§C Ùwq gzZ ! Cc* ÃgzZ CZ f Ô0Z yÌ ]Zg¦VâzŠt Xì $ ËY~Šg Z Œ Û #Zî ~Š ?ì @* ª ƒ ï" áH~ ~È u ?¸ V¹}u p! ä7,6,{%izg gzZ ^g W]Z W, Z Æ yZ x°gzZ *iñ!ìtg¦ ?!HpÆkZ öe Åq ¾ ?ì HC Ù!* gzZg0 +ZÆ öe ðƒ Æ yZ gzZ ! n pg A ÃÆ õZ 25 Šp{z VŒ { " ágzZ ugz ^g Wq -Z Ãt" ÛyxgŠ Æ • % ZÑ ÆöeË?$ ËY Å7žgzZì $ ËY Å .cI1 X ñY ¬Š 6,gîÆ }g 0* ðà ?ƒù ç» kZ gzZ ì HwßZ »}u Zz $N(Z yxgŠ }g 0* Æ}g 0* ˜q -Z ë!ì ~gzŠgzZ å›E {" áÆ çE

]!* Ð Ëä VrZ „:gzZ†C Ù!* Ð ~h Ç Òà b§ËÐ + $Y ÅgÇZg e ä VrZX Å Æ :Z ÏÁZ g !*á Zz äJ (,B; Æ™ (C ÙX HgrsÜÐ VÍß x ¬gzZ VzÒú 7Z p¸ ìg WÃ} }Æ Vo) Ï( c* z±)z±X ¶Æ˜Åä™·6, V- h Ç Š!ñV;zŠ Z®hZq -Z ÅVß Zzä™ÏÒúÅ & ðƒ Ð °ô,Z q -Z ] ‡5 ~÷ X ¶ X åŠ Hc* Š¬»äƒg$ +cZ™Ã#B 12 r V˜ å Zƒð »x ª~g7 ~C ÙsÜ »V $‚d $zÅg !* %7e äyÎ 0* – s W= [æ Ð :Z ÏÁZ g !* sÜ {z X D™ 7 Y ¯z VzôV;z X c* 3 ** 3 »PzŠ gzZ H b ¶Z sÜ{z Â! D™] !* ÌZ # {zgzZ ! D™ ÔŒZi ZŒZ {zÔå…Z (,¹ q -Z »VÍßC Ù!* Ô¸ Xì Cƒ] !* Åyâ ‡ T e 'Y #ñ»o¡ agzZ y{æqÔŠ™£Z Z yÆ =r à ðš‡! » V- h Ç 50 pg0 +ZÆ™^gÃg7 ~C Ù=r X¸ qzÑ "(,„B‚ÆîŠ !* WxsZ {zå!Ð Š !* WP M ZÐg7 ~C ÙX¸gzŠ °»Ð ® ) ! Ò], ZŠ X¸ Š!ñà L &Æ VÍß~½ 5 Zg X Š Hƒ Yf(, ÚŠ Z®ÅVÍßÔˆµk , Š °»~äY Å]zŒ [ Z! ¸ Y ¯z k•~ ^Ãá» V; z uv! å;g^7„Ø6,V´ZñFgzZ ¶„g {z™X^ÃÌ~\ðŠ r $;¸` 0# Ö´ s W =r ~ 5 Zg }g7 Xì V¹ KZ ! ¸ Ìvßx ¬ V;z X¸ ìg™kCõ c «™Å yZ gzZ N ¬Š Å ! x» Å yÎ 0* » e $× KZ Ð VX RgzZ Vzy ÔF, Ê ÔVâ »Š [†6,} z ð; xŒ ÛZ Œ Û; ìg D YØŠ ºœ Æ Vo) Ï( V;z X¸ ñW ä™ gÖZ ‰ ñš 6,ñZ™t X Š Hc* ¯ A‡ » V- 'Å áZz ä7,~ 5 Zg ä VM¸ Ìy)g » &¶q+Zq -Zt ;å/_ .w=t;¸7vß ÆKg 0* ÁX Hx ÈZ »V=g~‹LgC Ù sæm, z6,c ä™Ýq c î Cg ZœKZ ~ „ Z' , uÅ 7Œ Û Šú{ " ágzZ y{‰** y)g » t§Æ yZ gzZ {z! k\Z X¸ M h ™ ̼ ñƒlp} (, ™NŠÃ]Š ªdZŠ!ñ6, ezg KY XM h7h +y " /_ . KZ =r ~ w !gß ~g7 kZ XÐ Vƒ

z 8 ~ Ð zz Å äƒ Å \ W c ä™ kCÐZ @Š ä ~ ] !* ™Ö t ‚Æ yn, 4] 5G i~Ú Š„ ! ZgÓZ', ^t)g fÆV $ ÕäH yZ Ð V/¡èY ì ~gz¢ ÏŠ!ñV; z {Š c* Ö ÓpX C™ kCÙp ©q Z »›kZgzZ" _ .gzZ ð** Z ÂkZ Ô]‚ ˆZ w EZ =KZ ä # åHä VÍßVÅÑyZg ÖZ »T YY H7 ñƒ s Z e6,Vð+LZ ~g ZŠ)f ñƒ D™ 6,VÃv~ e $×Å yÎ 0* s W=r ! ù Zg f c 1zgÐ ãg7g Å]Ñq ë Z ð•Z !éJ6,( ãg7g ) r šZ ’ zgŠ gzZ ¶ò¤ /h +” yŠ kZ X¸ ñƒ ñW ÆT~Š™Ç** +" á]g Zw V; z ä ~! 6ÔVzô‰= gzZ ~ ˆ ÅVÍßgzZ Ô¶„g h Z èÔå~¤ /e 45h N ð•Zš‡Ðzz ŃgzZŠ Z®{Š c* i ð•Z c^ kZ gzZ X X X X X Ô ñƒ } 9JZ Ô ¬Š ~\ðŠ äVÍß Z®Ô å;g| (, ÐWc ~g ëg XŠ H0^g ÇŠ c* »Ï0 + i ~g ø! ñƒ: Zzg X Hg OZJ -V[ RF ˆ Æ^]g @* ÆJ -gƒÑÐ Š !* WxsZ {zX Å7e $D ä Ë!ì ] !* Å]ª X å 1- zÚ Z » ŒZ i ZŒZ c yn, z8ä ~ =r Xìg D™g OZ B‚ Æ yEZ {z ñƒ D C 0Æ›gzZ" _ .Ô ð** Z ÂÔ^ gzZ c* hB; ~ lg !* kZ Å›ä yÎ 0* s W Ðzz ÅT å/_ .z l! q -Z X ñWÃC!* . _ ä ŒZ iZ ŒZ 6 å„ (z Ç!* t X ñZ— v Y Ô¸ ìg Y _(,ÐW+ $Y Å Ñ {z X ë 7̼ =r ;å ¹~- zÚZ LZ X¸ìg™7kC1 ÅVùN* gzZ¸ìg ! ({ zX Z F, „ Z 7nh »Å9Å~h ÇÅyZ ! pX ! ¿g % ãZz J -u ¢ . Þ‡** {z

Zi%yP<g WÔs Z¤ /I ¯ X x »{g !* zŠÔÏ@³"

Ðu oÛn: ä!ñ^Â

yÎ 0* s W=r ~ Z # izgÆ ‹ [ æÐ cZ ÏÁZg !* 7Z V˜ ÔŠ !* WP M ZÆ ðƒ: Zzg c äƒq -Ñ~^+ $YÅÔ å** ™ -dIz— š!’ e ItÉ å~‚f}÷ õ?XE {z ¬Š V;z ä ~ ̼ !! ’ e It Æ _ YŠ !* WP M Zg!* F~X å™| (,Ð aÎ~÷ # îSÔVƒ X å c* W!²i u +p~ Y 2005 Z ì »] zŠ^t ÂñY ¹B÷yEZ „} (, s W=r gŠT! c* Î Zi Z0 +Z ä ~ gzZ t»J -Š !* WP M Z~kZ !ìg™^EyÎ 0* KgF~ 5ZgèY Çá ] 10 Ð 8 ^ ]!* tÌ~yázëz}÷X !Š!ñVc* Š !* W ËW7 X ¨Yƒ»] 16ã½^t!¶$ :ØÅVU‚ WÅÏ0 + i!ì ~gz¢ It


MAIN THEME

MAIN THEME

4

3 Ñ i[ gzZ } }á » 6,V- h Ç X N Yƒ Âe äƒ gzZ VÅÑ y¯ 8 Ôy¯ \ W '!* !/ !go ZÐá ZjÆkZ Vƒìg™6,, MÚ Z X ìi§pô** ™‚ Zg~ w CZ f / b!* ñXì i§pôZuzŠ ˆ Æ kZ , MÚ Z -eg kgB ã Zô9 z ÒZ Å VÅÑ C gzZ 4,¯ 8 Xì Sg Cƒ ^Å :z¤ /} (,%Æ ^ƒ ! o/ 6,gî~gz¢)\ WÐ kZèY ,™:^~ XÐN YW~} ],ZŠÆ{ ó²

,™• %ÑŠ Z" ÛZ 10~kZgzZ Vƒ: ÅZ +Z iÐ ÔV- à q„! ! wßZ Ég { z t X , ™: y´Z » V=g KZ Ð ¬ / /Šgz Z V.g »x¤ / uc ã ¨ KZ t £ÔY ¯z y ´Z » x £„ ! gŠ gzZ yŠÆ% ï ~g sÜ Æ Y M ä VM! {Š™ m,?ÅŠ Z" ÛZ g » X , ™~g Y¬‚q -Z sÜ]¬X , ™ Ð Z Ô Å ð Z ± §{ Å e $g/ ~ gzŠ kZ X ,™„i77 gzZ icZ ~ x Zú/ M , é ~ Z y Z g z Š Æ Ò \ Z Å Y 2008 Ì c #g Š!ñB‚ LZ 7Z { z´ Æ XŠ Hc* ;6,¾gz X ,™q Ÿg : m,zˆcVzC ÙbÆ\ W Æ ä™ { Ç WÃVÍß6,äe Lg / Æ kZ Ô Hì Y Ñ ¯g â t y "W! , ™] â Z ŠZ t £ÔY ¯z ‘6,( ˜q -Z Å Š !* WxsZ Vƒ A $% ] Z W,Z H6,x ZúÆ kZ gzZ yÎ 0* q„Æ yÎ 0*gzZ V.g » x¤ / u c 㨠KZ ÙbÆ w~ T Zƒ k° Z » V- à Xì Yƒ" $U* W, ñ{Š c* i ** ™ (ZXÐ VzC öZ * Z- sZ V W',h +' ×X IÅ7 m,zˆc 7Z gzZ N C x ** » V7Š Æ „ ! c* g/ ¯ /µ » äY ~ ~g \ W¤ /Z X , ™ZÎg~x Zú m,zˆgzZ ä™ð ]¬¥Æ ( LUMS) : !ìg Æ{ ~k,¦c ä™g ÖZ » s %Z / wßZ Égt Xìg x¤ / u ð•Z ~ ä™ 7 # x™Ó Z',X ! 7ì Y Ôì LZ c vÐ ’²W6,gî / c* hY h ÂÔì 4 {Š c* i ** ™7™ ¯ 4, Ig » gzZ KZ} 7,]gz¢ÌZ A &ÅŸgzZ = N* gq -ZB‚ LZ c ½ e ÃV\WgzZ u ** X 7** àyvÃu5Z kZ X ,™w EZgz¢Ã¢ … Â! m,zˆ ðÃk0* Æ \ W¤ /Z { z´Æ Bá Z À5 J -‰ Üz kZ @* Yƒ7»nçJ -Z #/ c v Ð §Zz ÌËÆ b§ ÏZ /

»8 -gá »Š Z" ÛZ x ÓÌC Ù!* Ð VzC Ùb! ©

³0 +!* ÷Å8 -gá »6, zi !* c* (Z À á » 6,VW Å Vâ »Š gzZ Vzy / N YñZØ} } H‚ZgÐ Vq- c qË~ q -’/ XnÄgÃ6,\ W{ z~ X ñ Y Å ðZ ‚ ÛZ,jÅyZgzZ ñ Y { z!ì @* Y c* Š {gt6,gîm{ÃVY± /G c ä ™ ¨ £ » ^ î W ! Æ c* z/ E.! E' (úG3 g ZÏ !i§W, ñi[gzZ ïHG3Ò¨.F Og: yâ ‚B âZ Ëc* PB‚LZ / N~ TñY Åx ÈZ »V=gg » / Bá Ì#Z hðc ²L Z

g ZŠ)f Ë\ W! N ¯ DÃ] !* kZ /

]gßÅ ã rZ Ë! @* !g ~Æ ZgÆ ¿

qZX ¶„÷¡ðÃ~}g!* ÆkZÃ}Ñç vŠ Ì~ ÔÐ „ ~/ÁX ð0* ™7Š Zi WL ÅZkZÃVQg W&ZpZ¤ZÏ(»Îâ~g¯ ~¡gzZ CgŠLZÃr!* ** iÔb§ÅVÂgúϹ lÃÅ ä!Ì`W& c* Wá ™ é+ $Y qçñkZ (p ) Vƒ „gWŠ zq -Z »wjâ + yát Â]‡zZ ‰!ì Cƒ WÁ„ ¹ 6, Ï( V˜ ì ( +Z q -Z t X ! ~gY g2$ 54XZÅ^gW]c* 3J4G ]gßÅV ðG gz¢gzZ 2» „gY Åg » ó óli‚ Å Ùñ{ ÷ ÷‰ì 4äƒ -ZÃÙñ{kZÔ~}‚ÆY1970Xƒ q Ð yZÄÆ ó ó‹ &Æ # ÷ ÷X ! C™ ~¤ / } (, Z÷ÝZgŠ ! Å öú«Å Vzk , ¦KZ ä ~ ZkZÔ&ZpŽ*ŠèY å7gŠ o‚» ½ H#-G > . E X ‰_ƒ¿x¤ / uÐáZjÆ ÔçG7Z ^g W~ TgzZ å: â i » /{” W X åŠ!ñ` ZâZ q -Z »×°70* gzZ ]¬çñÏ( XÔ! #ZzÐ VªŠ¼ÅŠŸë ` W ™V‚ZC Ù6,gîÒÔŠŸwyÔr!* ** i~ ï" áV*¹ CZf ~ öúò ** Và&Æ # Å4Ô** Ã]gúgzZ ** ™g6 4Š', i6,äƒnq ÔÌg VÂgúb§¾! åt`~œ / % » yZ ë@* ‰ Ý!* -Z ) Ôr!* ** iÔbŠ™ gzZì ;gƒ†ŸZ~VÂgßZÅŠŸs ÜÆ Ò ÷ ÷( 6,gîÆ"wmq \!* Ô(bZ" Û ÅVÂgúÃVj() ó ós #( ŠæÃVÂgú~ekZ ä V¡‰b§¾ Å ð¸c* ÛŸ'** Y ñ¯ : ¶ K6,gîÒÐ + $Y D™„0 +¶ KÅ|kZgÑzŠ Z°Z Xì ÅëZ" Û lz" X h Z ÅVÂgú tÃyÂ{q -ZÐ~&C Ù}~ô Z kÑ!¸ c* ¯ :¶ K»r!* ** iœÌËÐZ! å hј} . gÅò Zú ` W~ «£Æ Y1970 p¤ /Z »"Šwyq -Z6,gîiÃr!* ** i¤ /Z Xì YY Æ&ZpŠ!z!* ÆkZÔì Z°» ×’ WgzZ Ì~ x|Æ ÂwyÐZ ë   YY c* Š x ** x ÂìYt »ŠŸÑZz äY H6,RgzZ ÕÏZ s Ü ô Z kÑ ä ~ ]gß¾'¸ M h™wEZ ÅŠŸkZ ù ZgfvŠgzZ c* zò £XìŠ!ñg2$ + ]uZzÆr!* ** iáZzäƒB‚ÆV-àÆ ïŠgzi6,]!* ÏZgzZ Ô! ܇ÐKÊ ã Ca " Û ]â ¥xÓ´Ð §Zzk , /** ¦ -Z yZgzŠÆk q B r!* ** i!! Tg gzZX 1VZ {Ú »ä™ëZ" Æ ])gzZ bŠ ^»ÃY ¡ IZ ÒXì @* ƒ ]uZzÆr!* ** ig0 +Zg0 +ZÆ ]æ ÅVà & 6,x ** X „g C™{Ç WÃV-àÐ ]¬åÅyZgzZ ÅxÂCÑçgzZ Y!|gŠ OáZzäYG 'Y! c* CZf '»}Z +Ãì @* ƒ Za wZÎ[Z wjZ ^gW~ Y 1977 Xì e $Zzg k , /** ¦ -Z q j{Z +ÃîgzZ ^gWXìXZÇ!* -Z! <gW~ô Z kÑ~ˆÆä™c!¤ q / Ð $Š ÃZ~}ÑçË^gWH ?7c* e ’ e** ƒ ~]uZzÆr!* ** iX ¶„g™x »ÐwÅ 6, kZgzZì ÔcwZÎt?ì Y™ZŠZgZŠ™ » | (,ãg7g~}g!* ÆkZh +" ác* å ;gƒ†ŸZ hZ ^gW~ Ò» ˜Z ì‡~ Ä Z kÑ ò £gzZ Lg ×Xì YYHgÖZ » ZgWZ Æ‹ñÅVÂgút Ổ Üz kZ T¾X ¶ˆ $Y Å b) ^gW ~y ~ V» }g7 „ : gzZ å e 0 7X ~àq -Z {z´ X !ÌÍ6, çÅ^gWíÃ%ÆíZm, e zÂ+Z +

X ! 7eÐ )gfgzZ Ë! ì IZ » äÑŠ ¬_gzZ ÍçÆVÍßÃ}@xLZ <gW Ôœà{ ÐZ ~ T ì ꊙ 7 c ]!* ÅkZ! @* ì @* 7,** ™{C Ùb »ÎgzZ qc* g ^gW!ì e** í Ât Xn VJ -òŠ Wx¬q -Z !ìgz¢etë@* ì Y« #Z®»# Ö ÓË Xn™gZû{ZgcV=p{z 4G &grÅ *gO 1E emergencyinpakistan@gmail.com [ KZ ä Ý‚ é¹G Ë ÷ ÷ì –~ HOPE IN THE DARK ! ÔV´pëZ àZz äƒk ƒ , +q¸z ~ [zZ 5 È »T!gÀ~ ÇÆy¨ KZ¬Ð Å ÇgzZ Ì Æ ]Zg¦Ô×Ì„ ! ( ÷ ÷ì Ìt » kZ Xì g ÀÐ ,Æ ~¤ /]gß Ï( Ç~ ]â ZŠZ w×gzZ ä´!ì È » ]Zg¦ñƒ Ë çO Ôì Cƒ {æ7 ]¸ V7 à VÂgúx Ó "Æ yâ ‡! Zƒ È » ~¤ /]gßÅÇXì Ýq h»DgzZw VƒZC Ù" áÅyZé{z{Zp ó xó ZŠZ ¦½Z ÷ì ÷ È 4h™$ +Æ â',X ñY HÐ + $Y Å¥6, Å V ðH , HÐ + P r o t e s t ~ y ZÄgz Z , ™ é ~ Z 6 $YÅ&Zp ãÎ 0* yZQ c* ƒÐ s§ ™ É m,zˆ c }C Ùb ª Guidelines „g™ `îZh +”s ÜÆÌgÅ~g»zg»! ñY X C {z {ZpÔì ;g }Š ð‹ÃVÍßÆ *Š x Ó! ! :Vƒ:g ë¤ / X ~cZ™Qc* ~ô ZkÑX VƒTg~yß N Y½ÅsÜÐ ~g ë¤ /‰ Üzi Z7 -Z ÏßäZiÎ \ WgzZŠzö• %ÑÅ\ W~VzC Ùb{ÒWÔ Ï <g Wò Z¸ÑZ ÎãàãYq X ϶ ¯ ) !* » ã .6, aÆ: {I ZÆ {zì 1z · !~ ¹F, Å®ä Tì

: !ìg™~y Î 0* {C Ùb¤ /Z ! Âe ** ƒ D!, Z k0* Æ\ WÔV ; gzZ / à ïV ´g ÅV- h Ç6,} z ð; B‚Æ ~g ëg I4 ¡E -Z! N Y 410! BïV ´g +Z : ~g øGÓ / X ,ŠŠæ~u ¸!Ã\ W »s§~uzŠ™ƒ qzÑÐ s§q

ðà ÑZz äJ 7,y!* i zŠgZ ~ yßQ c*Vz xR,÷ ÷" $!* ÅŠZ" ÛZÆ nZyZ wq¾ ??YE?å A-¼&Z s W Kg0* G y** s W *iñ ÷ ÷! ì Š H¹Ð í Æ cZ™6,, MÚZ X ¶7Ïq -Z ó óïH3E.E I45_ = yZgzŠ Æ ä™ Ýq ]â¥~ }g!* ‚ ¿Ð áZjÆ x » LZ n Æ ó óèEjGF =ë@* X Ç|~k B )** izg! V!y* tØZ »Ú ŠöúÅý yZ Å c" Û Û " º<gW Z(, %Ñ~÷y "W! Zƒ6, ]!* kZÀ "NO HONOUR IN åyZÄ » X Zƒ Hi Z! ¹ÜZ»• + i{%izgÅMg‡~g¶ZÆcZ™=²Ôì KILLING: MAKING VISIBLE, Ï0 7 Ý q / Z z g z Z u Z g Š Z ð à ‡ ~ } g!* Æ õ0* yZ öú~k , ¦t X BURIED TRUTH" G^gWË= ¤ /Z Xì Š !* W´ Î ¶ˆ Å [™ x ** Æ &Zp ~Š ]úŠ Å™ c +˜ ˃ Z Zgf ]!*  CY {z èY å Š Hc* Š™ ®Š {0 + i ~ (yñ!) ,Z Âg¶Z pX ¶$ ™7Ãb) Å äƒ _C~ ðZ',CÑç å ó ó~g»zg» ÷ ÷ yZ ._Æ "Š}÷! ì @* Û ÃgÅgzZ ’ Wò Zú" $!* Åb) Dq! åt ÝZgŠ Ñ~Šã C» {gqX ‰xê X ! ïŠ rz" % ZÑÅV-à= G ~ ]gßÅ O6,x** Æ ]) ~ Vß ‚ »Ùñ{ ÅVÍßyZ {z´Æ• # ~}g!* Æb) CÑç ˜À! Š HWwì ÐZì ;gƒ†ŸZ! ~Š Z®ÅìZ` "áZz äY g Ð k , ' F ¸ * ~ B ‚ Æ X gzZ!Tg\e ŠŸáZz äƒs ÜÆ&ZpgzZ ñY H¤ /YZ ]¬çñLgLgyZ=X Vƒ_™x » X ñY c* ÑŠ kˆZ »]gz¢~g¯Åxåuzg Å 6, &Zp ãÎ 0*~ V˜ ì x £ {z ¸ h +" á ̻ϊ™g»ä´gzZ7zgŠÅä™wì!Š n µñÆögD + zkgŠ ÅVâ !* i! c* Wwì : ~ }Ic áZz äƒ Îâ Æ Vzgq }gø6, yxgŠ Å &Zp~ yÎ 0* É Vƒ $ ËázsÜ » !Z6,}÷! gzZ ¶C™ Zƒ xk!* ƒ À„™ aÎ aÎt = X ¶Ìzq -Z X Vƒ$ Ë™ÌW6, w!gßòÀ å @* I4F 5_Kg0* N 0* ™7Ð )gf ¾Ãx» LZ <gW! y** ÷÷ {Š c* i ÂñY ¹V- ÐZ c* ó óèEjG -+Š** gzZ VQg WÆyßÔg¶Zt HXÐ &Zp Ž *Š ó • ó Ñ: Zg» Ÿg) ÷! % ÷ ǃ 4 VJ kZ ÎÔÇñ0* -Z " q $!* Å b)gzZ ]Ñq CÑçgzZ Y!Æ vŠgzZ~!σ pŠÐ ]!* I4F 5_Kg0* ÷ ÷Š Z" ÛZ y** c* ~}g!* Æ^gW ó óèEjG ¶ðÃ~‰ ÜZœkZ Ì` WXì _0tzgx¬ Kg0* I4F 5_ -Z! !!ÎH" $!* Å^gWèEjG áZz äYG s ÜÆVÂgú„:gzZ ÔðW7 b ˜Z/q

oŠnÖ àm‡ç‰

‰z kZ Xì îŠ ð3Š ¶ðà `WÌ~ ŠŸ Ü 7)gfÆ ^g WÃb)yZ ä ~ Z #Ð E$ ä èE©G /+iÎrO%ZX å Hi¸W»ä™ ¤ ÊpÐ spÆr!* ** i~ ÷! ÷ å–~Y 1971

Š!z yZgzŠÆ }Iz c6,^gWÜç! Ôì ÄŠ Z" ÛZ CZg¦yZ~}pyZ HXì ðW~ ì [7,—‚ »<gWÐ X Ç ñY H¥# ãÎ 0* ðÃc* ÑZzSl, g ðà ”ÃKzg~g¶Z }

2_W0 " .H ~ çE ÛZ¤ /I ¯ X yß~y‚V $;zk¯ÅVâ !* i‹ZzŠg Z

Æk , ¦B½ kZÐZgzZ ðWÃó ó¥¤ /÷Ð ÷ Z V˜Š H~-e:Z ì‡~kcÆkZYÐÎåfZð` "q -Z yZgzŠÆxk B ~uzŠ ._Æe $© ãTãYq -Z ]uZzŠŸ6,o‚ »Š Z" ÛZw_ÒZZ # ` WX ó ì ó Hä\ Wt7Y ÷ ÷c* Š[ Z!Ð yEZ äÎåX ó ó?ì Hä?t ÷ ÷Ô Y7ÐÎåäkZÔÎ_Š6,ó óyZd ÷:÷ ZI]] . ÆñÎyZ6,] q& Z Y !~Š ã CÌ[ Z! ÔŠ Z" ÛZ ò qÆzi !* N !* áZEY{g ¹!* P{zÂÔŠ H¬ŠyZgzŠÆg â ^ßDq à ZEƒ~V‰Ækc! 6Ôì @* ƒÐ X óì ó ³»„ ! (ÇÅ\ W¸Ôì Hä\ WtÔ7÷ ÷Ô’ ebŠ[ Z! b§ÅÎåÔ…gzZ ?ó ó!T e¸\WH ?H7ä\ WtH ÷! ÷ ì Ø 7 Ð Ô!

E -#G I4»] ÐE gzZ Zi%yP<g W!ìz »!z6,èEjG ZÚZ ö C Z ^g Wg ¶ Zt +', Kg 0* y** s W*iñÃ!z6,kZX å H qzÑ~Y 2008ä ä=i I4F 5_ ‚fÆi +', gzZ yPXì Š HHì‡~yßgzZcZ™tgzZì @* Y¹èEjG Š!ñ~ ~yDÅŠ !* WxsZ {zZ # å c* W‰ Üz kZ wì »" µkZ~ cZ™ÐáZjÆ" µkZX å~g Y ` îZ »Y ¯zC Ù!* Ð ~ygzZ¸ kZ ä VrZ X ¶CY ¿gÃ~!6,] Ñ©Æ Ï0 + i {%izg ÅyßgzZ 4F 5_Kg 0* jG C-#GZ^g WèEI y * * s W * i ñ gzZ˜Ð + $Y Ž Z hZ ÿE Š!ñ~ ÛZ gzZ Vzg ZŠ Z F~ e E E cZ™ ~ X H Ýq yz¬ » Š Z" C-#GZ ^gWXì Š HHk- ez6, Ô çH yxgŠÆVQg W„Ð i ¸WÆY 1990 ÿE .2Òh$ZR, G zŠg Z l ¯çZp ARTISTS COLLECTIVE VASL Xì Hi¸W»V1µx¤ / uFäÏZgzZì ;gx¤ / u~*gb!* gE zZ yz¬ ', 4G 5µW 5H g !* ÔVZŠ yâ ‡ÔÚ6,Æ]Zg ¶ Z Ô" ÛZ¤ /I ¯8 -i +zÔÐZ ÃZ Ô ïH½G -C#G Ð Tì Zƒ i ¸W » d $g »gzZ ! Z6,, ZÐ V@ÃÅ ÿEZ ^g W gzZ zŠg Z ~ i ¸WÆ " µkZ X¸ ï" አZ" ÛZ vŠ gzZ ì d $Š Z <gW kZÆ• %ÑgzZyz¬b!* àZz äƒ 6,VÃv~ ™kZ ˆ Å g » Ì™q ±ÃFg Wà ArtangelX !ñƒ×zg]** -Z ~ Vâ !* i ~ m, ôZ Artangel International gzZ ô Z cZ z vÅ Ä Z ÔÖZ }g ZŠ Z "" áZ kZ X ¶ï" áNg Ã6,ÅVzg »®gzZ Ø- i +z q -Z ÔVx¤ / u Xì Ýqyz¬» Circle Kg 0* y * * s W * i ñ ä ë » X " à g G Ì , i Z z W Z ¼ ) g f Æ I4F 5_Kg0* I4F 5_ D)g f Æ Ö Z ±ÃFg Wà èEjG y** s W *iñ X c* Š[ Z!)g fÆ èEjG 4F 5_Kg 0* jG Xì Ýq$¬ZåÅ~R, Ñ !!X ~ŠŠæ ~ õÑoWÅ èEI y** s W*iñäg ¶ Z kZ G & E-4E e„ Ð yz¬gzZ Šæ Å k B )** izg ® )" áZ Åg¶Z a kZ á ', g!* ¯c* 6,ezg +¤ /ÿ5Ÿ G ?nÆVà 4Ðm24úÆ^ " Xì mƒ X ǃÃ',ÆZ 24 B‚Æx Z¤ / z6,ÆyŠ}g7 q -Z x !Z » kZgzZ Ïìg / z6,Æ VI~‚ kZ =e Z', gzZZi%yP<g WX : !z6, ñÑt ‚U ZÆ !z6,)g fÆ xZ¤ kZ ÌÐ Ng Ã6,gzZ ~²" ázŠg Z V1 Ic ÔW{z´Æ VIX ‰ +Z Lg ÇÍsZyg ÑgzZÍg hZ^gÔ=e Z', Ô Zi%yPX : |i x™ { Z',a Æ ] â ¥ h +' ×~ e kZ X ˆ à Šæ ~ e Artangel 31 Eyre Street Hill X ,™^iz6,www.netangel.org.uk London EC1R 5EW X !g Z ¦ / ]ÐwŠµÆeÍßsfzgq6, ä™yz¬ë Larne Abse Gogarty, Attaboy Dry Cleaners, Razwana Akram, Brad Butler, Asim Butt, The Daily Jang, Falcon Food and WIne, Yousuf Haider,

68

LZÐ Z ëX !g Boq -Z Zƒ y~ y Zd x  ò u L ZÐ Z X ! M h™Ìz »y Zd Æ^g W~ wj â , Z~X !M h h! ÌÐ X Vƒ Š/_ .gŠ . އà ðÅ g » { " áq -Z Ãg » ®i Z q -Z Ð á ZjÆ wø | #Ù -Z ig ^ q ,k Hg Wg ZŠ y ZZ X Š Hc* à y vJ c* à y vÃÄ ‚ Å c Z™gzZ wøi Z ¹ ~ Vzi Z ây ¶ð•ZÆ *Š vßÆ V ˜ Š H ! @* ƒ: 4t Š H~ w q ]gßkZ X ! ï" á Ð V ; z Ãk , ¦ kZ 6,gî ðZ 6,Kg 0*n2 $ g^ 4¨GG »y Z éSE 5G ,k HgE WGE gzZ <g WX C™c_ » äU -‹34$ c V âzŠ èE.G gzZ <g WX f e ™tc_t ðZg W)u z ŠŸ ) ¸ n pg pŠ ~ ƒ Igz Z B‚Æ Ùpe $.6,kZ { z  ( ¸ T e 7 ÝZ X ¸ M h™¿Ð „ ! ZpgŠ Ï~Š ‚ q -Z XŠ Hc* Š: „ µñ » ä™ (Z 7Z!ìtX X ?VYy "W

Zi%yP "ÛZ¤/I ¯ X VIII|Ìe

HE 45! à7 ÑØ gzZ ø½5Gzg!% ñY ~ c ! Ç Vƒe It sÜ~ ! x » ** VY ó ói7 ŒdÎt Vc* Šg^ Åx ZúB‚Æq -’ÅY ¯z tX !Hœ£ ~Š ã CÆq -’kZy "W!‰% Q »‹Z6,~g/!t Âq -Z¸ {Š‚Ç!* œ£ ÔñY 3ggzŠÐ „ ! (à `¯ÔñY Hi¸WÐ Zz™wbÃVŸwzd GÃY 2007Þâ 3ñYc* VŸzZ Ï8gzZ ñY1:ZzÃ]âZŠZáZzäY X ñYHs§', à :gzZ ¶ÅÎâ!zZ Y! Â: q -’ÅY ¯z tÉ ¶â" Û g» li‚ ~T 5 1 :Æ kZ „ yÎ 0* gzZ àb C;Å VzgZŠ Z gzZ ñ $Wq -’ gzZ M WJ -V˜¶aÆàb Åx ÂrZ°~ !zZ q -ZÐZì m»]q&Z~x ÂrZ°

"» 5E XK~gY]â©ZÆä™ c™læ¾H (11-05-2009iE~Š ) 9 i ¸W » T]zŒ rZ°gzZ q -’Å Y ¯z »T å§ZzwV" (Zq -Z åZƒÃY 2007agâ ~ & wì¡q -Z c* W~ Ú Š ¿Šg „ ! Š', i HE 45! Y!Ãq -’Å Y ¯z {z Vƒ êŠ x ** » ó óø½5Gzg ÷ ÷ ~yÎ 0* äq -’kZXì êŠgZŒ Û -’!zZ q A &!zZaÆây6,RCÑçgzZ 4c* ¢ g ó ió 7à7ÑØ ÷~ ÷ &wì¡gzZq -ZX ~Šh +âÅ -Z q q -’Å Y ¯z ~ wìÆ kZ Ç VzŠ x ** » GB9E K» ó ] ó zŒ rZ° ÷ ÷~ T¶q -’I ï g )gzZ V¸Åzi!* NZŠŠ!ñ~o&åï" á Ã^Æ e $g/ w_ ~ yÎ 0* V¸~g/ Ë~ ekZ X HwEZ a Æ ä™ j @* &

tzgÃÂ}çÔã5£ZŠ- WZk , iz *4ÔY Zgiz¹ÃzÔZi%{+ÔZ ò ¸5ZS -** ÝZ r zZ! }ç ÔPwzu VŸÆ ^gà 4G 5_gzZ Ÿg0* 2E y»gZ Ôs 6Z s W ä x » ~g»uçJ.G wøVŸ‰Kwbë@* X Å• %Ñ~Ø( Š!z!* ÆY]úŠ ä ~g@a ·gŒZ =r X Å7• %Ñ~Ø(kZ (21-03-2009iE~Š ) {gzŠ »ãwçJ -E ] 12 ägŒZ = A-4$vgzZ |ä VrZ H 3.G E Ð+ $Y Å ïHE » ä3~g£)áZz äYK ëZ" Û ÃV-{ » VßZz ä™ ëZ" Ûk»Z ðZ½ gzZ 1 Fâ

Ôg Z%â Ô Kgq -Z # Ö Ót X 7pŠ ðà gzZ ~igz s ÜÅM WÃsægœä VrZX 1 P Æ Kzg` "'Æ ,Ñâ + $Y q -Z Z # X ! ÔW,Z !* ,ÃVŸ6,g ïZ Ð äVZ Õ6,zZ Ï8 BZÑZŒyâ ‡yZÄ$ +ð•Z s§' ãnBZÑZt ¸ìg™4z] .nÆVz• vßtXì Œ6, n kZX H7Ô6,VY‰ä™ , Z' ,Æ äƒ : yÎ 0* X¸7g»ÃähgÌL Þ1q -Z Å ã0* ¬Å yâ ‡gzZ ! ïŠ L' Xì „._Æw©x »s »Z~ k]lp6t Ð g±Z q -Z X D™7~È0* H 7ÁÃ] Zz) x° +F, +kZ J $ -Z # ! c* g +Z6,yÎ 0* Ð w‚ 60¸* Æ yZ X ! I e $j Å„ }Ñ çkZ ÃBZÑZ Œyâ ‡ÔyZÄ$ +gzZ @* Y Ôg ÏáÑ% k0* à ©¹ Ð ~àx ¬&ì „g # ÖÓ ±)gzZƒõ˜ÔVc* h Ç eZg) ¬c* ÏZ ë @* Y H7g66,äƒæ6,gî: c* z)~ Dƒ^g70*

¡X ǃ 7Ýq Ð ä™}C Ùb6,' » 䙼 Ð à Š 4gzZ ä™úÐ Vá´ X ì [g ¦ /[ Z‰ Üz gzZ ]ª ð•Z ‰ Üz kZ ä yÎ 0* ÖÓ # yÒ‚{Š ‚q -Z ä â !* zZgœZ # Hg ÖZ »)œ ÔVßjZ ÔVpœ~Š ã CyÎ 0* Ö Ó! H ~g Y # x  rZ°gzZ f ÎÆ yâ ‡Ôw¸ NŠ Å ¡ Æe $ÒZ ÅVÍß! B bg7ÌqZ Åä` ¸!* ÙgzZì 7Äc* C gŠ 5ðÃt Xn™x »n Xì ;g HÐ#²sî]!* ¸ ã Î 0* kˆ ÆTgzZƒ C™# Ö} .KZ sÜ! „ ! c* g +Z n LZ sÜ=g fÆx ÂzZg W+ZBZÑZ‚zŠ V-àLZ ÎgzZ Vƒsz^~ äg Lw â wŠ !¢¹ Ôƒ: pŠ ðìРe $ÒZ Å X Ï}Š™sp¼ƒ ! ]¸ X !ñƒöyxgŠÆk B ~(,q -Zë Ä eZg) KZ !!gzZ k , iz {Š c* iÐ Î H D h ÂÃ2Z ¸ÆŠ R, ~ Vzg » kze Z6,sz6, -Z { z!! D ™C q Ùªt Ìb§ËVƒ DQ Xì ~ k Bª #q! ! }ÒúÆo,Z -Z Ð ~ V”äF,d q $¾Æ *Š ! o (Z b§Æ k]Æ {%izg LZ ÉgÆTgzZì »`â „HX !DQ n!\ »„‰ ÜzC Ù 1g 6,WŠR, Ù~ VYziÎ ~Š ‚ x » t C ~ *Š ~g ‚ HX M h™ 7k , iz iZ kŠ áZz -Z {z!ì @* q ™C Ùªtgœ Zg øÑZz äQt˜ o Zgø²~, Z Xì VZx»o {Ši k B izg kŠgœ Zg ø Âì ;g±k B {Š 1 Å ’ KZ Ð# Ö|Zg ZŠ Æ o q -Z 6,}gzŠ ˜Æ êŠ ð3Š @* ™iZz6,J -# Ö|Zg ZŠÆo}uzŠ Æ VzgzŠ ãzÛÆgœJ -Y 2009 ag â Xì "Z )œ »9zgg ZD Ù57 ÄÑ 72 hz™ 15 ]YZy X¸` àÃäZ $ " ò¸ kZ ÃòŠ Wx ¬ X ! ‰ƒ wb =r ›ú » V‰ õÄ ‹C Ù{z!7pŠ ðÃÐ yÎ 0* ä VrZ J -ÌZ X ! D™wßz xs [ AZ Ð ägÃb) ~Š ã CÆ s »Z ~ gzZ 7F, Ñ!* Ð yâ ‡¿ðÃ!Xt Xì H &ä VrZ Xì m, z*Š ãâ ‡)q -Z zZ g W+Z 7½ Z IñÎs ÜÆ OÆ Vî Ég c !

ì ! x»gzZ] !~„ngzZ8 -^ ,N* gzi +Z ¾g Zg k ¶Z KZ ~ dZz ä gœn ÏZ X óì ó ] !~„ e $g/~÷ ÷! ÷ Hy´Z~ [ g¦ /Ð é"q -Z yÎ 0* !ì t | Ë:gzZ e $g/Å& +Z',CZ f ÅË Â: [ ZgzZì ŠpëXì $ Ë}Š¼ ÐZ e $%WÅ& +Z',w¾ Åå 3C Ù!* Ð kZ ! ñƒ 4ZŠ ~ w%Š T w …% ñ3niX M h™7µÂðà X 7µÂðÃÅä¯\W CZ~ ÅkZ X ì o‚ » b)} (,&Ãy Î 0* B‚Æ { z¤ /“z q -Z Æ VzI e $j` ¯ g66,WÎtŠp~Š !* W±Ôì ðƒz Z~k B gzŠâYÆxsZ i Z Ic* }™I ** ƒ %f!ì k%ZX Z (,ZuzŠ Zg ø X á™wJà g Z ŠZ Å cŠ Zg ø ~ k B s ÜÆ ~Š¤ /cŠ! ì Ã]Š ª ~g ø k%Z X ì g »q -Ñò q » ~Š¤ / ì [ƒ [ x » J -u kZ ~ äÑ W,Zk , i LZ 6,Vzg " áZ LZ b§ Å Vã 7Z ä kZ! g66,ä™ú b§ÅVñÝh +y " gigzZ W** X ì c* Š™ Tì o‚ »˜Z 㨠KZ , Z …}Š g ‡zz] ³gzZg ÇizgÔVzyLZŠ Z" ÛZÄÑ12 ~ g66, ähgÃVzyLZ {zX !‰ƒxzøÐ Æ ’ Å Ï0 + igzZ uZgpÔ(ÅäÖugzZ ! Å ] uZ z y Z X ! ì g 8 -â „ gŠ gŠ n »kZ ãÎ 0* F, {Š c* i!ì WzâZ ÏëgzZ ]” dž H³» ]uZz yZ X ! Ñ ä™kˆZ spn Æå {n » yÎ 0* ÃsÐ kZ t X ˆ{g 7] !* Åw©t [ Z Xì ÑZz äƒ } •b§kZ yÎ 0* !ì ;g Y HC Ùª w ì gzZ O%Z Ô y]¤! ì Yƒ } • ÉZ•»IKZЄ ! c* gx » ** kZ *Š {0 +*!* ! ! Ìvß, Z VŒ X B™ÇÐZÆ™ kZ ë¤ /Z!! ëgzZ ! n pg ¢~ Vz7 6,ä™spÃ| # ‚ÅBZÑZÆkZgzZ„ ! c* g »Y ’ Å}Ñç„ ! zŠ x ZúÌ[ Z ÂVƒqŸg ×6,gî Šg ¡ƒ ! t wq¾ Xì µñ ö6, gzZ äšÃ~x â ZÔ äZØ} }!Ô ä°

Å Y ¯z „B‚Æ kZ pì YY ¹ q -’ ÅÌ‚ÎwÎgzZ V=pñ $W"‚ŠpÐ + $Y Ð áZjÆzÂ~ ]5ç ã⠇Р+ $Y ÌʶzŠzuÅ~pÏ(gzZ ~Š OZÔY!… w!ìtwZÎ[ZpXce** ™7lñZ" Û [zZ rZ°gzZ q -’kZ ÅY ¯z ~ yÎ 0* ~ H~ eÆ æWgŠ ¿6,ñ $WgzZ x  rZ°Æ XÐVƒæW' , ò} yâ ‡gzZ M W È»]¸ÅD°~ yÎ 0* Å „ yâ ‡gzZ M W}gZŠ Z rZ°vŠ z p ÖZ !* ì ÅnzŠ äù ZgfyZÆyâ ‡X !ìZŠzì‡k , ŠŠ ã C ÆD° F, ,¬ Ð ƒ ' ! ì c* Š ÀÃV¸rZ° Ô~gZŠ {gYZ Å]Zyãâ‡gzZ ñ $WgzZ ]Zg(Z iÆb) ÇyZÐ wÅ}gZŠ Z q -ZQ

?ì ÎH6, î ZŠVŒ

V'Š Z áZz p pg mÐ zi !* N !* ë¤ /Z 5Ð g °Z z ] ÑìÆ q -i ~i 6,gîm{ à qçñÝZgŠ ^g W ÷ ÷._Æ kZ ÂVƒ -Z {z wVÅ kZ ó Xó ì µñq q -Z » ä™sp ._Æ] kZ ì @* ™yÒ ~ ]gßÅ] ä kZ  c* W:Zz yLZ¬ Ð ‰ Üz ¿q -Z ]gßX c* 0* 6,s B‚Æ ¿gzZ q -Z Ã~ç KZ ? ÷ ÷X H wZÎÐ C ÙØä ~ç y.6,Ð wq ™ < ÐZ ä C ÙØ ?‰ W VY :Zz ~¢ 6,s }÷B‚Æ¿}uzŠ ?¹Ð w9Z ¬Ð ?ä ~ c* Š [ Z! ä ~ç ?ƒ „g™ H Ð wZÎkZÆ™spqçñ[ Z å HwZÎ ?Št ~ ekZ q -i ~iz™# Ö ÒÃű 0 ËY ~Š Ð áZjÆ ŠŸwV ¸! ì @* $ Š Å1zg ÊŸ!ì t sÜx » Zg ø [ Z Xì

=i +' ," ÛZ¤ /I ¯ X óu‰ GÐ~È/µ

Ayesha Tammy Haq, Arif Hasan, Sandi Hilal, Anna Kay, Auj A. Khan, Naiza Khan, Suzanne Lacey, Karen Mirza, Sara Nesteruk, Anvi Patel, Alessandro Petti, John Phillips/Pancho Villa, Potty People, Research Architecture, Naeeem Sadiq, Hasan Sheikh, Faisal Siddiqi, Adeela Suleman, VASL Artists Collective, Eva Weinmayrs, Eyal Weizman, Yaseen Hairdressers, Rehana Zaman, Slavoj Zizek. E

Tel; +44 !0) 2077131400 E-mail: interaction@artangel.org.uk www.artangel.org.uk

»X]¸Ð wÅ}gZŠ Zq -Z ÅD°aÆ t X ¶~ Ë +F, +ÆðOZ ª $ #Z°ZZ x ZúX ¶B bgqZ ÅVhò OZ +4ª #Z° Xì Ð V‡˜gzZ Ï( Ô~g»u Zm œ£zŠ Ã7ÆD°kˆkZ Cc* $×Å Ð áZjÆ ‘J e ò OZ Æ VzgZŠ Z Z e Æp pguÃÃ]¸Åx Zú!t¬Ðƒ ! X¸ {z ìe ì Ä }gZŠ Z rZ° Ìg(Z » Vh , iz ½s »Z Ãx Zú)gfÆ ]â©Z LZD°a ðÃyxgŠ Æ s 6Z ògWsWr gzZ WZk Ö ÓQ c* ƒ·iÚ gzZ ]q&Z ~D°~ pÖZ }uzŠ Xn™ äƒ yxgŠÆ ~àx ZúgzZ # X·iÚðÃÑZz gîV7 [Z ª #Z°dZ Xn ï rz" Û Ã]â ZŠZ ! Š' , i ,Z ! ì t wZÎ [Z 6,]; !z ~Š ã CÅ kZ ë ñO Å ä™Òà gzZðOZ gzZ Ïn™® ) !Å#ñÆ ƒ ! 6, rZ° „ †×9e ;m†e K]‡†Ú áçnÒ n ÍB‚ÆkˆZ V7 iZzWÆ VâzŠ xZú D°Š!z!*Æp pg ]¸~Š ã Cïq Å]Zg(Z ŠŸ{°‡!* 6,gîm{gzZ ,Š™ qzÑ ** ™c -Z ~ # Ö ÓgzŠ Æ sæ~ yÎ 0* ÝqwÅ“gz0* , i ÆðOZ gzZ gz$ âZ i»Z~ ]¬çñ‰ŠŸŠ!ñÐ ¬c* q 6ÃSqÅx Zú[ZX Ï » kZ ?„g VY ºk -Z!¶CY Åc¹6,qçñ σ]¸5ÅD°kˆÏZ[Z)¬ñZggzZ σ èg¬gzZgz$‰yÎ 0* Xì y‚W¹ [Z! X ,™lˆ ÇÆðe q h ƒ ] ** kZ HÆ ðÅ ^g W~ ò ZúuÃgzZg¦6ÆSqò Zú{z´ÆkZ Ã~]Z½»¡]¸ñ $WÅD°~x Âñ $W -Z ÑZz äW7~ VâŠDq ~ yÎ 0* ÏZ ?! M q W -Z áZz äY Çg ™ƒ W, OÐ yZÄ # ì @* Z W~ ‚f }g ø Ð á ZjkZ§Zz y*q X ǃg®Z»~Š ZiWŪ #Z°dZ„6, ]¸ " ™ zgç gzZ :7 ÃðOZ Ï( XìIC4H 5G5_ E . H 3 Z LZ à `¯Xì Ý q ]¸{C " Å ï gÒE gÍ ** ) Ã]©ñƒ _(,yxgŠÆxZúgzZD° HHÌw ZÎt6,Š ã CÅ ( Y 2008m, Ð zz ÅWÅ ¿q -Z 6,k , ¦Å <g Wq -Z ! åŠ 4H 5_ 5G gÒE HE.I »ÐZ gzZ ¶ðƒ ðZg W)u ~ wø| # Ù ÌZ ÅkZgzZ ÏŠ!ñÅ^gW¬»Y Ñ ¯g â H È¿~g/ »nq -ZÐ + $Y Ū #Z° dZ ë ]¸ Å ï3 Z " ™ zgç ~T gzZ VâZ! , ÆkZXì Ýq # Y ¯z ?ì xŠ ƒÐ }™¢»g£kZ ~ŠZiWÅ¿z„òZúX!M 6,äYC Ù!* Ð o 4Š' , iÃ<g W å Š Hc* Š™ ìg™ ` îZ 6,VÃvZ h gŠ ™]â©ZsÜÃD°@' kZÐZ Xì g(Z » ä™ Üz kZ ¸ ~VhrZ°gzZÏ}ŠßF, ÅogzZ I~Š VRŠÃig ^ ,k Hg WX Š HHg6 Æ Y Ñ ¯g â! å ;g VZ wZÎt ̉ D°Ãi3ZÁ!Ï 7g(Z ðà » ]!* $Y ÅBZÑc* `¯gzZ Ï(!ì ä™ ðZg W)u Ìä # Ö ÓÉ6,gî~g/ [Z ~ ^g W!t gzZ ǃ Hg ZŠ™ » ^g WyZgzŠ wZÎ[Z1XÐVƒÝqÆÌZgñZÐyà ‚f Š ZiWÐ + Æ ™ Š g à ] â © Z ‰ °§' ,Å VŸáZz p pg ?ǃeb§¾** YHi Z0 +ZÃÄ ! ( ?Ç}™yÃ:» ~ŠZiWkZ »¿z„òZú!ìt Ð áZj kZ …X Å ðZ ‚ ÛZ,j Å „ Vß Zz Xn™wb7Z m b * ! Æ ! „ ( g z Z ^ g W ] Ñ Z Î , F x Ó t c* ßZ ~k , ¦t 7]gz¢Å äY ~ , {Z' ,Æ Îâ ËyxgŠ Æ xZúc* D°! VY ìŠ ZiWJ -uÅM WgzZ]Z½» {gZŠ Z rZ° Å4z] .sîq -Z Ð á ZjÆ yxgŠÆD°gzZ xZú[Z X¸ 7ÆZg „ ! Zg ñO Å kZ ?Zƒ VY)u Ð áZjÆ Š Zñ Xì ‚i !* ! Š »ðOZ {gZŠ Zt!ìt |1 +Z Tc* 8{ ^ ¢ ,Y » ]ÑZÎyZ Æ ™ sp qçñ… áZjÆ V-g ZŠ)f CZ f6,f õ ãzÛ gzZ ãzg0 ŠÀÃ]¸5+Zq -ZäÆZg„ ! Zg{Z' , kZ tXìô„ Å ä ™ iyZgzŠÆ[zZ rZ°&ìX{z q Z t Ì a Æ V Q g W Æ Z g Š d Z t Ì Ð ?ðƒ VY „ Za y "Wwq ]gß+Z!ce XH¤ /YZ{Šc* i¹ÌÃÌZÅY¯zä î15Â[Z!µ»ZkZÃY ¯zX ˆÅÒà 4´Æ XŠZ" .nG kZ ä VrZ X ¶~gZŠ)f CZ fgzZt„œ ~ Y ZpZ ~ VpZ° çE Û Z {z) Xì mHyxgŠÆ e $g/gzZ ~Š Zi Wg ÖZ Ã] !* i»ZgzZ [Z! -Z ~ õg @* Å [ zZ 7Z! å 1™ uÃáZzp pgmÐ Ì‚ÎwÎgzZ c* zX ! [Z! µ»ZkZXì ¹!* ~] ÑqyZ ?ìg ZŠ™ H » ßZ Ë~}Ñ ç x £ q ™Ýq !ñWt‚™0y™½ ZÅyZ\z¤ / gzZŠZ" Û Z uÃÐ g±Z ò OZ Ã]¸Å}g ZŠZ ÆD° kZ H ?ì Y™ ØZ' ×J -“ % gzZ ù ðÃ Æ ^g W7Z a Æ ÑkZ Xì ** Z6,gzZ Ô ðZg W)u ÃË~} Š6, ]%=ågzZ ìYÐáZjÆSqòZú! 20 X 5 ™ ¯ o¢Ã‘J e Æ kZ gzZ D™ ì (Z¤ /ZXì 4„ xg lñ{~ wq]gß ÆV.6,K6, z XРÙ 7 ]³"ÆTêÑZzäYHÃY 2007ðÑ! "Çq -ZXì 7** ‚ Za uÃÆ Ì‚Î wÎgzZ c* H„ ! ( Å Ùñ{ 㨠KZ y "W!ì Ìt wZÎ Â !ìt [ ‚g Z »x` / HæWgŠ ¿~g¯6,ŸÆàb Å=r [â ^g WŠŸ6,gzZŠŸ6,^g WÔŠŸ~^g Wë ?ì X ñY H uh =g f Æ / à Vz! { Zg x9 !xZú!7~gz¢gzZ!]ZŠ¢LZÆV7z¤ H $Š Z ~)ŠgŠ" Æ~œ,! XVƒ}WëÐyZ]ÑìÆyZ!… Y¼ T¬ÑZz äYH ~g YÃY 2007 Þâ 3 gzZ Š +Z gzZ ?РÙù {eÐ }uzŠ q -Z à ú6,Vá´ d k Z 7 H g z Z Ç ƒ H w » x  r Z ° 1 äY ñUÐ}ÇÆkZà e ÌË"Æ ò O Z * c Ï p Æ ^ g W q Š g Š g z Z ! D ™ Š!ñ~ wøkZx » Zg ø Z # ~ wq]gß -’Å Y ¯z ÃsÐ agâ 16 æWgŠ ¿6,¬kZ ˆ Å Z +¬ ~È0*6, $Š Z q -ZÆ ÷Z" Û X ! ïŠ 5Ð x© kZ ä [zZ rZ°gzZ q Wz ?å HmCZ f Zg ø Ð ðZg W)u kZ  å ñÇ d Š™y' ×Ç~ ‚„ ! gŠ Ãx  rZ° yx™ Q {”s§' ,"Æ T ZƒÃY 2009 ~yÎ 0* gzZ ðZg W)ukZ Â,™g¨Ð ~‹Z èKZ~Y 1952ä kZX B wVÅ eg1~ e t gzZ ì c* kZ wq]gß Å Y ¯z Ð Ÿ kZ X ‰ ƒ wb 6,VzÇ LZ g ÖZ » ~gz$~g øÐ ðZg W)u x ¬à Zz äƒ Æ WITH OUT IMAGES ~ ™ðƒ {g ZŠ Z rZ°!ì C™Ï?Å] !* Û Å Z½³** ~V9ÅyÎ 0* [ Z ¿X BEÂÌÃV¸àZzä™e $×Åq -’ ™Oà m{z! ¹ ñƒ D™W~ }g * ! x ©gzZbZ" Ѓ ! ~ ‚f}g øÐ áZjkZ Xì @* ƒ ** + Y ÅÑ!* Æ D° sÜ: 6,D1 . ÞÆ ]¸ò Zú!t -Z O» mèYì Le Š Z®ÅVÇ(áZz äYØŠÐ $ äYÅ7~Y 1967Å eg Z eÍÙå…¬ Æ ä™OÃ! { Zg q Xì ;g}Šz ÂÌ+ $YÅä™Á LZ Ìyx™ Q É X Zƒ æWgŠ ¿6,]â©Z -Z ÅkZXì y‚W}~«£ X ™~ m, z*Š à Zz wV+4q X !Vzq -Z~c Z™jœß , ¦g » { " áÅ Î å , ¦t Xì GUENICA k X ñƒwb6, VzÇ á Zz äY K 6,COIN DU VITNAM k -ZÆ ÜZÆ x ** ÏZ ~ Y 1937 x ** $zÐ Z y ZgzŠ kZÐ Z ǃ ´gŠ c* e à ` îZ ~uzŠ6,àq B Åk B { z™ Y V ˜ Ô ˆ~Š 7]i Y Z Å äY -e:Z LZ äkZyZgzŠÆ~g !~xk X ¶ÅÌ~ Æg ÖZ g »y "Wä eg Z eÍX å Le ** ™ ~È ™ "q -Z!ì @* Y¹ ™C ÙKZ { z! H{°z ä kZ X 1 Zg – » ßZ a ~Y 1937äfZ ð` B tÌä kZg »y "WX Ç} ™gz¢™fx ** $z~ {gzŠ »i- e:ZÆkå›cyZgzŠÆxk e ’ e I7t … ÷! ÷ c* Š™ »Ãc kZ™È {z X @Š GUENICA ä kZ VŒ X å H k Z g z Z ½ : Z I | k Z , 6 q ç ñ Æ B k ÆkZ Ô! M h ™ HnÆ Vñ ** $z ë! e H{g {Ši]ª™NŠÃT $r‰KC Ùª~ }g ø ä Vñ ** $z! ǃ Þ 7 …ñ O kZ Š e , ¦HtHÄc* gŠÐÎåä kZ ÌÐ á ZjÆ y Î 0* ë ?ì H H n ?ì ð¯ä\Wk Xì Hä?x »t7X c* Š[ Z! äÎå Ãy Î 0* ë!Æ kZ ñO ! M h™¿6,] !*

OFFENDING IMAGES

D™x » ._Æ è%Åy]¤gzZM%Z b§ Üz kZ Å„ ‰ ! c* gx » ** kZ ä ë¤ /Z XÐ !g b &ZZ # ÇñW‰ Üz{z¢¹Q ÂÅ: b & Z X ǃ7Š!zðû„ ! c* gnÆ é ~ Z Ôì Ág » » Ì‚Î wÎ ') ( naeemsadiq@gmail.com

Zi%yP <g W X c Z™ÓZg e_ yxgŠÆ VÍßk ,5 +ö; g~ Ìe6,b ˜Z ÔCc* ½dZ ! ! vß { z t X ì $ ˃ c cd $! yZX !n pg„i§m{q -ZgzZ !C* Æ^g WgzZ @g ™g!ÆàúÆVzg Z- Š ! f ~ ½ *Š X ! „ Tg g » ð gzZ ] c* Ãg0 +Z Æ Vzg Z- Š C Å Vâ {g ó ð3Š ‚i !* gzZ ]g ˆÅ w ì!Š n6,] Zg¦ É 7Å< Øè k B ÝZ ~ yÎ 0* X ì îŠ CÅ~y! ^g W~){ zXì ÅŠŸÚ 7[ Z! »] Zizˆ[ ZgzZì {~ ~g Z- Šg e GÉ p! ~g ¬Ð *g! ] Zg " áZ { zgzZ êŠ ?ìŠ Z%B‚ƾy "W*g ~)t

Zg vsÜR, zzC Ù÷ ÷~ y !* izŠg Z { z´ÆkZX¸ p ÖZÆó ó!B‚}g vë î J (, xŠ ÷ ÷äzZ ó ì ó 4X3ÂX ! D WÃñƒ ‘ O Y Ì #‚g èE ª LG B 6´Z Ð q k -’”ì È » VzÈÆ ÅVzyÆÌe} ÈÆnkZ ë @* Ô bŠC ~Š Z®{Š c* i âZ Ái Z Á c* D W7Ã6,Vzg Z- Š Vâ kvŠÆàñ OÆ kZ Ô ï Š 7ð3Š ,Z q -Z X ! D WÃÐ gîx ¬6,Vzg Z- Š Å 7Š!ñ*iñ ðà » ^g Wyg e â V˜ ~à Xì YY ¬Š6, gîÆ*iñq -ZÃàV; zì ËY Ås $ # Ÿz Hy "WÅ V- g Z- Š g e yZ 1 I _ 4 5 j F E G y** s W *iñt H ?ì kZ ?ì è Kg 0*

gzZ + M KZ Ì,g Z-Št X ! D WÑ ] ** Ò VñuÏ(X !ÜVzk , ’à Zzä™C ÙªÃA ,g Z- Št {z´Æ «™ÅBZÑZ Ð yv c* yZ c* Ú ŠÃò¤ / uà ZzäƒC Ù!* ÃVß Zz#g LZ t~Z # X tŠ#g 7. Þ‡Æh ez~ }÷Å kZ ÂVƒ C™wEZ ó ó9Š ÷ ÷ b ˜Z ÅgÅt Xì Š Z% ** ™¼ {Š c* iÐ Ú Š q -Š 4, Xì ª #q—ð•Z w DZ gzZ ~qª #zŠ Å yZ Ð ~— Å VzgZ- Š VzÈÏ(, g Z- Š ÅV¸´ ÒZÆc Z™ ,g Z- Š œzZtµš Xì @* ƒ g ÖZ » ƒ ! ÚÆ 5_gzZ ] ZçZ ì @* Y¹Ìe κ´x Ó{zÆàcZ™ #q Z -’ÅY ¯zX ! ~ 7,KZÐ ] Zg 3ZgzZ ÅyÃ7Æ ] " á .Kg ðG3½G } -f $Z | Ð I| Ôyz| Ìe {z ó ßó 1 ÷ ÷6,Vzg Z- Š yZ ‰ Üz kZ ¶6,gØzgzi LZ 6, ] â £x ¬izgC ÙV˜~à, Zq -ZX !ˆ ñƒ “ J /Æ Š ZGY C Ù~ V¸´ yZ X ! D WÑ {Š c* iÐ ƒ ! p ÖZ Æó óg ÷ ÷gzZ ZÌ6,Vzg Z- ŠyZì CWÄ ! ( {Š c* i¹ ðƒ µ Š¤

]‡ † Ú á † nÒ

69

8nÒææ;m] oÏm‚‘ Ø’nÊ

Ñ"^‘ ÜnÃÞ


MAIN THEME

MAIN THEME

5

6

=i +'," ÛZ¤ /I ¯ X ©»gœÃ]ZgˆÆ[ c

Ægëg äŠ6, zZÆ Ï! c* WÃ}q -Z » V¨ äZ6,q -Z gzZ g«ÐZ ! ì ú Æ r q -Z ÔV¨~™ÖB‚ÆűkZX¸ìg hZB‚ wjZ 6 6,W,Zt Xì @* ™{eÐ y*G }g!* ƺg yxgŠÆ ÏgzZ VzdÆ L W {z!ƒ;gÈ{z‰ìZ9 b§kZg)Ñt‚Æ )gfÆ ¿gzZ Aà ]ÑìXVƒ „g aÎ~ Xì {ZÍ »]_ñÅV”ge yxgŠÆVzgZ-Š KZ 45 -G X!DƒspÐ Xå;gƒ( ÷E , Ðz{Šiy¶ Kq -Z F)î‚gb§~' I4F 5_Kg0* g«ÔmÖ V;zk , Š „ ~hð6,r Æ e $g ~ y** sW*iñ ì gÖZ »V kZ èEjG Xåú}÷ gîÆ|{0 + iq -Z~{hëgzZcZ™ä~& -ZB‚ÆVÂgqzŠyZ ÐqkZtXì0Ð]Ã%ZtX쬊6, ÐVŒXåy*Gq -gq -ZXå ;gƒkCÐñƒ Dg¦ / ñƒ Dg¦ /Ð V-ë o‚ » Tì 0 KIÅ8 Ù)3gB‚ÆVÂgqÅwjZ KY Æäg¦ /ë!ì 0Ð qkZt Ô! D™ Vz÷(}C ™ × & ú ä ~ ™ V , 6 x £ — q Z X , G à Zz 7'!* àì0Ð|tXóóÙŠ ÷7 ÷ Š!z!* -Äq -Z Æ kZgzZ xÂÆ kZgzZ ä™ o‚ » |É 7ÃÐ}i=!¬Š (y[ˆ)8 ~ ) V ( ™ g z Z × s § Ù C , 6 u a ~ / œ % X å * c W Ô}h! ò( Xì 3Zg q -Z »%ïŠÅÑJe I4F 5_ Kg0* B y** ÷÷Ç Å kZ gzZ óó*iñ ÷÷ ~ b6ZgZŠ 8X‰ÅwjZ ~g»u!‰ðƒ -Z óóèEjG q " B‚q -Z lgzZ× X! Æ6,g¦ /{g¢ q -ZÆ™lñZ" Û Ã}uzŠ å;gƒx¥(ZÔ‰ðƒ~a 6,gî CZf p! }a "B÷}uzŠ q -Z VâzŠ YäƒqzÑzª»óZgegzZì [0nZ‰ Xì;g Kg0* y** sW *iñ ÷÷Xì Z&=Å VâzŠ I4F 5_ µZz~ V¸´}uzŠ Åê w!gßÅ{hë Tí+Z q -Z Ôì 7q -Z n }÷ óóèEjG ,Ç!*Æ (]] .) V=p àZEƒ XVƒ$ Ë™{@x»V7ëÅà~)gfÆ Xì @' Š!* Wât‚ÆV!¤Åe $K¬ -Z à Zz p q pg mÐ c Z™ y {t i ** ˆÆxÂCc* .gzZ ¹F, Šß(]!* ŠÆ äƒ: sÆ ]] 15 ¸¦ /6,Rò Z ¸ÑZ Î! ! <g W X!}9B‚ÆVzúŠáZzäƒ ¢ }d {zÆ L W‡ [Z { z XH! „g™ {C Ùb » ®L Z Ð k' , iZz6,˜ c1 KZ űq -Z ùB‚}÷! !ìg hZB‚Æ 5µ 54G ?¼G çF g W hZ Fg Ws WwjZ ~z k& +Z ä~Z # Xì „gN~Zƒ™|0 + Í6,Ò 3Ð {Çg¦ /¡Å{hëÃÏû%« X !zÌ»ÚFg WíÃ~ =¬Š ä

! Ôgq-Šyzgz~Ñ » ~œ,z176,gîÆwV c* gŠq -Z » @* -ŠzyÆã0* Xì6, }g)Æg« C™ Y7Å @* -ŠkZÌ~gŠZ' , Îã0* ÔìgqwŠ Y1797!ì°;N* -Z6, q x£½ZŠÆ{hëXì âVŒ {z´Æ kZ Xå c* ¯ ä Vz÷BVz;N* ~ al "w0* ÂÔ!Ì'gqµÅßÅgzŠCc* Š!* W ~i¸){" áŠ-XìÌkî;V $Ñ** Z6, k' , 90gzZ VŒ ÌZgZzŠ¤ /{hëgzZgZ' ×» (ð¸Æ{" ávZ† {g" áZ »]!* kZ ÏŠ!ñÅ]â£BVÂgqyZXì -Z {Ñç »VŒ!ì îŠ ~ ïÈ I åE)ÅZMq " Åä™]gc* icŠZ" ÛZ›gzZzy{hëXåZƒZa Xì( ›;g ÒZ Æ {hëÔyZgzŠ Æ {â 15 ¸¦ / 5_Ií y®ÍÊZ" $Œ d Û ÆgZD Ù3Xì [ Y c* Š ëG Û Z Æö{zì X¼! ~ º´kZÆVzy ]** Kc ähÂ7Z6, ¶ Xy¼gzZyZy{¦1 al "Š!ñ„d $Œ Û ]Zgô6tX!`YñÎ {hëyŠ kZ~X!DWÃyZk , z{Šc* iÐgqgzZ zŠgD»^Y^IV˜¶ˆÚ ŠyZyÆö ÏŠ™g» H{z!WÎtX‰Š!ñ(i[ + s)è V”%ÆqËKZ~Ô~Tì$ ËYð3Š XVj™g»cä™x»™ïB‚q -Zà ÃwjZ ê! pZ {z=ñOÅkZp ge~Ë Åä¤ / gZ-Š ~ Y 2008 mV˜ c* W 8 gF gzZ øm "§Zzt ÔÆðŠB; Ð yY aH I5G 45_ 3.gÒE Z Æe $g wjZ ** Z6,t Xì mZe Ýzg6,ïHE

70

á^ì äm‡^Þ

óì ó ÅU~h Çt7÷ ÷ Åyï L ÷ ÷Ôå –6,g Z-Š Xì @* ™Òà ó ó~g©X ì** Y~g©Âä~p ÷ ÷ $Œ d Û Æ ÏZ gzZ óì ó B‚ }gø Ì[Z Ýzg c ÔV * $Zz hZ i +g Ô1 ÔQÑ ; ®Í ÷ ÷ » óc ó Z™gœÔkzuñ¾‹Z ÷ ~ ÷ p ÖZᮊ m, z6,& ì Ø7 »± N* gq -Z wZÎt ó ó?y0* X#y¯ ! E.G gzZ X Y7Ì™¼ {z p ;g 0* ™7“ ! ZŠ' , Ð ¿q -Z ê úG3 gZÏÅ 8 -g #u {z m, z6,Xì @* 3y0* {z „:gzZì ¥ f $rm, z6, sÜ= ÷ ÷X ó ó?ì ´Ã'Å ~g© ÷ ÷Ôì Ø7 Ôì H »± N* gX ó ó??ƒ Ð V¹ ÷ ÷Ôì Ø7 @Š pì ‹ » àZz ~g© Ôì D» àZz gœ Z”~ :W,g»zŠt‚ÆkZX óÐ ó àZâx ÷ ÷ Vz0 + 6, Š!ñ6, y!WsÜÃm, z6, ~cZ™X ó ó7 Åm, z6, »±gzZì CY’Ýzg!7 -eZÔ!CY gzZì [’Zƒ0 +Z[Zpì îŠ ð‹iZzWÅ Xì@* YƒT $¸ÐVzà ZnðÃ{zX Á„:gzZ!}ÃÔ!7}0 + 6, ÛZzŠ m, z6, áZeB; ~Vð; !ì 8 ŠÃŠ Z" {zX Le 9Š 7ÌVc* h N {zgzZ Le 9Š 7 »yZ c* W!ì y.6,{z ;! sz^~ c Ë ÔØ77ÐË{zXì ~lˆÅ~g©sÜ N Y ~g© Ð VŒ {z c* ì Ð ~g© m äJ m "~gZ¸â ! 7ÌÐ Vß Zz :7 yZ :Zz ~g©gzZ ì 8 Š à !ga ÑZz vZ {z XÐ X !Ù Š + $YÅkZ™Z—ñOÅ VâzŠ {z Xì @* ™ÒÊ䙊c* 3Zg » äY 'gzZ g»ÐZ ì @* ™gˆuv„‰ m, z6, Æ yZ {z Xì 8Š D Y d $Œ Û Æ VçÑÊ Z" ÛZ Å©gzZ ä`ÆVÍßgzZ”„ ! Š' , iyxgŠÆ VÏ CèY ! D Yƒ T $¸ {z pì @* Yú DƒìgNŠ§ZzV;zvß¼Ôì îŠð‹iZzW Ù!* C gzZg0 +ZÆTðW'q -ZX ‰ˆƒÈ {g!* zŠ Ùpƒ–~g©6, C 'Ëh +" á !ì 8Š {zX ! @* Y wȼ ƒ ! m, z6,gzZ ‰ðƒ Ð!Ñ °» !ïŠ ð3ŠvßD™/ZÑgØÔvßsz^( !gaàZzvZgzZƱLgkZÔŠ Z" ÛZzŠyZ{zXì Xì@* Y| (, ÐWZƒ@* hgú7Z{zgzZ Xì @* ƒ;gNŠs§ÅVçÑgzZì @* YwÈà ! V0zg ÅcZ™X VŒ ! °» V0zg -Z áZz p q pg mÐ cZ™ ' ¹ ó ó?ÏñY~g©~h Çt ÷ ÷ X!<gW

ï -Z~ KÆV- Š Zi W— ãZ6,X Ç ñWÃ{Ñç Zq -Z ~ cZ™J - ]!* Fi8FwŠ q ¿} (, Æy!ìt ë @* Ô Çƒ/Š{Š 1 q -Zt aÆ VY5gzZ { C „~ yLZÃ%Zz c* -Z X ! {!z &ÌÅkZ Xì Q ~ V- zg yZ ~ËÆ[ zZ Ï(} (,q -Z ãæWÁ!t q iÐ V»Åx » LZ yZ0 +{áZz Y!6 gzZ ] c* Zzg~ ekZ Ôì $ Ë W~p ö; ggzŠ {Š c* ƒ ** Y ~¢6,x »Ã%ZzX ! Dƒk , 8, -Z ¼ ƒ q ! t gzZ Xì ~gz¢Ì'Ã ë› {zgzZì @* # & z Š ! t z z ~ u z Š X ! D W : ZzÐk , Š V z Ôì e„)g fÆx ªÆó× ó ÃZ ÷ ÷{°‡!* kZ!ì Ìtzz q -Z ~ yZ ! ˆÅyÒ {!z ÛZ 10 Ð 8 y » r z" Û Ãg ZŠZ Y!5)g fÆc* zgzZ½~T ß °»Ð zz Å ö; g ÅŠ Z" Š Z" ÛZ ¹!* gzZ å@* ƒÑZzä¾q -Z6,gîx ¬¬Ð Ô ì C ™ k C y j Ü ‰ z Ï Z V â Ô ì * @ ƒ k C wç gzZ ~ÎZ6,îS) Vzg ZŠ Z (Ô ñY c* Š Ô! á Zz ä¾ F ` WX¸ D™g ®Z 6,kZ Ù!* ~eÆVñ» LZ vßÆyZ # X ñY ðÑ ~p ~ [» ( ~ Vί DƒC % Æ k Z X Y ^ 7 Ï %Æ kZ!VY ƒsz^¹ ¿C Ù !ìtzz~ŠX ! :gzZ ñY ~Š½6, Šã CÅ{6,RÅf $zÚZ Ôì @* +{ X Y{g 7ì‡ Ìx  ãZ0 +{!œ -Z X ! Dƒ ìg™x » „ ƒ ! !VY VâZ0 X ñYc* Š rz" Û ÃVñ¤ / uDpgzZ µZñÆô¸ ëZ q Ñ Z z ä W Ð o y z Û z z ~ (,q -Z Å UIÆ /LZ vß!t ] !* ÁF,Ì~ VñZ¤ /z6,Æ ~È /µ ~à ÃV=pà Zz äƒ úzg Š¤ Š~yZ0 +{ÐzzÅkZ!VYÔì Ìtâu T g j ó } g Š a Ï Z g z Z D ™ 7 k C yÃx»t Ôì ]gz¢Å äÑ V´p6,VzŠ ã C Ù!* gzZ ì @* ƒ Za /_ .» C ä ¿q -Z X ! ¿ÑZz !tâuÐC ¯i~w ZÎtÔÇñÑyÃV´ptgzZÔ Ç}™ LZ Ãe KZ ä kZ! c* Yƒ {eÐ Š Z" ÛZvŠÆ yZ0 +{ á ÐƱÆC Ù!* Ð º" Û Æ kZ Xì @* Xì Ô {zÔ ~Š]i YZ Å~Š " +{ ÌÐzz Å&Zpà Zz ä™x » „B‚ kZ yZ0 ~ c Z™ Ô! ]ZyçL8Xâ q -Z Œsg ¬ VÍß{oëLZÐZ! å{ŠispÐ ]!* +{7Z Xì @* ƒ W, O @' ,Æ kZ X Ï "ÃG g '!* Š ð•Z Å g Z ŠZ îZzggzZg ‡zÆyZ0 àgzZ "î ; X ! D™x » DgzZ Tg 7,** ™ o‚ »] ¬i ÚgzZ Vz×6,x ** Æ 6,]!* kZ {z´Æ Vðh1 } (,‰Æ yZ0 +{ Xì @* ä VrZ Ð á ZjÆ ‘J e ~Š ã CÆ +' ×Ð kZ gzZ ! CƒC Ù!* Ð yZ0 +{ Vc* Š" á X H7g ÖZ »¿ŠgäË h Xì Hx » °» ð;Š {ÒW Â,™g¨6,ò}ÆckZë¤ /Z Xì @* 7, ** ™ o‚»])

~gzŠÐ cZ™~Ð wÅ<gWq -Z g7½Ð]¬iÚXVƒ„g™ÒÃÅä™Ýq Xì _ Y ~±k B eC ÙV˜ ìà (Z q -Zt ~gzŠ {z p’ e 7~gzŠ ð5Z'Ð kZ = -»q ÌËÐ VÃzLÆ V\W! ’e ð3Š 4k , ¦! @* ì Cƒ ~gz¢c h e {^ ,Y Xn}Š (Ï~hð~àgzZ,ÃZhðЃÅÏ0 + i ~÷ {hë b§ Å VÍß }uzŠ gZÎ6,Ïc ÅàXì @* ™ÏÒúÅ éZpÅ ähgcZ™ ä kZ c ¶Š îZIyj6,ÃÏ0 + i C3áÕ Ì[Z Å TÔǃ H ZŠZ gZŠ™ »5q -Z Ð å Ô°¦ÃŠ ]g@* t Š!z!* Æ kZ pXì ]gz¢ KZ B÷ ~!( ðƒ C™ o‚ » [² {ì &Zp~yZgzŠÆ^Æ{hëXì ;gÅq= @* ™ZƒÂÅVz;cZ™~# Ö ÓgzŠ~â ¤' , }k , b "kZ! ˆÖB‚ÆVÍßyZ~ vÆ { ÇgÈÅkZÔÌZð5Z'ÅàkZäVrZX å !gzZÔŠ!* Wò** vßtX!ìgYcœ£m¸6, äƒúzg~àJ -„ЈÆY 1750gzZ „z~ŠpÌ~X ! n pgmÐgœgzZ yîN* yZäŒX c* C~}g!* ÆV=p~(, àZz "W!Vƒ „g™kCk\ g«¬Zt!" ÂØ y ì»ò » ** ÎH™fÌ»V1µCªF, Z Vz°ZR, ÆVŠðƒCvëXì ;gï(¾Ð Ð~yZ;gá C/µ*q -ZˆÆq -ZÔZ7, 9Š yZX¸ìg|(, ÐWñƒ DƒÐ yxgŠÆ cZ™äŒX ;g@* ƒg2 +Å"µ6/µC Ù ]c* ©è" Û gzZõg@* ]ZgôäZ6, gzZ6 ~ƒ ! ·ip ÐÔV-Š !* Wãâ‡)ÔŒ^ ,Y** 6, V¸â~ X!ñƒAB÷}uzŠq -Z~“ WÆ ~ , ( ~ , ( a Æ p p g p ô à Š Z Û " Z , W Z * ! g z Z V z Š Z G Y ;! ]⣠Iè gzZ ]g@* 6,6,}k , "kZ b yZ! HwZÎäVrZX H{™E +Ì»VzgZ-Š †ŸZVY~ŠR, ~àÐzzÅV1µ ìtyjz+F, +] h .[Z~}g!* ÆcZ™X Zƒ i§ÅЊ~V¸´~g«gzZVÖ‚ÆkZ! X N YÅ]Zy6,

† wzZ™ ÐWÐ

á ^ ì c] tæ]

Z(,¹ cZ™gzZì Њ!* Wßm» m, z6, 6,ßÓZC Ù" በÜz kZ gzZ ;g x¤ /yŠ Zg7 Xìà ‰‰Xì 7ðgzZ ! ìg #10 Æ]Zg ðÃkZì @* Y k(, ÐW+ $YÅy*GZgÍm, z6, -Z!! ì @* q WÊ%q -ZÉ CW7ÃyÂ{ ÐZ X ð0* B c* 0* 7uzg Êp {z pì yÂ{ Ø7ÐkZ {zX ’ e'c äY:Zz~g© ?ó ì ó ÏyÃ'Å~g© ÷ì ÷ ñLZ Åg î Å 100*Z pZ {z6,y¯b!* tÔ!¹V0zg~à ÷! ÷ ìù 7~iZzW· X óì ó à»V,zg ~uzŠ Å}6} (, -ZŠ!ñ~Ö q @Ç!* {z Æ VÂgqXì @* Yd $Œ Û gzZÆgzzZ ð#+ $Y äW~5 Zg ñƒD Y wZ^ÐZ uš á» yS ~ cZ™p! D ÑŠ Šc* Å V-h N àZz Kg KgsÜVŒÔ!7gâ YðÃ6,V-h N X !øQgrL!!VÏ C gzZ r~~ m, ôZ¹~hðgzZzŠgZ äm, z6, ‰‰X å N* g {z Z # å 1J‰ Üz kZ "7, Æ VzgZ-Š {z ‰„g Y Cg¦ /Ð ~!Vc* hÇ ! Š' „ , i Å"7,]** KgzZ 'g„èngzZ6, ¶ zZ

wzZ™ ÐWÐ t {!z ÅkZ ~ wì}÷ÔÐ VƒæW' ,ò} Š Z®ÅŠ Z" ÛZ {” ~Š " á )g !* «~ õg @* !7 gzZ Y 1970 Xì Zƒ†ŸZ 6,äe } (,ãZ ~ [Z ] 4áZz ãæW Á~ VÇ;Š Å Y 1980 ågz ÷ ÷6,gîåt ‰ Üz kZ X ! ‰ƒ sp 7‘i 5 F, {Š c* i &ZpgzZ¸ ï" á~ ó ók¯ X !„g0bZgzZËZ e {z[ ZÔ‰C™ Æ K ðWgzZ f $g7g» ÔyÃâ Æ Vzg ZŠ Z gzZ Ò»ÁJ ÔŠ Z" ÛZ á Zz ä™x »~ V‡ ~Š !* Wë @* Ô! &Zpœ °80~ yZ iåwjZ rg mÐ k¯ ågz Ì[ Z¡ Z (,q ‚ -Z » !ì @* Y c* 0* ñZg t· Z6,]!* kZ6,gîx ¬Xì c*W ~ yZ0 +{ V´p ~(,~ e kZ !¬ÐkZX !ðƒúzgÐzzÅÄzZ!

† wzZ™ ÐWÐ

ä™’ A ]!* ~ y!* izŠgZÐ:{ŠZ" Û Z LZ™ Y * @YHwEZ~VsÆyj îjZgzZ ~Š¤ /cŠ wì!ŠnÐáZjkZ ÌÐ r # ™ŒëXì Ç» y]¤  kZ! ! !ÎgzZ ! D™ ?ìŠ HÅV¹x|gzZÈ Xì QŠæ ¹ÃY»ÑÆk¯kZÐ y!* i!œ # IyZ ‹C t ÙëXì ~m, ôZ y!* i!œ~gø o‚yZgzŠÆ‹kZ…»X!Dƒq -Ñ~ y!* igzZËgÖZ »]ÑìyZ LZ…Xì @* 7, ** ™ kZ 6,Y¯ Å];!z ZvßXì @* 7,** ™Ì~ wìkZ{z._Æi + , ' gzZyPX!DW~k¯ ** ™x» {z~ o T!! DW~ k¯kZÐ ~ÆZg b!* gzZ XÃJy!* i ÅV;z ! Te ŒŠ*Z }gø Xn ïŠæ {Šc* i Ð {Šc* i 7Z Æ VßZz %1 ~m, ôZ ‰! ì I » r #™ ‚èÑq! f e w1 zŠgZ J -~ŠZŠ ÔZŠZŠgzZ +%Zz :ZzyÎ0* {z[ZÔ¶ˆðJ7, 7y!* it7Z~

akZ~Vί ŠZ" Û Z‰X!TgqéZpÆ Æ íz Wg @* g0 +Z Æ ] Zg â Z [²{" 4H & I4F 5kG g0* y** sW*iñ7Z!!q -Ñ !Z6,èEjG X ! ìg ™ ~igz s Ü Å 2 Z ¸: Z' ,Y ð•Z o8 йÐáZjÆVίyZXì ö-FFwŠÐ šx Ó 6,T Ô ! ìg ™ k° Z » 2- { z éZpÌÆI3!* iàZzäYà1~‹ñŠZ" Û Z ÅVz` "W[²L Z { z X ì ~È 0* ~ V 2 c* g wjZgzZj7ZsW;gE-~ Y2008X!q G$ Æq -’Y îZ s Ü Æ Å|$ +Ð + $Y ^g7g ~gY q -Z Å m, SZ èE©G Û " Z hZ @gzZ sW t X !ìg™li ‚Åä™ q zÑõ%Œ Z 3!* iÅnZ!ì Å]!* kZ]gz¢._Æ Ï‡Z Ð Vj ( y Zû%«! Ôì q -’+Z …! @* Ô ñY ~Š š M F, ÃVßZz %1 gzZ +Y X ! D W~àkZ w ‚C Ù~Š Z®ÅVÅÑ! ]gßw×gzZ Yß)ÔÙçÔCg\ Å *Š {Š!ñ ôZÃy!* iúZ" Û sÜXnïŠæ~KÃwq ** ÑŠxÑ~} g !* Æg Z iª # q K ZÃV¬){ z ~m, , g!* -ZXǃ7¼[ZÐ ¶ŠzgŠ u q Z zŠˆÆ X !T e ' Ð}gZŠZ (áZz äƒ ì‡~×Æ\" á Æ=i +' , ìg 0* LZ~}gzŠ}uzŠÆyÎ 0* $ ò}áZzäƒÝq 4¨GG kZgzZ!YZ‚ Û Z,j}(,éSE 5G cZ™ÐŒsg¬]ZyC ÙâiŸä~B‚ -Z ÃVâ!* q i àZz äY à1 ~ V„Z' ,ZÐ äŒsg ¬X ÅÍ„ÐáZjƹF, Å XìBŠæ~(, Ì~äÑd $Œ Û Æ}uzŠ # Hi¸W»’ Z A ]!* ÐgzŠkZÆcZ™

-], à àZz äY XŠ Hc* ŠgZŒ Û ìZæ~ åHÓ¡EX¸ `ƒ { n~³Æ 8 I4Ó¡E Å º´ kZ ~ V,zg ÅQÑ øG gzZ QÑ »ä™à{ÆH kZX ¶CY Å ãZôÚ »6 Ç âZgzZ ]g0 +x £t ~ wj â ~¡ V†gŠ ‰ ÜzÆ ]ZgX å70Z yÌ Ác6, W "'VÅÑ~g · ÌñgzZ âuÌñC ` ÙXì ïq ä Vl‰ ÜzÆ ðgzZ ‰ ß~ ~Š !* WÛ D Y ‹" ÛZ ¹æÐ \g- ¹æ w Ñ }0 + 6, ÆH â~ VwXì Z 7,à{H! ¬Š $¤ d /lzZ X ! Dg ¦ /Ð 6,zZÆ ¦ñƒ ~g ! ‰ á ™^ßq {zC ÙgzZ ‰ƒ 4ZŠ g0 +Z Xì ( Å äIÆ Vz0 + 6,y Z ~h N Å X ¶wEZ. Þ‡{g!* zŠgzZ¶$ ËYÅ¡‚ ð•Z ** ™ i Zz6,gzZ ** F,Z VŒ » Vz0 + 6,Vzg ZD Ù ï6, } iZzgŠáZzt˜ gzZ Vz0 + 6,~g D VŒ yZgzŠ kZ X ì 4@ CY | (,ÌÄg z æWÅ +C Ùâ Æ ] § 1 gzZ Ka ~hN tˆÆä™à{ÃH kZ W ~Š· 'gq Å kZ Ã¿Æ 3Zz + $Y Å]¡Åê kZ ëX ì gzZ `¯ ¢ZuZ ÔVzg»Š!* L » qiÚ yxgŠ Æ V/ 8~g ø n Æ kZ gzZ ¸ T e bŠ™ ! #X!g µ : h ÂÅ ] Zyä ë X „g ]” Ì~ ì Zæ µñÆLZuZÒgzŠÆ(gœO%Z~Y2008 /g»Š!* W¢ZuZ ñƒ D™ `îZ6, Å} e Y ¯.‚ kZgzZ H qzѳ%ª » hY kZ ä V7z¤ Æ \ **V 7 ~ V Âg q Å Vzg Z- Š ã zÛ Å V¸ 5KZ ÃVÂgq Å H Y¯ {Š™ à{ Š™ qzÑ ** ™wEZ n Æ «™ ~ Ì‚Î Å ] § 1 âX ñ¯ c ZgÎ Å ~hN Xc* WVc* È°gzZ Îâð5Z'Å Ka Vp ZgÎyZ } 0 + 6,! ¶µÂÃV¹‚}g ø ŠæÅVzgÇŠ!* kZ ¶éZp ~g ø Šp XÐ B¯ ‹˜ ~ wEZ n Æ «™KZ ÐZ {z gzZ ‰C™ c* Š™á ZjÆ ]¡Ð Z gzZ ƒ: âyÅ} e Z ‘´ Y¯È Ã(kZ ä `¯¢ZuZ XÑ ä™ WßC Ùpc* +ŠgZŒ h Û Ú~V7z¤ /[g JnÆ(kZ! @* ñY Dƒ4ZŠ~º´kZg»Š!* $gÂÔD™]¬½ZLZVŒgzZ X ñ Yï] !Ð ªÅw] .zk B D™]zˆÅe ï~ ]¬iÚ ~uu@¬ }], ZzgzZ ê $Ôwh) ÅVzg»Š!* W6,µñkZ X DZØ}}¢ZuZgzZ gzZ Zƒ Za ~ ÍZ š M wh X ! D™x»™V âX DƒŠ!ñÌY¯¢ZuZ nÆ«™ $ R, 4´gWg![Z ä yZMÆ íŠ }gøgzZ V.g» òZ¸ÑZ ÎgzZ /oG 5G x»~ õH s W;gE- [gzZ ïH½H 4´gW q 5G -Z Ìê $Xì @* ™ ÐVzg»Š!* Å ßz ! ì ïH½H W~Š·»yZgzZÅÒÃÅŒ6, (kZ 4´ 4´ ¼FH ¼FH 5G 5G ? ? ~ ç gW0gZ~ ç gWs W^kXZ ;gE- ™}È6, VzgZ-ŠyxgŠÆVâzŠX ZƒÌxŠ£ 4´gWq 5G -Z }^ ,ZzXì @* ™ ï ÆV7z¤ >ZggzZñgY ïH½H / [gJ~g!* ~g!* (tXZƒqzѨ£» \ çÆ Ò» ôG-. Z®Ã{z Xì Lg ~ yß! ì kZ Xìg ˜ }È6,kZ {z gzZ „g CW~ Œ H4´ ?¼5G (Xì ÌI], Ze » çF g Wa^gñZ', ¿Ï(ÃÒÃÅŒÐ+ $Y~gø6, Ka~h N

&ZÔwh~#:k 5kÒG , ’ Ôê $zg åE }m, zwc* Z

3Zzs§Å]¡

ñOÆ~pc* [ zZ ËwEZ »V¸´Y¯ @* ™C ٪ÿ~g Y ÚÆ [|Z Ï( {Š!ñ + Y Å Kg!â» Vze Z Y ¯¢ZuZ Xì $ ÏZXì êŠ À{g!* zŠÃŠŸgzZ v Z wEZÐ » Vœ VZô=g f Æ Vzg Z- Š gzZ Vzh !* b§ Æ[ zZ c* ~p5ËnÆBZÑZ âx Â

H4´ ?¼5G F~VzgÏY¯ÆgzŠ ~g EZ çF gW¤ /Z X ’ e Sgz¢ÐZ ÂìgÏ»x` "”6, Vz‚ Xì sŠ ZáÆäN* ßú É Üz éZpÅ „n {GZiâˉkw ¹F, $Y Å]¡~gZ. + gzŠ66, Ta tabula rasaa‚f {Š ‚»a »~pÅkZgzZ‰ Üz zZ ,gŠ Xì Yƒi¸W» ãqzgÅV¸´Cc* ¹F, ‰Y^ß7:Zz¿ gzZ -wŠÐ „nX éZpÅ%$ +~ ]ŒŠ - VYF ~Š!* J ',C1j â gzZ ì g ÀÏ-â Æ {ç~ Y2005 ä LZuZ Xì Sg g ZŒ Û ', ØŠ™{n]** kgZD Ù&gzZ G à{HgÇŠ !* W tabula ‚f {Š ‚ n Æ i ¸WÆ gzŠ 6 gzZ ñh ‚ ñOÆ kZ X HgïZ Ð ðÅ rasa !WgzZ }iÐ T HðO ÞC Ùi HÄÑ kŠ XŠ H’C Ùi~V2Zg Å #g ~g Y Æ ¿Ï( q CY {g ZŠ Z »ÄwzN6 Ð kZgzZì C™™ÃéZp !7] !* Å]ª ðÃ~ kZ Xì @* ƒ Ç** ¬ Ú7Z ZÐZ kZ ‘ÓňÆ~Š Zi WÐg EZ ÐZ "Æ]gz¢ò OZ KZ ñƒ n pgg Z Œ Û ', Ð ðZzgg » Å nkZ X ! C™ w EZ {g !* zŠ {g !* zŠ gzZ ì CW½Z Q ]¸v ÅgzŠ ~g EZ 6 ~ ] PÆ gzŠ ~g EZ Xì Cƒ w EZ ~g EZX ! Dƒ}Ég Ï(gzZBZÑZ C1â ãgzZ ]Ó {Š™ à { Å :7 gzZ ` ¯ÅgzŠ Xì  qzÑ ** ™ w EZ # ÖÓ5 ä E{ E5‹G3kÒ¡ gzZ ›;gÆ LZuZÐ + $Y ÅV ðG34G çO

¡»kZvßì ÅÝq ìäyÎ 0* ÐZ # VrZgzZ!ìgDƒiz0 +Z¯ÐkZgzZD o 7µÂÃo ÅTì Zƒ 3g {i@* Ãx kZ ä ÔñZ—ÔñΈä VrZ ˆ Æ Û A X¶ ÔñZØ_6,gzZ ñO yg; LZ ÔÑZe Z‹ÔH³g äVrZæñ`/î ãZgzZ N 3V׋ jg!¤ „ }Zt X¸ ñ` 7Ðá²sî XìYYc* ŠÃx¸ÌË!ì y!* y WgzZ g ‡z ä y { ÷- y L ã Î 0* ä VrZ ~ qzÑÆ 4** g IX Å ]Š ªÐ

®gzÆšKZ äy{÷- yLÆyÎ 0* J H4E ÆízgŠâ KZ}y~])iZ³Z » ö- &I 20 P ÅVŠ~½ *Š!ì @* 7,It Xì Hx** t„¸X ¶Û A t! A!„gëZ âZ „]q: VsÇc yÎ 0* DƒgD »!Zy " pì s Vñ¤ / upǃ{Z +ÃÁ„¹» ìÅyÎ 0* ~ XσðZ‚ Û Z,jh +%Å ÔV®Ô8 -oeßÔyZd Ùçc VÍß ìt Xì ðW™á Ùp~ MzÆ k B gzZ ]ZñZ

y{ti **" ÛZ¤ /I ¯ X 'ö6, c Z™ ` îZ { ç Y¯ q -Z ä ` ¯ ¢ZuZ ~ Y 2006 # ëgzZì @* ™Zab)Ï(gzZ DpwEZ {g !* zŠ M Nâ~ Yg ÍZ š š M ! H à{ H ] * * kZ Ð Z X M h™77iuZz ðà » kZ 6,5 Zg !†áZz äY Bait Sahour gœ Xì YYH„ ! gŠ~„Vz•Ã7Æ ~SZR ! ¶~È°u ** çtX åµZz6,~h N —q -Z µZzŠ¤ /ŠgZÆH X ¶ðƒ u6,NâkZ » `¯ Oush Grab d $¤ /lzZ {e ZY¯{Š™à{ ÅÐ H gzZ ~g!* !Í Å VÌ]** k F,{Šc* i

äÎ { iZ0 +Z » ò ¸Æ kZ X ! Š Zi WÐZ ä™ { nÃwj â ñƒ ñ¯ Æ g EZ n Æ wEZ nÆœ£µÃò ¸ÆkZ ñOÆ BZ'ÆŒ¤ /Z!!n pg¢ëX ’ e ** ™ µÐ tŠ lŠpò ¸ÆkZ ÂñY c* Š™Š ZiWà H4´ ?¼5G » çF g W~g EZ ë @* XÐ N Y w$ +~ Îâ

Xì @* ™C ÙªÃöƃ ~g EZ ñO H4´ ?¼5G yZ ~gzŠ 6 çF g W»gzŠ ~g EZ zZ ,gŠ Æ T Y™7b§Ç„Š x !Z Å `ªz ! ! BVϹ +Z X Š HHíZ m, eÐZ n H4´ ?¼5G ¸*Æ kZ Ô! C™L)à çF g W~g EZ nÆwEZÆÎâ~uzŠÆ™{ nÃw EZ

!D WÃ: Z izg] Z W,ZÆkZ V ; zÔ Dƒ6%6,y„q -Z ] ÑìÏ(V ˜

¯ ] c* Š !* Wâ…! ! D ™ kCt ë yZB‚Æ äg¦ Æ ðZzgg » ! Z! Å :7 gzZ ä™ x¥¿ ; g Y c* /yŠ p;¸ Dƒg7½Ð ogŠ …pì w”Æ ]â ¥)g f Æ , MÚZ ~ }g !* yà (Z!7x¥tB‚Æ \ X ˆ¬CƒÁpŠ ~÷~ úZ" ÛgzZ V26,Š ã CòsZ ~ c* qZ # Ù. Þ‡B‚Æ ã ‚ WÔŠ ?ì ; g™ ! Ç" Ø ÂñY à Z eÃ~uuq X ó óHw EZ » ~Û!c 7| -Z6,' 4G 5Å 1H -Z VâzŠ! )]g Ziz Y c* V Z Ã! » ] !* kZ c ä Î { i Z0 +Z gzZ ì Ï(B ÿ¹G ~â YZ ~ s Z0~e ÃV.yZ Ôx ÏZ 7 ( æ) V˜ì(+Zq -Z yÎ 0* Æ( !y!Z c}uzŠq CòsZ Xì Š Hƒ ñZg t· Z yxgŠ ZÆkZgzZ Dƒ6%6,y„q -Z] Ñì V26,Š ã :Š HH7b§kZ¼6, gî Ì~ k% Z! ©*Š ~g7 k ˆ Zt!ì Y ] Z W, EH 4]ä 4E" 5G i úZ" Û &) •Z le V $ ÕäH ] !* tä~Z # X ! D WÃ: Zizg õ/ 5GZ ~ y!* X ì @* Y c* 0* yÎ 0* Æ cZ ÏÁZ iu- ez6,iL ×ñ+& +Z ÷ ÷ E4H "Z ) le ã -à ( ì @* 5E Y ¹G1Zc c* Š Z—{zÂÅЄ ! zŠ‘ñ7,gzZgzZx¤ / u~ ñZ e Zc õ/G á ZjÆV.á ZEƒ~ ~ÃÞâ 26._ ÐZ ! Ù Š¼! ë ÷ ÷Ô!ì Zƒ n kZt Š™ qzÑ bŠ gZ Œ Û( G1 -[ Z ~ ~Ð Ù Š b§¾ë! Y Y H7{eÐ q kZ 't ¬ »c KÃyÎ 0* B ?N* Æ VI 18 ã½J ÷ ÷Ô c* C = gzZ Æ \e yZèY ì c* G‹E E 3! qZ )g f 26/11 ~ y Z X ! ` Y ñ Z™Zg y ZÄ p“ å~ à 1By !* X ó óM h™7wÑ+Z »q ö§ )?! Ç} 7, Æ V”vŠ Æ *Š }°!*ðc* i wø ù Zg f Z ó ó! Ì~ ÷Z" Û ! ©X ! M hNŠ ] uZz z ] Ñq -Z gzZ ! ` 0 ÛD I ` @*Ô ~g 6Z Çà c6,W Ô f Z g& +Z ~ q +Z¾" +{” ð [ Z ]** Ò Vzà‰cZ™áZzÌ Ð i Z0 4]¸ 5G Ö ´ Å ó óíz Wg @*÷ ÷\e V $ ÕäH zZ ŠŸ±g ®Z Zg ø6,]** Ò ñƒA ~}uzŠ }g ø¤ ï" áz•g I! gzZ ` @* $Z igzW 48 Ô ñZ', f /ZXì @* Y H„zg¨6,R@¬6,b)Æ X ! # ~÷Z" Û ÃízWg @* yZ ?N* ª ._Æ cZ ÏÁZ ÅVzi EX ! Xì ngzZq -Z Å Ð k , z£gzZ p ÖZ ÔîC Ùë  @* ƒ‰ Üz k0* ŒÏŠ!ñDpkâ â ** # Ù ò ¸Å÷Z" Û Ð Tì @* Y Ð äƒ »c6,Wªå Š Hc* Z™ZgÃÞâ 28 ó óiE Bg Z * ÷ ÷[  KZ ä ö- e 7 Vh CZg¦ºÅ‰ Üz ~g ø X D™]ÑZÎ ÃY ‚ Å| Cðc* qZ X ! hÑ ] " á . } Xó¬ ó yŠq -Z sÜ ¾¸q -Z!Ñ w ‚g e c + Yt 6,t‹Æ , Z §{ Å ä™ åx »! @* ì Cƒ È 6, & pÆ V26,Š ã úZ" Ûñƒ D™ ÜÅ ]â ZŠZ ~ :Wƒ ! ë[ Z!ì &ttûI ]] . ö- e Ô~WkZ ˆÅ6,c* zX ì k $¸b§ Xn YH¿ÃV1 I yZ }°!* gZŒ Û ,q àZz äJ (,( + M -) ] )Ã\e ¼ Ái Z ÁgzZ _ ZÑÅ]] .B‚Æ}uzŠ q # ŸzÅ¿kZÆä™i Z0 +ZÃÃVzq EZ gzZ ä™ li ‚ ?Š p“ åì H òúŠ ä s 4G 58Ù Xì _ 0 nu ** Ãs # Ÿz F F6,|…Z®X !b W!* èG çq -Z Å ä¯ : YZ Š Z®Ñ t ! ! ë 7 W ug â ñƒ D ™ ^g7g ÅgñZ Ùç‹g Ziz Å÷Z" Û Xì @* Y c* Š 5G4] ÷ ÷Ô ._Æ Ã÷gzZ ! WX ’ e ** ™Ýq µñ» ä™ ½ ÌZ { z! ˆÅ±~ i Z0 +Z kZ Äô{Š!ñ ÷ ÷ Tì @* ƒ¯ ) !* ÆÏŠ! ñÅVzk , ¦BVà { }ç7Z ëÐ ig±g V $ ÕäH y!* izŠg Z‰Og ~y "WÆ¿ b§ÏZ Ç!* Kg VÅÑ! @* }™ ¦Ã ë› åïq Æ Š HƒL)mZg øB‚Æ |Ðzz ŠФ ±) ðƒ f(,Î! ìg w Z e ~ +Zt X ì V‰îSŠ Z®Åi •Z le Ô! „g™wzN Ð NZŠ Ãp ÖZ LZ ë ! WÔì @*Y H ~ ó n ó Y Å ãg7 g Å *Š ðb "Œ6,VE¹ ÅV áÓgz Z c* zˆÆ9/11 } i Z0 E4F 7F!tgzZXì „g Y f(,~ B ÅVzk , ¦ ÷ ÷ˆÅ q zÑÐ + $Y ~ y!* ÒgzZ 46,±! WX ,™ÒÃÅ"7,N !* ( Y 2008ö- e ) ˆÆó ók i! ²æEÎ5G i!ìt {ç F » ¶Š ñ ZggzZ äZC ÙŠg !* g !* ! ! ‰ | (, gzZw¯+ß~gYÐ VÎ',F! Ô! Dƒí ¨£ » VvJ e ZÆ Û A Z%‚gzZ ƒ }WëÆ*Š wEZt »y!* -Z X å ¿q -Z Œ6,V¥ Y™gz$ à V@Ã Å ä¯ úZ" ~g ø ~ i Z0 +Z —gzZ ãZz lÝÆ X ,™ Ð ÏŠ ‚ Å ÔçJ e » ]ŸzGw=Ô] Ñì wzN ^_g q ÛÃVÍß yZ E4F 7yZ!t h V.~~i Z0 +Z ðâ Zg eq¸Xì @* ™& ¤ Ë Æ [ c~ { ËÆ *Š ë)g f Æ Š ZñIè »' Š!ñ~ _ ZÑ Å äƒ g (Z !* Æ kZ gzZ y!* i 6, ×Z¤ / z6,¼Æ æEÎ5G +' ×Xì ÛZ™á Њ Z" ÛZ Vzg ZD Ùá Zz ä%~ Ð Vh§îZzg! ! ›z¯ ]g @* {zt X ! z §Æé~eX ˆÅ7~ <g Wá ZEY‘ ~ ‹" Xì YJ(, Ãc^ ,â sZ~V‰ ñ™á Ð òÆ > w !* Ågz Z ]z Œ Y ¯ k7,]Zg¶ Z ò £ ~ ðC /cŠ! Š HH ZÎg ™Èt ÃV R, 6, ŠpXì CÑ~Š!zÃà 1By!* i%ÆŠæË KZ ~g ø Š¤ Ù~ cZ™ h ™Ýq ð‚g J - PŠ q á ZEƒ 6,} z ò £ gzZ ò Z ¸ÑZ Î Ôì [ 0 w©t ÔVƒ : !M h™wEZs Ü}g øÃYß ( M c ä™7Ã] Ñ» à Zz ä™g ®Z6,gîå » ] uZz Ã+ ø** Ñ »k , z £ƒ ! y Z X ! ÷yŠ Z÷!¸ D Ct= wzZ™Æ] Zg ¶Z /cŠ ÷ ÷ gzZ ,™tÃV7ëÅ[ ækZ ñOÅk , ’ KZ Ð Šæ Å õZ-e öZ 8 Y Š¤ $Œ Û+ ø** ~ Tì @* ƒ ** ¯ ó @ó " ᪠÷ ÷ ~Š Zi W~÷~àVìu˜ÅVz¸;ì Yg¦ ëXì ~ iZ%Æ “ W ÌZ ! ,™7ÐZ Ð ÏkZ ~ˆ X¸ ìg| (,ÐW~ Ï d / 4] X ! D ™ [ _ 5G .g0 +Z L Z } g Â Æ gzŠ gz Z T‰Cƒ iZ0 $ ÕäH # ŸzKZ ~g øhZzÐyÒ: ¾ q b§¾ Dƒ qzÑç±X ZƒæW',Ìgyg V s +Z W, Z 6,A à kZ gzZ kˆZÆ ¯b!* ñLZ 6,gîxŠ¤ /cŠ „ ̼! c* ] Y! ZjÆ |ÌË » ¯ »z ÷ ÷ <g WÒZ X åg » c äYgzŠ Ð y~ c ËËy*t H ?! M h$B‚Æã ‚ WÐ ÆZg6,4, ó @* Y$ Ö { z Ôƒ {¢q ]Ñq gzZ yi Z áÔg7½Ð Xì Yƒ„ ! gŠ Ì%Æ Šg @¬6,ðZzgg »: ÓªKZ ä VrZ X ‰ W~ !t U¿( Y 1999 7 W ) X ó ì $;f Ô ãZz

†×9e ;m†e

71

w.ÐÙp@" áãÎ 0* 6, ! x»~20/20 H^ » Vâ ZyÆ – %™Ið` V1Í6,y Z <XÅX ì ¶ô¸Ð ~hðt!!!Ît { z¤ /Z Z åE {¤7Z Z # pX ! M h™zz ÅkZ \ W  X ñƒ Ì{¤Â¶]gz¢Åäƒ !Š HH7i Z0 +Z ÃÃ] !* kZ ~ yÎ 0* „ o ~ ì yZgzŠ Æ Fà ½gzZ Fà å7(Z ¸Ú6,V!{z Z # gzZ ñZ— VrZ X ‰~Š ™s ç V™ {z ä VrZ! # Å]Š ª‰ Z Üz kZ ÅyÎ 0* ~ ä¯ 4, gä ~hîËt gzZ å ;gƒ 7{C Ùb » ÏŠ™g » hZ ðÃ~ }g !* Æ kZ! 7] !* ~',ðÃc !dÎt!r.‚[ ZgzZ CZ » kZ wø HE 4J -Z {z ! å© 8ÎZiZ0 +Z { zXì " õ » 20 ö- &Iq ! µñkZ { zgzZìB÷yÎ 0* ë‰ Üz¾ Ð kZ‰„, Z Ç!* å êŠ 7äYÐB; X¸`™x »ty{yZ/gzZx™Z®zF, {Š c* i¬ ƒ” %®gzäšãÎ 0* !ì7û%«t : ¹!* yZ ðÃÐ yÎ0* # Z ~ Y1992 Xì D™ o‚ » ])xÓä kZ ‰ Üz kZ ¶„g X¶:Zw!gßÌg!* kZgzZÅ ãZx6, *Šñƒ ~ / Å k',12 q -Z ä ~! ì Š c* = 7p ÖZ k0* }÷X å ¬Š ” %®gz »Y 1992 gzZ ðƒ ÙpX= Ð ì kZ!Vj C ~! [Z=ˆ w‚ 17 ` WX¸ H] ‚ ˆZ}÷ Vƒ Y™~ Z®! Š c* ]uZzÆ yŠ kZ Ì H‰ Üz kZB‚Æ @" á– %™Æ yÎ 0* ! ìgŠ c* åh +" á=! ]!* -Z X σ „gš q M Æ ‹" ÛZ ! †ä yÎ 0*Z # !ì t { z Ï $Zz‰ V Üz kZ ÅÝq ! x»~ Fýs Ü gzZ å ;g J 7,y*» zŠg Z ~ ~y^g W‚ ä ] !* kZ Ô ¶„g }Š Š ·g I= k¯ ~g7 X c* ÑŠkˆZ »õ6, äƒãÎ 0* LZ=

X ¶ˆÅWÅy Z Âåc* Šg Z Œ Ûô¸Ãƒ ! kZ Z # ð; Š q -Z‰„, Z Ç!* ?ë: ] !* t VY { z òá Zz äWq -ZˆÆq -Z { z Ô¸ x ‡Z I VrZ X ìg} 9™ VZugzZ Ð õyZgzŠÆ ˆ Æ “{Š 1Ô%q -Z Ô aÃq -Z ä Îq -Z ~ o LZ ä VrZ Ôì ¬Š D% VrZ Ôì ¬Šú » VzŠ¤ /cŠ 6,šò Z ¸ÑZ ¬Š} y~ V#ÃízgzZ‹ð!* WLZ ä gzZ ! AŠ FZ CZ f { C " ä VrZ X ì # ~ ] ZŠ Y#+F, Z +Æ c Z™ä VrZ $

‚mçÞ àŠu


MAIN THEME There’s an unwritten rule in Fleet Street: dog doesn’t eat dog. This is a Fleet Street saying. What it means is that we will write about everybody else but not about ourselves. The reason I decided to break this rule was because of the global misinformation propagated by the stories about the “weapons of mass destruction” in Iraq. I would think that every media outlet on the planet carried stories claiming that these WMD existed. However after the invasion, when it became clear that those stories were false, we, the media, then wrote about that error as though it were a problem created by government and intelligence agencies, without recognizing that the shape of the misinformation had more than two corners. In fact, it had three, and that third corner was ourselves. With very few exceptions, the media didn’t acknowledge that fact, and so we didn’t ask the obvious question, which is: Why would we get the most important news story of our era wrong? If you ask that question of people outside the news media, many will respond by stating that you can’t believe everything you read. Yet if pressed to say why you cannot believe everything, those individuals tend to fall back on theories which are themselves misinformation. For instance, lots of people think that the media don’t tell the truth because the owners of the media lean down from on high and impose their political agendas. That is true only on a very small scale. Murdoch appears in my book as an unscrupulous bully. There are examples of him injecting lies into his media outlets to serve some kind of political or commercial interest. And yet that kind of owner intervention happens on a much, much smaller scale than people think. Others believe that misinformation has to do with advertising, and that advertisers have a lever over newspapers and therefore can engineer whole stories in order to satisfy their needs. You’ll find that such situations occur occasionally, particularly in specialist magazines, which can be hugely dependent on a single advertiser. However in the international media, I can’t find a single example of an advertiser who has successfully distorted an editorial line. Clearly, there is something else going on, the origins of which are in the commercialization of the newsrooms. In the last three or four decades, all over the developed world, newspapers by and large have been taken over by big corporations, and those corporations have ransacked the newsrooms in search of profit. The internal logic of the news organizations has thus changed. Instead of running on the logic of journalism—i.e. let’s find the important stories, check them, and put them out in the world—the logic becomes commercial: let’s do anything we can to squeeze more profit out of this organization. My book, Flat Earth News [Chatto & Windus, 2008] is about the numerous, subtle ways in which that commercialization penetrates journalism, so that the media fail to tell the truth about all kinds of things, from “weapons of mass destruction” down to the tiniest stupidities that run day by day in newspapers the world over. If you work in a newsroom that has been commercialized, what you want to do is to find the story that you can cover quickly and safely, so that you can then race onto the next story. Various implications follow from this. One is that there are certain ideas that we can take for granted because they are already in the mainstream; they are consensus ideas. The easiest way to illustrate this is to go back to see how newspapers used these ideas in the past. For example, in the book, I went back to newspapers published in Texas in the 1890s, where white people who produced and read newspapers took for granted their hatred of black people. One of the riveting examples is the reporting of lynchings. In one case, a young black man had been accused of some sort of sexual intentions toward a white woman in a town called Conroe to the north of Houston. The white men of the town tied the black man to a tree 72

MAIN THEME

THE OBSOLESENCE OF THE ARROW MAKER

When commercialization penetrates journalism, the once-essential profession is bound to die from the very same disease it was originally supposed to fight: misinformation. words by NICK DAVIES

Site of Mishap Photo: Keren Mirza and Brad Butler

with the intentions of burning him the following day. The Houston Post reported this “lynching party” with enormous approval. There was no sense of fear of the law intervening, nor, indeed, of any kind of guilt. None of those ideas was current; it was thus perfectly safe to report the lynching. A bit more recently, I found a review in the New York Times that talked about a particular book in terms that seemed like Al-Qaeda propaganda. The mainstream assumptions that were flowing through New York in the 1960s made it such that the New York Times could write a book review in which the concept of revolutionary violence could be discussed reasonably. There are safe ideas that we circulate as unspoken assumptions. Today, for example, we take it for granted that the natural way of organizing things is capitalism, that a small portion of the population owns all the wealth and people can only access it if they sell their labor power. That assumption wouldn’t have been made in the years between 1880 and 1980, when socialism was part of the mainstream. This is how ideology infiltrates journalism as a commercialized outfit. Masses of people working in journalism are trade unionists or Marxists, but many of them write stories that take for granted capitalism because such stories are safe. There are also safe sources—which are basically official sources. If there’s a demonstration, and those who are organizing it say that there were 20,000 people in attendance, while the police say there were 6,000 people, the media will go with the police estimate because it is safe. For if the demonstration’s organizers complain, who the heck are they? Whereas if the police complain, you’re in trouble. Andrew Gilligan from the BBC did his famous report in which he said that the government’s intelligence dossier had been “sexed up.” This sparked a horrific sequence of events in which there was an inquiry led by Hutton, and Hutton used the killer word “unfounded” to describe Gilligan’s report. As a result, Gilligan was almost destroyed professionally. Compare what happened to Gilligan with all the other journalists who ran stories in the buildup to the invasion of Iraq that said there were weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. All of those stories were unfounded, but none of those journalists were subjected to the persecution that Gilligan experienced. I think this is the case because all the WMD stories were based on the consensus account. They had the power on their side. I think the concept of objectivity in journalism is bogus. Sometimes, when people talk about objectivity, they put it on a spectrum with subjectivity on the other end. I don’t think that’s the right way of speaking about it. When you’re talking about the representation of reality, the opposite of objective is not subjective, it’s selective. The problem is not that we’re all dragged along by our prejudices and biases and are unable to tell the truth about the world. Rather, imagine there’s reality: a gigantic bramble of event and process and emotion. Anytime a human being approaches this reality and says, “I’m going to record it as truth in the form of a painting or poem or sculpture or a photograph or a news story,” that human being always has to make selective judgments. For the news journalist, these judgments start with covering one news subject and not one of the myriad other news subjects out there. Having chosen this subject, a countless number of things could be said, however the journalist chooses one particular angle. And having made these two really important judgments—the subject and the angle—then the journalist goes on to make more selective judgments: about how long the story is going to be, whether it will appear on the front page or page 16, what will be on the headline… All of these selective judgments are legitimate and can be described as producing truth, so long as what’s written is built on statements that reflect reality. What we can never claim, however, is that it’s the objective truth. Once you understand that journalism is constructed out of these 73

selective judgments, then you must ask, according to what criteria are these judgments being made? Newspapers are run by corporations; their goals are to cut costs and increase output. In preparation for the book, we took a huge survey of national newsrooms, and found that national journalists now fill three times as much space as they did back in 1985. What that means is that on average, journalists have only a third of the time to write each story. That has fundamental implications, because if you’re a journalist, your most important working asset is time. As a result of this time crunch, the journalists’ selective judgments are now being infiltrated by outsiders in the form of the public relations industry. Press officers make these selective decisions about what is presented in the news, because if they present to the journalist a nice package of information, the journalist can convert that into a story in something like half an hour. The PR firms select the content, the subject, the angle… and we convert it into journalism. We’ve lost our immune system as journalists, which consists in checking and constantly rejecting anything that is false, like a body rejecting germs. The mass media are dying because its business model has been broken by the Internet. It could be that within the next fifteen years, the profession will die, and journalists will become like arrow makers—once essential, now obsolete. Many say this doesn’t matter, because instead of professional journalists we will have “citizen journalists” who will distribute news through the Internet. I think that is a dangerous myth. It’s dangerous because it becomes an alibi for corporations to sack journalists and close down newspapers, effectively shutting off the one profession that could conceivably provide reliable information. The weakness of citizen journalism is that the ordinary punters don’t have the time or the resources or the skills to check their information. You could call this an era of information chaos.

AUTHOR

NICK DAVIES is the bestselling author of Flat Earth News: On Falsehood and Distortion in the Media, and a former Journalist of the Year, Reporter of the Year and Feature Writer of the Year for his investigations into crime, drugs, poverty and other social issues. Hundreds of journalists have attended his master class on the techniques of investigative reporting. He has been a journalist since 1976 and is currently a freelance writer, working regularly as special correspondent for The Guardian. He also makes TV documentaries. He was formerly an on-screen reporter for World In Action. His four books include White Lies (about a racist miscarriage of justice in Texas) and Dark Heart (about poverty in Britain). He was the first winner of the Martha Gellhorn Award for investigative reporting for his work on failing schools and recently won the award for European Journalism for his work on drugs policy. Flat Earth News was published in hardcover in February 2008. The paperback came out in January 2009 and, in May 2009, won the first Bristol Festival of Ideas book award, conferred annually for a book which “presents new, important and challenging ideas, which is rigorously argued, and which is engaging and accessible.” It is now being translated into Thai, Vietnamese, Greek, Dutch and Chinese. In November 2009, the University of Westminster made him an honorary fellow “for services to journalism.”

Kaleidoscope magazine  
Kaleidoscope magazine  
Advertisement