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The Ray of Hope

Jumada II 1428

Jun-Jul 2007

A Journal By The Students Of Darul Uloom Sabeelus Salam, Hyderabad, India

Visit www.scribd.com/musarhad for more articles on Islaam.

_____________________________________________________________________________ Vol.2 No.2 Jumada II, 1428 A.H. Jun-Jul 2007 PATRON: MAULAANAA MUFTI HASSAN AL QASMI

Under the supervision of: Maulaanaa Sirajul Huda Sb Nadvi Azhari Editor: Shamsul Islam Sub-Editor: Zaheerul Haq Nadvi C O N T E N T S Shamsul Islam

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The spectacular success story of the madrasa system The Nizaamee curriculum

Md Ghufran Ahmed

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Bring a chapter like it, can anybody?

Zaheerul Haq Nadwi

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Quranic verses dealing with the challenge

Md Rizaullah Qasmi

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Mullaa Nizaamuddeen and the Nizaamee curriculum

Md Shadab Anwar

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The Ray of Hope

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The Spectacular Success Story Of The Madrasa System By: Shamsul Islam (Kulliatus Sharia) In Sura Rahman of the Glorious Quran, Allah Ta’ala enumerates his countless favours upon humanity. Guess what he mentions first. “He taught you the Quran”. (55:2) Our noble Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) says: “In fact I was sent as a teacher”. (Ibn Maja, No: 229) In the years of persecution at Makka, Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) began his duty as a ‘teacher’ at the house of one of his virtuous companions, Arqam Bin Abil Arqam (d. 555/1160). When the holy Prophet migrated to Madina, his mosque Masjid Nabawi – a small thatched structure - became the prime seat of learning there. There was a raised platform in the mosque on which nearly seventy poor, homeless Muslims lodged themselves. In a way, they were boarding students in the Masjid Nabawi seminary. So it was but natural that Muslims paid proper attention to learning and education. In later years, the innumerable mosques in the entire Islamic Caliphate served as seats of knowledge where scholars of repute imparted instructions in their respective fields of expertise. In Misr (Egypt), Africa, the victorious army general Abul Husain Jauhar Bin Abdullah Al Kaatib (d. 381/992) of Sicily built a Jama Masjid around which the city of Cairo was planned as capital city for the Fatimid Caliph Abu Tameem Ma’add Al Mu’izz Li Deenillah (d. 364/975). The Jama Masjid-cum-seminary complex later developed into a seminary and is presently the largest Islamic university of its kind in the world. The first formal seminary was also attached to a Jama Masjid and was built by the great conqueror Mahmood Ghaznavi (d. 421/1030) in the year 410/1019. The acclaimed Madrasa Nizamia came into existence in the year 485/1065. Its founder was Nizamul Mulk Tusi (d. 458/1092) and it continued to function till the 9th century A.H. When the showers of Divine Mercy fell upon our country India, hundreds and thousands of maktabs and seminaries sprang up in different towns and cities of our country. In 1105/1693, the wise sand just Mughal emperor of India, Aurangzeb Alamgir (d. 1118/1707) granted Mulla Nizamuddin Sihalvi (d. 1161/1747) a palatial building named “Farangi Mahal” and thus the well-known Madrasa Nizamia of Lucknow came into existence. The curriculum of the madrasa came to be preferred in the other madrasas of our sub-continent and is prevalent upto this day, though with several amendments. When India came under the occupation of The British Imperialists, the old system of madrasa education was adversely affected as the seminaries lost the government patronage as also a large chunk of the Waqf properties and jagirs (confiscated by the occupiers under flimsy excuses) which were their main sources of income. When the British administration introduced the English system of education in India with the explicit aim of producing lowly clerks and petty administrators so that they could be the link between the White ‘masters’ and the Black ‘slaves’, it promised more trouble for these seminaries. Thomas Barbington Macaulay (d.

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1276/1859), the author of the new educational policy in our country gave a hint of his nefarious designs when he pronounced in the British House of Commons in 1835: “It is impossible for us, with our limited means, to educate the body of the people. We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions we govern; a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals, and in intellect.” After the First War of Indian Independence, Muslims particularly their clerics and scholars became targets of the senseless revenge campaign launched by the British. And the erstwhile madrasas seemed to be in their last days of existence. In all, the future of Islam and Muslims in India, to say the least, looked gloomy. But Allah had some other plans: They intend to put out the Light of Allah (i.e. the religion of Islam) (by blowing) with their mouths. But Allah will bring His Light to perfection even though the disbelievers hate (it). (61:8) Allah inspired a number of Muslim intellectuals and scholars with a novel idea for safeguarding Islam, that was to establish madrasas which would run solely on public charity and impart religious education. It was proposed that the madrasas should completely desist from accepting any fund from the government or an agency working under it. Maulana Qasim Nanotvi was the first to put these thoughts into action as he laid the foundation of Madrasa Arabia (meaning: Arabic seminary) in Deoband, a far-off village of Saharanpur district (Uttar Pradesh). The madrasa had a humble beginning with a single teacher teaching a lone student – incidentally, both were named Mahmood – under the shade of a pomegranate tree. But in a few years, the novel idea of setting up seminaries with donations from the generous Muslim populace gained so much popularity that it revolutionized the academic landscape of India. Much credit goes to the nameless, faceless Muslim men and women who, in spite of being impoverished by the oppressive and discriminatory policies of the British, never backed from their religious duty to see the venture through. Consequently, many madrasas and maktabs came into existence following this model. A few months later, Madrasa Mazahirul Uloom was founded; madrasas at Thana Bhawan (Muzaffarnagar, U.P.), Gulaothi (Bulandshahr, U.P.), Meerut and Moradabad followed in succession while at the same time the mother of all madrasas, Madrasa Arabia of Deoband, expanded and flourished slowly but steadily transforming itself into the premium Islamic university of Darul Uloom, Deoband. As for now, a Muslim locality without a madrasa or a maktab is as good as non-existent in the subcontinent. Looking back in perspective, we find that after the unsuccessful bid to overthrow the British colonialists in 1274/1857, the story of Islam and its followers appeared all but over. The aggressive educational policy of the imperialists was undoubtedly aimed at making the new generation oblivious – or worse, ashamed – of their grand heritage, culture and history. The motive was to keep the children ignorant of their noble forefathers, the illustrious Sahaba (Companions of the Prophet), the Holy Prophet himself, the Glorious Quran, the symbols of Islam: namaz, azaan, mosque, fast; in short everything that Islam stood for. But the madrasas stood in the way of this deadly tsunami like the Himalayas shielding the ingenuous populace from the fierce onslaught of the imperialists through its educational system

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and through Christian Missionaries imported from Europe specifically for this purpose. The alumni of these madrasa showed to the people the blessings of Islamic life by living themselves in accordance with it. Then they went to the people calling them through their speeches and writings to the glorious life of true Islamic faith. They exhorted them to adopt the ways and manners of the virtuous Sahaba to attain a life of peace and tranquility in this world and that of eternal bliss in the Hereafter. These ‘shields’ (madrasas) against the imperialist onslaught stand up to this day performing these heroic tasks with more or less the same vigour and energy. What could make them even more potent force in the contemporary world is a readiness for a bit of reforms in their curricula, mode of teaching, etc. without compromising a whit on their fundamental principles. Many glorious sons of these great institutions like Maulana Manazir Ahsan Gilani (d. 1375/1956), Mufti Taqi Usmani (b. 1362/1943), Maulana Rizwan Al Qasmi and others have made detailed proposals on this count (d. 1425/2004). A little openness towards English language and some modern sciences could help a lot in making their alumni more successful and confident in their honourable mission of preaching Islam – the only complete code of life that promises to rid the world of all its evils and misfortunes.

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The Nizamee Curriculum By: Md Ghufran Ahmed (Kulliatul Lugha) Arabic Conjugation (Sarf wa Ishtiqaq e Arabi) 1 Mizanus Sarf 2 Munsha'ib 3 Sarf Meer 4 Panj Ganj 5 Zubdah 6 Fusool-e-Akbari 7 Shafiah

24 Isaghoji 25 Tahdhib 26 Sharh Tahdhib 27 Qutbi 28 Mir Qutbi Scholasticism (Aqaid) 29 Sharh-e-Mawaqif 30 Mir Zahid 31 Sharh Aqaid of Nasafi

Arabic Syntax (Arabi Nahv) 8 Nahv Meer 9 Sharh-e-Miat-e-'Amil 10 Hidayat-un-Nahv 11 Kafiya 12 Sharh Jami

Commentary (Tafsir) 32 Jalalain of Jalaluddin Mahalli and Jalaluddin Suyuti 33 Baidhawi

Arabic Rhetoric (Balaghat e Arabi) 13 Mukhtasar-ul-Ma'ani 14 Mutawwal (upto Ma Ana Qultu)

Islamic Law (Fiqh) 34 Sharh-e-Wiqaya 35 Hidayah (last two books) Principles of Law (Usul-ul-Fiqh) 36 Nur-ul-Anwar 37 At-Tawdhih Wa-t-Talweeh (the portion dealing with Mabadi Kalamiyyah)

Philosophy (Falsafa) 15 Sharh Hidayat-ul-Hikma of Maibadhi 16 Al-Shams-al-Bazigha 17 Sadra

Hadith 38 Mishkat-ul-Masabih

Logic (Mantiq) 18 Sharh-us-Shamsiyyah 19 Sullam-ul-Uloom 20 Risala-e-Meer Zahid 21 Mulla Jalal 22 Sughra 23 Kubra

Mathematics (Hisab) 39 Khulasat-ul-Hisab 40 Euclid 41 Tashrih-ul-Aflak 42 Sharh Chagmini (Chapter I)

[Source of the table: A Study Of Jami'a Nizamia, Hyderabad by Parveen Rukhsana Farooqui] § § § § § § § § § §

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Bring A Chapter Like It, Can Anybody? Zaheerul Haq Nadwi (Kulliatus Sharia) Allah bestowed Moses (b. 16th-13th century B.C. at Goshen, Egypt) with the miracle of the staff which turned into a terrific serpent and Jesus (d. 608 B.H. / 33 C.E.) with the power of healing the blind and the leucodermatic. He could even resuscitate a dead corpse. These miracles appealed to the masses as they were in sync with the popular obsessions of their times, i.e. magic and medicine respectively. When the last and greatest Messenger of Allah, Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) arrived, he too was conferred with a miracle which fascinated the minds of his contemporaries, preoccupied with eloquence and rhetoric as they were. There was more to it. Unlike his predecessors, Prophet Muhammad’s (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) mission was here to stay for centuries to come, in fact till the Last Day. So his master-miracle had to bear some resemblance to this eternity of his message. And there it was: the immortal sign of his prophethood, the Holy Quran with its marvellous, matchless and captivating style; melodious euphony; enthralling charm; and above all an abiding, unbeatable challenge to the masters of this art to produce a like thereof. The Holy Quran progressively relaxed the requirement for meeting this challenge. In Sura Bani Israil, the Quran calls out to produce a book comparable to this Holy Scripture (17:88) which consisted of nearly 50 suras (chapters) then, and comprised 114 suras of varying lengths at its completion. In Sura Hood, the challenge came down to ten suras. And in Sura Yunus and Baqara, the rivals are asked to bring forth just one chapter similar to a sura of the Holy Book. In this context, it would be worthwhile to note that the smallest sura of the Book, Sura Kauthar has only three verses and 10 words. The Quran also allows the contestant, if any, the facility of seeking the help of any being and any power besides Allah. The challenge was first addressed to the Arabs present at the time of its revelation which took twenty-three years for completion. The Arabs of that time were not quite civilized, had no centralized political system and of course could not boast of a great seat of learning or university. But their weak points end hre. As far as their oratory, poetry and volubility is concerned, they had few parallels. They had thousands of verses and poems of their great poets committed to their memory and even the untrained among them could say beautiful verses. Then comes the challenge of the Holy Quran – composed of the same set of letters and words that they used in their everyday conversation and that their poets and bards employed to perfection in their compositions which are read and appreciated to this age, yet the powerful and persuasive style of the Book dumbfounds them. And why not? After all, it has been authored by the Creator of this vast Universe in which the entire human species and its abode – the Earth – is a mere speck of dust. The Holy Quran consists of true accounts of the past narrated articulately; moving descriptions of the Day of Judgement, the Hell and the Paradise; highly persuasive arguments in favour of the existence of One Allah without a partner, son, daughter or wife. The incidents of the past or the future that it relates are such lucidly expressed that you cannot help reading it again and again whether it occurs in detail or in brief. And the reports never get tedious, howsoever much they may be repeated nor does the reader feel weary by reciting it again and again. Though translations can never bring out the real flavour of the original text, yet you can get some idea by looking at the meanings of some of the Quranic verses n English. You can see for yourself how the Holy Revelation arouses in its readers the longing for the Peaceful Abode of Eternity, which one can get on account of his good deeds done in

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this world,as it goes on describing the Evergreen Gardens with cool streams flowing in their midst, the residents reclining and relaxing on their super-comfortable couches furnished with silken mattresses, fruits of every kind present at their hands the moment they desire, lively conversations with partners and attendants. But that’s not all. The Quran says: No person knows what joy is kept hidden for them as a reward for what they used to do. (32:17) Enter Paradise, you and your wives, in happiness. Trays of gold and cups will be passed round them; (there will be) therein all that inner-selves could desire, and all that eyes could delight in and you will abide therein forever. (43:70-71) When it comes to warning of the divine punishment through natural calamity or that of the Day of Judgement, the day when a man shall flee from his brother, mother, wife and children, when every pregnant creature will drop her load, every nursing mother will forget her nursling and every person will appear as if in a drunken state though they will be sober; the Holy Scripture shocks and stupefies the reader. And when it holds forth on relentless upheavals, terrible quakes and massive landslides as punishment for evil-doers in this world, it agitates and shocks and terrifies: Do you feel secure that He will not cause a side of the land to swallow you up, or that He will not send against you a violent sand-storm? Then, you shall find no protector. (17:68) Do you feel secure that He who is over the Heavens (Allah), will not cause the earth to sink with you, and then it should quake? Or do you feel secure that He who is over the Heavens (Allah), will not send against you a violent whirlwind? Then you shall know how terrible has been My Warning. (67:16-17) And over and above all of this, it has a heartrending depiction of the Hell: blazing fire, highrising flames like mountains, the omnipresent stench and stink, sky-rending wails and screams. Sample these: (It will be said): Seize him and fetter him; then throw him in the blazing Fire, then fasten him with a chain seventy cubits long! … So no friend has he here this Day, nor any food except filth from the washing of wounds. (69: 30-32, 35-36) And they will cry: “O Malik (Guard of Hell)! Let your Lord make an end of us.” He will say: “Truly, you shall abide forever.” (43:77) The miracle of the Holy Quran does not end here. It has more: wa lan taf’aloo meaning ‘and you can never do it (author a resemblance of the Holy Book)’ (2:24). The emphatic pronouncement with utmost conviction is another supernatural event. Fourteen centuries have passed and the claim remains uncontested.

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Quranic Verses Dealing With The Challenge Md Rizaullah Qasmi (Kulliatus Sharia) And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christians) are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down (i.e. the Quran)to our slave (Prophet Muhammad), then bring a Sura (chapter) of the like thereof and call your witnesses (supporters and helpers) besides Allah, if you are truthful. But if you do it not, and you can never do it, then fear the Fire (Hell) … . (2:23-24) Or do they say: “He (Prophet Muhammad) has forged it (the Quran)?” Say: “Bring then a Sura (chapter) like it, and call upon whomsoever you can besides Allah (to your help), if you are truthful!” (10:38) Or do they say: “He (Prophet Muhammad) forged it?” Say: “Bring you then ten forged Suras (chapters) like it, and call whomsoever you can besides Allah, if you are truthful!” (11:13) Say: “If the mankind and the jinn were together to produce the like of this Quran, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they helped one another.” (17:88) Say to (them, O Muhammad): “Then bring a Book from Allah, which is a better guide than these two [the Taurat (Torah and the Quran)], that I may follow it, if you are truthful.” (28:49) Or do they say: “He (Prophet Muhammad) has forged it (this Quran)?” Nay! They believe it not! Let them then produce a recital like it (the Quran) if they are truthful. (52:33)

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Mulla Nizamuddin and the Nizami Curriculum Md Shadab Anwar (Haftum Arabi) Mulla Nizamuddin Sihalavi was born at Sihali (Barabanki district), a town 28 miles off Lucknow in 1088/1677. His father, Shaikh Qutbuddin Shaheed, son of Abdul Haleem Al Ansari, was a noted academic who had to his credit the authorship of several books in philosophy, e.g. Rasaailul Arkaan and Fawaatihur Rahamoot [Sharh (exposition) of Musallamus Suboot]. When Mulla Nizamuddin was 15, his father was killed, so Mulla moved to Lucknow along with his elder uncle. The great Mughal emperor Muhiuddin Aurangzeb Alamgir (d. 1118/1707) bestowed martyr Qutbuddin’s family with the stately palace of Farangi Mahal (called so because its builder was a European trader) in Lucknow in the year 1105/1693. He began his elementary study under the tutorship of Mulla Ali Quli Jaaisi. For higher studies, he went to Benaras (Varanasi) and then returned to Lucknow. Several exemplary teachers and scholars like Shaikh Ghulam Naqshbandi Bin Ataullah Lucknowi (d. 1126/1714) and Shaikh Amanullah Bin Noorullah Banarasi were among his mentors. When he mastered all the subjects that were taught at the time, he took up the noble job of teaching and guidance at his Farangi Mahal which developed into the reputed Madrasa Nizamia. His outstanding erudition and academic qualifications ensured that his fame spread far and wide in no time. Students from far and near started coming in droves. The madrasa went on to become the most important seat of learning of that time. The syllabus that he followed in the madrasa soon gained tremendous popularity and in our age, the curricula generally followed in the religious seminaries of our country are amended versions of the same Dars-e-Nizami (Mulla Nizam’s course of study). Mulla Nizam authored several books in philosophy and allied subjects, some of which are: two expositions of Musallamus Suboot named Atwal and Taweel, commentaries of Manaarul Usool and Tahreerul Usool, footnote on Shirazi’s exposition of Hidayatul Hikma. Maulana is also the proud guide and mentor of a number of renowned scholars like Syed Kamaluddin and Syed Zareef Azeemabadi, Kamaluddin Fatahpuri, Shaikh Ghulam Muhammad Burhanpuri. The madrasa that he established continued to serve the people of India for several centuries producing highly-regarded scholars, commentators and interpreters of our educational heritage like Bahrul Uloom Maulana Abdul Ali (d. 1225/1810), Maulana Abdul Haleem (d. 1285/1868), Mulla Hasan (d. 1199/1784) and Maulana Abdul Hai Lucknowi. The acclaimed preceptor, educationist and erudite intellectual left for his permanent heavenly abode on account of urinary calculus on Wednesday, 8 Jumada I, 1161 (6 May, 1747). May Allah enshroud him in his mercy.

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RayOfHope 2007-06  

PATRON: MAULAANAA MUFTI HASSAN AL QASMI _____________________________________________________________________________ Vol.2 No.2 Jumada II,...

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