بسم اللہ الرحن الرحیم
Issued by: Darul Ifta, Darul Uloom Sabeelus Salam, Madinatul Ilm, Hyderabad
Translated from Urdu to English by: Musarhad Tue, 27-11-1432 AH 25 October, 2011
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Contents Introduction ............................................................................................. 1 People for whom the Sacrifice is compulsory ()واجة:............................... 2 The Sacrificial Animal ............................................................................. 2 Some important rulings: ........................................................................... 4 Days and times for Sacrifice .................................................................... 5 The Method and Dua for Sacrifice ........................................................... 5 The Sacrificial Meat ................................................................................. 6 Sacrificial Hide ........................................................................................ 7
Introduction One day, the Holy Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him) described the significance of the holy sacrifice and its boundless rewards in these words: َّ صهَّى َّ أَ ٌَّ َرسُى َل،ََعٍْ عَائِ َشح ِإََّهُ نٍََأْذًِ ٌَىْ َو،اق اند َِّو ِ َّ « َيا َع ًِ َم آ َد ِي ًٌّ ِيٍْ َع ًَ ٍم ٌَىْ َو انَُّحْ ِز أَ َحةَّ ِإنَى:َّللاُ َعهَ ٍْهِ َو َسهَّ َى قَا َل َ َِّللا ِ َّللا ِيٍْ إِ ْه َز َ َ َ ْ َ َّ َ َ َ َ ٌْ َّ َّ َ ٍ ات،٣٩٤١ فَ ِطٍثُىا تِهَا ََ ْفسًا» (انرزيذي،ض ْر األ ي ع ق ٌ أ م ث ْ ق ٌ َا ك ً ت َّللا ي ع ق ٍ ن و د ان ٌ أ و ،ا ه ف َل ظ أ و َا اره ُ ٍَ ٍَِ ِ َ َ َ ِ َ َ ِ َ َ ٍ َ ِ َ ِ انقٍَِا َيحِ تِقُزُوَِهَا َوأَ ْش َع ِ )١٣١٣ ياجح
Of the deeds a man does on the day of sacrifice the dearest to Allah is the flow of blood (of sacrificial animal). It will come on the day of Resurrection with its horns and its hair and its hoofs. Indeed, blood will be accepted by Allah at once even before it falls on the ground. So, please yourselves with it. [EQ 27244] In another Tradition, there is a warning from the noble Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him): )۳۷۲۸ (أمحد.ص ََّلنَا َ َُم ْن َو َج َد َس َعةً فَ َل ْم ي َ فَ ََل يَ ْقَربَ َّن ُم،ض ِّح Whoever does not offer a sacrifice despite having the means should not get close to our Idgah. [EQ 54023] People for whom the Sacrifice is compulsory ()واجب: Sacrifice is compulsory for every resident (non-journeying) Muslim man and woman who owns the prescribed quantity of gold (20 dinaars = 87.5 gram) or silver (200 dirhams = 612.5 gram) or the corresponding sum of money (₹ 32,770; as on 25 Oct 20111) or equivalent in assets other than his basic needs. He should own the specified fortune on the morning of 10 Zul Hijjah. According to Imam Abu Hanifa (May Allah’s Mercy be upon him), the sacrificer need not be adult ( )تانغnor sane. If a minor or a child owns assets on which Zakat becomes compulsory ()واجة, then the sacrifice will be necessary for him. His father or guardian will offer the sacrifice on his behalf. According to another report ( )رواٌدfrom Imam Abu Hanifa (May Allah’s Mercy be upon him), sacrifice is desirable ()يسرحة, not compulsory, for such a person (minor or insane). Most of the jurisprudents have preferred this report. Nevertheless, Sadaqatul Fitr2 is compulsory ( )واجةfor them. The Sacrificial Animal The sacrificial animals are: (i) camels (at least five years old) (ii) oxen, buffaloes and cows (two years old and above) (iii) sheep, goats and rams (at least one year old).
According to indiagoldrate.com Sadaqatul Fitr is the compulsory alms that a Muslim owning the prescribed wealth gives to the needy on the day of Idul Fitr to purify his soul and to recompense for the defects that may have occurred in his Ramazan fasts on account of useless or indecent conversations, etc. The quantity of alms to be given on behalf of each person is 1.632 kg of wheat or 3.264 kg of barley, dried dates or raisins or the equivalent sum of money. 2
If a sheep or a ram is above six months old but sizeable and hefty enough to appear one year old to a layman, then it can be offered in sacrifice. The sacrificial animal should be defect-free, healthy and plump (fat). The Holy Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Feed the sacrificial animals well and make them stout and strong for they are going to be your conveyance on the Sirat Bridge (a bridge over the Hell which is thinner than hair and sharper than sword).” If the animal is so weak, lean and thin that his bones have no attached flesh, then its sacrifice is not permissible. An eyeless, one-eyed or lame animal which cannot walk to the slaughter-house on its feet or an animal deprived of over one-third of any of its (useful) organs can not be sacrificed. If an animal is hornless by birth or it grew horns but a portion of it broke off later, then the animal may be sacrificed. However, if the horns broke apart from the base itself, then its sacrifice is not permissible. If an animal has no ears by birth or has very small ears, then its sacrifice is allowed. A toothless animal cannot be offered for sacrifice. If a few of its teeth have fallen off but the majority remains intact, then its sacrifice is permissible. A pregnant cow, goat, etc. can also be offered as a sacrifice. If the baby comes out alive during the sacrifice, then it should also be slaughtered. However, if the animal is known to be heavy with child beforehand, then it is preferable to substitute her with another similar animal. A ram, ewe, goat or sheep can serve as a sacrifice for one person only. More than one person cannot be partners in its sacrifice. Seven persons – not more – can be shareholders in the sacrifice of a cow, ox, buffalo or camel, subject to two conditions. First, every partner should have the intention of sacrifice or Aqeeqa3 only, not merely of obtaining flesh. (This implies that a person can participate in a sacrificial animal with the intention of Aqeeqa.) Second, every partner’s share should be one-seventh (or a whole number multiple of it) and not less. If any of these two conditions are not fulfilled with regard to any of the partners, the sacrifice will be void for each and every participant. Less than seven persons can also share a cow, buffalo or camel (e.g. out of seven shares, a person can have two, three, four, etc. shares in the 3
Aqeeqa is the sacrifice of a goat, etc. (two goats or their equivalent for a male baby and one goat or its equivalent for a female baby) on behalf of a newborn on the seventh day of his birth along with the shaving of his head. This is Sunnat (established by the Holy Prophet’s practice).
animal). In this case also, it is necessary that no shareholder owns less than one-seventh or else everyone’s sacrifice will be invalid. Assigning a share to a person in a sacrificial animal should be done on his explicit request or order only. If a sacrificer just names a person as shareholder in the sacrificial animal at the time of sacrifice and later obtains the partner’s approval, then the sacrifice will be invalid. There is no difference in the sacrifice of a male or a female animal. Both are equally eligible for sacrifice. Some important rulings: If a sacrifice is not compulsory for a person as per the Sharia rules and he buys an animal with the intention of sacrifice on any of the sacrifice days (10th, 11th or 12th of Zul Hijjah), then the sacrifice of that particular animal becomes compulsory ( )واجةfor him. If sacrifice was compulsory for a person but the three days of sacrifice passed and he could not offer it on account of some valid excuse (e.g. the animal went missing during the period), then: » If he had bought the animal, then he should give away the animal alive in charity ()خٍزاخ. » If he did not buy one or he bought one but the animal went missing, then he should give away the cost of a small sacrificial animal or oneseventh of the cost of a large animal as charity. » If a poor person for whom an offering was not compulsory buys an animal on a sacrifice day (10th, 111th or 12th of Zul Hijjah) with the intention of sacrifice, then the animal gets determined as a sacrificial one. Now the owner can neither sell it, nor exchange it with some other animal. But if he bought the animal before the commencement of the sacrifice days or he had decided (in his heart) that he would sacrifice a certain animal (already in his possession), he – whether rich or poor – has the right to sell it or exchange it. A poor man’s intention of sacrifice before the sacrifice days commence has no significance or validity. Sacrificing on behalf of a late (passed away) relation, the Holy Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him), pious saints, etc. is also permissible. If sacrifice is compulsory for a person, then he should first offer it on his own behalf, then if he has the means, he can go for sacrifices on behalf of others.
Days and times for Sacrifice The dates for sacrifice are 10th, 11th and 12th of Zul Hijjah, but sacrificing on the first day (10th Zul Hijjah) is more reward-worthy than on the second day or third day (up to sunset). Sacrifice is permissible on the intervening nights (the night between 10th and 11th, and that between 11th and 12th) as well but not preferable. In cities, towns and large villages where Id namaz is held, sacrifice is not permissible before the Id namaz is offered. If someone sacrifices before the Id namaz in such a place, the offering would not be valid. He will have to sacrifice again. However if the Id namaz could not be said on 10th, then he can offer the sacrifice on 10th Zul Hijjah after the time for Id namaz is over, i.e. mid-day onwards. In small villages and hamlets where Id namaz is not held, the sacrifice can be offered from the time of daybreak itself. It is not allowed to milk a sacrificial animal, shear its wool or cut its hairs. If someone does this, it becomes compulsory for him to give away the cost of milk, wool or hair in charity. After sacrifice, one can use these items (hair, etc.) for personal needs. It is preferable to slaughter the sacrificial animals with one’s own hands because the sacrifice is like a gift and it is courteous ( )ادبto present the gift with one’s own hands as it symbolizes the high esteem of the giftreceiver. If he is unable to sacrifice the animal himself, then standing in front of the animal to watch it being sacrificed is also preferable. The Method and Dua for Sacrifice The animal should be laid on the ground with its face turned towards the Holy Ka’ba and the sacrificer should recite this Dua (invocation):
ُ اَِِّ ًْ َو َّجه ض عَهى ِيهَّ ِح اِ ْت َزا ِه ٍْ َى َحُِ ٍْفاً َّو َيا َ ْخ َو األر ِ ْد َوجْ ِه ًَ نِهَّ ِذيْ فَطَ َز ان َّسًى ال. ٍٍَْ ًِ َي َو َي ًَاذِ ًْ ِ َّلِلِ َربِّ ْان َعان َ صَلذِ ًْ َو َُ ُس ِك ًْ َو َيحْ ٍَا َ ٌَّ ِاَََا ِيٍَ ْان ًُ ْش ِز ِك ٍٍَْ ○ ا ُ ْك اُ ِيز َ َك َو ن َ ُْ اَنهَّهُ َّى ِي. ٍٍَْ ًِ ِخ َو اَََا ِيٍَ ْان ًُ ْسه َ ِك نَه‘ َو تِذن َ ٌْ َش ِز ُ ََّللا،ِ تِس ِْى َّللا،ك .ُاَ ْكثَز
For me, I have turned my face, firmly and truly, towards Him Who has created the heavens and the earth and I am not one of the Polytheists. Of course, my prayer, my sacrifice, my life and my death are for Allah, the Lord of the ‘Alameen (mankind, jinns and all that exists). He has no partner, and of this I have been commanded and I am one of the Muslims (those who
submit to Allah’s will). O Allah! The sacrificial animal is from You and for You. (I offer this sacrifice) in the name of Allah. Allah is the Greatest.4 Then the animal is slaughtered and the sacrificer says:
َ ْ َك ًَا ذَقَث َّْه د ِي ٍْ َحثِ ٍْثِ َك ُي َح ًَّ ٍد َّو َخهِ ٍْهِ َك اِ ْت َزا ِه ٍْ َى َع َه ٍْهِ ًَا انصََّل ُج اَنه َّهُ َّى ذَقَث َّْهه‘ مِنِّي .َو انسََّل ُو
O Allah! Accept this (sacrifice) from me as You accepted it from Muhammad, your loved one and from Your close friend Ibrahim (peace and blessings of Allah be upon them).5 If the sacrifice is being offered on behalf of some other person, then the slaughterer, instead of saying ْ مِنِّي, says: ْ مِن ْ followed by the name of the person (e.g. ْ ْمِنْرضوان مِن,علي, etc.)6. The Sacrificial Meat It is preferable to distribute one-third of the meat among the poor and needy, gift away one-third to relations and friends and keep the remaining one-third for oneself and one’s family. A person whose family is large or needs the meat because of some other necessity, can keep the entire meat for himself. But selling the sacrificial meat or giving it to the Qassab (butcher) as wage is not allowed. If many persons are shareholders in a sacrificial animal, then the meat should be distributed equally among the partners by weight, not by mere guesstimate (guessing). It is permissible to gift the sacrificial meat to a non-Muslim. -
wal -il ä lamïn. Lä sharïka lahu wa bizälika umirtu wa ana minal muslimïn. Allähumma minka wa laka. Bismillähi, Allähu Akbar. 5 Allähumma ta Instead of m i n n ï , say m i n À l ï , or m i n person’s is l , izw n, etc. 6
-Saläm. , etc., if the other
Sacrificial Hide After selling the sacrificial hide, the price-money should be compulsorily spent for the purposes where Zakat 7 is spent. The sacrificer can neither spend the money on himself nor gift it to a rich person. It is not permissible to give the sacrificial hide or its price as remuneration to, say, an Imam, a Muazzin or a madrasa teacher. Similarly using the hide-money in the repair or construction of a mosque, or in running a hospital or dispensary where rich and poor both avail of the services is not allowed. However, a sacrificial skin or its price can be given to a poor or a needy for treatment or purchase of medicines, provided he is made the owner of the amount. Spending the hide-money on somebody’s funeral by oneself, without making a poor man the owner of the same, or giving it to an organization or trust which undertakes such expenses is not permissible. If the trust or organization first makes a poor man owner of the hide-money and then the poor man gives the money, of his own free will, to be spent on the funeral of the needy, it is allowed. It is preferable to give the hide or its price to a religious seminary (madrasa) where indigent and deprived children are provided meals, education, etc. It makes the spender eligible for double rewards from the Almighty: first, for charity and second, for help in the spread of Islamic knowledge and faith.
Publisher: Publication and Dissemination Section, Darul Uloom Sabeelus Salam, Madinatul Ilm, Balapur, Behind: Salala, Barkas, Hyderabad, India. Ph: 040-2444 0450, 2320 3668, 2329 7278, 098481 46343.
There are seven causes in which Zakat money can be spent: 1. the poor who owns less than the prescribed quantity of gold (20 dinaars = 87.5 gram) or silver (200 dirhams = 612.5 gram) or the corresponding sum of money (₹ 32,770; as on 25 Oct 2011) or equivalent in assets, 2. the destitute who owns nothing, 3. Zakat-collector, 4. for freeing slaves, 5. the debtor whose worth becomes less than the prescribed quantity after deducting his loans, 6. the poor Mujahids and Hajis (pilgrims), 7. the traveler who has little or no money with him during the journey.
Arabic Words not Translated: 1. Aqeeqa 2. Dua 3. Id 4. Imam 5. madrasa 6. Muazzin 7. namaz 8. Sadaqatul Fitr 9. Sharia the body of Islamic Law 10. Zakat almsgiving, wealth-refinement, wealth-purging Some Translations:
obligatory compulsory sunnat desirable, preferable reward-worthy permissible, allowed undesirable, unpreferable strictly avoidable prohibited
farz wajib holy custom, practice, trdition mustahab, nafl afzal jaaiz makrooh tanzeehi makrooh tahreemi haram
tradition narration, report
sunnah, hadith riwayat