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Atlas OF THE WORLD


ATLAS OF THE WORLD BOOKS

First published in 2019 by Murray Books (Australia) www.murraybooks.com

Copyright Š 2019 Murray Books (Australia) Copyright Š 2019 Peter Murray ISBN: 978-0-9943945-2-1

All rights reserved. This publication or any part thereof may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright holder. Author : Peter Murray : Images: Shutterstock

The author and publisher have made every effort to ensure the information contained in this book was correct at the time of going to press and accept no responsibility for any loss, injury or inconvenience sustained by any person or organisation using this book.

This compact Atlas is restricted by the number of pages available to detail each country in the world. We have endeavoured to cover all regions in the World and have included major countries of each region.


COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD


UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

The United States of America is made up of 50 states

and

five

self-governing

territories

throughout mainland North America, the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. By total area, the

United States is the fourth-largest and third-most

populous country in the world. Alaska, the largest

of the country's states, covers an area of

7,663,940.6 km2 (2,959,064 sq mi), while the total

area covered by the five self-governing territories is 23,789 km2 (9,185 sq mi). In the mainland's

OFFICIAL TITLE

United States of America

deciduous forests that eventually rise to become

SIZE

9,833,520 km2 (3,796,742 sq mi)

north, the Atlantic coastline is overlooked by

TIME ZONE WASHINGTON

GMT-7

the Appalachian Mountains. Those mountains then

POPULATION

329,633,408

becomes the vast grasslands of the country's

NATIONAL LANGUAGE/S

English

drop away to the Great Lakes area, which in turn

Midwest. Through the heart of America the

Mississippi-Missouri River complex runs from

north to south, giving life to the prairies of the

Great Plains. Those prairies stretch west until they meet with the towering Rocky Mountains, which

eventually give way to vast desert country or to

meet with the Pacific coast and the more fertile

regions in the south. Such a vast mainland offers virtually every type of climate, including tropical,

continental, Mediterranean, alpine and arid. The

country is also subject to extremes of weather that

range from tornadoes in the south and the

midwest to hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and volcanic activity in Hawaii and Alaska.

MAIN RELIGION

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES

CURRENCY

Christianity

Washington, D.C. - 38°53′N 77°01′W New York City - 40°43′N 74°00′W

United States Dollar (USD)

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE

+1

NATIONAL ANTHEM

The Star-Spangled Banner

INTERNET SUFFIX

.com


CANADA


CANADA

Canada is the second-largest country in the world

and is situated in the north of the continent of North American. The country extends from the

Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans it’s border with the USA stretches for 8,891 km (5,525 mi) – the worlds

longest bi-national land border. The country is

OFFICIAL TITLE

TIME ZONE OTTOWA

GMT-4

POPULATION

37,507,270

divided into 10 provinces and three territories and

SIZE

tundra and lakes. Most of the country’s population

MAIN RELIGION

is chiefly dominated by mountains, dense forest,

lives near it’s southern border with the USA, and

Canada’s cities are home to 82 % of it’s entire

population. The capital city of Canada is Ottawa,

with Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal its largest cities. Other major centres include Edmonton,

Calgary, Hamilton, Winnipeg and Quebec City.

Geologically, Canada is volcanically active, and its

most notable non-dormant craters are on Mount

Meagher, Mount Cayley, Mount Garibaldi and the

volcanic complex of Mount Edziza. The largest

recorded eruption was in 1775 in British Columbia.

It is also home to the largest group of freshwater

lakes in the world – Canada’s Great Lakes are

situated on the border of Canada and the USA, connecting the Atlantic Ocean to the inland of the

country through the Saint Lawrence River and

account for 21% of the world’s surface fresh water. Canada's climate varies considerably between its

vast regions, and many parts of the country

experience harsh winters. In the interior, the

Prairie lands (the country's food bowl) experience

an average daily temperature in winter of −15°C

(5°F), and occasionally drop to below −40°C

(−40°F). Much of Canada's coastal areas are snowcovered for half of the year, but temperatures can

climb as high as 30°C (86°F) on the coast.

Canada

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE/S

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES

CURRENCY

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE

INTERNET SUFFIX

NATIONAL ANTHEM

9,984,670 km2 (3,855,100 sq mi)

Christianity

English, French

Ottawa - 45°24'N 75°40'W

Toronto - 43°42'N 79°24'W

Canadian Dollar (CAD)

+1

.ca

O Canada


SOUTH AMERICA


South America is a continent with land mass in the Northern, Southern and Western Hemispheres. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America or the Southern Cone) has increased in recent decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil). It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean; North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. It includes twelve sovereign states (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela), a part of France (French Guiana), and The Falkland Islands (a British Overseas Territory though this is disputed by

BRAZIL

Argentina). In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Trinidad and Tobago, and Panama may also be considered part of South America.

OFFICIAL TITLE

GMT-3

POPULATION

211,491,739

SIZE

Brazil is the fifth-largest country in the world by

both population and area. Bordered by the

Atlantic Ocean and every other South American

Federative Republic of Brazil

TIME ZONE BRASILIA

8,515,767 km2 (3,287,956 sq mi)

MAIN RELIGION

Christianity (Roman Catholicism)

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

Brasilia - 15°47'S 47°52'W

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE/S

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES

Portuguese

São Paulo - 23°33'S 46°38'W

country outside of Ecuador and Chile, it is also

CURRENCY

Real (BRL)

world. Covering over 8.5 million km2 (3.3 million

INTERNET SUFFIX

.br

the largest Portuguese speaking country in the

sq mi), Brazil spans four time zones and has both the Tropic of Capricorn and the Equator running

through it. The landscape of Brazil is a diverse

one, and most of its terrain sits at between 200

m (660 ft) and 800 m (2,600 ft). The country has

a vast network of rivers that include the Amazon

and the Paraná, and its river system is one of

the most extensive on Earth. The climate of Brazil is varied and is generally considered

equatorial, although there are five sub types of

climate across the country. Brazil's capital city is Brasilia, and its most populous city is São Paulo.

The third-most populous city in Brazil is Rio de

Janiero,

which

is

one

of

the

Southern

Hemisphere's most visited cities and is home to

the world’s largest carnival and the infamous Copacabana beach.

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE NATIONAL ANTHEM

+55

Hino Nacional Brasileiro


CENTRAL AMERICA


Central America is sometimes defined as a subcontinent of the Americas. This region is bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south. Central America consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. The combined population of Central America is estimated to be 42 million.

HONDURAS

The Republic of Honduras was once known as the

Spanish Honduras and it sits on the southern Pacific

Gulf of Fonseca and the northern Caribbean Gulf of

Honduras. On land, Honduras is bordered by El

Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua. The majority of

Honduras' landscape is covered with mountains, with a lowland jungle in the north-east, a densely

populated lowland in the north-west and narrow plains

along the coastline. Offshore from the north coast are

the Swan Islands and the Islas de la Bahía. Honduras is rich in natural resources, including gold, silver, timber, lead, copper, iron ore, zinc, fish, coal and

shrimp. There are 18 departments that comprise

Honduras administratively. Of those, Francisco Morazán is a department in Honduras' central district,

and it is home to the country's capital, Tegucigalpa. Honduras is a biodiverse country, renowned for its

plant and animal species. Over 600 species of orchid

can be found in the country, along with 250 species of

amphibians and reptiles, 110 mammal species and 700

bird species. Half of the mammals indigenous to Honduras are bats. The forestry of Honduras is world

renowned, and the north-east of the country is home

to the UNESCO World Heritage-listed Río Plátano

Biosphere Reserve. As well as rainforests, Honduras

has cloud forests that sit at levels of up to 3,000m

(9,700 ft). Other notable geographic features of Honduras are savanna, mangroves, pine and oak

forests, and the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System.

OFFICIAL TITLE

TIME ZONE TEGUCIGALPA

SIZE

POPULATION

MAIN RELIGION

NATIONAL LANGUAGE/S

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES

CURRENCY

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE

INTERNET SUFFIX

NATIONAL ANTHEM

Republic of Honduras

GMT-6

112,492 km2 (43,433 sq mi)

9,791,160

Christianity

Spanish

Tegucigalpa - 14°6′N 87°13′W

Tegucigalpa - 14°6′N 87°13′W

Lempira (HNL)

+504

.hn

Himno Nacional de Honduras


CARIBBEAN


Situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region has more than 700 islands, islets, reefs and cays. Island arcs delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea: The Greater Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago on the north and the Lesser Antilles and the on the south and east (which includes the Leeward Antilles). The Lucayan Archipelago (the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands), do not border the Caribbean Sea, but are still within the boundaries of the Caribbean region. On the mainland, Belize, Nicaragua, the Caribbean region of Colombia, Cozumel, the Yucatán Peninsula, Margarita Island, and the Guyanas are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region. OFFICIAL TITLE

Jamaica

SIZE

10,991 km2 (4,244 sq mi)

TIME ZONE KINGSTON

JAMAICA

POPULATION

2,952,128

NATIONAL LANGUAGE/S

English

MAIN RELIGION

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES

The island country of Jamaica is located in the

CURRENCY

Greater

INTERNET SUFFIX

Caribbean Sea, and it is the third-largest of the Antilles

islands.

Jamaica's

nearest

neighbours to the west are Haiti and the Dominican

Republic on the island of Hispaniola, while its closer southern neighbour is Cuba. The island is

dominated by the Blue Mountains, which are

surrounded by a coastal plain that is home to the

capital city of Kingston with its huge natural

harbour. Other significant towns and cities within Jamaica include Spanish Town, Portmore, Port

Antonio, Mandeville, Ocho Ríos, Montego Bay and

Negril. Jamaica has a large tourism industry, and

attractions include numerous luxury resorts and sites of interest. Situated in a tropical zone, Jamaica

is home to a wide variety of ecosystems, which include terrestrial limestone forests, riparian

woodland, rainforests and caves. The centre of Jamaica's economy lies within its capital city,

Kingston. This densely populated city is home to the headquarters of many multi-national companies

and financial institutions, which stimulate a healthy

economy. Geographically, Kingston is surrounded by the Blue Mountains, Long Mountain, Red Hills

and Kingston Harbour.

GMT-5

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE NATIONAL ANTHEM

Christianity Kingston - 17°59′N 76°48′W Kingston - 17°59′N 76°48′ Jamaican Dollar (JMD) +1-876 .jm

Jamaica, Land We Love


EUROPE Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere,

with the majority also in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by

the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia

to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the

westernmost part of Eurasia.

Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by

the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish

Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography,

the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several

times since its first conception in classical antiquity. The division of

Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp

dividing line. The geographic border between Europe and Asia does

not follow any state boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia

and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, The Netherlands, Spain and The United Kingdom are also transcontinental in that their main landmass is in Europe while pockets of their territory

are located in other continents.

Europe covers about 10,180,000 km2 (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into

approximately fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation

is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and

comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million (about 11% of the world’s population) as of 2016.

Peter can we update?

Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, is known as

the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman

Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The

early 15th century saw the beginning of the Age of Discovery (also

known as the Age of Exploration) when European ships travelled the world establishing new trade routes. Between the 16th and 20th

centuries, European powers controlled, at various times, the Americas, almost all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.


gERMANY


GERMANY

Germany is a central-western European country, and the most populous European Union member state.

Germany's coastline is comprised of the Baltic Sea in

OFFICIAL TITLE

Federal Republic of Germany

shared with Poland, Denmark, Switzerland, Austria,

SIZE

357,168 km2 (137,903 sq mi)

the north and north-east, while land borders are

TIME ZONE BERLIN

GMT+2

the Czech Republic, France, Luxembourg, Belgium

POPULATION

Austria and Switzerland is comprised of Lake

MAIN RELIGION

83,604,843

Constance, which is Central Europe's third-largest

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE/S

formerly divided Berlin, while other significant cities

lake. The country's capital and largest city is the

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

German

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES

and the Netherlands. Germany's border between

include Frankfurt, Munich, Hamburg, Stuttgart,

Cologne and Düsseldorf. Between Germany's coast and its highest point in the Alps (Zugspitze), elevation

rises to 2,962 m (9,718 ft). In its northern lowlands, Germany's river system is a vast one, and the

Danube, Rhine and Elbe Rivers are significant

transport and tourism routes. The majority of Germany experiences a temperate, seasonal climate,

which is moderated through the effects of the North

Atlantic Drift's warmer waters. In the east of

Germany, the climate is more continental, with cold

winters, very warm summers and less rainfall than the

west. The plant and animal life of Germany is

common to most of Central Europe, and oak, beech

and assorted deciduous trees mainly populate one-

third of the country's forests. In mountainous areas,

conifers, firs and spruce trees grow widely. The

country's 16 national parks, 15 biosphere reserves,

98 nature parks and over 400 zoos are home to

numerous animals, with the latter including the world famous Berlin Zoo.

CURRENCY

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE INTERNET SUFFIX

NATIONAL ANTHEM

Christianity Berlin - 52°31′N 13°23′E

Berlin - 52°31′N 13°23′E Euro (EUR) +49 .de

Deutschlandlied


FRANCE


FRANCE

France, officially known as the French Republic, is a

Western European country with a number of overseas territories and regions. On the European mainland, France extends from the Mediterranean

Sea in the south to the English Channel, and the

North Sea in the north. The capital and most

OFFICIAL TITLE

French Republic

Nice, Lille, Marseille, Toulouse and Lyon. The

SIZE

643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi)

Switzerland and Germany in the east, Luxembourg

MAIN RELIGION

Christianity

populous city in France is Paris, which is also the most popular tourism destination in the world. Other

major urban centres of France include Bordeaux,

countries

that

border

mainland

France

are

and Belgium in the north-west, Spain and Andorra in

the south and south-west respectively, and Monaco

and Italy in the south-east. The eastern border of France is comprised of the Alps, the Pyrenees and

the Rhine River. Overseas territories and regions include French Guiana in South America, the

Kerguelen Islands in the Indian Ocean, French

Polynesia in the Pacific Ocean and Adélie Land in

Antarctica. Additionally, the Atlantic islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon and the Antilles islands of

Martinique, Clipperton Island, Saint Barthélemy and

Guadeloupe are also part of the French Republic. Geographically, France is the largest country of the

European Union, and including its non-Antarctic

overseas regions and territories, the country covers

45 % of the world's entire land mass. The highest point in France is Mont Blanc, which sits in the Alps

at an elevation of 810.45 m (15,782 ft). The climate of France is varied, and most of its western regions

experience an oceanic climate. Inland France is

protected by mountains and is considered semi-

oceanic, while the coastal southern areas are

Mediterranean. The Alps and Pyrenees regions are

alpine, and overseas territories and regions are

situated in areas that range from sub-polar to tropical and equatorial climates.

TIME ZONE PARIS POPULATION

GMT+2

65,176,020

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE/S

French

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES

Paris - 48°51.4′N 2°21.05′E

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

Paris - 48°51.4′N 2°21.05′E

CURRENCY

Euro (EUR)

INTERNET SUFFIX

.fr

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE

NATIONAL ANTHEM

+33

La Marseillaise


ITALY


ITALY

Italy is located in the centre of the Mediterranean Sea

and shares land borders with Switzerland, France,

OFFICIAL TITLE

TIME ZONE ROME

Italian Republic

GMT+2

Austria, Slovenia, San Marino and the Vatican City (the

SIZE

301,338 km2 (116,347 sq mi)

complex one, and the islands of Sardinia and Siciliy

MAIN RELIGION

Christianity (Roman Catholicism)

world’s smallest country). The territory of Italy is a

join many smaller Mediterranean islands to form part

POPULATION

NATIONAL LANGUAGE/S

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

of the country. Additionally, Vatican City and San

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES

Switzerland is home to the Italian enclave of

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE

Marino are sovereign state enclaves within Italy, while Campione d'Italia. Further territories includes five full comuni (administrative divisions/ townships) and two

part comuni within the Danube's drainage basin, as well as the Val di Lei in the Rhine Basin. Due to the country's boot-shape, locals often refer to their homeland as lo Stivale, or the Boot. Italy has the

European Union's fourth-largest population, and its

major urban centres are renowned around the world. The country's capital and largest city, Rome, is

dominated by it’s tourism sector, whereas, it’s second largest city, Milan, is the centre of fashion and design.

Events and fairs form a large part of Milan's year, and

the city is also home to a multitude of academies, cultural institutions and universities. Naples is Italy's

third-largest city and is also one of the world's oldest

continually inhabited cities. Geographically, Italy is

situated at the point where The Eurasian and African plates meet, and the result is volcanic and seismic

activity that has been documented throughout the

country's history. The most famous was the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79, when the cities of

Pompeii and Herculanum were destroyed.

CURRENCY

INTERNET SUFFIX

NATIONAL ANTHEM

60,538,112

Italian

Rome - 41°54′N 12°29′E

Rome - 41°54′N 12°29′E

Euro (EU)

+39

.it

Il Canto degli Italiani


SPAIN


SPAIN Spain

sits

on

south-western

Europe's

Iberian

Peninsula, ad is the largest country in southern

Europe. Its overseas territories include the two large archipelagos that comprise the Canary Islands along

the North African coast and the Balearic Islands in the

OFFICIAL TITLE

Kingdom of Spain

SIZE

505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi)

TIME ZONE MADRID POPULATION

MAIN RELIGION

Mediterranean Sea, plus several small islands in the

NATIONAL LANGUAGE/S

Melilla and Ceuta, and the Vélez de la Gomera

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES

Alboran Sea near Morocco, the North African cities of

Peninsula. On the Spanish mainland and with the

exception of Gibraltar, the country is bordered by the

Mediterranean Sea to the east and south, the Bay of Biscay to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the

north-west. Land borders are shared with Portugal, Andorra and France, and Spain's African territories

comprise almost 5% of its population. Mount Teide in

Tenerife is Spain's highest mountain peak and the third largest of the world's volcanoes. In mainland Spain,

the Pyrenees Mountains comprise the French and

Andorran borders, while the border between Spain

and Portugal is the longest of the European Union's uninterrupted borders. Most of mainland Spain is

mountainous, and outside of the Pyrenees, the main

ranges are the Sierra Nevada, the Cordillera

Cantábrica, the Sistema Ibérico, the Sistema Bético,

the Sistema Central and the Meseta Central. The

capital city of Madrid lies in the centre of the Spanish

mainland, and its economy is driven by the service sector. As the largest and most commercially

important of Spain's cities, Madrid is involved in high-

technology production along with Barcelona.

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

CURRENCY

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE

INTERNET SUFFIX

NATIONAL ANTHEM

GMT+2

46,738,544

Christianity (Roman Catholicism)

Spanish

Madrid - 40°26′N 3°42′W

Madrid - 40°26′N 3°42′W

Euro (EUR)

+34

.es

Marcha Real


UNITED KINGDOM


The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a sovereign country located off the northwestern coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state - the Republic of Ireland, and is separated from Great Britain by the Irish Sea. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and

ENGLAND

the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12thlongest coastline in the world. The United Kingdom's 242,500 km2 (93,600 sq mi) is home to an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants.

England is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain

OFFICIAL TITLE

England

SIZE

130,279 km2 (50,301 sq mi)

TIME ZONE

GMT+1

and is bordered in the north by Scotland and in part

POPULATION

55,620,000

surrounded by the Irish, Celtic and North Seas, as well

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE/S

English

make up the territory of England. The Thames, Tyne

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES

to the west by Wales. The rest of the country is

MAIN RELIGION

as the English Channel. Over 100 smaller islands also

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

and Mersey Rivers are home to the port cities of London, Newcastle and Liverpool respectively.

England is also home to numerous lakes in its Lake

District, and the largest of those is Lake Windermere. The Pennines are an ancient mountain range

colloquially called the 'backbone of England', and their

geological composition includes coal, limestone and sandstone. England's highest peak is Cumbria's Scafell

Pike, which sits at 978 m (3,209 ft) above sea level. South of the Pennines are the green, rolling hills of the

Cotswolds, Chiltern, South and North Downs, which

eventually end on the east coast at the white cliffs of Dover. In England's West Country, the landscape is

made up of gentle slopes, moorland and granite, while the South Coast is noted for its fossil-embedded

Jurassic coastline. England's climate is a varied one, and predominantly a temperate climate that climbs

from mild in the south to colder in the north. July is

the warmest month of the year, and rainfall is evenly spread through all 12 months. One of the greatest

influences on the English climate is the Atlantic Ocean and its warm gulf streams. The highest recorded

temperature experienced in England was 38.5°C (101.3°F) in 2003, and its lowest was −26.1°C (−15.0°F)

in 1982.

CURRENCY

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE INTERNET SUFFIX

NATIONAL ANTHEM

Christianity London - 51°30′N 0°7′W

London - 51°30′N 0°7′W Pound Sterling (GBP) +44 .uk

God Save the Queen


THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION


THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Russia, or the Russian Federation, is the world's largest

OFFICIAL TITLE

Russian Federation

coastline. Located in Eurasia, the country extends across

SIZE

17,075,200 km2 (6,592,800 sq mi)

country, with more than 37,000 km (22,991 mi) of

TIME ZONE MOSCOW

GMT+3

all of Northern Asia and the vast majority of Eastern

POPULATION

145,906,377

a diverse number of landforms and environments. Russia

NATIONAL LANGUAGE/S

Russian

Europe, spanning 11 time zones. It is therefore home to

shares maritime borders with the United States along

Alaska's Bering Strait, and also with Japan through the Sea of Okhotsk. On land, the country shares borders with

Finland, Norway, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Poland, Georgia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan,

Mongolia, North Korea and China. Within Russia, there are 23 World Heritage Sites, 40 biosphere reserves, 101

nature reserves and 41 national parks. The country is also

a source of many natural resources, including petroleum, natural gas, timber, ores and other minerals. The most

populated section of Russia is in the west, and nearly 80

percent of the entire Russian population live there. The capital city of Moscow is one of the world's largest cities.

At its greatest width, between the Vistula Split near

Poland and the south-eastern extent of the Kuril Islands, Russia is 8,000 km (4,971 mi) wide. The majority of

Russia's landscape is filled with vast plains with mountain

ranges in the south, dense forests in the north and tundra along the northern coastline. The north-south line

of the Ural Mountains forms the boundary between Asia

and Europe.

MAIN RELIGION

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES CURRENCY

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE INTERNET SUFFIX

NATIONAL ANTHEM

Christianity (Orthodox) Moscow - 55°45′N 37°37′E

Moscow - 55°45′N 37°37′E Russian Ruble (RUB) +7

.ru

Gosudarstvenný gimn Rossijskoj Federaci


MIDDLE EAST


The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered around Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa). Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest Middle Eastern nation while Bahrain is the smallest. In the early 20th-century the term Middle East started to replace the term Near East (as opposed to the Far East). The Middle East generally has a hot, arid climate, with several major rivers providing irrigation to support agriculture in limited areas such as the Nile Delta in Egypt, the Tigris and Euphrates watersheds of Mesopotamia, and most of what is known as the Fertile Crescent. Most of the countries that border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of crude oil, with monarchs of the Arabian Peninsula in particular benefiting economically from petroleum exports.

OFFICIAL TITLE

TIME ZONE RIYADH

SIZE

2,149,690] km2 (830,000 sq mi)

MAIN RELIGION

Sunni Islam

POPULATION

NATIONAL LANGUAGE/S

SAUDI ARABIA

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is situated in Western Asia

and occupies the majority of the Arabian Peninsula. The land borders of Saudi Arabia are formed by the countries

of Iraq and Jordan to the north, Bahrain, Qatar and the

United Arab Emirates to the east, Kuwait to the northeast, Yemen to the south and Oman to the south-east.

The Gulf of Aqaba separates Saudi Arabia from Egypt and Israel, and the country is the only one that has both a

Persian Gulf and a Red Sea coastline. Most of Saudi Arabia's landscape is characterised by the Arabian Desert

and its surrounding semi-desert areas. The largest continuous sand desert in the world, the Rub' al Khali, is

located in the southern sector of the country. Saudi

Arabia's most populous city is its capital, Riyadh, located in the centre of the Arabian Peninsula.

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

GMT+3

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES

CURRENCY

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE

INTERNET SUFFIX

NATIONAL ANTHEM

34,437,367

Arabic

Riyadh - 24°39′N 46°46′E

Riyadh - 24°39′N 46°46′E

Saudi Riyal (SAR)

+966

.sa

as-Salām al-Malakiyy


AFRICA


Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent. At approximately 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people, it accounts for approximately 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes the islands of Madagascar, Comoros, the Seychelles and Mauritius. It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states (countries) and nine territories. Two-thirds of the continent and its countries

SOUTH AFRICA

are in the Northern Hemisphere, with the remaining third, including South Africa, in the Southern Hemisphere.

Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, Swaziland, Mozambique and Lesotho. As the world's 25th-largest county, South Africa is the only country to border both the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, and its coastline covers over 2,500 km (1,553 mi). South Africa's interior is comprised of a vast plateau that varies in altitude from 1,000 m to 2,500 m, sloping down from the east. Around the interior plateau sits the Great Escarpment, which at its highest (and easternmost) point is known as the Drakensberg range. To the south of the plateau lies the Great Karoo Plain, which runs north to become the dry and arid Bushmanland of South Africa before meeting with the Kalahari Desert. The middle of the country's interior plateau is the Highveld, which forms the hub of South Africa's commercial farming activities. The country's north-east is home to the Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces and the world renowned Kruger National Park, and its opposite south-west corner is comprised of the Cape Peninsula and the legislative capital city of Cape Town. South Africa has 3 capital cities – Cape Town (legislative), Pretoria (administrative) and Bloemfontein Africa's

largest

city

is

Johannesburg. Also known as Joburg, Jozi and eGoli, it is one of the world's 50-largest urban areas, the seat of South Africa's Constitutional Court and the centre of the country's lucrative diamond and gold trade.

1,221,037 km2 (471,445 sq mi)

NATIONAL LANGUAGE/S

Indian and South Atlantic Oceans, and it is bordered by

South

SIZE

TIME ZONE CAPE TOWN

MAIN RELIGION

southern-most country. Its coastline stretches along the

However

Republic of South Africa

POPULATION

The Republic of South Africa is the African continent's

(judicial).

OFFICIAL TITLE

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

Cape Town

Bloemfontein

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES

CURRENCY

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE

INTERNET SUFFIX

NATIONAL ANTHEM

GMT+2

58,776,835

Christianity

Afrikaans, English, Northern Sotho, Zulu, Ndebele, Sotho, Venda, Swazi, Xhosa, Tswana and Tsonga

Pretoria (Executive) - 25°44′46″S 28°11′17″E

(Legislative) - 33°55′31″S 18°25′26″E

(Judicial) - 29°07′S 26°13′E

Johannesburg - 26°12′16″S 28°2′44″E

South African Rand (ZAR)

+27

.za

National Anthem of South Africa


INDIA


INDIA

India is the world's seventh-largest country by area and the second-largest by population. The

country is situated on the Indian subcontinent and is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal to the

south-east, the Indian Ocean to the south and

the Arabian Sea to the south-west. India shares land borders with Pakistan, Nepal, China,

Myanmar (formerly Burma), Bangladesh and Bhutan.

The

Andaman,

Nicobar

and

Lakshadweep Islands are also part of India's

OFFICIAL TITLE

TIME ZONE NEW DELHI

Republic of India

GMT+5:30

territory. The coastline of India, including its

SIZE

3,287,263 km2 (1,269,219 sq mi)

majority of the mainland coastline is comprised

MAIN RELIGION

Hinduism

islands, is 7,517 km (4,700 mi) long, and the

equally of sandy beaches and mudflats. Rivers originating in the Himalayas flow through India, including the Ganges, which is considered sacred by the Hindu people and flows into the

Bay of Bengal. Other major rivers include the Brahmaputra, Krishna, Godavari, Kaveri and

Mahanadi Rivers on the Bay of Bengal side, with the Tapti and Narmada rivers flowing into the

Arabian Sea. The Himalayas and the Thar Desert

have a major impact upon India's climate and are the

source

of

the

seasonal

monsoons

experienced throughout the country. India is one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries, ranked

9th in the world in terms of the richness of it’s

plant species. India is home to 172 of the IUCN designated threatened species, including the

Asian Elephant, the Bengal Tiger, the Indian

Rhinoceros, the Mugger Crocodile and the Indian White-Rumped Vulture.

POPULATION

1,370,342,045

NATIONAL LANGUAGE/S

Hindi, English

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES

Mumbai - 18°58′N 72°49′E

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

CURRENCY

New Delhi - 28°36.8′N 77°12.5′E

Indian Rupee (INR)

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE

+91

NATIONAL ANTHEM

Jana Gana Mana

INTERNET SUFFIX

.in


CHINA


CHINA

China is the most populous country in the world and is made up of 22 provinces and five

autonomous regions. An additional four directly

controlled municipalities are made up of the cities of Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and Chongging, while

the two self-governing administrative regions of the country are Hong Kong and Macau. The landscape

OFFICIAL TITLE

People's Republic of China

from east to west and north to south. In the

SIZE

9,596,961 km2 (3,705,407 sq mi)

of China is a diverse one, and it varies significantly

TIME ZONE BEIJING

GMT+8

the East China and Yellow Seas, while vast

POPULATION

1,435,475,516

Plateau. In the high north, the Gobi and Taklamakan

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE/S

Standard Chinese

China is populated by the deltas of the Yangtze and

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES

low mountain ranges and hills. The most significant

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE

west, and the highest point on Earth lies on the

NATIONAL ANTHEM

country's east, alluvial plains sit along the shores of

grasslands dominate the northern Inner Mongolian

MAIN RELIGION

Deserts typify the region's arid climate. Central

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

Yellow Rivers, and the country's south is filled with of the country's mountains are the Himalayas in the

Sino-Nepalese border - The peak of Mount Everest

is 8,850 meters (29,035 feet) above sea level. Most

of China's climate is dominated by wet monsoons

and dry seasons, and the divide between winter and summer is great. Plant and animal life in China

is abundant and includes more than 34,000 species.

Of those, 551 mammal species, 333 amphibian

species, 424 reptile species and 1,221 bird species

make China an official 'megadiverse' country and the world's most biodiverse behind Brazil and

Colombia.

CURRENCY

INTERNET SUFFIX

Taoism, Confucianism Beijing - 39째55'N 116째23'E

Shanghai - 31째13'N 121째28'E Renminbi Yuan (CNY) +86 .cn

March of the Volunteers


KOREAN PENINSULA


Until the end of World War II, Korea was a single political entity whose territory roughly coincided with the Korean Peninsula. In August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Imperial Japan, as a result of an agreement with the USA, and liberated Korea north of the 38th parallel. U.S. forces subsequently moved into the south. By 1948, as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the USA, Korea was divided into two regions, with separate governments. Both claimed to be the legitimate government of all of Korea, and neither accepted the border as permanent. The conflict escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces - supported by the Soviet Union and China—moved into South Korea on 25 June 1950. Since the Armistice Agreement ended the Korean War in 1953, the northern section of the peninsula has been governed by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, while the southern portion has been governed by the Republic of Korea.

SOUTH KOREA

South Korea is officially known as the Republic of Korea, and it sits on the Korean Peninsula to the south of North Korea and the Korean Demilitarized Zone. Maritime borders include the Sea of Japan to the east, the Yellow Sea to the west and the East China Sea and the Korea Strait at the country's southern tip. There are four distinct geographical regions within South Korea, those being the narrow coastal plains and high mountain ranges of the east, the broad coastal plains, hills and river basins of the west, and the Nakdong River basin in the south-east. Most of South Korea is mountainous and difficult to farm, and the centres of population, agriculture and industry are concentrated on the plains. South Korea's territory also extends to several thousand islands that sit off of the country's southern coast. The largest of the country's offshore islands is Jeju-do, which is 100 km (62 mi) away and has a total land area of 1,845 km2 (712 sq mi). On the South Korean mainland there are 20 national parks, which are located away from the coast, as the vast majority of the country's coastal lands are devoted to urbanisation. Most South Koreans live in towering high-rise buildings, which are concentrated in the country's capital city of Seoul. In total, the population of the greater Seoul Capital Area sits at approximately 25 million people, and it is the fourth-largest of the world's metropolitan areas. The city of Seoul itself is home to 10 million South Koreans.

OFFICIAL TITLE

Republic of Korea

SIZE

100,210 km2 (38,690 sq mi)

TIME ZONE SEOUL

GMT+9

POPULATION

51,246,530

NATIONAL LANGUAGE/S

Korean

MAIN RELIGION

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES CURRENCY

Christianity, Buddhism Seoul - 37°33′N 126°58′E

Seoul - 37°33′N 126°58′E

South Korean Won (KRW)

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE

+82

NATIONAL ANTHEM

Aegukga

INTERNET SUFFIX

.kr


JAPAN


JAPAN

Japan is an island nation of Eastern Asia, situated in the Pacific Ocean off of the Asian mainland's eastern

coast. Its nearest mainland neighbours are China,

Russia and Korea. The nation is comprised of 6,852

islands that extend along the East Asian Pacific

coastline. The main islands are Honshu, Hokkaido,

OFFICIAL TITLE

Japan

SIZE

377,972.28 km2 (145,935.91 sq mi)

TIME ZONE TOKYO

POPULATION

MAIN RELIGION

NATIONAL LANGUAGE/S

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

islands are located within a volcanic area on the

Pacific Ring of Fire, and over 100 volcanoes are currently

active

within

Japan.

Destructive

earthquakes are not uncommon in Japan as a result

of its position, and the country is ranked at 15th on

the World Risk Index as a result. Due to the distance

between the country's islands, the climate of Japan

is a varied one and generally considered to be

temperate. The country's capital, Tokyo, is located on the island of Honshu in the Kantō Region. The city is

technically classified as a metropolis, and its main centre sits to the north-west of Tokyo Bay. Tokyo's

climate is a humid subtropical one, and its warmest

month is August, wherein temperatures average

26.4°C (79.5°F). In winter, the city receives sporadic snowfall, and temperatures average 5.2°C (41.4°F) in

the coldest month of January.

Tokyo - 35°41′N 139°46′E

+81

INTERNET SUFFIX

have enormous population densities. Most of the

Japanese

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE

which is unsuitable for human habitation, agriculture

habitation is centred in Japan's coastal areas, which

Shinto

Tokyo - 35°41′N 139°46′E

CURRENCY

or industry. As a result, most activity and human

126,763,033

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES

Kyushu, Shikoku, Okinawa and Ryukyu. Over 70

percent of Japan is covered in mountainous forest,

GMT+9

NATIONAL ANTHEM

Yen (KPY)

.jp

Kimigayo


OCEANIA Oceania is a geographic region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Spanning the eastern and western

hemispheres, Oceania has a land area of 8,525,989 km2 (3,291,903 sq

mi) and a population of 40 million. Situated in the southeast of the

Asia-Pacific region, Oceania, when compared to continental regions,

is the smallest in land area and the second smallest in population after

Antarctica.

Definitions of Oceania vary; however, the islands at the geographic

extremes of this region are generally considered to be the Bonin Islands, a politically integral part of Japan; Hawaii, a state of the

United States; Clipperton Island, a possession of France; the Juan Fernรกndez Islands, belonging to Chile; and Macquarie Island,

belonging to Australia. Oceania has a diverse mix of economies from the highly developed and globally competitive financial markets of

Australia and New Zealand, which rank high in the quality of life and

human development index, to the much less developed economies

that belong to countries such as Kiribati and Tuvalu, while also including medium-sized economies of Pacific islands such as Palau,

Fiji and Tonga. The largest and most populous country in Oceania is Australia, with Sydney being the largest city of both Oceania and

Australia. In the 1950s Indonesia and the Philippines were removed

from Oceania and added to Asia; this resulted in Oceania as a "great

division" of the world being replaced by the concept of the continent

of Australia.

The first settlers of Australia, New Guinea, and the large islands just

to the east arrived more than 60,000 years ago. Oceania was first explored by Europeans from the 16th century onward. Portuguese

navigators, between 1512 and 1526, reached the Tanimbar Islands, some of the Caroline Islands and west Papua New Guinea. On his first

voyage in the 18th century, James Cook, who later arrived at the

highly developed Hawaiian Islands, went to Tahiti and followed the east coast of Australia for the first time. The Pacific front saw major

action during World War II, mainly between the Allied powers of the

USA and Australia, and Axis power Japan.


AUSTRALIA


AUSTRALIA

Australia is comprised of a vast mainland, the

island state of Tasmania and a large number of

smaller islands. As the world's sixth-largest

country by land mass, Australia is surrounded by

sea, which is chiefly comprised of the vast Pacific

Ocean to the east and the Indian Ocean to the

west. Considered the largest island in the world, the country has a coastline that stretches for

OFFICIAL TITLE

TIME ZONE CANBERRA

Commonwealth of Australia

GMT+11

34,218 km (21,262 mi). Australia's closest

SIZE

7,692,024 km2 (2,969,907 sq mi)

Indonesia, New Zealand, Vanuatu and the

MAIN RELIGION

Christianity

neighbours are Papua New Guinea, East Timor,

Solomon Islands. Due to its size, the country has a

wide variety of landscapes and climates. While it

is known for its deserts and beaches, Australia is also home to the largest surface area of annual

snow anywhere in the world. Semi-arid land and

desert take up much of the continent's hot inland

areas, and the country's population density is one

of the world's smallest as a result. In Australia's

east, the Great Dividing Range runs parallel to the

country's long coastline, which is also home to the Great Barrier Reef and the tropical far north

coastline of Queensland. At the country's very heart lies Uluru (formerly known as Ayers Rock),

which is an ancient sandstone monolith left over from the Ice Age. Drought is a common

occurrence in Australia, and much of the country's

weather patterns are influenced by the greater La Niña weather pattern. Following drought, many areas of Australia experience widespread flooding.

There are several hundred Indigenous peoples of

Australia; many are groupings that existed before

the British colonisation of Australia in 1788. Within

each country, people lived in clan groups:

extended families defined by various forms of Australian Aboriginal kinship. Inter-clan contact

was common, as was inter-country contact, but

there were strict protocols around this contact.

POPULATION

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE/S

25,290,375

English

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

Canberra - 35°18′S 149°07′E

CURRENCY

Australian Dollar (AUD)

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE

INTERNET SUFFIX

NATIONAL ANTHEM

Sydney - 33°51′S 151°12′E

+61

.au

Advance Australia Fair


NEW ZEALAND


NEW ZEALAND

New Zealand is a Pacific island nation comprised of

two major landmasses - the North Island (Te Ika-a-

Māui) and the South Island (Te Waipounamu

Islands), which are separated by the Cook Strait. A

number of smaller islands also make up the

territory of New Zealand - the largest of those are

the islands of d'Urville Island in the Marlborough Sound, the Chatham Islands, Stewart Island, Great Barrier Island in the Hauraki Gulf and Waiheke Island, which lies only 22 km (14 mi) from the North

Island city of Auckland. New Zealand's South Island

is closer to Antarctica than the North Island, and is

colder as a result. The Southern Alps divide the

island lengthways, and the highest peak is Mount Cook (Aoraki), which sits at 3,754 m (12,316 ft)

above sea level. In the Fiordland area, deep fiords

and steep mountains fill the island's south-west

corner. New Zealand's North Island is less mountainous but is volcanically active within the

Taupo Volcanic Zone, which is also home to Lake

Taupo. The latter sits within the crater of one of the

most active volcanoes in the world. Wellington is

the country's capital city, but New Zealand's most populous city is Auckland, which is located in the

south of the North Island. New Zealand's export

market is predominantly driven by food exports

and wool, and its economy is dependent upon

international trade. The service sector is the country's largest industry, and tourism plays a key

role within it.

OFFICIAL TITLE

TIME ZONE WELLINGTON

SIZE

POPULATION

MAIN RELIGION

NATIONAL LANGUAGE/S

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES

CURRENCY

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE

INTERNET SUFFIX

NATIONAL ANTHEM

New Zealand

GMT+13

268,021 km2 (103,483 sq mi)

4,794,506

Christianity

English, Māori

Wellington - 41°17′S 174°27′E

Auckland - 36°50′S 174°44′E

New Zealand Dollar (NZD)

+64

.nz

God Defend New Zealand


INDONESIA

Indonesia is a transcontinental country that lies mainly in Southeast Asia and has territories in Oceania. The country sits

between the Pacific and Indian Oceans and is the largest island country in the world. Indonesia plays host to over 17,000

islands, only 6,000 of which are inhabited. Within the world's fourth-largest country by population, half of Indonesia's

population lives on the island of Java. Outside of Java, islands belonging to Indonesia include Sumatra, Borneo (shared

with Malaysia and Brunei), Sulawesi and New Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea). Outside of its shared island

borders, Indonesia also shares maritime borders with Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Vietnam, Palau and Australia. The capital city of Jakarta is on the island of Java, and it is also Indonesia's most populous city. Outside of the country's

numerous cities and towns, Indonesia is a country of high mountain lakes and vast rivers that act as significant

transportation and trade routes. There are at least 150 active volcanoes on Indonesia's islands, and the most active of


those today include Tambora and Krakatoa. Indonesia enjoys a relatively even climate on a year-round basis, and it

proximity to the Equator sees no great extremes between summer and winter. Across the majority of the country, the

wet season lasts from November to March, while the dry season arrives in April and ends in October. Outside of the

higher mountainous regions, monsoons are common in Indonesia, and much of the country's landscape has been shaped

by seasonal rainfall. Outlying islands, including parts of Sulawesi and Sumba, have a drier climate.

OFFICIAL TITLE

TIME ZONE JAKARTA

SIZE

POPULATION

MAIN RELIGION

NATIONAL LANGUAGE/S

CAPITAL CITY / CO-ORDINATES

LARGEST CITY / CO-ORDINATES

CURRENCY

INTERNATIONAL DIALING CODE

INTERNET SUFFIX

NATIONAL ANTHEM

Republic of Indonesia

GMT+7

1,904,569 km2 (735,358 sq mi) 271,470,193

Islam

Indonesian

Jakarta - 6°10.5′S 106°49.7′E

Jakarta - 6°10.5′S 106°49.7′E

Indonesian Rupiah (IDR)

+62

.id

Indonesia Raya


The United S


States of America


Animals of

North America Atlantic Atlantic Ocean Ocean Pacific Ocean

South America


the world

Arctic Ocean

Europe

Asia Pacific Ocean

Africa Australia Indian Ocean

Antarctica


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