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THE UNIFYING FORCE OF RELIGION THE MUIS LECTURE 2018

H.E. SHAYKH DR AHMED AL-TAYYEB


OUR VISION

A Muslim Community of Excellence that is religiously profound and socially progressive, which thrives in a multi-religious society, secular state and globalised world.

OUR MISSION

To broaden and deepen the Singapore Muslim Community’s understanding and practice of Islam, while enhancing the well-being of the nation.

OUR PRIORITY To set the Islamic Agenda, shape Religious Life and forge the Singapore Muslim Identity.


THE MUIS LECTURE 2018

“THE UNIFYING FORCE OF RELIGION” H.E. DR AHMED AL-TAYYEB Grand Imam, Al-Azhar University RAFFLES CITY CONVENTION CENTRE


Other Titles in the Muis Lecture Series: 1. Islam and its Place in the Modern World by HE Dr. Sheikh Muhammad Sayyid Tantawi 2. The Role of Religion in the New Millennium by Dr. Karen Armstrong 3. Religious Diversity and Social Unity by The Most Revd Dr. Rowan Williams 4. Islam’s Enduring Values for Humanity by Sheikh Dr. Ahmad Bader Eddin Hassoun 5. Forging a Common Humanity by Imam Feisal Abdul Rauf 6. The Challenge of Diversity in Modern Society by Sheikh Dr. Mustafa Ceric 7. The Role of History in Islamic Education by Dr. Ismail Serageldin 8. Building Harmonious Societies in a Pluralistic World by Sheikh Dr. Shawky IbrahimʿAllam 9. Faith, Compassion and Human Dignity by Shaykh Abdallah Bin Bayyah

This publication is a transcription of The Muis Lecture delivered to an audience of 650 on Friday, 4 May 2018 at Raffles City Convention Centre. Copyright 2019 Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura Designed by HoBee Print. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. ISBN: 978-981-14-3353-5


Biography

Shaykh Dr Ahmed Al-Tayyeb Grand Imam, Al-Azhar University

Shaykh Professor Dr Ahmed Al-Tayyeb is the current Grand Imam of Al-Azhar University, and is one of the most moderate Sunni clerics in Egypt. He is also a member of the Egyptian Society of Philosophy, the Supreme Court of Islamic Affairs, and is the Head of the Religious Committee at the Egyptian Radio and Television Union. Sheikh Professor Dr Ahmed Al-Tayyeb previously served as the President of Al-Azhar University, Grand Mufti of Egypt, Dean of the Faculty of Islamic Studies in Aswan, and Theology Faculty of the International Islamic University in Pakistan. He has also taught in universities in Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. He graduated from Al-Azhar University with a B.A. and M.A. in Islamic Philosophy, before receiving his Ph. D in the same field from the Paris-Sorbonne University. Sheikh Professor Dr Ahmed Al-Tayyeb publishes regularly in numerous academic journals, dealing particularly with the reception of Islamic culture and philosophy in the Western world. His writings include: Traditions and Reform, Insights into the Thoughts of al-Imam al Ash’ari, Discussions on ‘Ilal (effective causes) and Maqasid (higher objectives of Islam) and others. Since becoming the Grand Imam of Al-Azhar University, his mission has been to promote traditional Islam. He has since issued decisions to teach all four schools of traditional Islamic thought at Al-Azhar University, while stressing the importance of teaching students about Islamic heritage.

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THE UNIFYING FORCE OF RELGION THE MUIS LECTURE 2018

H.E. SHAYKH DR AHMED AL-TAYYEB Grand Imam, Al-Azhar University

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In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. All praise is due to Allah. May Allah’s peace and blessings be upon our Master, Allah’s Messenger, his family, and his companions. Ladies and Gentlemen, May Allah’s peace, mercy, and blessings be upon you all. I would like to extend my sincere thanks and appreciation to the President, the Government and the people of Singapore, for the kind invitation, the warm welcome, and the generous hospitality offered to me and to the accompanying delegation. My visit to Singapore is not just about visiting Muslims; it is rather a visit to the people of Singapore, both Muslims and non-Muslims. The goal of the visit is to lend my support to your great bond of unity and coexistence and to present you [to others] as a role model for national and human brotherhood, and to join hands with each other to maintain a developed and prosperous society. I came to salute this [Singapore] model that gives the best example in achieving communal harmony and peace between members of the nation and between itself and its neighbouring countries. I pray to God Almighty to make the security and peace of this country last forever, and grant all nations with peace and security.

SHARED HUMANITY AND SOLIDARITY The conversation about killing people in the name of religion - the phenomenon of terrorism - is a long and sad conversation. To explain it in one lecture or even a few lectures, will surely not suffice. However, if I can explain the innocence of religion, any religion, from these despicable crimes that are committed in its name and under its banner, then I would have achieved the goal of this visit.

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What I say about my own religion applies equally to other divine religions that preceded Islam, which I believe in, and in their prophets, and their divinely-revealed books. I will present my lecture in the form of concise points that build on each other. To support my views, I will cite verses from the Qurʾān whose meanings are clear and undisputed.

1. Relationship between Islam and Previous Religions The first Qurʾānic reality we come across in our topic is the relationship between Islam and the previous divine religions, particularly those closest to Islam historically, such as Christianity and Judaism before it. In this context, the verses of the Qurʾān show that there are no different religions in the Qurʾānic worldview; rather there have been numerous divine messages that guides to one religion. In this sense, Islam constitutes the last ring in the chain of a series of divine messages. The word “Islam,” which is mentioned only five times in the Qurʾān, and the word “Muslim” do not often refer to the divine message sent to the prophet of Islam in particular, but rather to the divine religion or the sacred way of life which God has guided all of humankind to, until the end of time. Accordingly, the Qurʾān uses the word “Muslim” to refer to the Prophets Noah, Abraham, Jacob and his children, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon them all.) When Islam reaffirms this through this Qurʾānic principle, we should therefore adopt only one clear understanding from the verses of the Qurʾān, namely the fact that the Qurʾānic term “Islam” applies to one divine religion shared by all the prophets and messengers, the last of which is the religion of Islam, revealed to Prophet Muhammad, the seal of all prophets. Moreover, the Islamic law is identical with the laws of the previous divine messages in many aspects. Undoubtedly, this represents a strong unity between Islam and other divine messages that came before it. There is another aspect of unity that provides a strong connection between the prophet of Islam and his fellow prophets and messengers who came before him. This connection is the bond of brotherhood, which the Prophet of Islam described in the following statement, “I am the nearest of all people to Jesus, the son of Mary. The prophets are paternal brothers; their mothers are different, but their religion is one.”1 In this eloquent metaphor, the one parent that brings together all the prophets is the one divine religion to which they all belong. The different mothers stand for the different times and places they were sent in. The same applies to the connection between 1 Sahih al-Bukhari 3443, Book 60 – Book of Prophets, Hadith 113

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the Qurʾān and the previous divine books as we often come across Qurʾānic verses that tell us that the Gospel affirms and supports the Torah and that the Qurʾān affirms and supports both of them. The Qurʾān has described both the Torah of Moses, and the Bible of Jesus (peace be upon them) as guidance and light. Due to their unified nature, some Muslim jurists (especially from the Hanafi school) state that - as a Muslim is not allowed to touch the Holy Qurʾān unless in a state of purity,2 likewise a Muslim is not allowed to touch the Torah or the Bible unless in a similar state [i.e. of purity].

2. Relations between Muslims and Non-Muslims The second point is about the relationship between Muslims and nonMuslims. Is it a relationship of human brotherhood or that of a mutual hostility? If we look at the answer to this question in the Qurʾān, we will find that it is based on three main principles or facts that collectively form the essence of the concept of peace in the Qurʾān. The first fact is what we may call universal diversity. It briefly means that if Allah had wished, he could have created all humankind of the same religion, race, and language. However, Allah has willed to create peoples different in their religions, races, and languages. Allah says in the Qurʾān,

‫ون ُم ْخ َت ِل ِف َني‬ َ ُ‫َول َ ْو َشا َء َرب ُّ َك ل َ َج َع َل النَّ َاس ُأ َّم ًة َوا ِحدَ ًة َو َال يَ َزال‬ ‫ِإالَّ َم ْن َر ِح َم َرب ُّ َك َو ِ َل ِ َل َخلَقَه ُْم َوت َ َّم ْت َ ِك َم ُة َرب ِّ َك َ َل ْم َ َل َّن َ َجنَّ َ ِم ْن الْجِ نَّ ِة َوالنَّ ِاس أَ ْ َج ِع َني‬ If your Lord had so willed, He could surely have made humankind one nation (following one religion only). Yet, they will not cease to disagree except one on to whom your Lord has bestowed His Mercy, and for that He created them.” (The Qurʾān, 11:118-119) The scholars [of the Qurʾān] explain that the word “that” means ‘for the purpose of differences or diversity.’ He created them as if diversity itself is the divine objective of creation. Peoples’ differences in creeds, races, and language entail differences among them in terms of their understandings, feelings, and their way of thinking. In summary, the Qurʾān affirms that people have different beliefs, thoughts, temperaments and behaviours and that such difference is a divine natural law that will last until the Day of Resurrection.

2 State of purity here refers to performing abolution i.e. the ritual cleansing of the hands, arms, face and feet in a specific order.

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The second fact that is logically based on the first is the freedom of belief, which the Qurʾān has provided for man regardless of which belief one adopts, and whether it is related to the true divine religion or not. Freedom of belief is the other side of the fact of diversity. It is not plausible in the light of the divine wisdom that God informs us that He has created His servants of different religions and at the same time orders us to make them adopt one religion by revoking their freedom of belief. This would be a sort of absurdity that does not fit the wisdom of Allah Almighty. In addition, if there was a Qurʾānic statement that attested to the difference of belief, and another statement that denied such a difference, that would entail contradiction in the Qurʾān. Of course, this is totally unimaginable as it does not fit in with the divine wisdom and justice. The Qurʾān has plenty of verses that provide for the freedom of belief, including:

‫فَ َم ْن َشا َء فَلْ ُي ْؤ ِم ْن َو َم ْن َشا َء فَلْ َي ْك ُف ْر‬

“Then whosoever wills, let him believe, and whosoever wills let him disbelieve.” (The Qurʾān, 18:29)

‫َال ِإ ْك َرا َه ِف ادلِّ ِين‬

“There is no compulsion in religion.” (The Qurʾān, 2:256) When the Prophet (peace be upon him) sent one of his companions with a letter to the people of Yemen, he stated in his letter - which was a constitution for the people of Yemen: “...whoever dislikes Islam, from the Jews or Christians, he shall not be asked to change his religion.” The third fact is mutual acquaintance and integration. It means that the relationship among those who are different but have their own freedom of belief cannot be based on conflict and hegemony. That is because the relationship of conflict means eliminating the other who is different, and this relationship ends only by annihilating one of the conflicting parties for one’s own interests, and imposing a unilateral vision or culture on others. In this context, the Qurʾān affirms that the relationships among people who are different should be a relationship of acquaintance based on peace, cooperation, and integration.

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‘‘In this context, the Qurʾān affirms that the relationships among people who are different should be a relationship of acquaintance based on peace, cooperation, and integration.’’

Therefore, to claim that a Muslim’s relationship with a non-Muslim or a disbeliever is based on hostility and bloodshed, or to claim that Islam is a religion of the sword that slaughters, chases, and compels others to adopt the religion reveals blatant ignorance of Islam and of the Qurʾān. As we have studied in the field of Islamic Law at the University of Al-Azhar, the reason to engage in warfare is not unbelief, and any cause of killing others in Islam should not be their being non-Muslims, but rather aggression against Muslims [because of their practice of Islam]. Leading Muslim scholars and jurists have refuted all other claims or opinions on the subject, based on clear evidence from the religious texts. They further argued that the only situation in which a Muslim must carry his arms and fight others is the case of aggression by others against Muslims, regardless of whether this is an aggression against religion, land, property, or honour. This is the right to self-defence, which has been made legitimate by all the laws of truth and justice. Because war in Islam is an exception, Allah has forbidden Muslims to go beyond the right to defend themselves if they were called on to fight. Allah even calls the act of going beyond the limits of self-defence an aggression. Thus, fighting in the cause of Allah has its constraints and values which, renders a Muslim a transgressor if he fails to observe it. Indeed, Allah hates those who transgress. Allah says in the Qurʾān:

ِ َّ ِ‫َوقَا ِتلُوا ِف َسبِيل‬ ‫الل َال ُ ِي ُّب الْ ُم ْعتَ ِدين‬ َ َّ ‫الل َّ ِال َين يُقَا ِتلُونَ ُ ْك َو َال ت َ ْعتَ ُدوا إ َِّن‬

“Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress the limits. Truly, Allah does not like the transgressors.” (The Qurʾān, 2:190) It is also timely to examine the first Qurʾānic verse that gave the Muslims a permission to fight their enemies. The verse states:

ِ َّ ‫َص ِ ْه لَقَ ِد ٌير‬ ‫ال َين ُأ ْخ ِر ُجوا ِم ْن ِد َي ِر ِ ْه‬. َ َّ ‫ون ب َِأنَّ ُ ْم ُظ ِل ُموا َوإ َِّن‬ ِ ْ ‫الل عَ َل ن‬ َ ُ‫ُأ ِذ َن ِل َّ ِل َين يُقَاتَل‬ ِ َّ ‫الل َول َ ْو َال َدفْ ُع‬ ٌ ‫الل النَّ َاس ب َ ْعضَ ه ُْم ِب َب ْع ٍض لَهُ ِّد َم ْت َص َوا ِم ُع َو ِب َي ٌع َو َصلَ َو‬ ‫ات‬ ُ َّ ‫ِبغ َْي َح ٍّق ِإالَّ أَ ْن ي َ ُقولُوا َربُّنَا‬ ِ َّ ‫اس‬ ‫الل لَقَ ِو ٌّي َع ِز ٌيز‬ ُ َّ ‫نص َّن‬ ُ ْ ‫َوم ََساجِ ُد يُ ْذ َك ُر ِفهيَا‬ َ َّ ‫نص ُه إ َِّن‬ ُ ُ َ ‫الل َم ْن ي‬ َ ُ ‫الل َك ِثريًا َول َ َي‬ 9


“The ones who are fought are permitted [to defend themselves] for that they are unjustly attacked; surely Allah is Ever-Determiner over giving them victory. Those who have been driven out of their homes unfairly [for no other reason] except that they say, “Our Lord is Allah.” And had it not been the repelling by Allah of humankind, some by the means of others, indeed there would have been completely demolished hermitages, churches, oratories, and mosques, wherein the name of Allah is much mentioned. Allah will definitely give victory to whoever vindicates Him. Surely Allah is Ever-Powerful, Ever-Mighty.” (The Qurʾān, 22:39-40) This verse clearly proves that the first reason for the legitimacy of fighting in Islam is to support the oppressed and to enable them to enjoy a safe life like others. It shows that Islam makes fighting obligatory to defend the Abrahamic religions, and not just the religion of Islam, against the aggression of their enemies, including the protection of Jewish, Christian and Islamic places of worship. There are two elements which needs to be noted to support the evidence that war is only permitted law for resisting aggression, and not to force people to accept Islam. First, in the case of the countries that were conquered by Muslims, their citizens were given two options: either to accept Islam if they wished or to keep their religions, rituals, places of worship, customs and traditions. This is a clear religious injunction which we as students of religion have learnt. Muslims offered them state protection of their freedom of belief and their places of worship. Those who opted not to accept Islam were treated in accordance with the rule that states, “They [i.e. non-Muslims] have the same rights and obligations as Muslims”. History did not record a single case in which the Muslims entered a country and gave its people the option to either accept Islam or be killed or forcibly displaced. Second, Islam forbids a Muslim who has to fight his enemies from killing children, women, the weak and disabled, the blind, monks, farmers, and craftsmen. The reason why a Muslim is not permitted to kill such groups of people is that they do not take up arms and thus, do not constitute a direct threat or aggression against Muslims. We read in the commands of the leaders of Muslim armies [in the history of Islam] about the prohibition of killing animals owned by the enemies’ army, except if there is a dire need for food. Likewise, they also forbade soldiers from burning trees, dispersing bees, and demolishing buildings and houses [in the army’s territory].

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ISLAM AND OTHER RELIGIONS To summarise, Islam is the religion of peace, not only among Muslims, but between Muslims and non-Muslims. Allah sent the Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) as a mercy to the worlds. Allah Almighty says,

‫َو َما أَ ْر َسلْنَاكَ ِإالَّ َر ْ َح ًة ِللْ َعال َ ِم َني‬

“We have not sent you except as a mercy to the worlds.” (The Qurʾān, 21:107) The word “worlds” refer to four categories, namely human beings, animals, plants, and inanimate objects. We have touched on the prohibition of killing animals belonging to the enemy, and this is a mercy to animals; prohibition of burning trees or uprooting plants, this is a mercy to plants; prohibition of destroying houses “and do not ever destroy a building”, this is also a mercy to the non-living things. There is a lot of discussion on why Islam prohibits transgression against these worlds, despite them being the worlds of non-living things, plants and animals. We may assume that these entities are not worthy of our respect. However, these beings, or the whole universe (in the language of the Qurʾān) are not dead but have their own life. The Qurʾān says that everything in the heavens and earth prays to God.

‫الس َم َاو ِات َو َما ِف َاأل ْرض‬ َّ ‫يُ�سَ ِّب ُح ِ َّ ِل َما ِف‬

“Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth exalts Allah” (The Qurʾān, 64:1)

َّ ‫َولَقَدْ آتَيْنَا د َُاوو َد ِمنَّا فَضْ ًال َيجِ َب ُال أَ ِّو ِب َم َع ُه َو‬ ‫الط ْ َي‬

“And certainly, we gave David bounty from us, O mountains repeat praises with him and the birds” (The Qurʾān, 34:10)

“The whole universe, including human beings, animals, plants, and all inanimate objects are deserving of our respect.”

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This means, to say prayers repeatedly. The Prophet David (peace be upon him) used to say prayers and the mountains and the birds would repeat after him. Another verse states:

‫ُون‬ َ ‫ش ٍء ِإالَّ يُ�سَ ِّب ُح ِ َب ْم ِد ِه َولَ ِك ْن َال ت َ ْفقَه‬ ْ َ ‫َوإ ِْن ِم ْن‬

“and there is nothing in the heavens and earth expect it say prayers and praises unto Him but you do not comprehend their prayers” (The Qurʾān, 44:17) Therefore, these beings are respectable because they are also servants of God along with humankind, praying to God day and night. And therefore, they are deserving of our respect, and it is forbidden to transgress against them, except for necessity such as for food, as mentioned above. A Muslim who follows the way of his Prophet should be a source of mercy to himself, to Muslims, and to everyone. If Islam is a religion of peace to all the worlds, then it is very logical that it forbids bloodshed and only makes an exception when the rights of others have been transgressed. Thus, those who kill people in the name of Islam are real criminals and corruptors of the earth and the punishment for doing so is well established in the Qurʾān. Indeed, Islam is a religion of ease in terms of its beliefs, laws, and rulings. Allah has affirmed such ease in two places in the Qurʾān:

ٍ‫َو َما َج َع َل عَلَ ْي ُ ْك ِف ادلِّ ِين ِم ْن َح َرج‬

“He [Allah] has not laid any hardship upon you in religion” (The Qurʾān, 22:78)

ُ َّ ‫َما ُي ِر ُيد‬ ٍ‫الل ِل َي ْج َع َل عَلَ ْي ُ ْك ِم ْن َح َرج‬

“Allah does not wish for you hardship.” (The Qurʾān, 5:6) Islam is a religion of human brotherhood. [The fourth Caliph of Islam] Imam Ali, (may Allah be pleased with him) advises Muslims saying, “people are either your brothers in religion or your equal in humanity.” If religious brotherhood entails certain rights and obligations, human brotherhood, too, requires certain rights and obligations, which should be observed.

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ISLAM AND THE ABRAHAMIC RELIGIONS Islam is a religion that forbids excessiveness and austereness and, warns against extremism in [religious] understanding as this leads to restrictions in the practice of God’s religion, when the religion of God is characterised by ease, not burden nor complication. And Islam honours the people of the Book, especially the followers of Jesus (peace be upon him) describing them as the ones who have most love for Muslims from amongst the people of the Book. The Holy Qurʾān describes that God has placed in their heart compassion and mercy:

‫ُ َّث قَفَّ ْينَا عَ َل َآث ِر ِ ْه ِب ُر ُس ِلنَا َوقَفَّ ْينَا ِب ِع َيس ا ْب ِن َم ْر َ َي‬ ‫وب َّ ِال َين ات َّ َب ُعو ُه َر ْأفَ ًة َو َر ْ َح ًة َو َر ْه َبا ِن َّي ًة ابْتَدَ عُوهَا‬ ِ ُ‫َوآتَيْنَا ُه ا ِإل ِجني َل َو َج َعلْنَا ِف ُقل‬ “Then We sent following their footsteps Our messengers and followed [them] with Jesus, the son of Mary, and gave him the Gospel. And We placed in the hearts of those who followed him compassion and mercy and monasticism, which they innovated.” (The Qurʾān, 57:27) The Qurʾān is fair towards the pious from the people of the Book:

ِ َّ ‫ون َآي ِت‬ ‫ُون ِب َّ ِلل َوالْ َي ْو ِم‬ َ ‫يُ ْؤ ِمن‬. ‫ون‬ َ ‫الل َآن َء الل َّ ْيلِ َو ُ ْه ي َْس ُج ُد‬ َ ُ‫لَي ُْسوا َس َوا ًء ِم ْن أَ ْهلِ ْال ِكتَ ِاب ُأ َّم ٌة قَائِ َم ٌة ي َ ْتل‬ ْ َ ْ ِ ‫ون ِبلْ َم ْع ُر‬ ِ ‫ُون ِف الخ َْي‬ ‫َات‬ َ ‫اآل ِخ ِر َوي َ ْأ ُم ُر‬ َ ‫وف َويَنْ َ ْو َن ع َْن ال ُم ْنك ِر َوي َُس ِارع‬ ‫الصا ِل ِح َني‬ َّ ‫َو ُأ ْول َ ِئ َك ِم َن‬ “They are not [all] the same; among the People of the Scripture is a community standing [in obedience], reciting the verses of Allah during periods of the night and prostrating [in prayer]. They believe in Allah and the Last Day, and they enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and hasten to good deeds. And those are among the righteous.” (The Qurʾān, 3:113 and 114) The Prophet (peace be upon him) has forbidden Muslims from hurting or oppressing the People of the Book. He says, “Beware, if anyone wrongs a Mu’aahad [a person who is granted the pledge of protection by Muslims], diminishes his right, forces him to work beyond his capacity, or takes from him anything without his consent, I shall be his disputant on the Day of Judgment.”3 3 Sunan Abu Dawud 3052, Book 20 - Tribute, Spoils, and Rulership (Kitab Al-Kharaj, Wal-Fai’ Wal-Imarah), Chapter 1121: Levying The ‘Ushur On Ahl Adh-Dhimmah If They Deal In Trade, Hadith 125. This Hadith has been classified as Saheeh by Al-Baani in Saheeh Abi Dawood.

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In another Prophetic tradition, he said, “Whoever kills a Mu‛aahad shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise, though its fragrance can be smelt at a distance of forty years [of travelling].”4 I am puzzled by those who do not eat from the food of the People of the Book while they read in the Qurʾān,

‫اب ِح ٌّل لَ ُ ْك َو َط َعا ُم ُ ْك ِح ٌّل لَه ُْم‬ َ َ‫الْ َي ْو َم ُأ ِح َّل لَ ُ ْك ا َّلطيِّ َب ُات َو َط َعا ُم َّ ِال َين ُأوتُوا ْال ِكت‬

“Today, the good things are made lawful for you, and the food of the ones to whom the Book was given is lawful to you, and your food is made lawful to them.” (Qurʾān, 5:5) It is the Muslim’s right to make sure that the meat he is served was taken from a slaughtered animal, so he may eat from it, or otherwise he may not eat from it. I am puzzled when some people forbid congratulating Christians on their festivities while they frequently recite the following verse,

ِ َ‫َوالْ ُم ْح َصنَ ُات ِم ْن الْ ُم ْؤ ِمن‬ ‫اب ِم ْن قَ ْب ِل ُ ْك ِإ َذا‬ َ َ‫ات َوالْ ُم ْح َصنَ ُات ِم ْن َّ ِال َين ُأوتُوا ْال ِكت‬ ‫آتَيْ ُت ُموه َُّن ُأ ُج َوره َُّن ُم ْح ِص ِن َني غ َ ْ َي م َُسا ِف ِح َني َو َال ُمتَّ ِخ ِذي أَخْدَ ٍان‬

“And so [allowed for you to marry] are believing women in wedlock, and in wedlock women of (the ones) to whom the Scripture was given even before you.” (Qurʾān, 5:5) This means that Allah has made it permissible for Muslim men to marry chaste women from among the People of the Book. Is it reasonable that Allah makes it permissible for a Muslim man to marry a Christian woman and to show her affection and passion while forbidding him from congratulating her on her Christian festivities?

ISLAM AND THE NON-ABRAHAMIC RELIGIONS What about a Muslim’s relationship with non-Muslims who do not belong to the People of the Book? The Qurʾān states:

ْ ُ ‫وك ِف ادلِّ ِين َول َ ْم ُ ْي ِر ُج‬ ْ ُ ُ‫الل ع َْن َّ ِال َين ل َ ْم يُقَا ِتل‬ ‫ُّوه َوت ُ ْق ِس ُطوا‬ ُ َّ ‫َال يَنْ َ ُ ْاك‬ ْ ُ ‫وك ِم ْن ِد َي ِرُ ْك أَ ْن ت ََب‬ ‫الل ُ ِي ُّب الْ ُم ْق ِس ِط َني‬ َ َّ ‫ِإلَيْ ِ ْم إ َِّن‬

“Allah does not forbid you (as regards) the ones who have not fought you on account of the religion and have not driven you out of your residences that you should be kind to them and be equitable towards them; surely Allah loves the just.” (Qurʾān, 60:8) 4 Saheeh al Bukhari 6914, Book 87 Blood Money (Ad-Diyat), Chapter 30: The sin of a person who killed an innocent Dhimi, Hadith 52.

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Thus, Islam requires a Muslim to deal with all people with kindness and justice because Allah loves those who adopt these manners in their treatment of others.

CONCLUSION Ladies and gentlemen, In contemporary times, it is very important to correctly understand the Qurʾān and the Prophetic traditions first before we apply them in life. It is very important for Muslims living in non-Muslim societies or in multireligious and multi-ethnic communities to integrate positively into their societies. What this means is that they should adhere to practices that preserve their faith, that uphold the laws of Islam, and also become active members of their societies, contribute to their development, and respect the laws, other religions, beliefs and cultures. You should know that showing respect of others’ beliefs does not at all mean adopting their religious beliefs. I am required to respect, and at the same time I am required to preserve my faith. A Muslim is required to engage in a positive dialogue with others following the Qurʾān’s instruction:

‫ه أَ ْح َس ُن‬ َ ِ ‫َو َجا ِدلْه ُْم ِبل َّ ِت‬

“And engage with them in the best way.” (The Qurʾān, 16:125) That there should be no arguments on the beliefs of each community or religion because that would lead to endless conflict. We should rather look for common ground between believers and non- believers. Indeed, Allah has created us to be acquainted with each other and not to engage in hostile disputes or kill each other.

‘‘It is very important for Muslims living in non-Muslim societies or in multi-religious and multi-ethnic communities to integrate positively into their societies.’’

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I admire very much the statement of [an early scholar of Islam] Abu Amr Ibn Salah5 (d. 643 AH) (may Allah rest his soul in peace) who opined that it is forbidden for a Muslim to kill peaceful non-Muslims, “Allah would not create them only to order us to kill them.” It would be a sort of absurdity that does not befit God’s infallible wisdom. Indeed, Ibn Salah’s statement points to the following Qurʾānic verse:

‫ون ب َ ِصري‬ ُ َّ ‫ه َُو َّ ِالي َخلَقَ ُ ْك فَ ِم ْن ُ ْك َك ِف ٌر َو ِم ْن ُ ْك ُم ْؤ ِم ٌن َو‬ َ ُ‫الل ِب َما ت َ ْع َمل‬

“He is the One Who created you; then some of you are disbelieving and some others are believing; and Allah is Ever-Beholding of whatever you do.” (The Qurʾān, 64:2) In this verse, God mentions the word “disbelieving” before the word “believing”, the wisdom of which, according to scholars of the Qurʾān, is that the disbelievers typically outnumber the believers. These are the points I have attempted to cover in my lecture. I know I have taken a long time but I was encouraged by your kind patience and attentive listening. Indeed, Allah has prepared a great reward for those who are patient. Thank you and may Allah’s Peace, Mercy, and Blessings be upon you all.

5 Abu Amr Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ commonly known as Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ, was a Kurdish Shafi’i hadith (prophetic traditions) specialist and the author of the seminal “Introduction to the Science of Hadith”. He was originally from Sharazora region in Sulaymaniyah province in Iraqi Kurdistan, was raised in Mosul and then resided in Damascus, where he died.

16


‘‘Deal with all people with kindness and justice.’’


His Eminence Dr Ahmed Al-Tayyeb, Grand Imam of Al-Azhar called upon Singapore’s President Madam Halimah Yacob. Madam Halimah said in a Facebook post that they had “a good discussion on broadening cooperation between Al-Azhar University and MUIS, particularly in promoting religious harmony.”


Singapore’s Prime Minister, Mr Lee Hsien Loong hosted His Eminence Dr Ahmed Al-Tayyeb for a dinner at Istana on Thursday 3 May 2018. Foreign Minister, Vivian Balakrishnan, Senior Minister of State, Dr Maliki Osman and the Mufti of Singapore, Ustaz Dr Mohamed Fatris Bakaram were also present. PM Lee said in a Facebook post, “Religious and racial harmony is a precious legacy that we treasure and work hard to maintain in Singapore. Grateful for the efforts of Dr Al-Tayyeb and others to promote understanding and tolerance between communities.”


Mr Masagos Zulkifli, Minister in-charge of Muslim Affairs and Minister for the Environment and Water Resources hosted His Eminence Dr Ahmed Al-Tayyeb to an appreciation lunch. During the lunch Minster Masagos shared, “As an ambassador of peace, His Eminence’s presence here in Singapore is very significant indeed. Many of our religious teachers were alumni of Al-Azhar and are now guiding our own Muslim community to live as good Muslims and good citizens contributing to the larger Singapore society and humanity. I thank His Eminence, and hope he can continue his good work in guiding our Singaporean students and spreading the message of peace and harmony around the world.”


His Eminence Dr Ahmed Al-Tayyeb visited Masjid Sultan and performed his Jumu’ah prayers behind Mufti of Singapore, Ustaz Dr Mohamed Fatris Bakaram who was leading the congregants for their congregational prayers.

His Eminence Dr Ahmed Al-Tayyeb visited the Religious Rehabilitation Group at Khadijah Mosque.


His Eminence Dr Ahmed Al-Tayyeb visited Madrasah Al-Junied Al-Islamiah.


Engaged participants at The Muis Lecture 2018.


The Muis Lecture 2018 was chaired by Senior Minister of State Dr Maliki Osman,Ministry of Defence & Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mayor, South East District.


His Eminence Dr Ahmed Al-Tayyeb was presented with a token of appreciation by Senior Minister of State Dr Maliki Osman, then-Chief Executive Haji Abdul Razak Maricar, and Mufti of Singapore, Ustaz Dr Mohamed Fatris Bakaram.


‫وقد تقولون هذا اذلي تقوهل يتعلق مبعامةل أهل الكتاب‪ .‬مفاذا معامةل املسمل لغري أهل الكتاب؟ اجلواب‬ ‫بإختصار الشديد‪ ،‬هو قوهل تعاىل ‪« :‬ال يهنامك هللا عن اذلين مل يقاتلومك يف ادلين مل خيرجومك من دايرمك أن تربومه‬ ‫وتقسطوا إلهيم إن هللا حيب املقسطني‪( ».‬سورة املمتحنة‪ ،‬أية ‪ )8‬وإذن فاملسمل مأمور رشعا أن يتعامل مع الناس‬ ‫مجيعا ابلرب وابلقسط اذلي هو العدل ألن هللا حيب اذلين يتعاملون مع غريمه هبذه األخالق‪.‬‬ ‫ال�سيدات والسادة‪،‬‬ ‫من املهم جدا يف هذا العرص أن نفهم القرآن واحلديث النبوي فهام حصيحا أوال قبل أن نزنل به إىل واقع‬ ‫الناس‪ .‬ومن املهم جدا للمسلمني اذلين يعيشون يف اجملمتعات غري إسالمية أو جممتعات تتعدد فهيا األداين واألعراق‪،‬‬ ‫من املهم أن يندجموا يف جممتعاهتم اندماجا إجيابيا‪ ،‬وأعين ابالندماج اإلجيايب الاخنراط يف اجملمتع مع المتسك مبا حيفظ‬ ‫عقيدة املسمل ورشيعته‪ ،‬وأيضا مبا جيعهل عضوا فاعال يف اجملمع يسهم يف تمنيته واحرتام قوانينه واحرتام أداين أخرى‬ ‫واحرتام العقائد و األقاليد‪ .‬واعلموا أن احرتام عقيدة اآلخر يشء و اإلميان هبذه العقيدة يشء آخر حمتلف متاما‪.‬‬ ‫املطلوب مين اإلحرتام‪ .‬ومطلوب مين أن أحتفظ بعقيديت‪ .‬وليس املطلوب للمسمل مع غريه إال احلوار اإلجيايب البناء‬ ‫اذلي عرب القرآن الكرمي ‪« :‬وال جتادلوا أهل الكتاب إال ابليت يه أحسن‪( ».‬سورة النحل‪ ،‬أية ‪ )125‬وعلينا أن‬ ‫نعمل أنه ال حوار يف العقائد‪ .‬ال حياورين امل�سيحي يف عقيديت وال أحاوره‪ .‬احلوار يف العقائد رصاع والرصاع مهن�ي‬ ‫عنه‪ ،‬وعلينا أن نبحث عن املشرتاكت اإلنسانية بني املؤمنني ابألداين وبني غري املؤمنني‪ .‬فقد‬ ‫خلقنا هللا لنتعارف كام مر يف أول الكم‪ .‬ال لنتصارع أو ليقتل بعضنا بعضا‪.‬‬ ‫ويعجبين هنا قول أيب معرو ابن صالح رمحه هللا‪ ،‬املتوىف �سنة ‪ ،٦٤٣‬يف ا�ستدالهل عىل أن املسمل حيرم‬ ‫عليه قتل الكفار املساملني‪ ،‬قال ‪« :‬ما خلق هللا الكفار ليأمر بقتلهم‪ ».‬فهذا عبث ال يليق ابحلمكة اإللهية‪ .‬والكمه‬ ‫هذا إشارة إىل قوهل تعاىل من سورة التغابن‪« :‬هو اذلي خلقمك مفنمك اكفر ومنمك مؤمن وهللا مبا تعملون بصري‪ ».‬وقد‬ ‫قدم هللا الاكفر عىل املؤمن يف هذه اآلية‪ .‬واحلمكة يف ذكل كام يقول املفرسون ‪ :‬الكفار دامئا أكرث عددا من املؤمنني‪.‬‬ ‫هذا ما أردت أن أدور حوهل يف لكميت هذه‪ ،‬وأعمل أين قد أطلت عليمك‪ ،‬ولكن يشفع يل صربمك عىل‬ ‫سامعي‪ ،‬وأجر الصابرين كام هو املعلوم‪ ،‬عظمي وبغري حساب‪.‬‬ ‫شكرا لمك‪.‬‬ ‫والسالم عليمك و رمحة هللا و براكته‪.‬‬

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‫وعىل املسمل اذلي يقتيض بنبيه أن يكون مصدر رمحة لنفسه وللمسلمني وللناس مجيعا‪ .‬وإذا اكن اإلسالم‬ ‫دين رمحة للك العوامل‪ ،‬مفن املنطق أن حيرم اإلسالم إراقة ادلماء‪ .‬وال يبيحها إال حني تكون حقا لآلخر‪ .‬واذلين‬ ‫يقتلون ابمس اإلسالم جمرمون مفسدون يف األرض‪ .‬وعقوبهتم معلومة يف القرآن الكرمي‪.‬‬ ‫واإلسالم دين يرس يف عقيدته ورشيعته وأحاكمه‪ .‬وقد أكد القرآن الكرمي هذا اليرس يف موضوعني‬ ‫وبلكامت مامتثةل تقريبا‪« ،‬وما جعل عليمك يف ادلين من حرج» (سورة احلج‪ ،‬أية ‪)78‬‬ ‫يف موضوع آخر‪« ،‬يريد هللا بمك اليرس وال يريد بمك العرس‪( ».‬سورة املائدة‪ ،‬أية ‪)6‬‬ ‫واإلسالم دين أخوة اإلنسانية‪ .‬وهذا هو اإلمام عيل كرم هللا وهجه يقول انحصا املسمل ‪« :‬الناس إما أخ‬ ‫كل يف ادلين وإما نذير كل يف اإلنسانية‪ ».‬وإذا اكنت األخوة دينية ترتب عىل املؤمنني حقوقا وواجبات‪ ،‬فاألخوة‬ ‫اإلنسانية بنفس القدر ترتب عىل الناس حقوقا وواجبات أيضا‪ .‬واإلسالم دين يهن�ى عن الغلو والتشدد‪ ،‬وحيذر من‬ ‫التطرف يف الفهم‪ ،‬ملا ترتب عىل ذكل من تضييق عىل الناس يف حياهتم ويف تديهنم ودين هللا يرس ال عرس‪.‬‬ ‫واإلسالم يكرم أهل الكتاب‪ ،‬وخباصة أتباع عيىس عليه السالم‪ .‬وقد وصفهم بأهنم أقرب أهل الكتاب‬ ‫مودة للمسلمني‪ ،‬وقد وصفهم القرآن الكرمي بأن هللا وضع يف قلوهبم رأفة ورمحة‪ ،‬فقال ‪« :‬وقفينا بعيىس ابن مرمي و‬ ‫آتيناه اإلجنيل وجعلنا يف قلوب اذلين اتبعوه رأفة ورمحة رهبانية إبتدعوها‪( ».‬سورة احلديد‪ ،‬أية ‪ )27‬والقرآن‬ ‫أنصف الصاحلني من أهل الكتاب‪ ،‬فقال ‪« :‬ليسوا سواء من أهل الكتاب أمة قامئة يتلون ءاايت هللا ءاانء الليل ومه‬ ‫يسجدون‪ ،‬يؤمنون ابهلل واليوم اآلخر ويأمرون ابملعروف ويهنون عن املنكر ويسارعون يف اخلريات وأولئك من‬ ‫الصاحلني‪( ».‬سورة ال معران‪ ،‬أية ‪ )114 - 113‬و قد هن�ى النيب صىل هللا عليه و سمل عن إيذاء أهل الكتاب‬ ‫أو ظلمهم‪ ،‬فقال ‪« :‬أال من ظمل معاهدا‪ »،‬واملعاهد هو الكتايب من الهيود و امل�سيحني‪« .‬أال من ظمل معاهدا أو‬ ‫انتقصه أو لكفه فوق طاقته أو أخذ منه شيئا بغري طيب بنفسه فأان خصمه يوم القيامة‪ ».‬وقال يف‬ ‫حديث آخر ‪« :‬من قتل معاهدا مل يرح راحئة اجلنة‪ »،‬مل يشم راحئة اجلنة‪« ،‬وإن رحيها» ‪ ،‬وإن رحي اجلنة‪« ،‬يوجد‬ ‫من مسرية أربعني عاما‪».‬‬ ‫وأان أجعب من هؤالء اذلين ال يألكون طعام أهل الكتاب ومه يقرؤون صباحا و مساءا‪ ،‬قوهل تعاىل ‪:‬‬ ‫«اليوم أحل لمك الطيبات وطعام اذلين أوتوا الكتاب حل لمك وطعاممك حل هلم‪( ».‬سورة املائدة‪ ،‬أية ‪ )5‬ومن حق‬ ‫املسمل أن يطمنئ أن اللحم اذلي �سيألكه أو اذلي يقدم هل اكن مذبوحا ليألكه و ليس بطريقة أخرى غري اذلحب املعتاد‪.‬‬ ‫وأيضا أان أجعب من اذلين حيرمون هتنئة امل�سيحيني يف أعيادمه‪ .‬ويقرؤون صباحا ومساءا‪ ،‬قوهل تعاىل يف‬ ‫نفس األية ‪« :‬واحملصنات من املؤمنات واحملصنات من اذلين أوتوا الكتاب من قبلمك‪ ».‬أي أحل هللا للمسلمني الزواج‬ ‫من احملصنات من أهل الكتاب‪ .‬فهل يعقل أن حيل هللا للمسمل أن يتخذ زوجة م�سيحية يبادلها املودة والرمحة مث‬ ‫حيرم عليه أن هينهئا بعيدها يوم العيد؟‬

‫‪33‬‬


‫اإلعتداء فقط‪ .‬األمر الثاين‪ ،‬أن اإلسالم حيرم عىل املسمل أن يقتل يف جيش األعداء‪ ،‬املسمل إذا اكن يف حاةل ال�شباك‬ ‫مع جيش العدو‪ .‬حيرم عىل املسلمني أن يقتلوا يف جيش العدو الفئات التالية ‪ :‬الطفل واملرأة والرجل الضعيف واألمعى‬ ‫واملقعد ومقطوع اليد والعامل والزراع و الرهبان‪ ،‬حيرم اإلسالم عىل املسلمني ومه مشتبكون مع أعداهئم أن يقتلوا‬ ‫هذه األصناف يف معسكر األعداء‪ .‬ملاذا ؟ عةل حترمي قتلهم أهنم‪ ،‬أن هؤالء وأمثاهلم من الضعفاء ال حيملون السالح‬ ‫وال ميثلون عدواان مبارشا عىل املسلمني‪ ،‬ذلكل حرم قتلهم‪ ،‬ألن العدوان غري متحقق فهيم‪ .‬بل نقرأ يف وصااي قادة‬ ‫جيوش املسلمني ‪ :‬حرمة قتل احليوان يف جيش األعداء‪ ،‬اللهم إال لرضورة األلك وعىل قدرها فقط‪ ،‬وكذكل حيرم‬ ‫حرق األجشار وتفريق النحل وهدم املباين والبيوت لك هذا يف معسكر األعداء‪.‬‬ ‫احلفل الكرمي‪،‬‬ ‫ال أريد أن أطيل عىل حرضاتمك ولكن أريد أن‪ ،‬إذا كنا يعين أو مطلوب مين أن أخترص‬ ‫أو أخلص لكاميت عن اإلسالم يف هذه األم�سية فإين أقول‪:‬‬ ‫اإلسالم دين السالم ليس بني املسلمني فقط بل بني املسلمني وغري املسلمني‪ ،‬ونيب اإلسالم صىل هللا‬ ‫عليه سمل بعثه هللا رمحة للعاملني‪ .‬والعاملني مجع العامل‪ ،‬والعوامل كام نعرفها أربعة ‪ :‬عامل اإلنسان وعامل احليوان وعامل النبات‬ ‫وعامل امجلاد‪ .‬النيب صىل هللا عليه وسمل أرسل رمحة لإلنسان وللحيوان وللجامد والنبات‪ .‬و قد فرغنا يعين منذ‬ ‫حلظات‪ ،‬حترمي قتل حيوان يف جيش العدو‪ ،‬هذا رمحة ابحليوان‪ .‬حترمي حرق األجشار أو حرق أو قلع النبات‪ ،‬هذه‬ ‫رمحة للنبات يف جيش العدو‪ .‬حترمي هدم البيوت وهدم العامر «وال ختربن عامرا» هذا أيضا رمحة‬ ‫للجامد‪.‬‬ ‫و طبعا ههنا الكم كثري يعين لو مسحمت يل دقيقتني‪ :‬ملاذا اإلسالم حيرم اإلعتداء عىل هذه العوامل رمغ أهنا‬ ‫العوامل جامد ونبات وحيوان‪ ،‬يعين نظن أهنا ليست حمرتمة‪ .‬أقصد إحرتام الرشعي‪ ،‬ألن هذه الاكئنات أو لك الكون‬ ‫يف منطق القرآن الكرمي ليس ميتا‪ ،‬وإمنا هو عنده حياة ما‪ ،‬ألنه ثبت ابلنص القاطع ‪ :‬أن « ي�سبح هلل ما يف الساموات‬ ‫وما يف األرض‪( »،‬سورة التغابن‪ ،‬أية ‪�« )1‬سبح هلل ما يف الساموات وما يف األرض» «ولقد ءاتينا داود منا فضال‬ ‫اي جبال أويب معه و الطري‪( ».‬سورة �سباء‪ ،‬أية ‪ )10‬والتأويب ترجيع التسبيح‪ .‬اكن �سيدان داود عليه السالم ي�سبح‬ ‫والطري واجلبال تردد هذا التسبيح‪ ،‬بل آية يعين أرصح من ذكل‪« ،‬وإن من يشء‪( »،‬سورة ادلخان‪ ،‬أية ‪ )17‬ال‬ ‫يوجد يشء يف الساموات واألرض‪« ،‬وإن من يشء إال ي�سبح حبمده‪ ،‬ولكن ال تفقهون تسبيحهم»‪ .‬إذن هذه الاكئنات‬ ‫لها احرتام‪ ،‬ألهنا يعين صنف من عباد هللا إىل جوار اإلنسان ي�سبح هلل ليل هنار‪ .‬ومن هنا هل إحرتامه‪ ،‬و حيرم‬ ‫اإلعتداء عليه إال للرضورة كام قلنا سواء ابلن�سبة أللك احليوان أو غري ذكل‪.‬‬

‫‪34‬‬


‫ومن قال غري ذكل من العلامء مردود عليه من كبار أمئة احملققني اذلين نقضوا هذا الرأي اخملالف بأدةل من املعقول‬ ‫واملنقول‪ .‬وقالوا إن حاةل الوحيدة اليت جيب عىل املسمل أن حيمل فهيا سالحه ويقاتل غريه يه حاةل اعتداد الغري عىل‬ ‫املسلمني‪ ،‬سواء اكن الاعتداء عىل العقيدة أو األرض أو املال أو العرض‪ ،‬فههنا جيب ادلفاع عن هذه احلرمات‪،‬‬ ‫وهذا ما تفرضه لك رشائع احلق والعدل‪ ،‬وألن احلرب يف اإلسالم إ�ستثناء وإضطرار‪ ،‬فقد هن�ى هللا املسلمني إذا‬ ‫كتب علهيم القتال أن جياوزوا احلق‪ ،‬هنامه أن جياوزوا احلق يف ادلفاع عن أنفسهم‪ ،‬ومسي هذا التجاوز ابإلعتداء‪.‬‬ ‫فقال يف القرآن الكرمي‪« :‬وقاتلوا يف سبيل هللا اذلين يقاتلونمك و ال تعتدوا إن هللا ال حيب املعتدين‪( ».‬سورة البقرة‪،‬‬ ‫أية ‪ )190‬فالقتال يف سبيل هللا هل ضوابط وقمي لو جتاوزها املسمل يف دفاعه اكن معتداي‪ ،‬وهللا‬ ‫يكره املعتدين وميقهتم‪.‬‬ ‫واملتأمل يف أول آية تأذن املسلمني يف قتال أعداهئم‪ ،‬أول آية نزلت يف القرآن تبيح للمسلمني أن يقاتلوا‬ ‫أعداهئم اذلين يقاتلوهنم يه قوهل تعاىل‪« :‬أذن لذلين يقاتلون بأهنم ظلموا وإن هللا عىل نرصمه لقدير‪ .‬اذلين أخرجوا‬ ‫من دايرمه بغري حق إال أن يقولوا ربنا هللا ولوال دفع هللا الناس بعضهم ببعض لهدمت صوامع وبيع وصلوات ومساجد‬ ‫يذكر فهيا امس هللا كثريا ولينرصن هللا من ينرصه إن هللا لقوي عزيز‪( ».‬سورة احلج‪ ،‬أية ‪ )40 - 39‬هذه اآلية‬ ‫تثبت جبالء أن أول أ�سباب مرشوعية القتال يف اإلسالم هو نرصة املظلومني ومتكيهنم من حقهم يف حياة آمنة مثل‬ ‫غريمه‪ ،‬وأن اإلسالم يوجب احلرب لدلفاع ليس عىل اإلسالم فقط‪ ،‬ولكن لدلفاع عن األداين‬ ‫الساموية‪ .‬وليس كام قلت عن دين اإلسالم وحده ضد عدوان أعداء هذه األداين‪.‬‬ ‫و هذا يفهم من ذكر دور عبادة الهيود‪ .‬إذا اكن هذا اإلذن ورد للمسلمني كنا ننتظر أنه ليدافعوا عن‬ ‫مساجدمه أو عن عبادهتم و لكن ما رس اذلكر‪ ،‬الصوامع والكنائس والبيع‪ ،‬معابد الهيود وامل�سيحيني إىل جوار‬ ‫املساجد يف هذه اآلية‪ ،‬ألن للمسمل أن يدافع كام يدافع عن املسجد‪ ،‬يدافع عن الكنيسة ويدافع عن املعبد‪ .‬وقد‬ ‫تسائل املفرسون وردوا‪ ،‬قالوا أن هذه دور عبادة ويذكر فهيا امسه هللا ويه ليست كدور األواثن‪.‬‬ ‫وادلليل عىل أن احلرب يف رشيعة اإلسالم إمنا يه دلفع العدوان وليس إلكراه الناس‬ ‫عىل اعتناق اإلسالم‪ ،‬ادلليل أمران‪:‬‬ ‫األول‪ ،‬أن البالد اليت فتحها اإلسالم اكن املسلمون خيريون أهلها‪ ،‬وهذا حمك فقه�ي‪ ،‬موجود وندرسه‬ ‫مجيعا‪ ،‬اكن املسلمون خيريون أهل هذه البالد بني ادلخول يف اإلسالم إذا أرادوا أو البقاء عىل أدايهنم وشعائرمه‬ ‫ومعابدمه وعاداهتم وتقاليدمه‪ ،‬مع تعهد املسلمني تعهدا رشعيا بضامن حريهتم اكمةل يف اعتقاداهتم وحراسة ادلوةل يف‬ ‫كنائسهم ومعابدمه و معاملهتم ابلقاعدة اليت حنفظها مجيعا ويه‪« :‬هلم ما لنا وعلهيم ما علينا‪ ».‬ومل يسجل التارخي حاةل‬ ‫واحدة دخل فهيا املسلمون بدلا وخريوا أهلها بني ادلخول يف اإلسالم أو القتل أو الهتجري القرسي‬ ‫من البالد‪ .‬مل تسجل حاةل واحدة يف التارخي‪.‬‬ ‫األمر الثاين اذلي يدل عىل أن القتال ليس من أجل اخملالفة يف دين اإلسالم وإمنا من أجل إعتداء ورد‬ ‫‪35‬‬


‫احلقيقة األوىل ‪ :‬يه ما ميكن أن نسمهيا حقيقة اإلختالف الكوين‪ ،‬وتعين بإختصار شديد‪ ،‬أن هللا تعاىل‬ ‫ ‬ ‫لو أراد أن خيلق الناس عىل دين واحد وعرق واحد و لغة واحدة لفعل وحتققت إرادته وم�شيئته‪ ،‬لكنه مل يشأ ذكل‪،‬‬ ‫وشاء عكسه وهو خلق الناس خمتلفني يف األداين واألعراق واللغات‪ ،‬يف القرآن‪« :‬ولو شاء ربك جلعل الناس أمة‬ ‫واحدة وال يزالون خمتلفني إال من رمح ربك وذلكل خلقهن‪( ».‬سورة هود‪ ،‬أية ‪ ) 119 - 118‬قال املفرسون‬ ‫«وذلكل» أي لإلختالف خلقهم وكأن اإلختالف هو مقصد إله�ي من اخللق‪ .‬و يتبع إختالف الناس يف‬ ‫العقيدة والعرق واللغة إختالفهم ابلرضورة يف العقول والتصورات واألحاسيس واملشاعر‪.‬‬ ‫وخالصة هذا األصل الثاين‪ :‬أن القرآن يقرر اختالف الناس يف الاعتقادات ويف األفاكر‬ ‫ ‬ ‫واملشاعر والسلوك‪ ،‬وأن هذا الاختالف �سنة إلهية‪ ،‬وأنه ابق فهيم إىل اليوم القيامة‪.‬‬ ‫احلقيقة الثانية اليت ترتتب منطقيا عىل احلقيقة األوىل‪ :‬يه حقيقة حرية الاعتقاد‪ .‬هذه احلرية كفلها القرآن‬ ‫ ‬ ‫لالنسان أاي اكن نوع هذه العقيدة وأاي اكن نوعها وقرهبا وبعدها من ادلين اإلله�ي الصحيح‪.‬‬ ‫حفرية اإلعتقاد يه الوجه اآلخر حلقيقة اإلختالف‪ .‬وال يعقل يف احلمكة اإللهية أن خيربان هللا بأنه خلق‬ ‫عباده خمتلفني مث يطلب منا أن حنرشمه عىل دين واحد‪ ،‬ونصادر علهيم حرايهتم يف الاعتقاد يف أداين أخرى‪ ،‬فهذا‬ ‫عبث ال يليق حبمكة هللا تعاىل‪ ،‬أضف إىل ذكل أن هذا التعارض بني إقرار اإلختالف يف موضع ومصادرته يف موضع‬ ‫آخر يؤدي إىل القول بتناقض القرآن الكرمي وهو مما ال يتصوره العقل يف جناب احلمكة والعداةل اإللهية‪.‬‬ ‫والقرآن مملوء ابآلايت اليت تقرر حرية اإلعتقاد‪ .‬يف مقدمهتا‪« :‬مفن شاء فليؤمن ومن شاء فليكفر‪( ».‬سورة‬ ‫ ‬ ‫الكهف‪ ،‬أية ‪ )29‬وأيضا‪« ،‬ال إكراه يف ادلين‪( ».‬سورة البقرة‪ ،‬أية ‪ )256‬والنيب صىل هللا عليه وسمل حني بعث‬ ‫أحد حصابته بكتاب إىل أهل المين قال يف كتابه وهو د�ستور‪ ،‬د�ستور أهل المين‪ ،‬قال يف إحدى فقراته ‪« :‬و أنه‬ ‫من كره اإلسالم من هيودي أو نرصاين فال حيول عن دينه‪».‬‬ ‫احلقيقة الثالثة يه ما يسمى حبقيقة التعارف والتاكمل‪ ،‬وتعين أن العالقة بني اخملتلفني اذلين ميلكون‬ ‫ ‬ ‫حرايهتم ال يصح أن تكون عالقة رصاع ومغالبة‪ ،‬ألن العالقة الرصاع إمنا تعين القضاء عىل اآلخر اخملتلف‪ ،‬وال تنهت�ي‬ ‫هذه العالقة إال بإابدة أحد الطرفني املتصارعني لصاحل اآلخر‪ ،‬وفرض الرؤية الواحدة أو الثقافة الواحدة‪ ،‬ممكن بني‬ ‫القوسني العوملة‪ ،‬اليت خيتلف علهيا‪ .‬وهنا يقرر القرآن الكرمي أن عالقة الناس يف إطار حق الاختالف‬ ‫ومرشوعيته يه عالقة التعارف ويه عالقة السمل والتعاون والتاكمل‪.‬‬ ‫و إذن مفن اجلهل الفاحض ابإلسالم وابلقرآن أن يقال إن عالقة املسمل بغري املسمل أو ابلاكفر يه عالقة‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ادلم‪ ،‬أو يقال‪ :‬إن اإلسالم دين �سيف وذحب ومطاردة اآلخرين و إكراه الناس عىل اإلسالم وإال طارت رقاهبم‪ ،‬و قد‬ ‫تعلمنا يف األزهر الرشيف يف أبواب الفقه أن عةل القتال يف اإلسالم ليست يه الكفر وإمنا يه العدوان عىل املسلمني‪،‬‬ ‫‪36‬‬


‫التنبه هل هنا أن لكمة «اإلسالم» اليت وردت يف القرآن مخس مرات تقريبا‪ ،‬و كذكل لكمة «املسلمني» ال يقصد هبا‬ ‫غالبا الرساةل اليت نزلت عىل النيب اإلسالم حتديدا‪ ،‬و إمنا يقصد هبا ادلين اإلله�ي اذلي اختاره هللا لهداية‬ ‫الناس لكها منذ بدء اخلليقة و إىل إنهتاء الزمان واملاكن‪.‬‬ ‫من هنا أطلق القرآن لفظ «املسمل» عىل نوح‪ ،‬وعىل إبراهمي‪ ،‬وعىل يعقوب وأبنائه‪ ،‬وعىل موىس وعيىس‬ ‫ ‬ ‫ومحمد علهيم مجيعا أفضل الصالة والسالم‪ .‬ال أطول بذكر اآلايت اليت تمكل ذكل و إمنا أثبت يف هامش‬ ‫احملارضة أرقاهما و مصادرها‪.‬‬ ‫حني يقرر اإلسالم ذكل‪ ،‬فليس أمامنا يف فهم معىن هذه اآلايت إال فهم واحد هو أن اإلسالم يف القرآن‬ ‫ ‬ ‫يطلق عىل دين واحد مشرتك بني األنبياء مجيعا‪ ،‬و أن احللقة األخرية من هذا ادلين يه رساةل اإلسالم‪ ،‬احللقة‬ ‫األخرية يه رساةل اإلسالم اليت نزلت عىل محمد خامت األنبياء واملرسلني‪ .‬بل إن رشيعة اإلسالم يه يف أكرث مناحهيا‬ ‫مطابقة للرشائع السابقة‪ .‬وال شك أن ههنا وحدة عضوية بني الرساالت اإللهية السابقة ورساةل اإلسالم األخرية‪ ،‬مث‬ ‫هناك وحدة عضوية أخرى تربط نيب اإلسالم بإخوته السابقني عليه من األنبياء واملرسلني‪ .‬ويه عالقة األخوة اليت‬ ‫عرب عهنا نيب اإلسالم صىل هللا عليه وسمل بقوهل‪« :‬أان أوىل الناس بعيىس بن مرمي‪ ،‬و األنبياء إخوة لعالت‪ ،‬أهماهتم‬ ‫�شىت‪ ،‬وديهنم واحد‪ .‬اإلخوة لعالت مه اإلخوة من أب واحد و من أهمات متفرقات أو من أهمات �شىت‪ ،‬و األب‬ ‫الواحد يف هذه الصورة النبوية امجليةل هو هذا ادلين اإلله�ي الواحد اذلي ينتسب إليه األنبياء مجيعا‬ ‫بنسب واحد ال إختالف فيه‪ ،‬واألهمات اليت تفرق األنبياء يه األزمنة واألمكنة‪.‬‬ ‫واليشء نفسه يقال عىل صةل القرآن الكرمي ابلكتب اإللهية السابقة‪ ،‬حبيث نقرأ يف القرآن ما يدلنا عىل‬ ‫ ‬ ‫أن اإلجنيل مصدق للتوراة ومؤيد لها‪ ،‬وأن القرآن مصدق ومؤيد لإلجنيل والتوراة‪.‬‬ ‫و قد وصف القرآن الك من توراة موىس وإجنيل عيىس علهيام السالم‪ ،‬وصف الك من هذين الكتابني‬ ‫ ‬ ‫السامويني بأنه هدى ونور‪ ،‬ومن أجل هذه الوحدة العضوية قرر بعض الفقهاء املسلمني من األحناف عىل وجه‬ ‫اخلصوص أنه إذا اكن ال جيوز للمسمل أو املسلمة أن ميس واحد مهنام القرآن إذا اكن عىل غري طهارة‪،‬‬ ‫فكذكل ال جيوز ألي مهنام أن ميس التوراة أو اإلجنيل حىت يتطهر‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬

‫النقطة الثانية‪ :‬ما يه عالقة املسلمني بغري مسلمني ؟ هل يه عالقة أخوة إنسانية‪ ،‬أو عداوة متبادةل ؟‬ ‫لو حبثنا عن اإلجابة لهذا السؤال من نصوص القرآن الكرمي فسوف جند اإلجابة يف هذا الكتاب املزنل‬ ‫تنبىن عىل أصول ثالثة‪ ،‬أو حقائق ثالث تشلك جوهر نظرية السالم يف القرآن‬ ‫الكرمي‪.‬‬ ‫‪37‬‬


‫كلمة الشيخ اإلمام األكرب شيخ األزهر األستاذ الدكتور ‪ /‬أحمد الطيب‬ ‫بسم هللا الرمحن الرحمي‬ ‫امحلد هلل و الصالة والسالم عىل �سيدان رسول هللا وعىل آهل وحصبه‬ ‫ومن اهتدى هبداه إىل يوم ادلين‪.‬‬ ‫السالم عليمك ورمحة هللا وبراكته وبعد‪،‬‬ ‫فيطيب يل أن أبدأ حدييث إليمك بتقدمي خالص الشكر والتقدير دلوةل �سنغافورة رئيسة وحكومة وشعبا‬ ‫عىل ادلعوة الكرميمة‪ ،‬و عىل حسن الا�ستقبال وكرم الضيافة واحلفاوة يب وبوفد األزهر املرافق‪.‬‬ ‫وأود أن أوحض بداية حمارضيت أن زايريت ل�سنغافورة ليس املقصود هبا زايرة املسلمني فقط‪ ،‬بل يه زايرة‬ ‫لشعب �سنغافورة «مسلمني وغري مسلمني»‪ ،‬من أجل تدعمي وحدهتم العظمية‪ ،‬وعيشهم املشرتك‪ ،‬وتقدميهم منوذجا‬ ‫رائعا لألخوة يف الوطن ويف اإلنسانية‪ ،‬والعمل يدا واحدة من أجل جممتع راق متقدم وقوي‪ .‬جئت ألحيي هذا المنوذج‬ ‫اذلي رضب أحسن األمثةل يف حتقيق السالم اجملمتعي بني أفراد الشعب‪ ،‬و بينه وبني الشعوب اجملاورة‪ ،‬وأسأل هللا‬ ‫تعاىل أن يدمي عىل هذا البدل أمهنا و سالمهتا‪ ،‬وأن مين عىل البالد مجعاء نعمة األمن والسالم‪.‬‬ ‫أهيا احلفل الكرمي‪،‬‬ ‫احلديث عن قتل الناس بإمس األداين‪ ،‬واذلي عرف مؤخرا بظاهرة اإلرهاب‪ ،‬حديث طويل حمزن‪ ،‬وال‬ ‫تتسع لبيانه حمارضة وال حمارضات‪ ،‬وأعتقد أنين لو ا�ستطعت أن أوحض براءة ادلين أي دين من هذه اجلرامئ املنكرة‬ ‫اليت ترتكب بإمسه‪ ،‬وحتت الفتته‪ ،‬فإين أكون قد وفقت يف حتقيق الهدف من هذه الزايرة‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬ ‫وما أقوهل أو ما سأقوهل هنا عن ادلين اذلي أعتنقه‪ ،‬ينطبق يف معناه عىل األداين األخرى السابقة‬ ‫لإلسالم‪ ،‬ويه أداين أؤمن هبا و بأنبياهئا ورسلها وكتهبا الساموية املزنةل إمياان مساواي بإمياين بديين‪.‬‬ ‫ ‬ ‫وسوف أخلص حمارضيت فامي ي�شبه نقاطا أو فقرات ينبين بعضها عىل بعض‪ ،‬مؤيدة بشواهد من القرآن‬ ‫الكرمي يف آايت واحضة املعىن وضوح الشمس يف رابعة الهنار‪.‬‬ ‫وأول حقيقة قرآنية تطالعنا يف هذا املوضوع هو بيان موقع اإلسالم من األداين السابقة عليه‪ ،‬وأقرب زمنا‬ ‫ ‬ ‫منه امل�سيحية و من قبلها الهيودية‪ .‬يف هذا املوقف تقرر آايت القرآن الكرمي أنه ال توجد يف منطق القرآن أداين‬ ‫خمتلفة‪ ،‬و لكن توجد رساالت إلهية‪ ،‬تعرب عن دين إله�ي واحد‪ ،‬اكن اإلسالم هو احللقة األخرية فيه‪ ،‬و مما جيب‬ ‫‪38‬‬


‫”قوة الدين املوحدة“‬

‫محارضة املجلس اإلسالمي السنغافوري ‪٢٠١٨‬‬

‫فضيلة األستاذ الدكتور‪ /‬أحمد الطيب‬ ‫شيخ األزهر الرشيف‪ ،‬جمهورية مرص العربية‬

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ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS COUNCIL OF SINGAPORE (MUIS) The Islamic Religious Council of Singapore (Muis) is a statutory board under the Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports (MCYS) and comes under the direct purview of the Minister-in-charge of Muslim Affairs. Muis’ main role is to advise the Singapore Government on all matters pertaining to Islamic affairs in Singapore and to manage all aspects of religious life of the Singapore MuslimCommunity. Its aim is to establish a Muslim community of excellence that is religiously profound and socially progressive, and that thrives in a multi-religious society, secular state and globalised world. Its priority is to set the Islamic Agenda, shape Religious Life and forge a Singapore Muslim Identity, is progressive, inclusive, adaptive and contributive. It champions forward-looking discourse in Islam and promotes interfaith understanding through community engagement initiatives to enhance the social cohesion and well-being of the nation.

MUIS ACADEMY Muis Academy is the research and education arm of the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore (Muis). The Academy aims to develop the leadership capabilities of the socio-religious community in order to nurture a progressive, inclusive and compassionate Muslim religious life. The Academy promotes a deeper understanding and progressive discourse on Islam and Muslim societies that supports Muis’ vision of establishing a Muslim Community of Excellence in Singapore. This is realised through multi-disciplinary courses, workshops, roundtable discussions, seminars and conferences. In addition, the Academy conducts research and publishes commentaries on contemporary issues relating to Islam in the Modern World. Muis Academy also actively engages different sectors of the society, such as religious leaders of all faiths, community and youth leaders as well as government officers. It also establishes partnerships with reputable institutions of higher learning both locally and internationally.

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THE MUIS LECTURE SERIES The Muis Lecture Series is organised by the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore (Muis). It features eminent statesmen, intellectual leaders and thinkers of international standing who will deliver The Muis Lecture on topics relating to Islam and its relationship with the modern world. The Muis Lecture Series will also focus on the new trends in Muslim thought and ideas in dealing with change and modernity in the context of changing global challenges of the 21st Century.


Profile for Muis Academy

The Unifying Force of Religion  

This publication is a transcription of the Muis Lecture 2018, delivered by Shaykh Dr Ahmad al-Tayyab, Grand Imam of Al-Azhar. It was held on...

The Unifying Force of Religion  

This publication is a transcription of the Muis Lecture 2018, delivered by Shaykh Dr Ahmad al-Tayyab, Grand Imam of Al-Azhar. It was held on...