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Kieti akdi Chanon-nart The Principality of Wa t Phu 14

Dr . W. J. Van Liere Khmer Art in fan 22

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n1~l1u1tln COVER PICTURE

Pra at Ku

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built in brick the lintel of which

wa decorated ' ith tucco f1gure of dancing deitie , tyle. Thee f1gure have completely Lopbur1 been de troyed and plundered .

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i al o the lintel of Ku

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Mural Painting of wat Wang Patalung Kietisakdi Chanon-nart W t Wang i

ituated in

Amphur time when the war wa

It wa formerly

Lam Pam . Patalung

re tored by It i

Phraya Patalung (Tab ) .

the important war of the town, where that thi

go ernor had

background

aid

image.

brought a

to

Th1

enhance

ha

performed.

That it Wat Phra Kae9 in Bangkok to do the

built in the heart of the old 1860.

of the herm1t on

the upper and of the rows of deiti

been called Wat Wang i be au e jop here; the painting wa fini hed in on the middle.

it wa

main

surrounded by figure of the demon

the ceremony of taking the Water of painter who u ed to paint the wall of on the lower part Allegiance wa

the

decora t ive frame wa

However another rumor put tep-clwm- pum

Row of deities or continued above the

town of Pataluog clo e to the re i-

it that the painter wa

dence of the governor Ph ray a Pa ta I u ng. According to the chronicle, it wa

ti ve of Pa ta lung who learnt how to dha to the north and the ou th wall .

in fact, a na- scence on the lif

hi tory of the Bud-

paint in Bangkok and u ed to paint The pace on the panels between the

fir t built by Phraya Patalung ( Tbongkhao ) in the Fir t reign and com-

ever it may be, the painting of Wat some epi ode

pleted later in 1816 during the reign

Wang re emble mo t mural painting Unfortunat ly, at pre ent the e J taka

of King Rama II. At the pre ent time

in Bangkok. In P talung it i con- ccne have already peeled off due to temporary to mural painting in Wat the damageou condition of the wall.

Wat Wang remain a quiet war about

the wall of Wat Phra Kae .

What door and window were painted with

5 km . from the provincial city, ac- Viharn Burg located on the oppo ite ce sible by a road which pa e

it to side of the road.

the Lake Lam Pam to the ea t.

It is

characterized by a bod whic~ i

ur-

rounded

by a

rectangular cloi ter

Probably it was

painted by the arne arti t.

were painted on the upper level of

ourth reign

hou ing a row of itting Buddha . The

u ing multi color

red,

bod it elf i

white

the front and 6 window on each of the wall.

ide

All door and window

were framed

ith

tucco decoration .

What till in go d condition were cene of the life of the Buddha which

The painting in the bod of Wat the ioten r wall. Some ep1 ode were Wang wa typical of the

pierced by 2 door from

in the Jataka Stone .

yellow

of

beautifully painted and well arranged

black, 1n the proportion of form and pace, uch a a cene when the Buddha wa

cerulean blue, Indian

red, Pru ian blue and ap green. The being tempted by the three bewitching per pective method

a

applied

in

daughters of the Mara and the

ceoe

painting land cape; and the mountain

on the Great Renunciation . The mo t

On top of rhe building. newly carved

the tree and water w re p inted in

important and maje tic of all i

gable end have replaced the old one

a realistic way.

The major

which were removed to the nation l above the window mu eum in

ongkla.

of the bod

there i

At the front an image of a

wa

pace

de oted to

depict the life hi tory of the Lord

cene on the

descending

heaven of the Lord Buddha. from the

cene

the

from the Apart

on the life of the

Buddha. It tarted from the outhern Buddha, there were al o

orne

cene

sitting Buddha- Phra Pa Lei - Lai,

back wall, with and epi ode on the on the daily life of the local people

attended

birth of the Buddha and progre ed

elephant.

by

a

monkey

and

an

Around the bod are row

of mall pagoda .

The main image

of the bod i made of

ubduing the Mara wa

cene on

painted . The

tucco erected story continued to the northern wall

in the middle of the building. the interior wall of the bod i

On

, nd ended with the cene on the death

deco- of the Buddha.

rated with beautiful painting . The mural painting of Wat Wang wa done in the

to the ea t wall where a

The western wall a

wh1ch were in many way orne a pact the

of the

ourth reign.

reflecting

ociety during

For example, the

cene that depicted a hunter hunting a wild boar and the

a caravan "'f ox cart

hine e with his hair

tyle

the back of the main Buddha wa

ect. All of them seemed to add more

painted

value to the mural painting of Wat

10

the form of a decorated

ourth reign at the frame .. ruan- kaeo,

erving

a

a

Wang.


The main tower of W t Phu

h mpa

c Lao.


An i olated and tone rna if named Phu Kao ri ing I 500 m. above the pla1n in outhern Lao induce a favourable micro nvironment that ha been t. k n advantage of by early farmer ince pre-hi toric time the principality of Wat Phu ( ig 1) , or mod rn hampa ac.

Tl1e Principalit.y

of Wat PllU D~

Prominent topographic feature uch a the Phu Kao have one e pecially

W.J. VanLiere

That thi

wa

indeed done

i

hown by a regular grid of mall important effect on local climate: channel , still clearly vi ible on aerial they stimulate rainfall. Becau Phu photograph although they are not Kao cau e precipitation from u ed any more. On Fig. 1 orne of the fir t moi lure-lad n air rna e thee channel are indicated. A mor of the outhwe t mon oon farmer detailed analy i would be po ible if in Champa ac can plant rainfed pad photograph of larg r cale were a aidy a full month earlier th, n in other table. part of the ou thern Lao plain . But clear that the In a ny ca e it early rain are probably not the main civilization of Wat Phu had it econofactor for the Wat Phu civilization . mic foundation on small- cale irrigaOn theca t ide of Phu Kao mount in tion, even though the irrigated area i a number of mall permanent

pring

between the . Houei Kham uan, th Mekong and the Houei Ta north.

ng in the

Ancient rainfed land can b

located by mean of remant of scattered pond , still vi 1ble on a nal photographs and on topographiC map although the fi ld p tt rn may ha di appeared .

The

pond

ar

at o

indicated in fig. I. ield work ~ ould no doubt I ate m ny mor . All the urrounding country, on the a t bank of the Mekong, a well a we t of the Hou i Khamouan wa and llll 1

rather limited not mor than 200 km 2 fore t,

with

hifting

cull! au n.

occur, who e water could ea ily be in all. Rainfed agriculture wa prac- Th refore the prin ip lily of Wat Phu led off to be directed and d1 tributed ticed overanadjacentarea about three wa a fu lly independent, If- uover the gently loping plain. times as large a the irrigated area tained economy .


,

..,

Ufl1\flAfl THE PRINCIPALITY OF WAT PHU ~

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- RAINFED AGRICULTURE

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D

n icnt pond

h3nn I , m

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1\J 1\J'J::'t11 HU 1\Jll Ylfi\J 111 n::u 1\J 01'JYI1li1\J 1H\J ppro im te und3ry between 1rng t d and r:unfcd farmm

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utlinc of mountam ma 1f

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The cultivat d enclave of Wat

A major factor

u taining Shr

ta

to the outh from the

anctuary and

Phu ha a rich hi tory inde d, but for -pura wealth, apart from permanent

the trace i vi ible on the aerial pho-

rea on that e cape comprehen ion no

tograph ov r a di tance of about four

fi ldwork ha

ever been carried out of flood damage from th

by archeaologi t . A

the

a rial

It i

till the

rallel to the pre ent bank of the Me-

It i likely that the medieval Mekong wa

more to the ea t. under- core one

Thi

situated

The

maller one

more the fact that not a

photograph

econd temple p o nd

the exi ting on

and

The

i

ize.

tur

fie in the modern· sense.

temple pond .

certainly older than th

The Low r Pra

t

of

A

t

hampa

ta-

( ig I).

tting of Angkor

wh rea

at

prings wa , agricu I tu re.

o.

dif-

fAng-

very much larg r and

u ed for

true- flow of th two

Th

ntire run-off fr m Phnom

ulen wa

traigh t road led

Phu ,

hr

tting of hre ta-pura re em-

omewhat the

almo t th

rectan-

Thi

arne

Thorn, with Phu Kao fulfilling the

tructure, po ibly a dik

commercial centred pending on traf-

th

' rainfed ' part of the

outh of kor Thorn wa

imilar in

mea uring 1.5x0.75 km.

of

There f renee i that the temple city

Furthermore, there wa gular earth

pond

Wat Phu pond at B n That

reveal role of the Phnom Kulen .

orne more intere ting detail. wa a

th

which pura principality .

ene of the annual ritual

aerial

tempi

in th

thought to b of great antiquity.

ob ervation

the medieval temple city wa

of a

of the Buffalo acrifice and i therefore ble

ea tern

inally, m ntion hould b made

iz a

pond, there is a

moat of the city i built near and pakong.

such

km.

To the north of the large temple

ize, clearly vi ible photograph ·

worthwhile to note that th

cour e of th

Mekong:

that it is ju tout.

Thi i th

double-moated city of Shre ta-pura, about 2x2 km in

nee

the topography of the plain i

may be e pected, the land

supported a temple city.

on

agriculture, wa no doubt the ab

acral purpo e

hre ta-pura mo t of the mall, a

widely

cattered


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Khmer Art • 111 Isar1 Nor Na Paknam

At pre ent most scholar believe that

Surin.

the Chenla people were ancestor of

by a square brick tower without any

khon Raj

the Khmer in Cambodia. The original

redented corner ,

In urin. The con truction of the Prasat in brick eemed tc be a tradition

homeland of the Chenla was in the

The building i characterized

tone pillar

the round

haped

and tone lintel and pe-

such a

Pra at Phnom Wan in Naima and Pra at Ban Pluang

upper valley of t.he Mekbong River

diment

near the basin of the river Mun and

which

Chi,

Kmeng tyle. After the decline of the

King

Chenla kingdom,

the c n truction

with the capital city at what is

now Bas ak in Lao.

The Chenla em-

the decorative de ign were cia

ified a

the

of Pri

the Khmer moved

until late in the 12th

entury A.D.

which coincided with the re1gn of uriya arman II who initiated f Angkor

Wat.

braced Hindui m and held Siva a

to ettle down around the Great Lake

Tbi

their highe t god. In the reign of King

to the we t of the Mekhong River and

ing

lsanvarman I

establi hed

rin which wa decorated with lintel

the Chenla conquered

Angkor a

their capital

the lower Mekhong ba in and f~unded

city .

a new capital I anpura in what is now

riod when they could develop art

the di trict of Kampong Thorn in

tyle and architecture of their own .

Cambodia.

Here the art of the an-

c ient Khmer,

the school of which i

Here came the Angkorian pe-

.

In the

ortheast of Thailand the ear.

ly architecture of the Angkorian pcurin a

i Khoraphum in

u.

bearing the de ign and motif of the style of Angkor Wat. The later group of the Khmer type temple in the Northea l were of the 13th Century A. from the art

.,

influenced

tyle in the reign of

known a Sombor developed. Judging

riod i

from the lyles and motifs, the art of

brick tower with redented corner .

King Jayavarman VII.

Sombor wa a continuation of the old

Next to it i Pra at Yai Nghao,

built in larger number than the per-

Funan art which wa

a redented quare tower but 11

the art of India.

influenced by

In the Northeast of

Pra at Ban Beng,

evident from ·orne brick build like Pra at

ment wa

al o pedi-

carved in brick into a de-

iod

They were

before : mo t of them were of

the arne plan and

lyle

i.e.

on i t·

Thailand the Chenla art wa contem-

corative frame terminallng with five

ing of a main laterite tower erected

porary to the Ovaravati art and both

headed naga at the end .

in the middle of a compound which

shared orne common tyles and mo-

wa

urr unded by a rectangular la-

tifs, notably the croll de igns derived

From the lOth Century A. D., more

terite wall. pierced with one gatev ay

from the

Khmer type temple appeared in the

in the ea t AI o included in the com

Northeast and mo t of them were

pound of the temple was a

built in brick

terite vihara .

upta chool in Jndia.

Architecturally and Chenla

both Ovaravati

chools u ed brick and

clay mortar as building material . The Tam,

uch a

Prasat Mee

Pra at Muang hai

Pra at Ban

mall Ia-

Thee laterite prasat

were pre umably Buddhi t anctuarie

olde l architecture of the Chenla that Plai in Surin

and Pra at Prang Ku

they were for example, Pra at Kam -

still remained in the Northea tis Pra- 1n

aket.

Th re were only few

paeng- noi,

tone temple

of contemporary date

sat Phum Phon in Amphur Sangkha,

ri

Pra at Ban Samor in

ri

aket and Pra at Ku Rusi in Bur1rum .


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The Northeast of Thailand during th

th

the Lopburi Period ( 10-13 Century A.D .) Sr i s a ka ra Vallibh o tama By the end of the lOth

entury A.D.,

due to heavy influx of Khmer civtli-

Angkor Wat

tyled monument

reeled in the

orthea t and in the

zation from Cambodia into the ba in

meantime

of the river

the roof of the tower

Mun and Mekhong, the

\ ere

the architectural

tyle of

in Angkor Wat

Mekhong Riv r

to th

ioned th found

in

name Jayavarman VII wa the ancient town of

Northea t of Thailand entered a new

wa in many way , influen ed by that

Phong in L o and at a

of the temple of Phimai.

in Wat Dhat Lu ng

wa called by many scholar

more, Khmer cultural influence al o

as the

It differed in many

Lopburi period.

f und it way from Phimai and

hai-

tone

this wa evident from the change in-

to Muang

to new type

va !ley and whence to the Chao Phra-

tury A.

ya delta in C ntr 1 Thailand.

to

ancient monument

of variou

namely the regu-

larly oriented tr_?ctures and plan

of

ing the Petchabun Range

Khmer styled brick tower

the ancient town , the Hindu and the

Muang

Mahayana Buddhi t sanctuarie which

buri ) , and

were built in Khmer style, the digging of baray and acred temple pond the con tructions of road and irriga-

art influen e from th ya arman 11.

tion dyke

and the establishment of

ceramic kiln

to produce Khm'er type

pottery used all over the Northeast. Historically peaking, the presence

After ea t wa

ukhothai. all indicated

that the regions along the

Mun and the Mekhong River once accepted the Khmer King

uriyavarman I.

Dcp in the Pa ak

ia Muang

alley.

larity brou ht about a li hing Khm r typ

It

popu -

ult of

templ

rt tab-

dedtcated

to Mahayana Buddhi m in the middle uch a

La-

va, Rajburi Petchaburi Muang ingh and

ukhothai . AI o

111

ny cult ob-

built and

from Cambodta.

the pre ence of Khmer cultural ele-

10

Accordtng to the tn crip-

tion of Pra at Phra Khan in dia,

ambo-

Jayavarman Vll had roads cut Angkor to variou in hi empire.

al o had many h

sa/a or

and

pital and dharma-

mall temple

traveller

citie

On the way he buill for the

to stop and pray.

And to

many princtpal town , he had the

To many

cholar,

men; ha created a mi under tanding tha{ the Central Plain wa

brought

under the Khmer rule and that many citie

were identified a

orne citie

mentioned in the in cription tone of Pra at Phra Khan in

arnb dia.

After Jayavarman VJl

Khmer

cultural influence in the Northea t declined and gradually cam

to an

ported that the Mun River ba in wa

tatues of Phra Jayabuddhamahanat

end. It eem d t

a new

ruled by a local monarch King Hi-

ent a

wave of civilization from the king-

ranyavarman who wa

up-

. pread from the North ea t

entral Thailand

Mahayana

More temples wer

town

Phnom Rung and Phimai al o

uriyavarman If

f

VJI.

from

tone in cripti ns from the temple of

Like the reign

bodia again tn the 13th entury A.D. during the retgn of Ktng Jayavarman

had

Further, the

a

Khmer civilization of the 13th Cen-

of many tmportant citie

political

hegemony from at lea t the reign of

Vientian

ject u h a tmag of the Buddh and Bodht atta a were al o imported

Buddht m.

hinted

uri-

brought more clo cr to Cam

her with many

Khmer kings

reign of

uriyavarman Ll, the North-

re tared all dedicat~d

ing the name of the

found tn

ri Oep, Muang Lava ( Lop-

of the Khmer type monuments togettone stelas mention-

The

hrine

housed.

yaphum pa

and pattern

mall

ai

tatue of Jayavarm n VII wa

re peel from the previous period and

rt 0 p in the Pa ak River

the

Khmer temple with in crtptlon m nt-

period of socio-cultural change which

urther

north,

the main cult object.

A

the

ive way t

a clo e kin to

city of Phtmai wa

mentioned among

dom of LanNa and

King Oharanindravarman I and king

the principal town

in th

north and northwe t which

Suriyavarman II.

lo e connection

between the Northea t and Cambodta eemed to accentuated durtng the reign of King

uriyavarman II a many

1t

tn

ription

ukhothai tn the pread in

wa

likely that there were many

to the kingdom of Lan

hang in the

town

in the ba ins of the Mun and

ba in of the Mekhong

nd the

Mekhong Rtvers that were tntegrated into the Khmer empire.

Along the

River¡

hi


Figure of apa.wra in dec?rativc frame carved on the side wall ncar the gate of the main tower of Prasat Wat Phuâ&#x20AC;˘ on the shoulder of the mountain.

Bass.tk, l.:to.

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tl1tJ1l1l'f


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n..u..,ft'~ua::'t1u"lu.,ut.lnnnn.,M •'un1~ Lintel and pediment of a building in the compound of Prasat Wat Phu.

n.,tma.,~flal t.lnn1n~n1:: lt~u

11.

... .. , .. • • ~ c. IO'Wflnnu '· 111tlUlfl i111~1111Ulr.J1fl

depicting an episode in the Ramayanu story, Prasat Ku Kradaun •• Amphur Kasctwisai, Roi Ed.


Figu~

of apusara ut the gate

of the main tower of Pmsat Si Khoraphum, Surin.

Part of stone lintel of a small 1·iharn in the compound of Prasat Kampaeng-yui, showing deities attending the sleeping Vishnu.

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Prasat Phnom Wan, Nalthon Raj Sima.


Prasat Plaibat on top or the Plaibat Mountain, Amphur Pakonchai, Burirum . ... 1

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Sri Saket.

Probably bclonaed to the period or Jayavarman VII.


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Orbhirn-Prajit " . " P1yaporn

Originally thi

tory

With the help of the god lndra both

her tot hu band,

but the people conceive it a a local

tory i a Jataka

of them could escape from the palace

her elf a

tale of Mu ng Phim i in the province

into the fore t.

place to place until

of Nakhon Raj

ima.

It i

about a

On the way, while

Orabhim di gui ed

a man travelling from h

reach d the

they were re ling under a big tree,

city of Cbampak Nakhon.

young prince named Pr jit leaving

Prajit wa

hot to death by a hunter

in th

attracted by Orabh im'

hi home town in earch for hi mate.

who wa

The a trologer told h1m that hi mate

beauty.

wa

the back of

till an unborn child whom he

would meet on the along

way.

the direction

He went

dvi ed by th

a trologer and came aero

a pregnant

woman ploughing the paddy field. wonderful thing eye.

The ringing

ca ted a

A

ppeared to h1 own un above had

He took Orabhim away on the buffalo.

To free

city wa

udden death of the dau ht r of the king.

Orabhim cured the

her panacea in the

irl

ith

arne manner a

her elf from the wicked fellow

Ora-

he had done with Praj1t and \ hen

bhlm a ked to ride behin<l h1

back

he wa back to l1fe again, her fath r

and when the hunter wa off hi own

wanted to mak Orabb i m hi

guard,

law and give h r hi thron . Orabhim

he snatched the knife from

on-in-

hi wai t and stabbed him to death.

refu ed but a k d to

ta y in the c1ty

Or bhim came back to her hu band's

a a monk tudying Buddb1 m. Lat r

hadow over that woman

body and wept in de pair. Again In-

protecting her and her unborn child

dra took pity on the couple; he and

prince patriarch of the city;

from the heat of the dayl1ght.

Prajit

hi

a re ting hou e built for th

a ked her for the child if 1t wa

born

follower di gu1 ed them elve

a

he wa

promoted to th

mongoo e and a cobra fighting again teach other in front of the girl

who cam

female. He liv d with her and worked for her family.

and when one died, the other went

he had

I

When the child wa

verybody

in grief becau e of a

r nk

of

he had traveller

and pa ed by th

city.

With the h pe of eeing her hu band the wall

f the building

born female, he took care of h r until

1nto the bu h bringing a panacean

painted to depict her tory from the

she was 16, a beautiful girl named

root to cure 1t opponent to life. When

beginnmg until he had been ep r ted

Orabhim.

the god

Prajit mamed Orabh1m

and told h r parent tory.

about hi own

lie left her to hi c1ty 111

rder

to come back with an honor ry proWhile Pr jit wa

that panacea to br1ng back her hu band'

life.

They

av ay, Orabh1m

oon taken to the court of King

from her hu band.

One day Pr jit

came along and took a re t 111 thi hou e. He aw the pic t ure and cried

tarted out on the1r journey

back home again but

ce ion to take her back. wa

di appeared Orabhim u ed

till m1 fortune

with

orrow.

oon h e wa

Orabhim who wa

the monk in di -

caught up Wllh them. While eros ing

gui e.

a large nver, Orabhim wa

but did not reveal her

abducted

taken to

She recognized h r hu band

Promatat who heard of her beauty

by a no ice who paddled the canoe

once.

and de ired to make her h1

away from her hu band.

Prajit to be ordained a a monk and

However, the

king never

in taking h r hi turned hot a

queen. ucceeded

w1fe for her body

fire whenever he wa

approaching her. and followed h1

Praj1t came back wife to the palace,

making everybody knov that he wa only a brother to the girl.

the clever Ora bh im could

However, ve h r-

elf by a king the novice to climb up the fig tree to get the fruit hen he wa

on the tree,

for her; he put

On

the

If to him at

tay with her.

ontrary After

he

k d

oth \\ er

or-

dained and erving the r ligion for a certain penod

f lime, Orabh1m r -

vealed her elf to Praj1t telling h 1m

thorny twig around the trunk of the

the whole tory. They left th

tree preventing the boy to come down.

hood and went back to the1r country

He plotted

he ran away with the canoe in order

with Orabhim and finally killed the

to go back to Prajit but mi ed him

king while he was de perately drunk.

and had to go alone.

To earch for

monk-

where they were oon crowned king and queen.


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The Khmer Empire · M.C: Subhadradis Diskul Khmer archite ture of Angkor Vat,

con idered a th founder of the Khmer

942 ) , King Rajendravarman ( 944968 ) moved it back to Angkor and

thi

time dedi ated to Vi hnu in teaa

empire. He came back from Java and

founded the ance tral temple of Orien

of

iva.

reunited the country together a

tal Mebon ( 952 )

by the

King Jayavarman ])

a

(802-850 )

well

e tabli hed the cult of Oevaraja. or hi

important

ucc

or one can

a

During thi

( 961 ) .

period the beautiful

temple of Banteay

who built the ance tral tern pie of

founded.

Prah Ko( 79) and the De a raja temple

Angkor wa

King Ya ovarman

the De.

varaja anctuary of Pre Rup

mention King lndravarman ( 877-889 )

of Bakong ( 81 ) .

well a

1050)

re1 ( 967)

was

The next powerful king of Suryavarman l

who wa

more or le

Khmer kingdom wa

oon

pacified

and united by Kmg Jayavarman Vll

( 1181 - circa 121 ), the Ia t great monarch of the empire.

He built the

( 1002-

new capital

a u ur-

a many Buddhi t an c tuari

Angkor T horn

a

ell a

the

( 89-900) after having erected the ance tral an tuary of Lolei ( 893 ) moved the capital to Ya odharapura

central part of the pre

in cription

in to the central part of Thai land .

or the town of Angkor where he built

di covered at the town of Lopburi.

Aft e r thi period the K h mer kingd o m

at the centre of the city the Devaraja

Suryavarman II

declined until Angkor T horn wa cap-

temple of Phnom B kheng.

again u urped the

Though

tran ferred to Koh

Ker by King Jayavarman IV

( 92 -

land a

power into the

taken

per.

the capital wa

He extended hi

In 1177 Angkor wa

ham navy by u rpri e but the

nt-day Thai-

evidenced by hi

( II 13-after throne,

again t the kingdom of built the mo t

renowned

1145 ) fought

hampa and Devaraja

king deeply p rofe Buddhi m.

IIi

ed

Mahayana

power al o expanded

tured by the Thai army from Ayudhya in 1431.


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em.

13. Pra at Bay n. ngkor Thorn Th

119 1-12 19).

late t effort of the Khmer in buildmg gre<ll temple.

ba

It

ar htte tu .I qualtty

d on th

ercattvc arragcm nt

of huge a

calc

the butlding

ulpturc m

nent.

UH\.IP·i''l tl ·nf11Y11J1fJ\.l Plan of B yon


•«· 14. P r

t Bayon :

ve ry towe r

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.... <I

vot~ tlnn1'rl't1\l1n1::h"nfl1

w re carved

tlnn1'r11J1tJ\l

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10

en e or w nde r und my terl y.

q

l 'ti ~"ill'Hl

• · B.P. Gro 1i r

Angkor, Thame and Hud on 1966 P. 27

""· eorge oede "' · Henri tierlin «. B.P. ro 1i r ~ . B.P. ro li r b . B.P. ro lie r

Angkor, 0 ford Univer tty Pr~ , 1967 P. 40- 41 Angkor- masterpiece of Architecture • to1 n planning,

,

.

..

. B.P. Gro li r

.,

ourier De ember 1971 P. 9

tbid. P. 9 pt. ctted P. 120 P. 103- 104

.,

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cdc , "'· ro lier, B.P. «. Gro It r, B.P. ~ . Mac hanc , rank 'o . M r Rob rt Row on, Philltp cl . ti enn, Henrt d. tiert n, lien ri

P. 161

1h::1'flvo; nzfn~m

~

1111 1/EJ).J,

n~~ntJ1lJn11~lJlt

l'i.fl . • •h d ..

Angkor: an intorduction, f rd ntver ity Pre Indochina, M thuen London 1962. Angkor Thame and Many Golden Ages, Angkor Jewel of the The Art of ourheast

,J, •• - end

1967.

ll ud on London 1966. harle . Tuttle 196 . PP. 26- 51 Jungle a ttona I Geora ph tc, A prtl , 1970. Asia Thame Hud on London 1967. Angkor, Offtce du Ltvre, Frtbourg, 1970. Angkor, Ma terpetce of Architecture & Toll'n Planning, ur i r D cern er 1971.


Angkor The Architectural Analysis Anuvit Charerr1supkul The general

history

interpretation

thi

of

article

ba ed on the writing

are

of Profe or

the

middle of the city

Srei,

Phimanakas

and Takeo.

buildings built either on top of an

tatement of formin g an architectural complex.

It

emerge directly

from

building complexe which repre ented

diagrame.

the temple mountain

pure

tarted

of Jayavarman A.D.

11 and

ometime after the

re ign of Jayavarman VII in the 13th Century A.D.

E>uring the period

of four hundred year built their citie the

the

around hinterland

ba in .

Thi

political

viewpoints. The

of

area

and

main

Khmer

the great

great advantage in term

the of

of social, strategic

urban

com-

plexes developed in many localities, starting from Kulen to Rolous and Angkor respectively. The Khmer unified their

ociety by

of the king.

They are as follow :-

in

the

Bakheng

a building com-

patial

tructure . Thi

is the mo t

5. Mebon Oriental

creative of all the Khmer archi-

6. Pre Rup

tectural de ign.

7. Banteay Srei 8. Phimanaka

two; the Baphuan and the Angkor

9. 10. II . !2. 13.

There are only

Wat.

Takeo Baphuan

4. Patterned Layout, it is eemingly that the

design

i

repeated

one

Angkor Wat

element

Ta Prohm

concerning with compo ition and

Preah Khan

14. Bayon

another

emphatically

Preah- ko to Bak ei Chamkrong, the econd

to

without

patial quality, alwa ys aim at the

kingdom. In thi

technology art

Phnom

locking both in phys ical form and

4. Bak ee Chamkrong

linkage

economics

to

plex of interconnected and inter-

a kind of 'organic structure' to its structure, var ious

likely

conceptual

re ulted

of

3. Organic Layout

2. Bakong 3. Phnom Bakheng

Thee building

kinds of component namely poli t ics,

Thi

form

i

and Bak ee Chamkro ng.

I. Preah-ko

the Indian culture which had created

religion

Banteay

artificial sumeru mountain or on a natural hill. There are 14 noted

came to an end

economic,

Rup,

tecture in

part of the author.

around the 9 1h Century

Mekhong

In the hi tory of Angkor the archi-

however purely

from the reign

in

ko, Bakong, Mebon Oriental, Pre

2. Diagrametic Layout, a very trong

So far, the hi tory of Angkor

lake

a microco m of the macro-structure.

appeared in the from of complex of

Coede and Gro lier but the architectural analysi an effort on

ymbolic

and

compo nent

a

Ta

Prohm, Preah Khan and Bayon.

developed within 3

circle , the fir t being from from

Mebon

Oriental

The Khmer con truct ion

to

Takeo; and the third from Baphuan

pan

po t and

lintel

principal materials of brick, laterite

they could

and

be clas ified

into four

typical model

king, the supreme power of the god

! . Compo itional Layout a model of arranging an architectural elements within physical and

on

earth.

From this concept, the

Khmer envi aged the town and city as a

replica

of the

universe.

In

the middle of the city, an architecture was erected as the dwelling of god

patial

as follow:-

structure framework, by

the rule of compo ilion The noted

and

pointed

theory.

example are ; Preah-

tone. out,

by

rna ive

pattern are interdependently differed;

the kingdom,

wall ,

and

ea c h other a

a cult of god king which gave the

bearing

hort

to Bayon.

man ll invented for

load

technique

arch,

and architecture were depending on an organi m. Jayavar-

Neverthele s their layout

limited to corbelled

As

u ing

the

Gro lier has

the Khmer architect

had alway counted on t hree architectural element ; terrace

tower and

vaulted gallery

and by their talent

in

de ig n, one of the

ophi ticated

mo t ignificant arch itecture of the world ba been created . eotf


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ew Year i

ha ( wing )

ceremony wa

c tival. c lcbrated

nc that recognize

ar i their

Tripawai".

c ti al, ba cd od

arai de cended to earth foliO\

ing the God

Ba ed on hi torian fact , Bhramin

n the bcl1ef th t the

i a'

bidding.

The preparati n for the ceremony

who introduced their religion to the

include numer u

and recognized by tho e of Buddhi t

pcople e pccially th

ognized a rcligiou .

religion

korn

ince of old under royal pa-

tronag of King . The Bhramin two group.

wh arc devided into

One recogni7e th

od

iva a their highc t . teem and more uperior the call the

od

\ ing

arai ( e ti al

arayana ) 'Triy mpa-

citizen

ri ThammaraJ arc wor hip the God

of NaBhramin

iva .

Thu

thc hal¡ celcbrallon of the fc ti al 1 carried out accord1ng to Bhramin of the

i a cult.

!l owe the God

r, Bhramin

the

detail

and i

or example :

wing it elf mu t be made of cop-

per and the ceremony 1t

If i accom-

panicd by ritual

or pomp pagentry

and the re ti itl

not to forget the

plender of the main proce ion. 'ho wor hip

1va al o celebrate the wing

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Where was

Suvanabhum Manit Vallibhotama

â&#x20AC;˘ To the ea t of wa

uvana

Kaum Kam

the ba in of the Tack

River.

To integrate Nam Chine e empire,

Yueh to the

hine e ch ol

w re

Thi ri er con i ted of to main tribu-

founded in the area around the Red

tarie

and the Black River

the Tack Luang or the Red

to teach Chi-

River and the Tack Noi; both origi-

ne c culture to the native.

nated from the mountain and high

culture and the way of life of the

land in Yunan of

outhern China.

Nam Yueh people changed and were

The Red R'iver drained the region

heavily influenced

around Hanoi while the Tack

Chine e.

pa ed through

oi

ib Song Ch u Thai to

o the

.

by tho e of the

In the later period

the

people preferred to call their country

join the Red River 1n Hang Hua and

Vietnam instead ot Nam Yueh

then flowed down into the Bay of

called by the Chine e. However, the de tiny of the nation wa fluctuated

Tonkin. According to the note , about 400 year ago thi wa

hine e region

included 1n the country called

am Yuch inhabited by the Ai - lao

between the Chine e domination and declaring independence.

It was until

the 16th Century A.D. that Vietnam

people \ ho wa

div1ded into nume-

became fully

rou

uch a

able to annex the kingdom of

the

ubgroup hong

the Nung,

the Chung, the Chuang,

the Chong- ren

and

the

Muang.

a

independent and wa hampa

to the south to it own territory. La-

During the reign of

mperor Wuti

ter in the middle of the 17 th en tu ry A.D. Vietnam wa o trong and po-

( 140-87 B.C.)

ueh wa

1n-

werful that it could e tend it ¡ domi-

hine e troop and e en-

nation to the lower Mekhong basin

vaded by the

Nam

tually conquered in Ill B. .

The

country fell under the Chine e rule, and wa

divided into 4 principalitie ,

each of which wa hine e go ernor.

upervi ed by a

which wa

once in the territory of

the Khmer in Cambodia.

Thi

re-

ulled in the foundation of the city of Saigon a the main port city of the Kingdom. ecncn


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