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contents preface

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introduction: defining frameworks

1.1 Approaching otherness 1.1.1 The very leitmotiv: identity and power 1.1.2 Narration and History of Culture 1.1.3 The otherness of the Iron Age 1.1.4 Theory and practice: towards a holistic approach 1.2 Scales of analysis and structure of the work 1.2.1 The archaeology of identities 1.2.2 Sociopolitical organisation and ethnic identities in Late Iron Age Gaul 1.2.3 The Middle Rhine-Moselle region from the Early Iron Age until ‘Romanisation’ 1.3 The chronological framework of the Iron Age 1.3.1 Building chronologies: theoretical considerations 1.3.2 Late Hallstatt – Early La Tène (HA D – LT A-B) 1.3.3 Middle and Late La Tène (LT C-D) 1.3.4 Early Gallo-Roman period

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t owa r d s a n a r c h a e o l o g y o f i d e n t i t i e s

2.1 Exploring identity: a necessary task 2.1.1 Identity and identities 2.1.2 The concept of intersectionality 2.1.3 Materiality and identity construction 2.1.4 The agency versus structure debate 2.1.5 Relational identities and the individualisation process 2.2 Ethnicity 2.2.1 From essentialism to postmodernism 2.2.2 (Re)defining ethnicity 2.2.3 Towards a renewed archaeology of ethnicity 2.2.4 From macro-categories to ethnic communities 2.3 Gender 2.3.1 Gender in Archaeology: becoming mainstream 2.3.2 One name, many trends: the heterogeneity of gender archaeology 2.3.3 Sex and gender 2.3.4 Gender and power 2.3.5 Gender from the funerary record 2.3.6 A task ahead: gender studies in protohistoric archaeology 2.4 Age 2.4.1 Life cycle and age types 2.4.2 The archaeology of childhood 2.4.3 Fields of study 2.4.4 The process of socialisation 2.4.5 Age groups and rites of passage 2.4.6 Beyond childhood

13 13 13 13 14 15 16 17 17 19 21 22 23 23 24 24 25 26 26 28 28 28 29 30 30 31


2.5 Social status 2.5.1 Models of ‘social typology’: proposals and problems 2.5.2 Status: ascribed or achieved? 2.5.3 The archaeology of death 2.5.4 From homogenizing views to the diversity of Iron Age societies 2.6 Identity and power 2.6.1 Power: an ever-present reality 2.6.2 Foucault, Bourdieu and De Certeau: elements for a reflection on power 2.6.3 Sources of power

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s o c i o p o l i t i c a l o r ga n i s at i o n a n d e t h n i c i d e n t i t i e s i n p r e - r o m a n gau l : l e v e l s a n d n e t wo r k s

3.1 Multidimensional identities in Late Iron Age Gaul 3.1.1 Superimposed levels and transversal elements 3.1.2 The paradigm of power: clientship 3.1.3 Political identities, ethnic identities and material culture 3.1.4 Regional diversity and the question of sources 3.2 Extended family groups 3.2.1 Extended families and metaphorical kinship language 3.2.2 The basis of the system: the household 3.2.3 The epigraphic evidence 3.2.4 The structuring of collective relations 3.3 Sub-ethnic communities 3.3.1 Between ethnic groups and tribes 3.3.2 Groupings of persons and territoriality 3.3.3 Subdivisions and social aggregation processes 3.3.4 The agency of pagi 3.3.5 Pagi, assemblies and central places 3.4 Ethnic communities 3.4.1 Tribal-states and city-states 3.4.2 The civitas: a heterogeneous entity 3.4.3 Emic realities or etic constructs? 3.4.4 Foundation myths and collective identities 3.4.5 Political institutions 3.4.6 Modalities of intergroup relations 3.4.7 The limits of the civitates: retrospective methods and anthropological approaches 3.5 Macro-ethnic categories? 3.5.1 Belgae 3.5.2 Gauls 3.5.3 Celts and Germans

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constructing communities: the middle rhine-moselle r e g i o n i n t h e l at e h a l l s t at t a n d e a r ly l a t  n e p e r i o d s

4.1 Burials, power and society 4.1.1 The cemeteries as places of memory and performance 4.1.2 From the Laufeld Group to sumptuous burials 4.1.3 The La Tène art: reflections from the archaeology of identity 4.1.4 The common people

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41 41 41 42 45 47 48 48 49 49 51 52 52 52 53 54 55 56 56 59 59 63 64 67 69 71 72 73 76

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4.1.5 Beyond Hunsrück-Eifel: elite graves in the Lower Rhine, Champagne and Ardennes 4.1.6 Costume and identity 4.1.7 Princesses, queens, priestesses? Women, power and esoteric knowledge 4.1.8 The power of ancestors 4.2 From ‘inland colonisation’ to the large hilltop centres 4.2.1 The beginnings of demographic growth 4.2.2 The appearance of small hillforts 4.2.3 The culmination of the process: the development of large collective centres 4.3 Cultural change and sociopolitical models 4.3.1 From ‘small principates’ to ‘core-periphery’ models: a review 4.3.2 How many people? 4.3.3 Reconsidering Hunsrück-Eifel communities

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121 121 121 125 129 130 131 131 132 134 134 137 138 141

f r o m c e n t r a l i s at i o n t o d e c e n t r a l i s at i o n

5.1 Continuity versus discontinuity 5.1.1 Pollen and tombs: the demographic contraction 5.1.2 The Burgen of the second generation 5.1.3 Gaps and convergences: the situation in the Ardennes and Champagne 5.1.4 Looking for answers: ‘Celtic migrations’ or visibility of the record? 5.2 Revisiting migrations in Archaeology 5.2.1 Archaeology and migrations: a long (and complicated) relationship 5.2.2 Modalities of migratory processes 5.3 Climate change, ‘societies against the state’ and group dynamics: towards an integrated model 5.3.1 The motives for migration: climate change as a push factor? 5.3.2 Multiple responses: the role of agency and structure 5.3.3 Resistance to hierarchy 5.3.4 Centralisation and decentralisation in Hunsrück-Eifel: retrospective and prospective

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the role of central places in the construction of collective identities

6.1 Late Iron Age oppida and public spaces in the Middle Rhine-Moselle region 6.1.1 The (re)appearance of the oppida 6.1.2 Titelberg: the anchoring point 6.1.3 A landscape of sanctuaries 6.1.4 From territorial organisation to sociopolitical levels 6.2 Rethinking the oppida 6.2.1 Deconstructing myths, understanding functions 6.2.2 Social division, standardisation and enclosures 6.2.3 A new model for the origin of the oppida? 6.3 Cults, fairs and assemblies: sanctuaries as focal points of social aggregation 6.3.1 Central places, performances, and the symbolic construction of communities 6.3.2 Teutates: ‘the father of the people’ 6.3.3 Commensal politics and cross-cultural comparisons 6.3.4 From hero cults to supralocal assemblies 6.3.5 Central places and the genesis of ethno-political entities: a long-term view

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n e g o t i at i n g p ow e r : a r i s t o c r at i c bu r i a l s a n d lo c a l c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e lat e la t  n e p e r i o d

7.1 Elite values and practices in the Middle Rhine-Moselle region 7.1.1 Common trends and changing patterns: the funerary record 7.1.2 The top of the top: Clemency and Goeblingen-Nospelt 7.1.3 The basis of power and residential places: the countryside 7.2 Burying and remembering between the Late Iron Age and ‘Romanisation’ 7.2.1 Local communities and family groupings 7.2.2 An enduring memory: ancestor worship amongst the Treveri

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r e c o g n i s i n g d i v e r s i t y : i d e n t i t y, l a n d s c a p e a n d s o c i a l complexity between rhine and meuse

8.1 Territorial organisation and social structures from south to north 8.1.1 Economies of power and ethnic markers 8.1.2 Centralisation and territorial structuring: the case of the Mediomatrici 8.1.3 A different world? New perspectives on the Lower Rhine 8.2 Convergences, divergences and ethnicity: an interregional perspective 8.2.1 Ethnic identities and beyond 8.2.2 The Rhine: nexus or frontier? 8.2.3 Across the Rhine: ‘Germanic’ influences and migrations at the twilight of the Iron Age

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t h e i m pac t o f ‘ r o m a n i s at i o n ’ o n i d e n t i ty t r a n s f o r m at i o n

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9.1 The day after: northeast Gaul after the conquest 9.1.1 The ‘Romanisation’ debate 9.1.2 Between a history of events and a history of identities 9.2 Uneven paths: stages and levels within the ‘Romanisation’ process 9.2.1 Rhythms and variables of a multidimensional change 9.2.2 The army as catalyst for change 9.2.3 The Treveran oppida during ‘Romanisation’: decline, continuities and ruptures 9.2.4 Food and dress, two vantage points from which to explore identity 9.2.5 Major transformations, surprising continuities

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1 0 i d e n t i ty a n d p ow e r : s u m m a ry a n d co n c lu d i n g t h o u g h t s

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bibliography

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