ems july/august 2008

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MAINTENANCE – the antidote to recession?






STOP DUST AT SOURCE Centralised high-vac dust extraction systems for on-tool extraction and general cleaning. Typical industry customers include: Printing, Manufacturing, Pharmaceutical, Electronics, Aviation and many others with applications such as: • Cutting • Grinding • General Cleaning • Sanding • Machining • Material Transport • Particle Extraction





Dustcontrol can help in improving product quality, environment and the efficiency of your factory with its high quality modular extraction equipment specifically tailored to meet your needs. For more information:

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For more information quote EMS Enquiry No. 101 on IBC



PM PROGRAMS Maintenance optimisation


INDUSTRY NEWS Credit crunch drives market for hired instruments


PLANT MANAGEMENT Sharpening your competitive edge




Reducing downtime and improving overall machinery health


OEE The fight back begins


DUST CONTROL Solve problems associated with dust pollution


WHAT IS THE ANTIDOTE TO RECESSION? Consumer prices are rising, but I guess little of the money is filtering down to the manufacturing base. One company I talked to last week, who asked not to be named, told me that supermarkets are preventing all price rises due to raw materials, energy, and transport fuel, and at the same time they are threatening to ‘walk away’ from their supplier partners unless prices are reduced. No wonder the German for partnership is ‘partnerschaft.’ I could be wrong, but I do wonder, what with milk up from 98p to £1.44 in less than a year, exactly who in the supply chain is making the financial gain? To read the full article please turn to page 21.

EDITORIAL/CONTRIBUTING EDITORS: Jon Barrett, Christer Idhammar Alan France, Mark Haarman editorial@engineeringmaintenance.info

WEB MANAGER: Oliver Gibbs info@engineeringmaintenance.info DATABASE MANAGER: Steve Hill TECHNICAL MANAGER: Igor Seke

Published six times per year by EMS Annual subscription:

EMS MSL Group Cobalt House, Centre Court Sir Thomas Longley Road Rochester, Kent ME2 4BQ +44 (0)1634 731646

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Articles appearing in this magazine do not necessarily express the views of the Editor or the publishers. Every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of information published. No legal responsibility will be accepted by the publishers for loss arising from articles/information contained and published. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form without the written consent of the publishers.

Introducing the amazing new GA / Beyond a superior screw element

Jump to the next level of performance Regardless of your field, staying ahead means having an edge over your competitors. In the same way, an efficient and reliable compressed air supply for your manufacturing facilities is a key element in successful business operations. With its superior screw element, unrivalled reliability at temperatures of up to 55°C / 131°F, 3.5 to 14 bar (e) / 65 – 200 psi(g) pressure range and optional integrated air treatment equipment, the new GA range will keep you one jump ahead. Extreme efficient screw element with the Atlas Copco patented asymmetric rotor profiles. Highest compressor package efficiency according to ISO 1217 ed 3 annex C (including water separator). Energy recovery system recovering up to 94% of the compressor shaft power in terms of hot water. Variable Speed Drive (VSD) with 80-85% flow turndown yielding 35% energy savings. If you want to know more about the new GA compressors visit www.airforwinners.com or call 0800 181 085. Committed to your superior productivity

Atlas Copco Compressors Ltd Swallowdale Lane Hemel Hempstead Herts HP2 7HA Phone: 01442 261201 Fax: 01442 234791 e-mail: gba.info@uk.atlascopco.com

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Choosing the most cost effective

MAINTENANCE PROCEDURE The company has decided to replace the bearings once a year during the annual shut down. They had always done that but had still had three break downs of the bearings during the last ten years. The manufacturer’s handbook said “Once a year, open top of screen, idle screen and listen to the bearings with a stethoscope or similar device. If the bearings sound bad, replace bearings” To install transducers for vibration analysis of bearings is an obvious alternative. To do that will cost Euro 1500. The financial decision maker said no to the maintenance manager’s request to install the transducers because she thought it was too expensive and the maintenance manager had not provided a financial justification to install transducers. Besides that, she referred to the instructions in the manufacturer’s handbook and claimed that must be right. This example is a true case from many plants with an almost identical manufacturing process. To help the maintenance manager optimize maintenance of the bearings in the screen, we made a short consequence of failure analysis of different scenarios that might occur and then put a financial value to each of them. If we accept the failure developing principles described in the May/June issue of this magazine we can use this as a

methodology to bridge the gap between a technical solution and financial language. It is obvious that the manufacturer’s recommendations are wrong and you do not need to be an expert on their equipment to prove this fact. Attaching a vibration transducer in each bearing housing and pull wires to a point outside of screen is of course a better and more financial viable solution. As a case study I like to use a discussion I have had in many plants with groups of experienced maintenance professionals. There are three options we can choose from to maintain the bearings: O.T.B = Operate To Break Down F.T.M = Fixed Time Maintenance C.B.M = Condition Based Maintenance If we chose O.T.B. the job to change bearings and very possibly also V-Belt drive and other damaged components can be planned, but not scheduled. We can make sure we keep spare parts in store, our people know how to do the job, what special tools are needed etc. This often leads to that we keep some very expensive parts in store to prepare for the worst case scenario. It is likely to occupy at least six people to correct the break down. They will not all work, but because scope of work was unknown when the symptoms of the broken down screen function was noticed, all available resources would migrate to the broken

The picture shows a rotating screen where incoming media is separated in good product, and reject. The inside rotary assembly rotates with 350 rpm inside a stainless steel basket with drilled holes. The diameter of stainless steel basket is one meter. The inside bearings are lubricated through two pipes. The rotary assembly is driven by an electric motor and V-belts. If the function of the screen ceases, it will shut down a process at a cost of Euro 20000 per hour in lost production. A break down of the bearings might cause the rotary assembly and the stainless steel basket to be destroyed at a cost of Euro 100000.

Your Inefficient Motors are Wasting Money Are your motors overrated, are they running at their most efficient, perhaps their load is adversely affecting their operation? Unless you test your motors you will not know the answers. With Baker condition monitoring equipment, data from on and off-line motors can be quickly collected and analysed and action taken to improve efficiency and avoid critical failure. The Baker Explorer on-line tester offers a comprehensive view of motor health whilst the motor is running. It will also identify rotor bar, power quality, bearing and other mechanical issues.

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EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info




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Operate to breakdown

Fixed time maintenance

Condition based maintenance

Number of failures per year or (Overhaules for FTM)




Risk of breakdown despite maintenance procedure




Repair time




Number of people put on the job




Cost for craftsman/hr




Material cost per breakdown




Equipment downtime (hrs) if on planned shutdown put “0”



















Cost for one (1) downtime hour Risk for other damages if breakdown occurs (%) Cost for other damages due to breakdown Direct maintenance cost/year (labour + material) Downtime cost/year Cost for other damages/year








In the table above a break down frequency of one failure per year will occur. On an annual cost basis that is 1/5 or 0.2 failures per year. In the O.T.B. case the failure will develop to a break down. Repair time for break down is 12 hours with six people. Cost for crafts people is 40 Euro per hour (Plus extra cost for very likely overtime and management/supervision time). The material cost is the cost for bearings and V belt drive. If it is estimated to take 12 hours to repair, it will cause 15 hours of lost production @ 20000 Euro per hour before process is up running making quality product. The worst case scenario is that the rotary assembly will destroy the stainless steel basket which will cost 100000 Euro to replace, in the best case scenario this will not occur. In the example above we have assumed a 50% likelihood that worst case scenario will occur. In this example cost to carry spare parts is not included. In the O.T.B. alternative a full set of the rotary assembly and screen will be stocked at a carrying cost of 30000 Euro per year. In the other cases this cost will be much lower or even 0. To do C.B.M transducers at a cost of 1500 Euro must be installed and it is apparent that it will pay off. If this had been specified when the screen was purchased the cost would have been 700 Euro and two break downs would have been prevented.

down screen and it is likely we would call more people than necessary for overtime. In most plants the unscheduled break down is 76.2% likely to happen when the maintenance crew is not there. So they have to be called in on overtime or you fall into the bad habit of having maintenance people on shift. This is of course not only because of this equipment but because most maintenance is reactive in nature. If we choose F.T.M. we can both plan and schedule the job. In this case the process line has scheduled clean up and process material shut downs every four weeks during eight or alternating twelve hours. It will be easy to plan and schedule this job during one of these shut downs thus avoiding any lost production due to screen maintenance. We would still have to keep a very expensive exchange part in store because without it, it would take longer time to replace bearings than allowed by the scheduled shut downs. The disadvantage of F.T.M. is that we will over maintain the screen, work has to be done more frequent than necessary. It is always the risk that we will induce failures to components when they are disassembled

and assembled. The fact is that the estimated life of new bearings is 1–15 or even 1–25 years so it is obvious that we will never know if we replaced good bearings with good once. If we chose C.B.M. we optimize maintenance of the bearings in the screen. The assumed break down frequency used to calculate cost for O.T.B. will be the same. You can not detect more failures than you assumed would occur. The failure frequency might not be right, but the comparison between costs for O.T.B. and C.B.M. is right. With the above example we have shown the financial impact of Optimized Preventive Maintenance. The difference in cost can be 1–100 as in the example above. It must be made clear that in most cases an analysis like the one described here is not necessary to do. Only about 5% of all components require an analysis to decide the most cost effective maintenance method, for most other components the best maintenance procedure can be decided in a much less time consuming way. Reader Reply Number: 300

Christer Idhammar, president Idcon Inc Christer Idhammar is a world renowned expert in Reliability and Maintenance Management best practices. He started the Idhammar group of companies in Sweden in 1972 and IDCON, INC in USA 1985. In 2002 he received the Euromaintenance Incentive Award for outstanding international contributions to improve Reliability and Maintenance in industries worldwide. In May 2008 he received the Salvetti Foundation reward for best speaker among 158 speakers at Euromaintenance 2008 in Brussels. He can be reached at info@idcon.com

5 EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info



CG Flooring Systems (CGFS) has successfully completed its biggest and most demanding project – upgrading the 6000m2 floor of an iron foundry to narrow-aisle warehouse standard suitable for racking up to 12 metres high in less than six weeks. As part of a major re-organisation of its manufacturing operations, the Baxi Group decided to close the cast iron foundry at its plant near Preston, Lancashire, and use most of the building as its central warehouse. The company is a leading European manufacturer of space and water heating products.

Following removal of the foundry equipment a detailed floor survey “ including seven large pits up to 3 metres deep, a number of vertical steel columns, horizontal I-beams and steel bolts within the floor, damaged expansion joints, and low and high areas spread throughout the building. All columns, beams and bolts were removed, and around 150 linear metres of expansion joints were repaired. The seven pits, totalling nearly 500m2 in surface area, were filled with consolidated hardcore, and then covered with a waterproof

membrane and mesh reinforcement. The edges of the pits were cut to provide clean, vertical surfaces, and then approximately 1000 600mm long dowel bars were inserted in the walls to provide a load transfer mechanism to support the new floor. Nearly 100m3 of concrete were poured in five hours to bring the pits up to floor level. Elsewhere in the building a base screed was used to build low areas up to floor level, while high areas were scabbled to lower them. The entire floor area was then shot-blasted to provide a positive key for the wearing surface. The wearing surface selected by CGFS consisted of a nominal 10mm-thick pumped cementitious screed and was completed in five days. Once this had cured, all existing floor joints were transferred through and sealed with a specialised filler in order to reduce the potential for cracking caused by substrate movement. Finally, a clear acrylic seal was applied to the entire surface. www.cg-flooring.com Reader Reply Number: 301

FREE thermography forum The FLIR User Group is now a firm fixture on the thermography calendar. It has become a focus for thermographers from a range of disciplines to exchange ideas and deepen their knowledge. And it is not just an event for FLIR camera users,

everyone involved in this technology is welcome. This year’s event pushes the boundaries even more with sessions on medical and veterinary thermography as well as those on condition monitoring and building science. Another new addition is a seminar on the cost benefit of thermography and how to get the best return on a camera investment. The day’s event on 11th September is free of charge to FLIR customers. It starts at 9.30am and the venue is the Windmill

6 EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info

Village Hotel in Coventry. On the afternoon of the preceding day FLIR Systems is holding a seminar designed to show users how to get the most from its Reporter 8.3 software package. At the same venue on 12th September there will also be a workshop for thermography in fire and flood restoration - the cost for existing customers is £100 + VAT per session. Anyone wishing to register for any of these events should contact FLIR Systems on 01732 220011 or visit www.flirthermography.co.uk. www.flirthermography.co.uk Reader Reply Number: 302


FOR HIRED INSTRUMENTS The current economic climate does not seem to have affected the market for instrument hire; Ashtead Technology Rentals, reports a "boom in demand" over the last few months as oil prices rise, house prices fall and economic forecast become ever gloomier. Ashtead rents instruments for environmental monitoring, for health and safety checking, for testing materials in construction and manufacture, and for remote visual inspection in a wide variety of industries. One might suspect that worries with the economy might force businesses to cut back on all expenditure, but as Ashtead's General Manager James Carlyle says, "Nervousness and uncertainty certainly causes companies to reduce or delay capital expenditure. However, testing, monitoring and inspection work is vital for a number of reasons including regulatory compliance, quality control, health and safety, and environmental protection. So, even in difficult times, this work still has to take place and undertaken using

INDUSTRY NEWS appropriate technology. It follows therefore, that there should be a move to instrument rental rather than purchase as renting lowers financial risk and frees valuable capital. Of course this applies in normal market conditions, but in times of recession businesses examine their cost structure more closely than usual and quickly draw the conclusion that renting will help put them in a stronger position to weather any potential storm." A further reason for the growth in instrument rental, is growth in the market itself; Ashtead has seen a steady trend away from instrument purchase to rental for the financial reasons outlined above, in addition to an expansion in demand for particular instruments employed in environmental monitoring, occupational hygiene and quality control. Ashtead’s fleet of instruments for health and safety assessments include toxic gas detectors, particulate monitors, HVAC monitors, and instruments for the measurement of noise and vibration. These instruments come from world leading manufacturers such as RAE, BW Technologies, TSI Instruments, Thermo, Quest and Casella. Companies with emissions to the environment have to comply with a raft of regulations that relate to the management of waste and emissions to air, land and water. Compliance inevitably involves monitoring with the most appropriate technology; this may involve the purchase of on-line monitors, but frequently necessitates an initial assessment followed by regular spot checks, so renting provides an opportunity to do so without investment in expensive instrumentation. It also enables process operators to deploy the best available technology whenever they need it. In summary, as house builders, manufacturers and high street shops start to experience a fall in turnover, Ashtead's instrument rental business is joining the ranks of those that can help ease the burden of a credit crunch

EFFICIENCY DRIVE AND WORLD CONCERNS AID INNOVATION Energy and fuel conservation has been one of the worlds most talked about topics for a number of years. Whether it be the need to conserve fuel and increase the MPG from your car, or simply turning off the lights and appliances when you go to bed to save energy, companies, organisations and governments the world over are all pushing efficiency initiatives and their green credentials. This drive has stimulated the growth of innovations for UK based manufacturer Midland-ACS. Utilising research into the marketplace and assessments of client demands their new 70 series valve has been engineered to provide customers with higher flow rates, while at the same time consuming less power than both traditional solenoids and competitor valves alike. Using 316 stainless steel in the body construction to offer maximum internal and external protection from liquid and gases the 70 series is a direct-acting 3/2 hazardous area solenoid valve for the oil, gas and petrochemical industries. Designed for actuator control the 70 series is available with connections from 1/4” – 1/2” NPT and is EExd IIC T6 with IP67 Ingress Protection classified, for use in hazardous environments. Compliant with the ATEX directive and entitled to bear the CE mark, the valve is also IECex certified.

A key element of the design process was to deliver exceptional efficiency in terms of energy usage. With views for offshore usage and the power issues these installations and vessels have regarding the amount of wattage they use, Midland-ACS set themselves the task to better a power consumption rate of 5 watts. Through various trials and tests a final power consumption figure of 3.5 watts at an ambient temperature of -50°C to +60°C was achieved, almost halving their original benchmark. Compact, reliable and of increasing importance to offshore facilities and operations, lightweight at only 3.2 kilos, the valve design removes the potential for leaks and reduces the risk of hazardous contamination. Available in 12v, 24v, 110v DC options and 24v, 110v, 230v AC options, this direct-acting solenoid valve has already been incorporated into a manifold solution and at time of writing Midland-ACS were into the late stages of testing the 250 bar hydraulic version to complement an ever widening range of Midland-ACS valves. www.midland-acs.com Reader Reply Number: 304

www.ashtead-technology.com Reader Reply Number: 303

7 EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info


© 2008 PCB Group, Inc. SensorLine is a service mark of PCB Group, Inc. PCB, ICP and IMI with associated logo are registered trademarks of PCB Group, Inc.

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How can you sharpen your competitive edge, improve health and safety standards and monitor your energy efficiency? Answer: By having your industrial fans regularly serviced and maintained. This reduces down time and minimises lost production


IMPROVED EFFICIENCY Industrial fans are at the heart of industries that produce large volumes of dust as a by-product. Quarrying, woodworking and food processing companies, for example, have to ensure dust is efficiently extracted in order to comply with health and safety laws. Being energy efficient and aware of the impact of your business on the environment is a responsibility companies are now taking very seriously. Today’s businesses are expected to make an effort to reduce emissions, minimise energy usage, avoid accidents and consider all the environmental impacts of their work. A regularly serviced and well maintained fan is by definition an energy efficient piece of machinery. And even greater energy savings can be achieved by having high efficiency electric motors fitted when the regular service is carried out. Minimising your energy usage in this way could entitle you to certain tax incentives, Enhanced Capital Allowances, designed to benefit those who are energy efficient. However, neglecting to have fans serviced could impact on a company’s ability to meet its environmental targets. Why you should have your fans serviced Clearly, the old saying ‘prevention is better than cure’ has never been more true, as more and more companies sign up for full fan servicing contracts in a bid to maintain efficient production schedules and smooth operations. After all, why would anyone neglect a piece of equipment that is critical to the efficiency of their business?

Depending on its application an industrial fan can have a life span of more than forty years, during which time numerous potential problems can occur. Dirt and dust can collect on the impeller, for instance, throwing the fan out of balance, and the bearings and motor can fail. Should a fan unexpectedly break down, as well as the danger from critical failure of rotating parts, there is also the additional cost associated with repair and lost production time. Annual fan service and maintenance is a vital plant maintenance function. Often carried out during shut down periods, fan maintenance can be done quickly and efficiently and does not have to interfere with production output. To stay in business and keep the fans working, regular servicing and maintenance is essential. It’s surprising how quickly things can start to go wrong once you stop servicing fans and businesses can’t afford to have their fans out of action for long periods. What does a typical service involve? Regular on-site maintenance and servicing by experienced engineers can help to detect and prevent faults to all types of industrial fans, reducing the risk of breakdown, saving time and money as well as ensuring the life expectancy of the machine is maintained. A typical service takes a full day and normally involves: inspecting the overall condition of fans inspecting fan bearings for wear and regreasing or replacing where necessary

inspecting, adjusting or replacing drive belts on belt driven fans inspecting and checking alignment of couplings on direct coupled fans and replacing couplings if necessary removing access doors and checking impeller for wear or damage test running fans and monitoring vibration levels. Leading industrial fan manufacturer Woodcock & Wilson, based in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire, has seen significant growth in its fan servicing operation this year, as more and more companies realise that having their fans maintained and serviced regularly can prevent serious health and safety issues, is better for the environment and saves time and money. This growth also reflects the fact that the engineers at Woodcock & Wilson understand the construction principles of fan manufacturing and design, allowing them to draw on their inhouse expertise when inspecting fans on site, crucial when fault-finding and problem solving. In order to maintain a competitive edge, more and more companies from a wide range of industries are realising the real and tangible benefits of having a contract maintenance and repair service for their fans, enabling them to maintain and maximise production performance levels at all times. Setting up a repair and servicing contract gives you full security and allows your business to be more competitive. www.fanmanufacturers.com Reader Reply Number: 305

9 EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info

A whole world of engineering expertise concentrated into one handy package – and it’s free. This CD showcases what we can do for you in heavy machining and fabrication engineering for industrial processes design, build and project manage – new build projects – upgrading projects condition monitoring process control CCTV, RFID, ANPR security systems and a great deal more besides. Your copy is ready for you now; simply let us know where to send it

Corus Northern Engineering Services Further information from David Scatchard, Marketing Manager, T: 01642 498041 E:info-cnes@corusgroup.com W:www.corusnes.com

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The implementation of industrial vibration monitoring sensors and associated signal conditioning as an integral part of industrial predictive maintenance programs has proven for many maintenance and plant engineers to be an effective strategy for reducing downtime and improving overall machinery health

Industrial accelerometer performance comparison and considerations: SHEAR VERSUS COMPRESSION DESIGNS Vibration monitoring technology is widely used because of its ability to detect and diagnose a wide variety of machinery faults, such as bearing faults, gear problems, misalignment, looseness, mass imbalance, and others, on a wide variety of rotating machinery, and its relative ease of integration with data analyzers, PLC, SCADA and Plant Information (PI) systems. For the proper implementation of sensors into a vibration monitoring program, one first must understand the differences in the two most common designs of industrial piezoelectric sensors, as well as various considerations in selection and mounting. A piezoelectric accelerometer produces a measurable electrical signal when an inertial mass stresses, or applies a force to, its integral crystal sensing element. The two main types of piezoelectric sensor designs most typically used for industrial vibration monitoring applications are shear and compression, which define the actual mode, or crystal axis, in which an inertial mass stresses the piezoelectric crystal. While both types operate in a similar fashion, one of these designs provides much more reliable and repeatable performance when there are certain external influences within the demanding industrial application environment. Sensor design and performance vary depending on the type of crystal used. Crystalline materials such as quartz and tourmaline are naturally piezoelectric. More commonly used in modern accelerometer designs are ferroelectric ceramic crystals, like lead zirconate titanate, because of their higher electrical output and lower noise levels. Man made ceramics achieve their

piezoelectric properties through a process called poling. Poling is a process where a high electrical field is applied to the material at elevated temperatures, producing a net polarization. Each material has unique properties, which offer advantages in particular applications. This article shall outline design strengths and challenges associated with both shear and compression-based industrial vibration sensor designs, as well as highlight some transducer selection and mounting considerations. Shear vs. Compression: What’s the Difference? What is Shear Mode? As the name implies, shear mode accelerometers stress the internal piezoelectric crystal in a shear, rather than a compressed, manner. In this type of sensor design, crystals are “sandwiched” between a center post and the mass (or masses), depending on the specific type of shear design. They are held in place, either by a preload stud, or a compression ring, as the cutaway, shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: Shear design cutaway of an ICP® vibration sensor, with integral internal amplifier.

What is Compression Mode? Compression mode is a fairly simplistic design, in which the crystal sensing element sits between a flat base and an inertial mass. There is typically a preload stud through the center of the mass and crystal to hold it in place. The earliest piezoelectric accelerometer designs incorporated mostly compression sensor design technology, mainly due to the relative ease of manufacturing for this configuration, and subsequent sensor assembly. However, most modern accelerometers now use shear designs, because they significant performance enhancements over compression types. Types of sensors and sensing elements – flexural, tri-shear and compression

How Do These Compare? In principle, both accelerometers work in a similar fashion. When acceleration is sensed in the vertical axis, the mass exerts a force on the crystal, according to Newton’s Second Law of Motion, F = m x a. Thus, the larger in size of the mass, the more force is generated for a given acceleration, and the higher the sensitivity of the accelerometer. All things being equal, compression designs offer a higher stiffness than shear. This means they have a higher natural (or resonant) frequency, which results in an accelerometer with a slightly higher frequency response (10 to 20%). On the other hand, shear cut crystals produce about

11 EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info


40% more electrical output for the same input force as compression cut crystals. Thus, it takes less mass for a shear cut crystal to produce the same amount electrical output than compression. Since the natural frequency (ƒn) of a sensor is based on the size of the inertial mass (m) and stiffness of the crystal (k), ƒn

1 k 2x m the output and frequency response of shear and the output and frequency response of shear and compression mode accelerometers are very similar for a given package size. Compression designs suffer from high base strain sensitivity. This strain may be caused by the base bending of a structural surface, or by thermal transients. Meaning, when the base of a compression mode accelerometer is strained in any way, that strain is directly transferred into the piezoelectric crystal, producing an output totally unrelated to the acceleration measurement being taken by the sensor, which can lead to measurement uncertainty. As stated earlier, crystals produce an electrical output when stressed. Thus, anything other than the vibration to be measured that stresses the crystal produces unwanted electrical output and errors. The crystals in compression mode sensors are easily stressed by base bending and thermal transients. The output produced can be very significant in structures having a large amount of flexure or when placed in a hot or cold environment and not allowed to thermally stabilize prior to making measurements. This output can be very significant, resulting in large measurement errors, and can cause “ski slopes” in the FFT, particularly when integrating sensor output to velocity. In shear mode designs, the post to which crystals and

masses are attached is essentially isolated mechanically from base bending and thermal stresses. Thus, they are much less sensitive to these errors, and provide readings that are more reliably reflective of the actual vibration to be measured. Most IMI Sensors industrial vibration sensors are manufactured utilising shear mode technology, to offer customers the benefits of increased performance. Although shear designs are more complex than compression, using modern manufacturing techniques, they also can be easily and economically built. In fact, embeddable piezoelectric shear mode accelerometer units, such as IMI Sensors Series 660 (also referred to as pellets) are able to be mass produced, resulting in very low cost units which may be used in many typical high volume and commercial OEM applications. These include such embedded applications as land surveying equipment; homeland security/border control monitoring devices; and assessing the shock and vibration impact of packages or components. The units also employ field-proven solid state, piezoelectric sensing elements, for durability and broadband performance.

Industrial Vibration Sensor Selection Considerations When selecting the right piezoelectric vibration sensor for an industrial application environment, important considerations include frequency response, signal-tonoise ratio and sensor sensitivity, as well as the measurement environment, and its characteristics (e.g., hazardous area operation, temperature, corrosive environments, or submersion in oil, water or cutting fluids). As stated earlier, selection of connector and cables can have a direct impact on sensor installation, ruggedness and reliability. Erroneous signals can be induced into sensor systems through ground loops or electromagnetic or radio frequency interference (EMI or RFI). Connections to the sensor require two leads, one for the power and signal, and the other for the common and signal return. A loose connector can result in a sensor intermittently turning on and off, causing drift in the DC bias, and resulting in large outputs which are unrelated to the measurement being taken. Another consideration with cables is the termination method of the shield to avoid ground loops. Generally speaking, it is recommended

Series 660 embeddable sensors feature shear mode design in a small, durable package

12 EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info

to use a twisted pair, shielded cable for sensors, as this type of cable is less susceptible to noise than a standard coaxial cable, such as RG58. In order to avoid ground loops, it is recommended that the shield be grounded once in the system, typically the analyzer end, and not the sensor end. The shielding of commercial cables made by IMI Sensors is not grounded on the sensor end, to avoid such loops. IMI Sensors also provides armored cables, for use in environments where there is risk of cables being cut, such as machine tooling. Permanent installations require twisted pair shielded cables, to ensure clean vibration signal transmission. Industrial Vibration Sensor Mounting Techniques The chosen mounting technique of an industrial vibration sensor directly affects its frequency response, as the natural frequency of the sensor system decreases, depending on mounting method utilized. The mounting method chosen should provide flat frequency response throughout the frequency range being studied. Typically, stud mounting on a clean, flat surface with a good finish will provide the highest possible frequency response. The mounted resonant frequency, and thus the sensor system frequency response, decreases progressively when using adhesive and magnetic mountings, and is generally the lowest, with handheld accelerometers (i.e., stinger or probe) being the exception. The useable frequency range depends on many things, including mass of the accelerometer and magnet; magnetic pull strength; thickness of adhesive; and material and length of the probe. “Rule of thumb” tables, such as the one shown below, are only approximate values for typical cases. These numbers could vary widely.

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Table 1: Approximate frequency spans for 100 mV/g accelerometers, for most typical sensor mounting methods.


Frequency Limit


500 Hz


2,000 Hz


2,500 - 4,000 Hz

Bees Wax

5,000 Hz

Stud Mounted

6,000 – 10,000 Hz

(Table reprinted with kind permission from the Vibration Institute, www.vibinst.org)

The Model 621B40 high frequency accelerometer from IMI Sensors operates to 30k Hz, even with a magnet. Because of its wide frequency range, the sensor can be used to diagnose a variety of machinery fault conditions, including bearing and gear problems.


There are specially designed cases, such as the IMI Sensors Model 621B40, where a combination of design parameters are employed, allowing the sensor system to achieve frequencies as high as 30k Hz – even with a magnet. In summary, industrial accelerometers are the predominant workhorse of a sound predictive maintenance and vibration monitoring program. It is imperative that

For more information quote EMS Enquiry No. 110 on IBC

EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info

a sensor will meet requirements of the application environment. A vibration analyst must review an application with sensor selection criteria in mind, to help a vibration analyst to select the proper sensor, cabling and mounting techniques for a given application environment. While there are multiple types of sensor technologies available, shear mode designs, such as those offered by IMI Sensors, when used with proper surface mounting techniques and attention to connectors and cabling, will provide reliable, repeatable and accurate performance across a wide variety of industrial applications. www.pcb.com Reader Reply Number: 306

ABOUT THE AUTHORS David A. Corelli is Director of Application Engineering for PCB Piezotronics. His nearly 35 years of experience in vibration analysis includes working as a test engineer for the United States Air Force Avionics Laboratory and as a field engineer for Hewlett Packard, Entek and IRD Mechanalysis. A Category IV Vibration Analyst in accordance with ISO 18436-2, Mr. Corelli serves on the Board of Directors for the Vibration Institute, as well as chairman of its Certification Committee. He is the author of dozens of technical papers focused on the successful application of industrial vibration monitoring technology. Molly Bakewell is Global Public Relations, Advertising & Image Manager for PCB Piezotronics, Inc. With nearly 15 years of expertise in global press and promotional management, she has overseen development of more than 300 articles worldwide on behalf of PCB®. Ms. Bakewell serves as a freelance director of PR & Media Relations for Leading Edge Events & Media, based in the United Kingdom, and is a pro bono technical trade publicist for the North American Eagle World Land Speed Record Challenger.

For more information quote EMS Enquiry No. 111 on IBC


Bob Orme, a Senior Technology Specialist at Henkel, the manufacturer of Loctite brand products, reveals how adhesives help fasteners withstand high levels of vibration

Adhesives overcome

VIBRATIONS Vibration has caused bolts to work loose since threaded joints first came into existence. Of course, many and varied methods of resolving the problem have been tried, yet the most successful has centred on the application of adhesives. It was back in 1953 that Dr Vernon Krieble - the pioneer of Loctite adhesives – set about finding a way to lock and seal a threaded component. He was able to fulfil a need within the automotive industry – that of securing a screw in a car’s carburettor in such a way that it could withstand severe vibration. Dr Krieble was very successful in his experiments – so much so that anaerobic adhesives were quickly established across a variety of industries as the trusted method of protecting parts against the potentially disastrous effects of vibration. Why bolts? Let’s begin an examination of why adhesives work so well by going back to basics and asking a simple question: What is the function of a bolt?

tightening process of a threaded assembly has been concluded, the clamp load is retained by the pre-load of the bolt. Yet, the absence of a locking ‘mechanism’, can lead to the loosening of the fastener, when shock, alternating loads, thermal changes and vibration are introduced into the situation. And it is the loosening that results in the clamping load being compromised. When that occurs, there is a good chance that machinery will fail - with all the aggravation that any engineer would want to avoid. Mechanical solutions such as locknuts, spring washers, nylon inserts, split pins, and tab washers are sometimes used as the means of combating this loosening effect. However, their effectiveness can be limited.

A much more reliable solution can be found in the employment of engineering adhesives. For some engineers that could be a bold claim – but there are some pretty startling facts to back up that assertion. Shocking results An independent assessor used a transverse shock test machine that enabled anaerobic threadlockers, spring washers, patch bolts, distorted lock nuts and nylon ring nuts to be compared under controlled conditions. The test involved assembling a 3/8”, 16-grade bolt in the machine and then tightening it to a controlled tension. Once that was done, air hammers were activated and the bolt tension plotted against time. As the accompanying graph reveals,

Three important purposes of a bolt are: 1. A bolt provides a means of locating components within an assembly. 2. It creates a clamp force. 3. It allows a joint to be readily disassembled and reused (unlike technologies such as welding and riveting). When it comes to producing a vibration-proof assembly, the last two points are the relevant factors. Creating tension As already stated, threaded fasteners provide a clamping force. After the

15 EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info




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EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info

the adhesive offered better protection against the bolt working loose than any of the other methods. That’s not all, the results show that every tested mechanical system failed while the adhesive continued to remain effective. For example, it didn't take long before the tension in the bolt was lost when secured by the nylon ring nut. However, the adhesive-treated assembly proved permanently secure and the tension in the bolt was maintained. Addressing adhesives It can be readily seen, therefore, that engineering adhesives – especially, anaerobic products – provide a superior vibrationproof system than the mechanical threadlocking methods that were tested. These single part adhesives cure in the absence of air when in contact with a metal. (The air is generally excluded from the joint when two mating surfaces – whether threaded or not – are brought together.) Further, these adhesives fill all the spaces between the threads of a bolt and a nut – thereby sealing the assembly at the same time. Threadlocking adhesives are available in a variety of strengths. The criteria for making the selection depends on whether or not the components need to be regular disassembled – say, for servicing or maintenance. Low strength products allow easy

disassembly, higher strength adhesives are used for more permanent constructions. However, because the locking action does not depend heavily on the shear strength of the adhesive, a relatively low strength product can be readily selected without compromising its ability to withstand high levels of vibration. Alongside the range of product strengths, anaerobics are available in a selection of viscosities to suit different purposes. Where an application includes fine threads, a low viscosity product should be considered. On the other hand, coarse threads call for high viscosity alternatives to ensure larger thread clearances are filled. In summary There is more than sufficient proof that adhesives offer an advanced vibration-proof system when it comes to locking joints. But there is a cost-saving implication, too. Through the use of adhesives, any fastener can become a locking fastener – without the need to maintain an inventory of varying sized locking aids to suit different applications. In fact, engineering adhesives present really good news for engineers who need to ensure they produce and maintain a vibration-proof system. www.loctite.co.uk Reader Reply Number: 307

More than just pumps Ball Valves & Taps O O O O O

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Filters & Strainers O O O O O

Polypropylene Nylon Brass Sizes from 1/4" to 3" Massive range


Rotary Cleaning Heads O

For more information quote EMS Enquiry No. 113 on IBC


Water powered Pneumatic Electric driven Flow rates up to 120 Lpm Pressures up to 250 Bar


Pipe Fittings O O O O O

Polypropylene Nylon Brass Pressures up to 250 Bar Sizes from 1/8" to 3"


Connectors & Couplings O O O O




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Polypropylene Nylon Brass or stainless steel Pressure up to 250 Bar Sizes from 1/4" to 3"


Hose Reels O O O O O

Water or compressed air Manual or retractable Stainless or powder coated steel Plastic or aluminium Hose capacity to 120 metres

for even more see


Tel:email: 01664 567226 info@dualpumps.co.uk For more information quote EMS Enquiry No. 115 on IBC


So, price persecution and the clouds of recession, is there a way to fight back? There is really only one defence; make more and more effort to drive out waste and all forms of wasted effort

OEE – The antidote to recession? With raw material prices rising, try to use every bit in the finished product. With energy costs rising and overtime being paid, try to increase performance and finish earlier, reducing expenditure on both. With materials and energy costs up by large percentages, it’s prudent not to reduce staff levels too quickly. There could well be financial advantages in keeping people involved in the continuous improvement process, to ensure materials and energy are used effectively. If wasted materials amount to £3m a year, keeping a young, keen person in the CI team, on £30k a year will be pretty good value if they can help reduce waste by £500k a year.

If we measure OEE and make the losses visible, we’re well on the way to financial improvements. If we can work hard on improving what we have, we can significantly reduce the need for new capital equipment. In order to achieve output, companies often have to invest in new additional capacity because existing plant is operated poorly. If we operate three lines at 33% OEE and then add a fourth, also operating at 33%, the gain is far less than just improving the three lines. It is well proven that improvements to existing plant are 10 times more effective than the installation of new capacity. One company I spoke to recently

18 EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info

had invested only £60k on simple process improvements and taken over £1m of costs out of the system within 12 months - and those savings reoccur every year. So, where do we start? Before we can improve we need two measures, effective performance and its financial impact. OEE or Overall Equipment Effectiveness is a simple concept, which measures just three elements: Actual plant availability against planned availability Actual performance against design performance Actual good, saleable products against total products By multiplying these elements together we compound the effect of failure and highlight opportunities for improvement. So where is the clear financial benefit from OEE? Most businesses face stiff competition, new sales are difficult, and companies usually need to achieve the same output in less time. Let’s create a fictitious plant that fails one third of the time due to equipment breakdowns, no staff and/or no materials resulting in an availability score of 67%. When actually running, the performance score is slightly worse at 65% due to poor changeovers, minor stops and slow running. Fortunately our quality score is good at 98%. The figures don’t look too

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International Trade Fair for Industrial Maintenance

For more information quote EMS Enquiry No. 106 on IBC


14–16 October 2008 • M,O,C, Munich


per month buys you this Easi-Dec Roofline System - interest paid!

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Maintenance – Your key to success. MAINTAIN is the leading marketplace for momentum, strategies and service concepts in the industrial maintenance sector. As the industry’s most important gathering, it brings together decisionmakers in the manufacturing and processing industries who use the international trade fair as a communications platform. And they have a common goal: to promote innovations and service solutions in close dialog. MAINTAIN – The trade fair for industrial maintenance.

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bad, but the compound effect of OEE calculates to 43%. So, for more than 50% of our time, we’re wasting labour, energy and materials. Let’s assume we have orders for 75,000 units per week at £5 each and the design speed of our plant is 1,000 units per hour, energy costs are £400 per hour, labour £100 per hour and materials £1 per unit. We have to operate 3 shifts over 6 days to achieve the output, because of our poor performance. What if we use OEE as the key driver, analyse the losses, action small improvements and increase the OEE by a single percentage point to 44%?

The illustration highlights the important link between OEE and energy. Notable energy reduction techniques include price negotiations, component change, load shedding and time dependent tariffs. But the greatest benefits can be achieved through OEE improvements and better product scheduling. With customers gaining and holding 20% improvements, it is easy to see why OEE, as a key driver for change, has generated so much interest recently. One company in the pharmaceutical industry started with only 27% OEE on the day shift and 11% on nights. After using OEE




Plus 1%

Actual units



Less waste

Hours to produce



3 hours saved




Quality improvement

Energy costs



£1,168 saved less running hours

Labour costs



£292 saved less running hours

Materials cost



£750 saved less waste

Saved per week


Saved per year


machine running signals and product counts will prove the best solution. The touch screen approach captures data accurately, with no paperwork, and provides feedback of critical information to the operator such as current performance, time to finish this product at the current rate, and worst losses this shift. More critically it keeps the operator fully involved in the process. Three key principles can make the difference - visibility, accountability and action. And there are 10 basic rules: Set big targets: at least a 10% - 20% OEE increase in 3 months Make losses highly visible as they occur Calculate and show the cost of those losses Make OEE & losses key drivers in daily review meetings Monitor OEE by shift, which are the best and worst? Monitor OEE by product, why is product x so hard to make? Who will deliver improvements for each loss? What can we do to achieve those improvements? When can we deliver those improvements? Constantly monitor progress So there is an antidote, and we should all take a big dose: Accurately measure your OEE, discover your loss structure, convert those losses to cash, cost justify improvements and monitor them to resolution. www.idhammarsystems.com Reader Reply Number: 308 ABOUT THE AUTHOR Alan France is Operations Director of Idhammar Systems Limited. Contact him by e-mail: alan.france@idhammarsystems.com, or visit www.idhammarsystems.com for more on OEE software.

We save £750 in materials, require 3 hours less production, save £292 in labour overtime and reduce energy costs by £1,168. With small changes, we have reduced our costs by £2,210 per week, amounting to£114,909 per year, simply by bringing about a 1% improvement in OEE. That’s a saving of £114,909 per year through a 1% improvement in OEE Further progress to the mid 50’s would allow us to fulfil the orders in 5 days and when we reach the mid 60’s we could safely reduce operations to a 2 shift pattern.

as the key driver for improvements, they reduced to a single shift operation within 6 months. Do we need additional hardware to gain these improvements? It depends on an accurate assessment of the current OEE. If the value is low, say below 50% - 65%, significant gains can be made by manual data entry. If the current value is higher it is likely that most losses are minor stops which are difficult to capture manually. At this point a simple touch screen system, linked to

21 EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info


Identifying particulate contamination is key to predictive maintenance. Particle contamination in hydraulic oils and lubricants can have a significant impact on system efficiency, safety and operating costs. This is especially true in modern high performance systems, where tolerances are becoming ever tighter, and where equipment is used in critical industrial, mobile and process applications.

Together, we can ensure that fluid contamination doesn’t compromise your maintenance programme.

Parker’s IcountPD represents the most up-to-date technology in solid particle detection; delivering countless advantages to maintenance engineers worldwide. The design dynamics, attention to detail, and small size of the permanently mounted, on-line particle detector combine to deliver a truly innovative product. The laser based, leading-edge technology means the IcountPD is a cost-effective market solution to fluid management and contamination control.

Recognising this fact, Parker Hannifin has developed innovative contamination monitoring technology that measures both the size and concentration of particles in oils and lubricants. The latest IcountPD particle detector is based on the company’s 20 years experience of particle analysis, and of working with customers in building predictive maintenance programmes. IcountPD is designed as a simple to fit and operate instrument, that provides plant and maintenance

engineers with an extremely accurate, reliable and cost effective method of particle detection. IcountPD can be permanently fitted on-line to any hydraulics or lubrication system and features proven laser detection technology for precise and repeatable particle detection. The instrument provides a continuous indication of the quality of oils or lubricants, with an easy to read digital status display, backed by appropriate alarms, to confirm that operating conditions are within safe parameters or are changing due to fluctuations in contamination levels. With the ability to be used at flow rates from 6 to 380 l/min and at line pressures from 2 to 420bar, a choice of output signals, including 4-20mA, 0-5V, CANBUS, J1939 and RS232, plus an optional moisture sensor, IcountPD is ideal for a wide range of industrial, process and mobile applications.

Xdcbdc^c[d@eVg`Zg#Xdb lll#eVg`Zg#Xdb$][YZ

To learn more about IcountPD and other Parker fluid contamination monitoring products email conmoninfo@parker.com.

For more information quote EMS Enquiry No. 121 on IBC


After implementing an EAM or CMMS1 system, many companies are disappointed to discover that the system provides hardly any useful management information. However, if you ask the same companies what information or performance indicators they exactly need to fulfil and track their maintenance strategy, many of them cannot provide a clear answer.


grip on your maintenance performance If you are unclear of your destination, don’t be surprised if you fail to reach it! Most people will state that they have to achieve maximum equipment availability at minimum cost. However this strategy isn’t very S.M.A.R.T (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic/Relevant, Time framed). Plants within a group of companies often get top down targets based on the performance of the best plant. However, if there are big differences in the product mix or technology, it isn’t always wise to go after the assumed ‘best in class pace setter’. Some of the well known maintenance methodologies also fail to provide the right guidance. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) proved to be successful in the automotive economy of the 60’s and 70’s, when every car built could be sold immediately. But nowadays there is significant overcapacity in the market place. Zero defects is not always the best goal to aim for anymore. Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) showed the world how to engineer a good preventive maintenance program covering all possible risks. But if not applied in a practical way, it can easily become a ‘Resource Consuming

Monster’ without bringing the performance results hoped for. So how does one decide how much effort to put into a RCM project, in order to achieve the set goals? New trends (or hypes?), derived from World Class Manufacturing or Lean Manufacturing, surprisingly don’t give the full answer either. Of course it sounds challenging to aim for the World Class Maintenance (WCM, or World Class Reliability, WCR) level, but this level has not yet been defined properly anywhere. In the majority of cases, qualitative statements are used like: a WCM organisation delivers consistent uptime week to week, minimises impact on production, delivers it work as planned, has ‘spot on’ budgeting, etc... Although it is very positive that this will stimulate a much more professional attitude towards the maintenance process, we still don’t know how far we are from this level and when it will ever be reached. What is the business (economic) impact of a consistent, but 3% too low equipment uptime? How much cheaper would our maintenance be if we accept a 90% weekly schedule compliance instead of aiming

for 100%? Even a highly rewarded quantitative method like Six Sigma hasn’t brought breakthrough results in the Maintenance arena, mainly because maintenance data is too poor to apply these kind of statistical techniques. What about Lean Maintenance, which has been getting a lot of publicity lately due to some good results of Lean Manufacturing? Well, it must be all about eliminating waste, so distinguishing between value adding and non-value adding maintenance activities. But in contradiction to the detailed description in Lean Manufacturing of how to eliminate non-value adding production activities, in Lean Maintenance there is no definition yet which activities to eliminate and which not.

But the answer indeed is in exploring the (added) value potential. To be honest, the word value has been misused often in maintenance literatures lately. That shouldn’t be the case, because the value (potential) of maintenance has been clearly described in Value Driven Maintenance® (VDM), see figure 1. VDM is the first, and so far only, methodology that shows a maintenance organization how to reveal its value potential, set clear and realistic improvement targets, give focus and embed continuous value creation (or continuous improvement) in the organization. It focuses on dynamic measuring of value creation opportunities, selection of the most appropriate steps/techniques to go after the potential instead of advocating one best technique for all situations.

Figure 1: VDM Value Drivers and Value Calculation

23 EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info


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Risk Assessment

Risks are identified and managed.

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High risk activities and equipment are recognised.

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Remedial action is assigned, monitored and controlled.

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Skills and training requirements are linked to the business need.

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Contractors are managed in a systematic way. Incidents can be managed systematically. Information gathered in one department is available to all.



information quote EMS Enquiry No. 122 on IBC

For more information quote EMS Enquiry No. 123 on IBC


Being able to show the actual added value of maintenance in a business perspective has helped to put the topic of Maintenance on the agenda of the Board. But VDM is more than just a set of financial (Net Present Value) formulas or a new language to ‘impress’ the Board. It gives the modern Maintenance Manager a practical ‘Planning & Control’ framework (Plan – Do – Check – Act), the ability to prioritise between breakthrough measures and nice to have initiatives and an intuitive selection of relevant best (or just better) practices. Based on what has been achieved before in the same industry, based on validated benchmark information. So VDM makes your maintenance strategy definitely SMART. The basics of the VDM value calculations have been described in-depth in the book ‘VDM, new faith in maintenance’. In short, VDM shows that there are 4 relevant value drivers in maintenance, the value potential of each driver will be determined by the market dynamics and the performance gap (current performance compared to industry peers). For this, the VDM benchmarking service has been available for main industries since 2004 and the use of maintenance benchmarking information will only be accelerated by current EFNMS Benchmarking initiatives. Once you know where the biggest value potential is, attention shifts to how to realize it in an effective and efficient way.

Probably the most important model in VDM, the VDM Competence Model (see figure 2), provides a coherent control framework for maintenance decision making. This model has been translated (without modifications) to many languages and industries already, but in all cases proved to be an excellent means to communicate the current state of affairs, the biggest bottlenecks and challenges, the desired future state and the logical highlights of the improvement agenda to get there. Especially because the VDM Competence Model combines the qualitative ways of working and the quantitative metrics in one framework. This alone makes it a more powerful steering model than for example the Balance Scorecard. With the entrance to reliable maintenance benchmark data and priority setting based on economic cash flows, VDM also supports meaningful multi-year target setting. Therefore, the planning & control framework to finally get grip on your maintenance performance is here. So are the tools! Leading EAM/CMMS software suppliers like ‘IBM MRO Software’ (Maximo), ‘Infor ’ (Datastream7i) and ‘SAP’ (SAP EAM) have already adopted the VDM framework into their management reporting modules. Users of these VDM reporting modules are able to see at a glance which indicators are in control and which ones are not and start an analysis from there to drill down to the

actual (set of) EAM/CMMS work order(s) that caused the deviation. That’s true Management by Exception. But the real benefit of a VDM implementation is not just a state of the art IT solution. It provides guidance for the maintenance organisation on why they need to improve, where they need to improve and how to improve. Not ideological, but in a way that creates tangible cash flows for the company. Not based on a ten year journey, but with realistic milestones year after year, achieving a true continuous improvement mindset. And above all: focus, focus, focus. There are no shortages of good ideas out there, but very few of the companies understand the value of having a structured implementation. VDM will provide you the necessary insight to work on the right improvement measures in the right sequence, at the right pace. Should, for example, the VDM Audit reveal that the maintenance organisation can create the most value by focusing on the value driver Cost Control, this overall focus should be translated into specific targets for the pilot projects. Say, 10% cost reduction without jeopardizing current performance on Asset Utilisation and SHEQ Compliance. A dedicated team could undertake a focused APMC analysis on the top-3 cost killing

equipments within a few weeks lead time, proving the potential being actually there. One could refer to this technique as ‘value driven RCM’. Instead of focusing on all possible risks and all possible failure modes, you define which failure mode effects (in terms of impact on VDM value drivers and thus cash flows) you want to ‘attack’ with which level of detail. The APMC tool then will present only the non-acceptable failure modes to work on. With the simulation feature of the APMC tool the team can monitor whether the new preventive maintenance plan will deliver the targeted 10% cost reduction. Usually, the team establishes that 80% of the potential benefits can be realized in 20% of the time needed from a classical RCM approach. With the analysis done, it is relatively easy to then transfer the new plan into an Asset Based Budget. This is also the ideal starting point to review stock policy for the spare parts of this (pilot) equipment, because now the real criticality of the equipment component function, that you would need the spare part for, is documented. And if the company should not focus on Cost Control but Asset Utilisation instead, the goals may be different but the toolset and techniques are the same. With proper training and coaching it is possible, even in a busy and hectic maintenance

Figure 3: VDM Control Panel and drill down analysis

Figure 2: VDM Competence Model and VDM KPIs

25 EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info

Structural Adhesives

Cyanoacrylates (instant adhesives)

UV Curing Adhesives for bonding acrylic, glass and metals

Electrically Conductive Adhesives

Thermally Conductive Adhesives

Conformal Coatings


Ultra High Temperature Ceramic Adhesives

Glob Tops

High Performance Adhesive Technology www.eurobond-adhesives.co.uk sales@ eurobond-adhesives.co.uk T 01795 427888 F 01795 479685 Bonham Drive, Eurolink Industrial Estate, Sittingbourne, Kent ME10 3RY UK Distributors of Reinhardt-Technik Metering Mixing Dispensing Systems

For more information quote EMS Enquiry No. 124 on IBC


Figure 4: VDM Effect Categories in FMEA analysis

environments, to roll out the pilot approach and results to other critical equipments in the plant, making continuous improvement not only an ideology but also a proven capability of the organisation. More and more companies are starting to discover that this improvement function, often referred to as Reliability Engineering, is the true accelerator of any maintenance performance improvement. The revised, or optimised preventive maintenance plan, must be implemented in the EAM/CMMS system. We strongly encourage tool developments like SAP-RCMO, making it possible to do and document the FMECA/RCManalysis ‘almost’ inside the SAP EAM system, establishing a transparent link between failure modes and actual PM tasks in the system. Using the same Figure 5: Cost Control Improvement Loop

Failure Mode codes (as derived from the FMEA analysis) in EAM/CMMS breakdown reporting gives vital feedback on the MTBF estimates used in the FMEA analysis. This actually is a big step in transferring knowledge from the heads of our people (only) into a validated knowledgebase. Implementing a VDM based maintenance strategy often means closing the improvement loops (Plan, Do, Check, Act). The VDM Control Panel monitors the actual progress of your improvement activities and identifies new opportunities. The most problematic equipment, if properly ‘attacked’, will eventually fall from the top-N list but, as always in real-life, new problem equipments will show up. One of the powerful analysis features of the VDM Control Panel is to correlate bunches of relevant data into a

logical action strategy. For example, figure 6 shows a correlation between number of failures and number of inspections per (main equipment). It shows at a glance the effectiveness of the current inspection policy. For example, the matrix quadrant ‘frequent inspection, hardly any repair from inspection of breakdown’ indicates it is worth to analyze to lower the inspection frequency or eliminate the inspection task in full. The quadrant ‘frequent breakdowns, no inspections’ obviously indicates a new equipment failure mode that hasn’t been tackled in the PM plan before. The VDM Control Panel is an excellent starting point for any focused problem solving and decision making (techniques like root cause analysis, 5 Why’s, etc). So, how much value can a maintenance improvement initiative actually generate? Here are some typical examples: DSM realised a sustainable 30% cost reduction by implementing gatekeeping, no change mentality, asset based budgeting, standardized work processes DAF Trucks realized an uptime improvement of 27%, meaning 14.000 extra produced trucks yearly, by systematically reducing the lead-time of the weekly scheduled cleaning stop

IFF Tilburg managed to deliver the production volumes of originally 3 plants into only 2, by improved line availability of the remaining two Smurfit Kappa Packaging Nieuweschans improved equipment output with a 8 OEE percentage points, resulting in lower stoppages and defects, reducing maintenance costs by 25%. The cash flow result of more output at lower costs equals to a 15% improvement of the companies EBITDA. Cement Australia applied an MRO segmentation strategy to optimise the stock levels throughout their production plants and reduced the inventory value by 40%. Conclusions Value Driven Maintenance is a start to finish approach. It is a platform to collect, describe and exchange internal and external best practices. It delivers a full maintenance planning & control framework supported by modern tools like the EAM/CMMS VDM Control Panel. Welcome to the next generation in maintenance management... www.mainnovation.com Reader Reply Number: 309

Figure 6: VDM CP Detailed Graph & action categories

27 EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info


Dustcontrol UK Ltd discuss the problems associated with dust pollution in modern fibreglass production facilities and how an integrated high vac system can provide the competitive advantage you may be wondering how to achieve

DUST, PRODUCT QUALITY, health & workplace efficiency Fibreglass has many unique qualities and is used in an increasing number of industries such as automotive, marine, aviation and wind turbine. The increased use of fibreglass has resulted in problems for personnel as well as production itself. Significant health risks Fibreglass dust makes you itch just by looking at it – but the problem is much greater than that. Fibreglass dust has a low weight and stays airborne for a long time. It penetrates into the trachea and lungs and stays there causing allergies, asthma and even cancer. OSHA and the European Union mandate have imposed limits on how much airborne dust is permitted within the operators breathing zone. The World Health Organization has classified ceramic fibres and other special fibres as possible contributors to cancer.

Faults in electronics increase costs In addition to the negative consequences of health, the fibreglass dust causes faults in computers and other production equipment. Visibility for the operators is decreased in many working situations and in most companies the cost for cleaning has increased. Fortunately there are efficient solutions to the problem With 35 years of experience, Dustcontrol offers a unique know-how about on-tool extraction that draws away, filters and removes the dangerous particles. With on-tool extraction, the dust is collected where it is created. The result is a cleaner working environment and in many cases, increased product quality because of less contamination during production.

On tool extraction from sanders during aircraft preparation. Note the operative working on another job unhindered in the same area

The right extraction system contributes to health and economy Improved health through less fibreglass dust and other particles in the air. Safer work and increased productivity since there is no dust decreasing the operator’s visibility. Increased productivity due to fewer disturbances in surrounding areas. Eliminates need for dedicated grinding room. Longer life time for tools and electronic equipment. Reduced time and costs for cleaning. Less faults due to dust in computers and electronics. Extraction system can also be incorporated into FOD prevention scheme. Strict environmental requirements combined with advanced technical solutions encouraged the manufacturer of Airbus to choose solutions from Dustcontrol for their German installation in Mühlenberger Loch, outside Hamburg. The suction systems are designed for continuous operation. The deliveries covered complete installation of pneumatic, mechanical and control systems. Special emphasis was put upon EX protected installations. Three of the four installations have been purpose-built for dust explosion risks, complying with a k value of 180 bar m/sec. In addition to offering a dustless environment for such tasks as drilling, milling and grinding, the suction systems are used for general vacuum cleaning tasks and extraction of residue materials during riveting and gluing works. Also sealant materials and chrome residual products are involved. The materials which are commonly extracted are aluminium, GLARE (GLAss-REinforced” Fibre Metal Laminate), carbon fibre, fibreglass, epoxy, polyester, aluminium alloys and titanium. www.dustcontrol.co.uk Reader Reply Number: 310

28 EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info


Deritend is one of the few UK companies qualified to repair, certify, install and commission electric motors for use in ATEX zoned environments

Repairing motors for use in

ATEX DUST ZONES While traditional industries such as petrochemical processing facilities are used to working in conformity with the ATEX Regulations, Deritend is warning that many firms are now likely to be using motors without the correct certification in the newly defined ATEX zone 20 to 22 hazardous dust conditions Industries such as paper, processing, food preparation, textiles, woodworking and companies supplying machines into these sectors, are likely to be included for the first time and require the

most information on these new rules Companies need to use suppliers and repairers that correctly certify machines if they are to avoid liability should something go wrong. Commenting, Dave Hawley, General Manager of the Deritend Wolverhampton motor repair and rewind workshops: 'there are many companies that are now subject to ATEX regulations for the first time, due to the inclusion of dust laden atmospheres. They may be aware that explosions

and fires caused by dust can be equally as devastating as those caused by explosive gases and vapours, but not what constitutes a risk and how to address it. Compliance as far as dust and electric motors are concerned is actually relatively simple and the motor parameters required are not extreme, but there is a genuine need to know within industry'. www.deritend.co.uk Reader Reply Number: 311

Dust and fume extraction hoses from Masterflex


www.engineeringmaintenance.info for the latest Jobs News Interviews Online Seminars Events Training Products White Papers Case Studies Forum

Temperature range -260째C to +1100째C Size range 38 mm to 900 mm Very flexible, small bend radius Long service life, low operating costs Suitable installation and connecting systems Masterflex Technical Hoses Ltd GB-Oldham OL1 4ER Tel: 0161 626 8066 www.masterflex-uk.com PU / FABRIC HOSES

For more information quote EMS Enquiry No. 125 on IBC



For more information quote EMS Enquiry No. 126 on IBC

EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info



During last year, a heat-regenerated adsorption dryer of the BEKO Everdry® FRP 5500 C type was installed in a large steel mill in Lower Saxony, Germany, for the application-based processing of compressed air

BEKO prove their steel As a result of increased demand in the steel market, the production capacity for structural steel had expanded in the works. This also involved an increased demand for high quality processed compressed air. Measuring devices are used in the production process which needs such compressed air. Besides the required compressed-air quality, great importance was attached to an absolutely reliable plant control and data transmission, as the system operates continuously and without supervision. The dryer is controlled by a PLC (programmable logic controller). All process data is indicated at the control cabinet and transmitted to the primary control unit via "Ethernet". The electrical control was designed in close cooperation with the plant operator, in accordance with the in-house standard of the facility.

30 EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info

There were no issues at all after one year, on the occasion of the preventive maintenance. All the customer’s requirements were met or exceeded, and the required compressedair quality supplied. "The hopes we placed on EverAir, a company of the Beko group were entirely fulfilled", commented the customer. "We activated the plant and, afterwards, we could forget about it, so to speak." The dryer supplies a volume of 5,500 Nm3/h with a pressure dew point of -40°C. Compressed air which is not required for the application is fed into the general operational network for the shop air. www.bekotechnologies.com Reader Reply Number: 312

For details of the positions below email us at info@mslrecruitment.com or to view more superb vacancies please visit www.mslrecruitment.com APPLICATION MANAGER (M/F)

The Application Manager is responsible for the optimal functioning of the ERP-software. For this purpose, he/she consults with the key-users of Kiremko and the supplier of the ERP-software. Duties: • Maintenance, testing and organizing of the ERP-software • Consult with the key-users of Kiremko and the supplier of the ERP-software • Manage the several Crystal-repports • Act as stand-in co-worker Planning Engineer Job requirements: • Higher Vocational Education working-/meditate level • Great moderation of self-reliance • Pro-active attitude to work







The Planner/Outsourcing Manager is responsible for the planning of the Drawing Office and the Production. He/she is co-responsible for outsourcing-projects which are being made by the department Bedrijfbureau and program the laser cutting block. • Organize a planning for the Drawing Office and the Production Duties: • Issue delivery periods for the various projects, and keep watch on these delivery periods • Co-responsible for outsourcing-projects which are being made by the department Bedrijfsbureau • Co-responsible for programming the laser cutting block • Closely consult with Head Logistics & Production, Head Drawing Office and Head Production Job requirements: • Education and/or experience on Higher Vocational Education level • Great moderation of self-reliance • Pro-active attitude to work

The constructional fitter-welder is partly responsible for constructing stainless steel machinery for the food industry in a team as well as independently. The constructional fitter-welder is also partly responsible for the correct procedure of constructing these machines, taking into account the current quality and safety standards. Job requirements: • Professional training level of mechanical or metal engineering. • Experience in processing stainless steel would be an advantage. • Experience in constructing machines for the food processing industry. • Having mastered the TIG- and pulse-MIG/MAG-welding process (level 2 minimum) • Being able to work independently as well as in a team • Critical yet positive craftsman • Willing to work and being able to work under pressure

The Draftsman/Designer is responsible for designing and drawing of machinery and parts of machinery. The Draftsman/Designer is the contact person for the departments Production and Project Management for the drawings which he/she produced. Duties: • Calculate and designing of machinery • Drawing of parts of machinery in detail • Entering of material bills in the ERP-system • Maintenance of contacts with for instance the departments Production and Project Management • Follow up for instance the following duties as Product Specialist: - keeping the logbooks up-to-date - checking up the drawings - keeping the standard machinery up-to-date Job requirements: • Technical College-level mechanical engineering, or equal experience • Experience as a Designer of machinery • Experience with the food sector is an advantage • Managerial capacities • Pro-active attitude to work • Great moderation of self-reliance • Knowledge of CAD systems, with preference Inventor

The Sales Engineer works closely together with, and assist the Area Sales Managers, Agents, Account Managers en Project Managers. De Sales Engineer takes care of offers and budget proposals and will follow them up if necessarily. The Sales Engineer will also take care of the administrative handling of order confirmations. • Being a good assistant of the Area Sales Managers, Agents, Account Duties: Managers en Project Managers • Take care of commercial descriptions for products/product groups • Self-employed preparing of offers en budget proposals in case of standard machinery • Prepare offers and budget proposals together with Product Managers in case of specials Job requirements: • Education and/or experience on Higher Vocational Education level, respectively the working field • Commercial and communication skills • Organizing skills • Dynamic en consisting working attitude • Good control of Microsoft Office • Good command of the languages Dutch, English and German, verbal and in writing

The mechanic will assist with installing, maintenance and modification duties on machinery and systems of Kiremko B.V.’s customers. These duties will be carried out on site in the Netherlands as well as abroad. A job with options for future development. • Installing machinery and systems on site Duties: • Modification and revision of machinery and systems • Maintenance of machinery Job requirements: • Experience in several welding techniques like Mig-, Tig-, backinggas- and electrode-welding and experience in processing stainless steel would be an advantage. • Being prepared to work irregular hours and at weekends. Also being prepared to work away from home for longer periods. • Performing at the professional training level of mechanical engineering. • Some working experience would be an advantage

The Draftsman is responsible for drawing of machinery and parts of machinery and the contact person for the departments Production and Project Management for the drawings which he/she produced. Duties: • Drawing of machinery • Drawing of parts of machinery in detail • Entering of material bills in the ERP-system • Maintenance of contacts with for instance the departments Production and Project Management Job requirements: • Intermediate Technical School/Technical College-level mechanical engineering, or equal experience • Experience as a Draftsman of machinery is an preference • Experience with the food sector is an advantage • Knowledge of CAD systems, with preference Inventor

www.kiremko.com 31 EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info



Email Contact

Telephone Number



0800 0854161



0870 2425004

sales@byworth.co.uk sales@certuss.co.uk info@wellman-thermal.com

01535 665225 0121 3275362 0121 543 0000


0121 543 0000


+44 (0)1980 847129

info@cayman.co.uk m.jones@productivityeurope.org info@idhammarsystems.com info@shiresystems.co.uk info@softsolsgroup.com

0191 2963816 01234 215867 0117 9309300 44(0) 23 80224111 44(0)1924 200344

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mike@alpine-components .co.uk info@artesis.com sales@elcomponent.co.uk sales@holroyd-instruments.com sales@proviso-systems.co.uk info@monitran.co.uk info.uk@schaeffler.com info@spminstrument.co.uk

01424 437000 0845 634 3854 01279 503173 01629 822060 01777 817536 01494 816569 0121 351 3833 01706 835331


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sales@expresshire.net sales@flir.com industrial@uk.fluke.nl sales@hawk-ir.com –

01772 815600 01732 221245 020 7942 0700 01642 497000 01420 544 433


44 (0)151 424 4060


01909 504700


0845 6801957

BOILERS Byworth Boilers www.byworth.co.uk Certuss Steam Generators www.certuss.co.uk Wellman Robey www.wellman-thermal.com BOILER HIRE Wellman Robey www.wellman-thermal.com BOLT SECURING SYSTEMS Nordlock Ltd www.nord-lock.co.uk CMMS Cayman Venture www.cayman.co.uk Productivity Europe www.productivityeurope.org Idhammar Systems Ltd www.idhammarsystems.com Shire Systems www.shiresystems.co.uk Softsols Group Ltd www.getagility.com COMPRESSED AIR Airchannel Ltd www.airchannel.co.uk Atlas Copco Compressors www.atlascopco.co.uk Gardner Denver www.gardnerdenver.com COMPRESSED HIRE Speedy Compressors www.speedyhire.co.uk/compressors CONDITION MONITORING Alpine Components www.alpine-components.co.uk Artesis www.artesis.com Elcomponent Ltd www.elcomponent.co.uk Holroyd Instruments www.holroyd-instruments.com Proviso Systems www.proviso-systems.co.uk Monitran www.monitran.co.uk Schaeffler www.schaeffler.co.uk SPM Instrument UK ltd www.spminstrument.co.uk CONDITION MONITORING EQUIPMENT/SERVICES Rockwell Automation www.rockwellautomation.co.uk DATA ACQUISITION Metrum www.metrum.co.uk HEALTH & SAFETY Integrity&Compliance Management www.icm-uk.com HEALTH & SAFETY PRODUCTS Rockwell Automation www.rockwellautomation.co.uk INDUSTRIAL COOLING TPC(Total Process CoolingLtd) www.totalprocesscooling.co.uk INDUSTRIAL DOOR SERVICES BID Group www.bidgroup.co.uk INDUSTRIAL FLOORING CG Flooring Systems Ltd www.cg-flooring.com LUBRICATION ATS Electro-lube (UK) ltd www.ats-electro-lube.co.uk PLANNED MAINTENANCE T Cards Direct www.tcardsdirect.com THERMOGRAPHY Express Instrument Hire www.expresshire.net Flir www.flir.com Fluke www.fluke.co.uk Hawk-IR www.hawk-ir.com Testo Ltd www.testo.co.uk/testo880 THERMOGRAPHY TRAINING The Institute of Infrared Thermography www.infraredinstitute.co.uk TRAINING National Fluid Power Centre www.nfpc.co.uk VIBRATION ANALYSIS Hansford Sensors www.hansfordsensors.com


32 EMS July/August 2008 www.engineeringmaintenance.info



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