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20’s Life Magazine


Immigration Tension By Alison Schwitzer The Immigration Act of 1924 limited the number of immigrants allowed entry into the United States through a national origins quota. The quota provided immigration visas to two percent of the total number of people of each nationality in the United States as of the 1890 national census. It completely excluded immigrants from Asia. In 1917, the U.S. Congress enacted the first widely restrictive immigration law. The 1917 Act implemented a literacy test that required immigrants over 16 years old to demonstrate basic reading comprehension in any language. It also increased the tax paid by new immigrants upon arrival and allowed immigration officials to exercise more discretion in making decisions over whom to exclude. Finally, the Act excluded from entry anyone born in a geographically defined “Asiatic Barred Zone� except for Japanese and Filipinos. China was not included in the Barred Zone. The literacy test alone was not enough to prevent most potential immigrants from entering, so members of Congress sought a new way to restrict immigration in the 1920s. Immigration expert and Republican Senator from Vermont, William P. Dillingham, introduced a measure to create immigration quotas, which he set at three percent of the total population of the foreign-born of each nationality in the United States as recorded in the 1910 census. This put the total number of visas available each year to new immigrants at 350,000. In early 1921, the newly inaugurated President Warren Harding, called Congress back to a special session to pass the law. In 1922, the act was renewed for another two years. When the Congressional debate over immigration began in 1924. Though there were advocates for raising quotas and allowing more people to enter, the champions of restriction triumphed. They created a plan that lowered the existing quota from three to two percent of the foreign born population. The 1924, Immigration Act also included a provision excluding from entry of any alien who by virtue of race or nationality was ineligible for citizenship. As a result, the 1924 Act meant that even Asians not previously prevented from immigrating, would no longer be admitted to the United States. The Japanese government protested, but the law remained, resulting in an increase in existing tensions between the two nations. But it appeared that the U.S. Congress had decided that preserving the racial composition of the country was more important than promoting good ties with the Japanese empire. The restrictionist principles of the Act could have resulted in strained relations with some European countries as well, but these potential problems did not appear for several reasons. A variety of factors, including the global depression of the 1930s, World War II, and stricter enforcement of U.S. immigration policy.


Credit and Installment Buying Before the war credit was used only by the rich to make large purchases. At the end of the war the economic boom made a huge supply of goods available to many of the American people. As a result the amount people wanted increased and people spent more money. A new way of paying for things was established in order to make large payments possible. This new way of paying for things was credit and installment buying.

Written By: Nathaniel Nyberg

Credit and installment buying enabled you to easily buy what you wanted for a low monthly payment. This method allowed for ownership of expensive items while being able to pay a small amount each month. Only three months after credit cards were created, over 500,000 people owned one. Consumers changed their spending habits as it became easier to pay for things. People soon wanted to get everything new in the latest fashions. Companies started to bring their products to advertising especially in television to help make their products more popular. Average Americans soon joined the rich in trying to show their social status through what they have. Everyone tried to keep up with the new thing that helped the economy through increased spending.


Dawes Plan The world to end all wars was over but hostilities were still high. Germany had been forced into paying $33 billion dollars in reparations. A state of panic was felt in Germany and other countries. Something had to be done to help Germany through its current crises. The answer to this predicament was the Dawes Plan. Dawes Plan was created by Charles G. Dawes, an American financer, to help Germany deal with its reparation fees. Dawes plan included several financial reforms, reserves of gold to back up German economy, new taxes, loans (mostly from America), and removal of French troops from German territory. The plan was accepted by the Allies and Germany August 1824 which averted international crises.

Written By: Nathaniel Nyberg


Dating In The 1920’s By Alison Schwitzer For the first time ever there was no need for chaperones and any formal commitment and there is lots of freedom. Instead of the church establishing the rules the couple was able to. The control of dating shifted from female to male because dating would take place at the females house before but now the men took them out and paid for everything. New technologies changed dating, cars aloud for couples to leave the home and have more privacy. The most popular activities to do on dates were to go dancing or go to the movies. This helped those who gave these services benefit economically. In this time dating was more for popularity benefits and to have fun and less about finding someone to care for and love for the rest of their lives. This time helped to establish what dating was and what it is today. Many of these practices used then, are still used today.


Advertising -Eric Sedlacek

Readership to profitable magazines sold from 10,000 readers prior to the 1890s to a circulation of around a halfmillion, but by 1914, readers grew weary and bored with the magazines campaigns from reform more importantly advertisers objected strongly to it investigations on articles, which reflected badly on their own kind. Coca, cola serves as a good example of how product advertising over this forty year period, Colgate toothpaste 1924 .25 cents for a large tube of toothpaste.

Prior to World War 1, muckraking journals like McClure’s achieved widespread circulation by exposing corruption and greed in business, politics. Changes in print technology in the 1890s and a heavy dependence upon advertisers allowed publishers to drop their prices from thirty-five cents to a nickel.


American Civil Liberties -Eric Sedlacek

The civil liberty union was created to help support the civil liberties in America. They believed in freedom and equality. They worked for the betterment of America and her people helped progress the ways Americans did things and helped break down barriers that kept so many Americans apart. Public concerns should be freely expressed, orderly social progress unrestricted by freedom of opinion. Negative response to opinion cannot be tolerated and must be productd by constitutional law, some things that must be protected are free speech, press, freedom of assemble, light to strike. Restricted search and seizure, right to a fair trial, imagery freedom to be educated and educate, and racial equality


19th Amendment Isabelle Hingtgen

The Nineteenth Amendment was passed on June 4th of 1919. This amendment was ratified on August 18, 1920. The Nineteenth Amendment granted women the right to vote, when previously only men could. However, women had it worse than many may think. They had to suffer majorly to get the right to vote, which is often overlooked because people today don’t know what it was like for women in the 1920`s

Women sometimes fought for the right to vote by protesting, often in large groups in front of the white house. Unfortunately, most women were arrested and taken to jail for this protesting. Some women would even go so far as to go on hunger strikes, refusing to eat until they got what they were fighting for. Women on hunger strikes would most of the time be force fed if they followed through for long enough. All in all, women often had to suffer much more than some might think.


Impacts New of Communication As radio capabilities advanced so did its popularity. More amateur radio broadcasts were created attracting new listeners of all types of Americans. The first regular scheduled broadcast was created by Westinghouse which changed radio forever. Some colleges started to incorporate radio into their education programs. Radio stations started advertising products, boosting sales of much merchandise. Many stations started to broadcast music. As a result music became more popular and this helped As radio capabilities advanced so did its spread different forms of music, like jazz, popularity. More amateur radio broadcasts were amongst more people. Radio broadcasts could created attracting new listeners of all types of inform people of things that happened in other Americans. The first regular scheduled broadcast parts of the country. Events were broadcasted to was created by Westinghouse which changed many Americans helping to form a more common radio forever. Some colleges started to culture throughout America. incorporate radio into their education programs. Radio stations started advertising products, boosting sales of much merchandise. Many stations started to broadcast music. As a result music became more popular and this helped spread different forms of music, like jazz, amongst more people. Radio broadcasts could inform people of things that happened in other parts of the country. Events were broadcasted to many Americans helping to form a more common culture throughout America. As changes in technology were made, new ways of communication were established. From newspapers to magazines to radio, people began to pay more attention to events going on across the country that had become available through new forms of communication. New forms of communications helped to evolve the way Americans did things and changed life forever.

New communication helped to progress America through the 1920’s. New technologies helped to make getting word out to people. As more people got more information they began to like new things. As people liked new things a new pop culture was established that was common throughout the U.S.


Union Strikes By Alison Schwitzer In the spring of 1929, 3,500 textile operators at the Loray Mill in Gastonia, North Carolina, went on strike against the company. Under the leadership of Fred Beale, the National Textile Workers Union, a union allied with the Communist Party, had been organizing in Gastonia for months. Low wages, the stretch-out system of assigning looms to workers, and long hours were among the workers' chief grievances. On April 1, workers from both shifts walked out, demanding employers meet their demands and give the union recognition. They were met with a well-organized resistance. Local employers formed a Committee of One Hundred to break the strike, and the governor of the state sent in the National Guard to keep the mill open.

Although strikes were not permitted during World War I, several strikes occurred soon after World War I. Such as the 1920 Alabama coal strike (1920, U.S.), Seamen's Strike (1921, U.S.), Great Railroad Strike of 1922 (U.S.), Anthracite Coal Strike (1922, U.S.), Bituminous Coal Strike (1922, U.S.), Railroad Shopmen's Strike (1922, U.S.), Portland Waterfront Strikes (1922, U.S.), Hanapepe massacre (1924, U.S.), Kashmiri Silk Workers 3rd Strike 1924, Passaic New Jersey, Textile Strike (1926, U.S.), Columbine Mine Massacre Strike (1927, U.S.), New Bedford Massachusetts, Textile Strike (1928, U.S.), Loray Mill Strike (Gastonia, North Carolina, Textile Strike) (1929, U.S.).


Henry Ford Abbie Cram

Henry Ford did not invent the automobile or the assembly line but he did found the Ford Motor Company and he made the automobile more affordable. The Ford Motor Company was the largest automobile manufacture in the 1920’s.

Ford used assembly lines in his factories and because assembly lines made cars more cheaply, the price of cars went down from $850, a price the upper class people could only afford in the early 1900’s, down to $250, a price most every could afford in the 1920’s. The car, the Model-T, was produced every 10 seconds in one of Fords factories. Ford was very successful; when he retired in 1945 his estimated wealth was $700 million. He was known for bringing the assembly line to an industrial stage and for his achievements in labor and manufacturing.


Impact on sports -Eric Sedlacek.

Babe Ruth single handedly made baseball from a game of speed and daring to one of power, to bring the millions of people to the ballpark. William “big bill” Tatem Tilden 2nd became the first over icon to win a Wimblam title in 1920. He recaptured his title in1921 and 1931 as well further expanding his list of victories. July 2, 1921, American boxer jacks “the Manassas mauler” Dempsey fought 21 people and won all. Horse racing was a competition/sport that people bet money on and lost money for their families and life. Halfback red grange #77 and Notre dame coach knute rockney he led the football into a new era, college football was popular because young men had a chance to play football and enter universities in America


Impact of Film Isabelle Hingtgen

Motion pictures were America`s fifth-ranking industry by the early 1920`s. Movie’s in the 1920’s seemed to have few actors and actresses. Usually only 4-7 per movie. Charlie Chaplin was a famous actor when film first started to become popular. He also directed, edited, and produced several other popular films.

Film was so popular in the Roaring 20`s, that it influenced most people, especially young adults and teenagers. The way people dressed, acted, and saw certain things were all influenced by the films and their popularity. People would often wear clothes and act like the actors and actresses in popular films. Films also created movie stars such as Charlie Chaplin, one of the most famous actors in the 1920`s


The 18th Amendment Kennedy Posey

Prohibition in the 20’s is something that started off as a way to protect families, but ended up starting violence that killed many people. It started in 1920, by the 18th amendment. At the beginning, Prohibition (the banning of making, selling, or transporting alcohol) did make deaths go down. Families weren’t being ruined because fathers/husbands were coming home drunk every night. But, Prohibition quickly took a turn for the worse. People would smuggle alcohol onto boats, but stayed outside the 3 mile limit, so US officials couldn’t arrest them. It also became harder for Prohibition to be enforced when speakeasies came into the picture. Speakeasies were secret bars that had huge stashes of alcohol. Flapper girls and jazz bands would be common in these bars. When officials found out about these secret bars, they would go and break them up.

Prohibition also started gangs and mobs. Al Capone, one of the most famous mobsters, murdered people just so he could get his hands on some alcohol. This was very common, and murder rates went up dramatically during the first few years of Prohibition. Prohibition did help a bit, however. More husbands would come right home after work, and less of their wages would be spent on alcohol. But in the end, Prohibition did more harm than good, and was eventually repealed by the 21st amendment in 1933.


Scopes Trial Abbie Cram

The Scopes Trial, also called The Monkey Trial, was a debate over the theory of evolution, a scientific idea by Charles Darwin that all plants and animals evolved from a simpler life form, and creationism, the belief that God created the universe like described in the Bible.

John Scopes was a high school biology teacher for Dayton, Tennessee who illegally taught one lesson on the theory of evolution. Scopes was taken to court since in Tennessee it was not legal to teach the theory of evolution. The trial began on July 10, 1925. Bryan, an expert on the Bible and a lawyer, was chosen to defend the State of Tennessee and Darrow was chosen to defend Scopes. After a surprising trial the jury decided, in less than 10 minutes, that Scopes was guilty and he was charged $100.


Impact of New Celebrities By Kennedy Posey

The types of modern day celebrities that you see now, all started in the 20’s. New celebrities made for a constant stream of fashion, and products. Radio and movies were what made these people famous. Radio brought spectator sports to home. Professional athletes were now idolized more than ever. Instead of seeing Babe Ruth hit a homerun out of the grand stand, you could hear the “pop” of the baseball in the comfort of your own home. Professional athletes, like Babe Ruth, did lots of endorsements. Why wouldn’t you want to buy your favorite movie star’s favorite drink? New celebrities made for more product consumption.

Also, the invention of silent films, and “talkies” made for the first movie stars. Celebrities like Charlie Chaplin were introduced with the making of film. People wanted to wear what they wore, so magazine sales were up the roof. And with jazz being so popular, Duke Ellington, and other jazz musicians got their fame from record sales, and from playing in clubs. Basically sales of products went up because of these new celebrities in the 1920’s.


Forms of Transportation Isabelle Hingtgen

The automobile was a very important and popular invention in the 1920`s, mainly with younger people who wanted excitement and freedom. The invention of the automobile not only improved transportation, but it also improved the economy. Parents could now drive to work and people could now visit their friends and family that lived farther away. The new cars were so popular that new factories and workers were required.

Airplanes were another very big invention in the 1920`s. Invented by the Wright Brothers, the airplane astounded everyone from the poor, to the rich. Unfortunately, this invention was not taken seriously until the idea of mail delivery by plane was introduced by the federal government. Although the airplane did not catch on quite as quickly as other inventions, they are still very popular today.


Consumerism Kennedy Posey

New consumer products made for a much easier life in the 20’s. The washing machine, the vacuum cleaner and the cooker all meant that women did not have to spend so long carrying out boring household chores. More and more people had leisure time be sue of these chore-lessening products, and could go out and buy more products. It was an endless cycle. New celebrities also contributed to consumerism in the 20’s. They would endorse products, and boost the sales. Everyone wanted to buy what their favorite celebrity bought!

Consumerism in the 20’s wasn’t all what it seems. The US had a lot of money after WWI, but since war goods were no longer needed, the US didn’t have that income. And because husbands in the war had a lot of money, they would waste it on frivolous things, and soon become broke. This eventually started the Great Depression.


Impact of Music Abbie Cram

In the 1920’s, jazz music was huge! Jazz was so big that the 1920’s was the only decade to be named after a type of music, The Jazz Age. Jazz fans became more attracted to bigger cities, like New York and Chicago, because people there were more open to the idea of jazz music. Although older people did not like jazz music it still lead to new dances like the Charleston and the One Step.

Some of the most famous musicians during the jazz age were Bessie Smith, George Gershwin, and Duke Ellington. Bessie Smith was an African American bestselling jazz and blues artist who was successful tell the end of the 1920’s. George Gershwin composed songs on his piano for plays, some of the songs he composed were Somebody Loves Me, Do it Again, and Swanee. Duke Ellington is considered the greatest jazz musician ever.


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Finished magazine american studies  

1st period Kennedy, Allison, Eric, Nathaniel, Abbie, Isabelle