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Committee of the Global Engineers & Technologists Review Chief Editor Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad Zaidi, MALAYSIA Managing Editor Mohd Zulkifli Ibrahim, MALAYSIA Editorial Board Dr. Arsen Adamyan Yerevan State University ARMENIA

Prof. Dr. Ravindra S. Goonetilleke The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology HONG KONG

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Gasham Zeynalov Khazar University AZERBAIJAN

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Youngwon Park Waseda University JAPAN

Assistant Prof. Dr. Tatjana Konjić University of Tuzla Bosnia and Herzegovina BOSNIA and HERZEGOVINA

Prof. Dr. Qeethara Kadhim Abdulrahman Al-Shayea Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan JORDAN

Assistant Prof. Dr. Muriel de Oliveira Gavira State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) BRAZIL

Prof. Yousef S.H. Najjar Jordan University of Science and Technology JORDAN

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Plamen Mateev Sofia University of St. Kliment Ohridsky BULGARIA

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Al-Tahat D. Mohammad University of Jordan JORDAN

Dr. Zainab Fatimah Syed The University of Calgary CANADA

Assoc. Prof. Dr. John Ndichu Nder Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology(JKUAT) KENYA

Assistant Prof. Dr. Jennifer Percival University of Ontario Institute of Technology CANADA Prof. Dr. Sc. Igor Kuzle University of Zagreb CROATIA Assoc. Prof. Dr. Milan Hutyra VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava CZECH

Prof. Dr. Megat Mohamad Hamdan Megat Ahmad The National Defence University of Malaysia MALAYSIA Prof. Dr. Rachid Touzani Université Mohammed 1er MOROCCO Prof. Dr. José Luis López-Bonilla Instituto Politécnico Nacional MEXICO

Prof. Dr. Mohamed Abas Kotb Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport EGYPT

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ramsés Rodríguez-Rocha IPN Avenida Juan de Dios Batiz MEXICO

Prof. Dr. Laurent Vercouter INSA de Rouen FRANCE

Dr. Bharat Raj Pahari Tribhuvan University NEPAL

Prof. Dr. Abdullah Saand Quaid-e-Awam University College of Eng. Sc. & Tech. PAKISTAN Prof. Dr. Naji Qatanani An-Najah National University PALESTINE Prof. Dr. Anita Grozdanov University Ss Cyril and Methodius REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA Prof. Dr. Vladimir A. Katić University of Novi Sad SERBIA Prof. Dr. Aleksandar M. Jovović Belgrade University SERBIA Prof. Dr. A.K.W. Jayawardane University of Moratuwa SRI LANKA Prof. Dr. Gunnar Bolmsjö University West SWEDEN Prof. Dr. Peng S. Wei National Sun Yat-sen University at Kaohsiung. TAIWAN

Prof. Dr. Ing. Alfonse M. Dubi The Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology TANZANIA Assoc. Prof. Chotchai Charoenngam Asian Institute of Technology THAILAND Prof. Dr. Hüseyin Çimenoğlu Instanbul Technical University (İTÜ) TURKEY Assistant Prof. Dr. Zeynep Eren Ataturk University TURKEY Dr. Mahmoud Chizari The University of Manchester UNITED KINGDOM Prof. Dr. David Hui University of New Orleans USA Prof. Dr. Pham Hung Viet Hanoi University of Science VIETNAM Prof. Dr. Raphael Muzondiwa Jingura Chinhoyi University of Technology ZIMBABWE

Dear the Seeker of Truth and Knowledge To bring a new journal into the world class literature is a great challenge, especially when the aim of the journal is to publish the high quality manuscripts. This is as shown in the right-path progress of The Getview to going to the excellent position. Certainly, the relentless work and vision of editorial board inspires The Getview track, beside their helpful reviews given to assist authors in improving the manuscripts. The mission of the journal will not change: We seek to publish the best work that bridges the interests of two or more communities in engineering and technology. Due to become a great journal recognized is not only where the authors choose to send their most exciting findings, but also on the application and practicable approaches by many ways in which a study can fulfill this criterion, then some work bridges different literatures to transform a question and its importance to the field related with value interdisciplinary research constructed is also the reasons to value the best research of any kind. Hence, by emphasizing on the developing of knowledge, The Getview would like to invite you to participate in the next volume publication by submitting your most important research and encouraging your colleagues to submit the quality manuscripts to us. Regardless the manuscript is accepted or not, one of the great benefits The Getview can provide to the prospective author(s) is mentoring nature of our review process.

Prof. Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad Zaidi, PhD. Chief Editor The Global Engineers and Technologists Review


Global Engineers and Technologists Review GETview ISSN: 2231-9700 (ONLINE) Volume 3 Number 4 July 2013 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Publisher.

Printed and Published in Malaysia

CONTENTS Vol.3, No.4, 2013 1.




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ISSN 2231-9700 (online)



Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering Technology TATi University College Jalan Panchor, Teluk Kalong, 24000 Kemaman, Terengganu, MALAYSIA 1 4

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Malaysia Pahang Kampus Pekan, 26600, Pekan, Pahang, MALAYSIA 5

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Beg Berkunci 101, Parit Raja, 86400, Batu Pahat, Johor, MALAYSIA ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to assess noise level at machine shop. There are total of 27 machines in the workshop. Data collected on individual noise level discovered that the lowest and the highest noise levels was at 45 dB(A) and 75 dB(A) respectively at the average of 64 dB(A). Data collected were analysed accordingly using algometric scale and discovered that the total noise level was at 81 dB(A). Result showed that the total noise level was below the standard of Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) which was at 90 dB(A) and therefore did not contribute significant effect to human hearing. Keywords: Noise Pollution, Decibels- dB(A), Permissible Exposure Level, Action Level. Article History: Received 7 July 2013, Accepted 26 July 2013.



Noise definition is traditionally unchanged and defined as unwanted sound which could cause hearing loss (Fridlund et al., 1987). One of the common places that people are exposed to noise is in the industrial activities (Dube et al., 2011). People often experience temporary deafness after leaving a noisy place and if it is not being properly controlled could adverse effect to human hearing (Banerjee et al., 2009). The effect to human hearing could be divided into two categories; temporary or permanent which is influenced as well by genetic, infectious, drug-related, physical trauma and structural causes (Frangulov et al., 2004). Permanent hearing damage can be caused immediately by sudden, extremely loud, explosive noises, e.g. from guns or cartridge-operated machines. From the labour force survey of the United Kingdom in 2008/2009, there are approximately 17,000 people suffer deafness, ringing in the ears or other ear conditions caused by excessive noise at work within the 12 months period (HSE, 2013). Furthermore, noise disturbance not only contribute adverse effect to human hearing but also influence property as the property value tend to be more expensive away from noise sources (Rahmatian and Cockerill, 2004). The issue of noise disturbance to workers have been globally recognized and being addressed in most nations as occupational, safety and health act and the international standard has been set up as well regarding the critically of noise issue (ISO 9612, 2009). Locally, the Malaysian authority call under the specific noise regulation where the permissible expose level (PEL) is set at 90 dB(A) for continuous 8 hours noise exposure (FMEA, 2006) and this is also known as international standard in most nation. This Malaysian Act is further enforced under the latest Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (OSHA, 2006) of which the employer is required to keep the employee in safe working condition including the used of personal protective equipment as last resort of controlling any hazard. Further and to be more specific, numbers authorities and organizations have initiated to detail down what has been known as code of practice to regulate and control noise issue at their own premises (COP, 2002; COP, 2011). Globally, researchers have showed concerned to noise way back since 1960 as number of international researches have been conducted regarding noises ranging in various field; from industrial to transport, from physical, physiological, architectural to underwater acoustics studies and many more (Adkins et al., 1966). Most leading current issue of noise sources will fall into the following categories: roads traffic, aircraft, railroads, -

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construction, industry, noise in buildings, and consumer products. There was a specific study that relate between noise and psychological stress among workers at printing industry through statistical method where researchers discovered that there was no significant relationship that noise contributed to psychological stress (Nassiri et al., 2011). However, other study showed that hearing loss was significantly associated with period of exposure to the workplace noise (Dube et al., 2011). Recently research conducted in related to noise has shown much progress where effort of producing environmental friendly sound absorption material using bio-polymer doped with waste material has been introduced (AnikaZafiah et al., 2012). Guidelines in evaluating the noise level are varies. As an example, noise level related to duration of exposure that leads to the establishment of Action Level (AL) at 85 dB(A) or daily noise dose at 0.5 through the noise dose calculation. The noise doses calculation are the cumulative noise level on employee at the various noise duration with respective to duration limit obtained from respective act (FMEA, 2006). The other guideline refers as Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) with the above parameters calculated shall not exceed 1.0 (Asfahl, 2005) or specified at equivalent continuous sound level of 90 dB(A). Considering that industrial noise is globally concerned, this paper will assess the noise level in the manufacturing workshop at one of the Malaysian high learning institution for the purpose to improve teaching and learning environment as necessary. The result obtain could be implemented to industrial environment as the study site consists of similar machining facilities.



In order to achieve the objective of this research, a systematic approach was drawn which included determination of study site, tool and data collection, data analysis and verification. 2.1 Study Site and the Facilities This research was conducted at machining workshop within the approximate of 2000 m3 (40 m x 10 m x 5 m of length, width and height respectively) built up space. The floor and wall inside the research site built up by normal cement concrete. This type of material is not an acoustic material therefore does not absorb sound and produce sound reflection. With this condition, the noise level during teaching and learning session was expected to be higher especially during peak activities. There were 27 machines (of which 4 machines were under maintenance) as depicted in Figure 1. These machines consists range of conventional machining facilities including milling, lathe, drilling and grinding machines. Apart from that, there were also other workshop facilities such as bench work. However, this research would only focus on noise level produced by machines.

Figure 1: Workshop layout noted ‘X’ as reference point for data collection.

Total noise to operators are varies by distance and number of noise sources (Hanson et al., 2004). Operators inside the workshop are subject to noise exposure with respect to various locations. Therefore a fixed reference point was required in order to reduce variable with respect to distance while performing the noise measurement as shown in Figure 1. This fixed reference point assumed the operator’s position to noise exposure. As the fixed reference point identified, the verification process could be performed more accurately as interference variable by distance could be ignored. 2.2 Tool and Data Collection The sound meter was used to measure sound level in dB(A) with 0.1 dB(A) resolution and 1.5 dB(A) accuracy. The meter consists of two output range which was from low to high range; the low range was © 2013 GETview Limited. All rights reserved


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from 35 to 90 dB(A) while the high range was from 75 to 130 dB(A) respectively. The meter also equipped with acoustic functional which could be applied while conducting research in space covered by acoustic material. In order to record the noise levels from various machines, a proper recording format was designed as shown in Table 1, so that the noise produced by machines could be systematically recorded as follows. Table 1: Data collection format. nS 1 … … n+1

Machine Type Bench Drilling Lathe Grinding Milling

I/D D1…D4 L1…L11 G1…G2 M1…M10

Noise Measured at Point ‘X’ [dB(A)]

During this study, noise was measured from individual machine. No other activity was permitted while performing data collection as this would influence the data accuracy besides to ensure that noise measured solely contributed by machines. 2.3 Data Analysis The verification process required in order to ensure that study conducted is acceptable. In this study, the verification process performed by comparing the noise data measured versus calculated using scale for combining decibels table (Asfahl, 2005). The scale for combining decibels is compulsory since accumulated noise from various sources cannot be linearly calculated by adding the noise measured individually from each machine. The cumulative noise is calculated by adding the decibels value to the larger value from the differences of two decibels as follows (Table 2). Table 2: Scale for combining decibels. Different between two decibels to be added [dB(A)] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Amount to be added to larger level to abtain decibel sum [dB(A)] 3.0 2.6 2.1 1.8 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

To be more specific, the following example illustrates how to calculate total noise from four machines as shown in Table 3. First, the two identical noise sources of Machines A and B are combined to produce the total noise value of 89 dB(A). This total noise value of Machines A and B is obtained by adding 3 dB(A) to noise level produced either by Machines A or B after the differences of both machines is found at 0 dB(A). The next stage is to calculate the total noise level of Machines A, B and C which is performed by adding 0.8 dB(A) to 89 dB(A) after calculating the differences of total noise level of Machines A and B to Machine C is at 7 dB(A) [89 dB(A)-82dB(A)]. The same exercise is repeated and it is estimated that the total noise value of all machines is at 90 dB(A). Table 3: Calculation of total noise level.

Sn (n)

Machine ID

1 2 3 4

Machine A Machine B Machine C Machine D

Measured Noise Level at Fixed Reference Point [dB(A)] {I} 86 86 82 78 Total

Noise Level to be Added either to {In+1} or {IIIn} (which ever larger) [dB(A)] {II} 3.0 0.8 0.2

Total Noised Level Calculated at Point ‘X’ [dB(A)] {III} 86.0 89.0 89.8 90.0 90.0

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RESULT AND DISCUSSION 3.1 Summation of Noise As individual was recorded from 23 machines, it was noted that noise level were varies from one machine to another as shown in Table 4. The noise levels were varies according to individual machine as well as to distance with respect to reference point. Data collected showed that the minimum and maximum reading was at 45 dB(A) and 75 dB(A) from machines D2 and L4 respectively. If the total noise level was linearly calculated, the summation of all noises would be at 1473 dB(A) and at the average of 64 dB(A) (1473 dB(A) divided by 23 machines). However, since noise could not be linearly calculated, the total noise level calculated by using scale for combining decibels was at 81 dB(A). Table 4: Recorded data and calculated cumulative noise level.

Sn (n)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Machine Type

Bench Drilling





D1 D2 D3 D4 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 L10 L11 G1 G2 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10

Noised Level Recorded at Point ‘X’ [dB(A)] {I} n/a 45 50 52 n/a 63 74 75 70 72 71 69 68 64 n/a 54 60 63 66 64 66 64 66 64 69 63 n/a

Noised Level to be Added either to {I}n+1 or {III}n (which ever larger) [dB(A)] {II} 1.2 2.6 0.6 0.4 2.6 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 -

Cumulative Noised Level Calculated at Point ‘X’ [dB(A)] {III} 45 51 55 64 74 78 79 80 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 81

Total Note: n/a is data not available, machine under maintenance.

3.2 Verification The next stage of this research was to verify the result by measuring noise level of all machines operating simultaneously. The total noise level was measured at the reference point identified earlier. The measurement showed that the total noise level measured was at 80 dB(A) which is 1 dB(A) less than the calculated value which was at 81 dB(A). By having a small difference, this research could be considered acceptable as the total theoretically calculated and measured noise value obtained was almost the same. The differences might due to the accuracy of the sound meter or any other unidentified factors. 3.3 Mathematic Model From the above analysis and verification processes, data were sorted from the lowest to the highest noise value as shown in Table 5. The same technique was applied to calculate the total cumulative noise level and it is found to be the same as on Table 4 which was at 81 dB(A). In order to develop a mathematical model, charts of individual and cumulative noise of machines were constructed as depicted in Figure 2. The line chart from cumulative noise level was developed to forma polynomial equation as follows; y = 0.007x3 – 0.338x – 40.24

Eq. 1

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where; y = noise level dB(A), x = machine number Table 5: Data of the lowest to the highest value. No of Machine

Single Noise [dB(A)]

Cumulative Noise [dB(A)]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

45 50 52 54 60 63 63 63 64 64 64 64 66 66 66 68 69 69 70 71 72 74 75

45 51 55 57 62 66 67 69 70 71 72 72 73 74 75 76 76 77 78 79 80 80 81

Figure 2: Single and cumulative noise level from machines.

Equation 1 could applied to predict the approximate cumulative noise level at any manufacturing centre of the similar environment. This could be performed by constructing graph number of machines versus the noise level as depicted in Figure 3. It was noted that the cumulative noise level found to be at the PEL value in between the total 25 to 30 machines. The cumulative noise level was found significantly increases with an increasing number of more than 35 machines.

Figure 3: Predicting of noise level producing by number of machines.

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This research concluded that the total noise level by machines at the research site was approximately at 81 dB(A). From this value, it was noted that the noise level was below the recommended PEL of local and international guidelines which is at 90 dB(A) and could concluded that did not contribute to adverse effect to human hearing. However, further research is recommended to be conducted during the teaching and learning process as to gauge the actual total noise level. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are grateful to the all parties involve particularly staffs from Faculty Manufacturing Engineering Technology of TATi University College for providing kind support to this study. REFERENCES [1] Adkins, H., Alexander, J.R., Anderson, V.C., Arase, E.M., Arase, T., Arcuni, P., Audette, R.R., Baade, P.K., Backus, J., Baker, D.D., Barmatz, M., Batchelder, L., Beaver, W.D., Benasutti, R., Berry, N.C., Bies, D.A., Bishop, D.E., Blackstock, D.T., Bock, D., Boudreau, J.C., Bowers, C., Boyd, W.W., Bozich, D.J., Breazeale, M.A., Bricker, P.D., Brown, D.H., Brown, R., Bucker, H.P. and Burchett, O.J. (1966): Seventy-Second Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Acoustical Society of America, Vol.40, No.5, pp.1237-1284. [2] AnikaZafiah, M.R., NikNormunira, M.H. and Nurulsaidatulsyida, S. (2012): Influence of Biopolymer Doped with Eco-fillers as Sound Absorption Materials, Global Engineers and Technologists Review, Vol.2, No.4, pp.510. [3] Asfahl, C.R. (2005): Industrial Safety & Health Management: Environmental Control and Noise 5th Edition, Prentice Hall, pp.200-288. [4] Banerjee, D., Chakraborty, S.K., Bhattacharyya, S. and Gangopadhyay, A., (2009): Appraisal and Mapping the Spatial-TtemporalDistribution of Urban Road Traffic Noise, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., Vol.6, No.2, pp.325-335. [5] COP (2002): Code of Practice 2002, Managing Noise at Workplaces, Work Safe Western Australia Commission. [6] COP (2011): Code of Practice 2011, Managing Noise and Preventing Hearing Loss at Work, Workplace Health and Safety Queensland. [7] Dube, K.J., Ingale, L.T. and Ingale, S.T. (2011): Hearing Impairment Among Workers Exposed to Excessive Levels of Noise in Ginning Industries. Noise Health, Vol.13, Iss.55, pp.348-55. [8] FMEA (2006): Factories and Machinery Act 1967. (Noise Exposure) Regulations 1989, ACT 139 MDC Publishers Printers Sdn Bhd., pp.401-415. [9] Frangulov, A., Rehm, H. and Kenna, M. (2004): Handbooks Common Causes of Hearing Loss, Harvard Medical School Center for Hereditary Deafness. [10] Fridlund, F., Buváry, G., Ali, M. and Robertson, S. (1987): Educational Material on Safety, Health and Working Conditions of Joint Industrial Safety Council – Sweden, the International Labour Office - Geneva and Swedish International Development Agency. [11] Hanson, D.I., James, R.S. and NeSmith, C. (2004): NCAT Report 04-02, Tire/Pavement Noise Study, National Center for Asphalt Technology, Auburn University, Alabama, U.S.A. [12] HSE. (2013): Health and Safety Executive., (Accessed on January 2013). [13] ISO 9612, 1997. (2009): International Organization for Standardization, Acoustics - Guidelines for the Measurement and Assessment of Exposure to Noise in a Working Environment. [14] Nassiri, P., Azkhosh, M., Mahmoodi, A., Alimohammadi, I., Zeraati, H., JafariShalkouhi, P. and Bahrami, P. (2011): Assessment of Noise Induced Psychological Stresses on Printery Workers, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., Vol.8, Iss.1, pp.169-176. [15] OSHA (2006): Occupational Safety and Health Act & Regulation – ACT 514 (1994) MDC Publishers Printers Sdn Bhd. [16] Rahmatian, M. and Cockerill, L. (2004): Airport Noise and Residential Housing Valuation in Southern California: A Hedonic Pricing Approach, International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, Vol.1, No.1, pp.17- 25.

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Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology P.O. Box 62000-00200, Nairobi, KENYA 1 4

Department of Civil and Construction Engineering University of Nairobi P.O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, KENYA 3 ABSTRACT

The use of crushed rock sand as a partial replacement of river sand in concrete production was investigated. Water cement ratio varied between 0.55 and 0.59 for 0 % to 100 % natural sand replacement. The slump ranged between 49 and 60 mm for 0 % to 100 % natural sand replacement. The average compressive strength of the control concrete (C20) was 22.5 N/mm2. The effective natural sand (RS) replacement ranged between 0 and 60 % with the best results achieved at 20 % replacement. The peak compressive strength and indirect tensile strength values of 23.2 N/mm2 and 1.42 N/mm2 respectively were obtained. Modulus of elasticity of concrete increased from 22 KN/mm2 to 23 KN/mm2 with 20 % replacement of natural sand. Also, the indirect tensile strength increased from 1.28 N/mm2 to 1.42 N/mm2 with 20 % river sand replacement. The beam deflection ranged between 0.25 mm and 0.4 mm with the lowest deflection recorded at 20 % CRS and highest deflection of 0.4 mm with the control mix (0 % CRS). The whole range of natural sand replacement (0 to 100 %) improved the beam deflection. The 20 % CRS content recorded the highest flexural strength of 686.7 N/mm2 beyond which the strength decreased to 80 % CRS after which there was a constant value in strength up to 100 % CRS. Keywords: Fine Aggregates, Natural River Sand, Concrete, Crushed Rock Sand. Article History: Received 25 June 2013, Accepted 27 July 2013.



Concrete is generally composed of aggregates, cement and water. The aggregates are usually coarse and fine aggregates. Cement is used for binding the concrete materials together. Coarse aggregates have particles bigger than 5 mm in diameter while fine aggregates have particles smaller than 5 mm in diameter. Cement is hydrated to form a gel around aggregates which sets thus binding the concrete mass. The aggregates should have good mechanical properties in terms shape, density, grading, hardness, purity to achieve the required strength and durability. The cement commonly used in Kenya is categorized as 32.5 or 42.5 also referred to as power plus (Manguriu et al., 2013). The Coarse aggregates which are generally crushed rock are mainly produced mechanically by crushers but it is also manually produced on small scale in areas with no other source of income. Generally concrete has high compressive strength with low tensile strength. Essential properties for concrete are strength, durability, and flexure, workability, drying shrinkage, cracking and permeability. Aggregates reactivity potential should be low by controlling the deleterious material content. Good quality water for is used for mixing concrete materials. The quality of concrete produced depends on the quality of constituent materials and the way they are proportioned and mixed. The fine aggregate is usually sand sourced from river banks or pits. Coarse aggregates may be classified as normal, light or heavy weight aggregates. Aggregates should be clean and free from organic impurities. Sand should be clean and free from clay, organic content, silt and other inferior materials.



Conservation of river sand in addition to better ways of disposing wastes from the quarry sites are some of the merits of using CGF reported by Manasseh (2010). Indirect tensile strength value increased with CGF content up to 20 %, after which a decline in indirect tensile strength was observed. Peak indirect tensile strength value of -

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2.3 N/mm2 was recorded at 20 % CGF plus 80 % river sand combination. The use of CGF to completely replace Makurdi river sand exhibited higher values when compared with results obtained with the use of only river sand. The factor accountable for the trend observed with compressive strength is also responsible for trend observed with indirect tensile strength (Manasseh, 2010). Different natural and manufactured sand samples to be used in the concrete mixes were collected and their physical properties were studied. Fifteen different concrete mixes having five mix proportions for both natural and manufactured sand (i.e. 100 % NS+ 0 % MS; 75 % NS + 25 % MS; 50 % NS + 50 % MS; 25 % NS + 75 % MS and 0 % NS + 100 % MS) were prepared for normal strength, intermediate strength and high strength concrete using a water cement ratio and cement contents of 0.54, 370 kg/m3; 0.39, 460 kg/m3; 0.30, 520 kg/m3 respectively. The properties of these mixes have then been assessed both at the fresh and hardened state. In addition, comparison of costs for each concrete mixes based on the price of the concrete material collected from Addis Ababa, Nazareth, Awassa, Mekelle and Jimma towns were made. The results of the hardened properties of the mixes have shown that concrete mixes with partial proportions of manufactured and natural sand achieved a higher compressive strength at all test ages was reported by Poon et al., (2004). Attempts have been made to investigate some property of quarry dust and the suitability of those properties to enable quarry dust (Dehwah, 2012) to be used as partial replacement material for sand in concrete. The use of quarry dust in concrete is desirable because of its benefits such as useful disposal of by products, reduction of river sand consumption as well as increasing the strength parameters and increasing the workability of concrete (Lohani et al., 2012). It is used for different activities in the construction industries such as road construction, manufacture of building materials, bricks, tiles and autoclave blocks. Based on the investigation, it was found that the experimental modulus of elasticity is more than the theoretical value for the control concrete. The modulus of elasticity increases with increase in percentage of quarry dust content (Raman et al., 2011). The theoretical modulus of elasticity as per IS code i.e. Ec = 5000. fck are also calculated and indicated in the same table for comparison. The experimental values vary from 15.3 to 9.5 % in comparison to the theoretical value for 53 grade and 12.5 % to 8.7 % for 33 grade. The tensile strength value of concrete decreases with increase in percentage of fine aggregate replacement with quarry dust (Beshr et al., 2003), but the split tensile strength increases with the age of curing (Siddique, 2003). The results of compressive strength of cubes for (7, 28, 91) days curing were tabulated. It is observed that the compressive strength of cubes at 28 days curing for control mixture (M1) is 30.5 Mpa for 53 grade concrete and 29.6 MPa for 33 grade concrete (Sata et al., 2005). Dust content increases to 30 %, the 28 days compressive strength increases to a maximum of 31.5 Mpa for 53 grade and 30.7Mpa for 33 grades. For 20 % dust content the 28 days compressive strength increases 34.5 MPa for 53 grades and 31.6 MPa for 33 grade. As the dust content exceeds 30 %, the compressive strength decreases. The present investigation aims in the study of properties of mortar and concrete in which Crushed Rock Powder (CRP) is used as a partial and full replacement for natural sand. For mortar, CRP is replaced at 20 % 40 %, 60 %, 80 % and 100 %. The basic strength properties of concrete were investigated by replacing natural sand by CRP at replacement levels of 20 %, 30 % and 40 % (Nagabhushana and Bai, 2011). Raman et al., 2011 studied the effect of quarry dust and found that the partial replacement of river sand with quarry dust without the inclusion of fly ash resulted in a reduction in the compressive strength of concrete paving block specimen. It has also been reported that the reduction in the compressive strength of quarry dust concrete was compensated by the inclusion of fly ash into the concrete mix. Rao et al., (2011) reported an increasing compressive strength by use of rock flour as fine aggregate instead of river sand. The idea of using quarry sand as an alternative aggregate was developed because granite which is the parent material is hard and dense and therefore can serve as an excellent aggregate material. Its use as a fine aggregate in concrete is expected to improve certain properties, such as the compressive strength, durability, strength development, workability and economy. The importance of the compressive strength in concrete is such that for structural design purposes, the compressive strength is the criterion for quality. The use of some materials other than natural sand as fine aggregate in both concrete and mortar has been investigated. Among these materials are silt and kaolin waste by El-Mahllawy (2008), laterite by Udoeyo et al., (2006), waste Sancrete blocks by Omoregie and Alutu (2006) and preliminary assessment of Quarry sand by Galetakis et al., (2012). With the recent trend towards utilization of locally sourced building material so as to reduce construction cost and the availability of quarry sand from quarry sites across the country has brought about the research. Partial and total replacement of fine aggregate in conventional concrete with quarry sand has been empirically conducted with the view too examining primarily the compressive strength of the resulting composite and possible utilization of quarry sand as fine aggregate in the production of medium grade concrete. The results of the study revealed that its specific gravity, bulk density, porosity, water absorption, silt content, the impact value and the aggregate crushing value showed satisfactory performance. The percentage replacement of natural river sand with quarry sand for a designed strength of 25 N/mm2 varied at intervals of 10 % up to a maximum value of 100 %. A total of 134 cubes of 150 x 150 x 150 in mm were cast and tested at 7, 14 and 28 days of hydration. Compressive strength increases with curing age in all the mixes. Compressive strength decreases with increase in percentage of quarry sand. Generally the compressive strength of concrete Š 2013 GETview Limited. 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incorporating quarry sand attained strength above 23.71 N/mm2which makes it a suitable aggregate for the production normal weight concrete.


METHODOLOGY 3.1 Particle Size Distribution Sand was be dried in the oven or in the air and sieved with a set of sieves between 5 mm to 0.15 mm. The grading curve: percentage (%) passing was plotted against the particle diameter on a standard semi log graph together with the upper and lower limits of the adopted fine aggregate grading curve envelope. Sand falling outside this envelop was blend with other types to ensure it was within this range for it to qualify for use. For determination of Fineness modulus the Sum of cumulative percentage weight retained in each sieve was divided by 100. Meanwhile the fineness modulus was obtained by adding the percentage weight of material retained in each of the standard sieves and dividing it by 100. The objective of finding the fineness modulus was to grade a given aggregate for the most economical mix and workability with minimum quantity of cement. 3.2 Specific Gravity and Bucking of Sand 500 grams of sample was taken and placed it in the pycnometer. Distilled water was poured into it until it was full. Entrapped air was eliminated by rotating the pycnometer on its side, the hole in the apex of the cone being covered with a finger. The outer surface of pycnometer was wiped out and weighed (W1). The content of the pycnometer was transferred into a tray, it was refilled with distilled water to the same level and its weight determined (W2). The aggregates were dried with cloth to a saturated surface dry condition and weighed (W3). The sample was placed in an oven in a tray at a temperature of 100 °C to 110 °C for 24 ± 0.5 hours, Cooled and weighed (W4). 800 grams of dry sand sample was weighed and placed it in 1000 ml measuring cylinder without compaction and its volume Vd measured for calculate of bulking of sand. The sand was tipped out onto a glass plate and 16 grams of tap water added and mixed thoroughly, ensuring that no particle was lost. The sand was replaced in the cylinder and the new volume Vw measured. The procedure was repeated making additional increments of 16 grams of water until the sand became saturated. The results tabulated and plotted as percentage (%) bulking against moisture content as shown in equation 1. Percentage Bulking = [100 (Vw – Vd)] / Vd

Eq. 1

3.3 Silt and Organic Contents of Fine Aggregates A glass-measuring cylinder was filled with sample of sand up to 100 ml mark. Clean water was added up to 150 ml and the content was well shaken. The content was allowed to settle for 15 to 20 minutes. Clay and silt was seen as a separate layer over sand. The total height of material (A) was measured. The height of sand layer (B) was also measured. The height of silt and clay layer (A-B) was determined. The percentage of silt and clay in the total sand layer was calculated according to equation 2. Silt & Clay % = (A-B) /B* 100

Eq. 2

The objective of organic content in fine aggregates was to estimate the organic compounds present in natural sand and determine whether the quantity was sufficient to cause harm. Sand was added gradually to a standard solution in a 350 ml cylinder up the to 75 ml mark and a 3 % sodium hydroxide solution added until the volume reached 125 ml. the content mixed vigorously and allowed to stand for 24 hours. The colour developed by the sample was compared with the standard colour and the concentration of organic matter estimated as either, present or not. 3.4 Bulk Density and Mixing Design The measure container was filled to about 1/3 height with thoroughly mixed aggregate. The sand was tamped with 25 strokes of the rounded end tamping rod. The container was again filled with approx. same quantity and tamped with 25 strokes. The measure was filled with the aggregate, tamped 25 times and surplus aggregate off striped off. The total weight was determined. The bulk density was determined by dividing the net weight of aggregates with the volume. Meanwhile, the method of concrete mixing design applied here was in accordance to the Department of Environment, United Kingdom (1988). The mixing of concrete was done according to the BS, ASTM and JIS procedures given in laboratory guidelines. One Class of concrete was designed in the laboratory with the natural sand: C20/20. This class of concrete served as control mix for the partially replaced sand concrete. Trial mix was done to confirm the design proportions. Concrete was prepared and tested for the various properties when fresh. © 2013 GETview Limited. All rights reserved


Global Engineers & Technologists Review, Vol.3 No.4


3.5 Fresh and Hardened of Concrete The test carried out on the fresh concrete was the slump test; this test was carried out using the standard procedure as outlined in BS 812 and the slump was measured as the difference between the height of the mould and that of the highest point of the specimen. Meanwhile for the hardened of concrete specimens were cured in water after casting and testing of the hardened concrete was done at an age of either 7 or 28 days. 3.6 Compression and Flexural Test The concrete cubes and cylinders compressive strength was determined at seven days and twenty eight days. The tensile strength of the concrete was determined using the splitting tensile test according to the procedure in ASTM C496. Both the cube and cylinders were tested at 7 and 28 days for splitting tensile strength for both the normal and sand replaced concrete. The arrangement for the flexural test was as shown in Figure 1. A manual Compression machine was used for this test according to BS 1881-118. Beam specimens measuring 500 x 150 x 150 mm were moulded and cured for 28 days before testing for flexural strength.

Figure 1: Specimen geometry and setup.

The beams were tested for flexure using Universal Testing Machine, where the beams were loaded at one point, center, load applied at a small strain monitoring the deflection until first crack appeared. Loading was continued until the ultimate failure was achieved. The load-deflection data at mid span section for plain concrete beams with different proportions of natural river sand and rock sand was determined. Load deflection curves were plotted.



Three sand samples from different sources were tested for bulking. The findings show that the bulking of sand samples ranged between 35 % and 44 %. Four sand samples from different sources and the crushed rock sand were analyzed for silt content and the results shows that all the four sand samples tested had silt content values below the maximum allowed value of 5 % while the crushed rock sand sample had an average silt content of 11 % compared to the maximum allowable content of 8 % as per required in BS 812. Two sand samples and the crushed rock sand were tested for specific gravity and water absorption. The specific gravity for sand samples varied between 2.55 and 2.63 while that of crushed rock sand 2.55. The water absorption rate for sand ranged between 1.21 % and 1.83 % while that of the crushed rock sand averaged 2.4 %. The higher values of specific gravity and water absorption rate from rock sand are as a result of high the high fineness of the material. Three sand samples selected from different sources were tested for particles size distribution and their results compared with the gradation envelope for fine aggregates. For this sand to qualify as zone two (2) material, there was need to blend two or more materials which would give the required gradation. Having only one norminal size of the rock sand, a second batch of norminal size 1.18 mm was created by sieving the initial batch through this sieze and therefore discarding the material retained on this sieve. The two norminal sizes 5 mm and 1.18 mm were sieved again and their grading curves plotted as Figure 2.

Figure 2: Grading of CRS as received compared with zone two fine aggregate envelope. Š 2013 GETview Limited. All rights reserved


Global Engineers & Technologists Review, Vol.3 No.4


The first trial mix of the two materials A and B was done with a ratio of 59 % of material A and 41 % 0f material B. The grading curve of the mix was within the Zone 2 envelope apart from one particle size 0.15 mm which was slightly off the upper limit by about 2 % as depicted in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Grading of blended crushed rock sand (59 % A and 41 % B).

The blending proportions were again revised to take care of error. The second trial run of blending the same materials A and B graphically gave the proportions of combining the two materials was 65 % : 35 % of material A and B respectively whereby the gradation of the blended material falls within the envelope as shown in Figure 4. The combination gave the best results of the blending process as further adjustment of the blending created distortion of the grading.

Figure 3: Grading of blended crushed rock sand (65 % A and 35 % B).

When the blending proportions was adjusted to 67 % of material A and 33 % of material B, the gradation curve deteriorated as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Grading of blended crushed rock sand (67 % A and 33 % B).

Sand was replaced with crushed rock sand at an interval of 20 % between 0 % and 100 % and the bulk density of each combination was determined. The Bulk density of natural river sand was 1587 Kg/m3. On replacing sand with Crushed rock sand, the density increased to a maximum value of 1830 at 70 % replacement after which it decreased to 1779 Kg/m3 at 100 % replacement. Concrete cubes were cast at various crushed rock sand content. The water cement ratio varied between 0.55 and 0.59 while the slump of the fresh concrete varied between 49 and 60 mm, the cubes were cured and tested for compressive strength at seven and twenty eight days and the result as shown in Figure 5. Š 2013 GETview Limited. All rights reserved


Global Engineers & Technologists Review, Vol.3 No.4


Figure 5: Compressive strength at various percentage replacement at 7 and 28 Days.

The 100% river sand concrete had a compressive strength of 22.5 N/mm2 at 28 days. The strength increased to a optimum of 23.6N/mm2 at 20% natural river sand replacement beyond this the strength decreased for each increamental increase of Sand replacement to a minimum of 14.1 N/mm2 at 28 days. From Figure 6, the compressive strength increased with age up to twenty eight days. The 20 % and 40 % sand replacement strength are above the 0 % sand replacement while the compressive strength of the other replacements lies below decreasing with increase of replacement up to 100 % sand replacement.

Figure 6: Variation of Compressive strength with time for various percentages of CRS.

The compression of the concrete cubes was monitored with the tranducer type dial gauge and the data logger during the compression test. The characteristics of concrete with sand either partially or fully replaced as shown by the cutrves resembled that of the controll an indication no deterioration when sand is replaced with crushed rock sand (CRS). Indirect tensile strength increased to maximum value with 20 % of CRS, after which a decline in strength was observed. Peak indirect tensile strength value of 1.42 N/mm2 was recorded at 20 % CRS. The 100 % natural river sand replacement had the lowest value of indirect tensile strength of 0.66 N/mm2. Beam samples measuring 530Ă—150Ă—150mm were cast and cured in water for 28 days. The beam was simply supported on two rollers and two point load applied at a constant rates till failure by breaking. The breaking load was low compared to that of reinforced concrete beam The 20 % CRS content recorded the highest flexural strength of 686.7 N/mm2 beyond which the strength decreased to 80 % CRS after which there was a constant value in strength up to 100% CRS of 392N/mm2. The concrete beams of 530 x 150 x 150 mm were cast and cured for twenty eight days. The beams were tested for deflection at the center of the span with the use of transducer type dial gauge. Graphs of deflection against the loading were plotted as in Figure 7. The beam deflection ranged between 0.25 and 0.4 mm with the lowest deflection recorded at 20% CRS and highest defelection of 0.4mm with the controll mix (0 % CRS). The whole range of natural sand replacement (0 to 100 %) improved the beam deflection. Mortar cubes of size 100 x 100 x 100 mm were cast and cured for twenty eight days. The cubes were compressed to failure on a compression machine and the ultimate load recorded on replacing 100 % of sand in mortar with crushed rock sand, the compressive strength reduced by 18.6 %. The splitting strength reduced by 5 % on replacing the sand in the mortar by 100 % with crushed rock sand.

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Global Engineers & Technologists Review, Vol.3 No.4


Figure 7: Beam defelection versus load at various CRS content.

Beam samples measuring 530 x 150 x 150 mm were cast and cured in water for 28 days. The beam was simply supported on two rollers and two point load applied at a constant rates till failure by breaking. The breaking load was low compared to that of reinforced concrete beam as shown in Table 1. Table 1: Comparison of hardened concrete properties. Property Compressive strength Indirect tensile strength Beam deflection Flexural strength Modulus of elasticity


0 % CRS 22.5 1.28 0.4 686.7 22.0

20 % CSR 23.6 1.42 0.25 588.6 23.0

% Increase 4.8 10.9 -37.5 16.7 4.5


The study revealed that in concrete, natural sand can be replaced by crushed rock sand (CRS). Crushed rock sand satisfied the requirements of fine aggregate from the physical and mechanical properties such as strength, specific gravity, organic content, silt content and gradation. The crushed rock sand improved the properties of concrete made with crushed rock sand with no indication of deterioration. Crushed rock sand therefore offers a viable alternative to the natural river sand. Notably the research established that; i)




The mechanical properties of crushed rock sand depend on the source of its raw material hence selection of quarry is very important for obtaining quality fine aggregate. The crushed rock that was tested satisfied most of the mechanical and physical properties required for concrete. However it required blending to meet the desired gradation because of excessive fines. Crushed rock sand improved most of the concrete properties. While the average compressive Strength of the control mix was 22.5 N/mm2, peak compressive strength of 23.6 N/mm2 was obtained with 20 % replacement of natural river sand (RS). The indirect tensile strength of the concrete increased from 1.28 to 1.42 N/mm2 with 20 % RS replacement, a 10.1 % increase in strength justifying the importance of crushed rock sand as fine aggregates. The flexural strength increased by 16.7 % with 20 % CRS. The beam deflection reduced by 50 % with 20 % CRS. From the general behaviour of concrete made with partially replaced natural river sand and the properties of the rock sand conclusion is herein drawn that CRS is a suitable partial replacement of natural sand. The 0 to 60 % CRS resulted in strength values above that of the design (20 N/mm2). However the best results were achieved with 20 % CRS. The replacement of natural river sand can therefore made up to 60%.

REFERENCES [1] Manguriu, G.N., Oyawa, W.O. and Abuodha, S.O. (2013): Physical and Mechanical Properties of Mangrove from Kilifi in Kenya, Global Engineers and Technologists Review, Vol.3, No.3, pp.1-5. [2] Manasseh, J.O.E.L. (2010): Use of Crushed Granite Fine as Replacement to River Sand in Concrete Production, Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies, Iss.17, pp.85-96. Š 2013 GETview Limited. All rights reserved


Global Engineers & Technologists Review, Vol.3 No.4


[3] Poon, C.S., Shui, Z.H., Lam, L., Fok, H. and Kou, S.C. (2004): Influence of Moisture States of Natural and Recycled Aggregates on the Slump and Compressive Strength of Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol.34, Iss.1, pp.31-36. [4] Dehwah, H.A.F. (2012): Mechanical Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Quarry Dust Powder, Silica Fume or Fly Ash, Construction and Building Materials, Vol.26, Iss.1, pp.547-551. [5] Lohani, T.K., Padhi, M. and Jena, S. (2012): Optimum Utilization of Quarry Dust as Partial Replacement of Sand in Concrete, International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering Research, Vol.1, No.2, pp.391-404. [6] Raman, S.N., Ngo, T., Mendis, P. and Mahmud H.B. (2011): High-Strength Rice Husk Ash Concrete Incorporating Quarry Dust as a Partial Substitute for Sand, Construction and Building Materials, Vol.25, Iss.7, pp.3123-3130. [7] Beshr, H., Almusallam, A.A. and Maslehuddin M. (2003): Effect of Coarse Aggregate Quality on the Mechanical Properties of High Strength Concrete, Construction and Building Materials, Vol.17, Iss.2, pp.97103. [8] Siddique, R. (2003): Effect of Fine Aggregate Replacement with Class F Fly Ash on the Mechanical Properties of Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol.33, Iss.4, pp.539-547. [9] Sata, V., Jaturapitakkul, C. and Kiattikomol, K. (2005): Influence of Pozzolan from Various By-Product Materials on Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Concrete, Construction and Building Materials, Vol.21, Iss.7, pp.1589-1598. [10] Nagabhushana, Z.Z.Z. and Bai, S. (2011): Use of Crushed Rock Powder as Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Mortar and Concrete, Indian Journal of Science & Technology, Vol.4, Iss.8, pp.917-922. [11] Rao, K.B., Desai, V.B. and Mohan, D.J. (2011): Experimental Investigation on Mode II Fracture of Concrete with Crushed Granite Stone Fine Aggregate Replacing Sand, Material Research, Vol.15, No.1, pp.41-50. [12] El-Mahllawy, M.S. (2008): Characteristics of Acid Resisting Bricks Made from Quarry Residues and Waste Steel Slag, Construction and Building Materials, Vol.22, Iss.8, pp.1887-1896. [13] Udoeyo, F.F., Iron, U.H. and Odim, O.O. (2006): Strength Performance of Laterized Concrete, Construction and Building Materials, Vol.20, Iss.10, pp.1057-1062. [14] Omoregie, A. and Alutu, O.E. (2006): The Influence of Fine Aggregate Combinations on Particle Size Distribution, Grading Parameter, and Compressive Strength of Sandcrete Blocks, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol.33, No.10, pp.1271-1278. [15] Galetakis, M., Alevizos, G. and Leventakis, K. (2012): Evaluation of Fine Limestone Quarry By-Products, for the Production of Building Elements – An Experimental Approach, Construction and Building Materials, Vol.26, Iss.1, pp.122-130.

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