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Project ID : Project Name : Researcher:

RDG4/0012/2544 Legal Framework for Local Administration Eathipol Srisawaluck, Tashmai Rikshasuta, Werachai Narkwiboonwong.

The objective of this Study on the "Legal Framework for Local Administration" is to review the legal issues that are relevant to various aspects of community development and identify aspects that are supportive and those that can be considered as obstacles to goal of strengthening local communities. It is the general expectation that the findings of this study will contribute to highlighting legal issues that are relevant to the functioning of local communities so as to expand or modify them where the need arise to ensure the existence of an enabling legal framework. The approach to this study has been to review reports of researches conducted under the Community Research Section. Some field work were conducted and seminars organized to discuss legal issues relating to the management of natural resources and the environment, community strengthening and local administration. The major findings are that the Constitution of 1997 is the key piece of legislation which support the principle of community strengthening by demanding for decentralization of power and by endorsing the rights of the people, local communities and local authorities in participating with the State in conserving and protecting natural and environmental resources. Among the observed drawbacks in the legal framework on natural resource management is that communities generally do not have authorization to participate in the management of natural resources which are the basic sources of production and livelihood. This is particularly true for the people in the rural areas. The major underlying cause is that outdated pieces of legislation which have not yet been modified to ensure consistency and complementarity with the Constitution. These are grounds for conflicts over access and utilization of resources. An effort to modify existing laws is therefore advocated as an urgent mandate. Existing pieces of legislation that support strengthening of local communities are found to be inconsistent with the situational context of rural communities and are observed to be more applicable to the functioning or urban societies. Given that unwritten culture and traditions binds rural communities, the contents of law may need to be adjusted to take these factors into account. The legal framework of decentralization of power to local authorities still lack clarity in many key areas such as coordination with among local authorities at various levels, the relationship between Regional Administration and accountability issues. Among other things, there is a need to creating a system of accountability, which effectively involve participation of local communities. It is recommended that the next stage of the study should focus on pieces of legislation which deals with involvement local communities in the management of natural resources and the environment such as forestry, soil, water, fisheries and waste. One other study component should be the dissemination of basic knowledge


V $   % &'* +  # , -* on the various laws and regulation which concern local communities and their organizations, farmers groups, local authorities. Key words: Law, local communities, natural resources, environment, management, forestry, soil, water, fisheries, waste.


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d &.=. 2541 &' ,*  5 43.06 (5#5 d &.=. 2504  5 25.44 :/* &' ,*2"&' ,*, #  5 68.5)  P" E  '&' ,*2"&' ,*, #  ,*0# '  5 12.43 (5#5 d &.=. 2504  5 29.56 :/* &' ,*2"&' ,*, #  5 41.99) ,   " 5#5  &' ,*2d &.=. 2504-2541 &+"  5#5 ,*  5 $# "   5#5 ,*0# 3 d &.=. 2504-2531 8" 3 d &.=. 2532-2541 "  5#5 ,*  5 :/* # ,* ;+5 5,  ,! 2+,* ,=" 8"d &.=. 2532 85 ,=&' ,* 0 AD&*"5 8 ,!  #85 A2 #/  ,*&' ,*25#5 # 5 ,+"55 , 3P& & <0D $# E&& &'33 #" C ,*  3 " 3&  # 85"  AD 2#+ + 0,  8 3"# P & <0D 2* 5& D " A& <0D"D2#   # 5D+  D855D5  2, P " 85& <0D 2& 0$"p8# 5 3 ##- !#-*    858 $ 7& <0D< 3"# & 6 !7" #! 3"85&' ,*2,* -* ,*= E&5#5


9 $   % &'* +  # , -*

 7 &' ,*2# 5  ,*^_` ^&' ,*2 5+' # ## :/* "0!7  7 &' ,*2#67!7 ' 67 '*$,  , &  2  '*  +0 0,!5 &' ,*2  55+"#85^2 8567 #8   3 $ 3 D, &  85,*# 2 1)  +0 0,!5 &' ,*2 3  +0 02  #7 +0  :/* 5 "  +   E&&'*8 , 8 '*  +0 02  8 3"2

  -23 ' 85 '*   0 AD3 2 "2  8 3"!P, P &+  +0 0&' ,*# 5 5,000   $# &' ,* # ,*=  3 2 :/* !5 #!   &' ,*# 5 &' ,* ... 4-01 2)  55+"# 55  +   2 &' ,*25 &+  55+"# "0,  8 3"5 85" A& <0D"D25 :/*   + 85" +3#  +  "#25  +  7855  "#,!5 2 # 5 ,! #05 ++ =27  3) ^2  "0,* # ,!5 "  2 !   85 # 7 , < 3"'* ,*" '*  * 3" 2 P&# ! =85 ,,= D,*  / +^2  "P ,*  8 ", &  285* 8#5'* C $# E&^2# 2# #+ 2& 0852  #  + ++ = 2 # 5    +d &.=. 2541 ^2#/ 0 8 5 &' ,* $# E& 3 #'   ^ &' ,*!7 3 " A& <0D"D2 8 " A& <0D"D2 E5&  " 0,  8 3" 7 0,  8 3"P #/ 0,  8 3"#  , ,D 85 3 #'  -/ -0  ^2& 0$"p8#   15,000   1 ! +"0  #^2&+ 7# 0A D,  $# # ,*  0A D5"D (3  2&'*5"D,*:  ,0 7 8" + &'* 5"D q5q) 85505 ^2,*"0 + 2  5 29 5"D 

5 20 85 0#  5 17    5 17    "0'* C 4) $ +  ; #8 $ + 28 3" $ + ,*# $ +  &B $   &' ; $ +  A*  8 3" $ +       A" $ +  &B 3 +, 85 $ + '* C :/* 8 3"0$# "   5#5  &' ,*2 8"+   $ + ,*#3# 85 +  ,* ! 9+",* 1

  # ^285P < 3" ! \  85 +   2 &.=. 2541


10 $   % &'* +  # , -*

  #5 85" '*      ,**   6 ,*'!  " #8   3 $ 3 D, &  285,*#      ;  ;+5+  33 85   33 +50" C $# E&67,< -'  ,*# 8567  8  3 , &  ! 5) "  ,*# 3 &3 D 8 &B = A;85 8 3"" 8"E++,* 5  -/ E++60+   7"+$", = A;  " '* $# E& &* P  #  #+" ;    A% 3 +, 85   P3 ,! "  ,*# &'* A" &*/ &'*5"P[D  &'* &5 "D !85&'* 5"&'*  , <0  ,*# &'*  - ,*& 85 5D^  ,!  ,*#  / 5 5 d *    +0 0,!5 2 &*/ 6) "  &'* 3 850" 2  '*  5  , 2  ,=, "  8"d &.=. 2535 ,!  , 858   ,="+  "0" +  P,  & &85" '*  #"  !, 85 8  ,= $#

d &.=. 2540 85 2541 # 5  18,633,942,386 85 8,919,939,138 +, "5!#+ ( 2, 2541   !  $ + 858 * 8#5, 2543) 5 ,* /   3+ 55+"# &' ,* 0 AD85 2 ;+5 7)  &*/   3 d &.=. 2541 !   ,+ 5     +0 ,=,  3 ,* ,=  61,466,178  85 2    3 12 5  ,* +  85=   &' ,*2  8 3"  #% $#

 33 5  7 7;    ++3&A"  85&/* &5 5"2 , #$  -/  3 $ 3 D, &  285,*#   -" "% / ,!  55++0 0,!5 2852&'* +  ,*# ! + " -* ; 85A"    55+"# + 2855"D2  3&85&*  # 2.1.1.2   %9E  "D 2 ,  &  < 3" ,* 0 $# E&   /* ,*!7  $:  ++ = D,*& <D+* 8#5 3    /*  , &  285 3

 ++ = D2##05"< 3" 3 ,!5 =" 2 3  # 3   & <0D3 #" C 853

# 0#+ D "5# #0 ,  DP&+  0A D  "


11 $   % &'* +  # , -*

   "  7 , # , =" D85,$ $5 ##5 +  &B  =/A85 &B , # "  0A D&  #  6785-  DN"" C * +"D2/  9    "5#5 , &  "D2,,*! &+  ,=, "D5 5#  285 3 #  923 3 # "D5' 5 313 3 # "D, !, + 106 3 #  85 ,* 85, +3'* 85 7,000 3 # :/* 3'*&  5 10  85 ,*   ,*5'  5 90  #  !8 3 # ( 2, 2541) d &.=. 2541  2# 0 AD"D2 < 3" $# #" " A& <0D"D2 46 8 &' ,* 20,419,900   85"5"D2 44 8 &' ,* 1,938,644   ,  0 AD"D 2,*=  P

0,  8 3" 87 8 85 0,  65 8 &' ,* 27,613,825 85 542,318.75   "5!#+    2    0 AD"D2 -* ! #$#  !&5 85   & <0D, &,* "D2 85 57& <0D 3 #    858#  " , "D2,*!7, = A; #8 0 ,  85 $#  &5 ,*- &5 85  & <0D"D2  "D # D  "D85 "D 3 5 8 ,  #" - &B 85    0 AD"D2 !  18 8 ,* ,= &'* 3 85 =/A85  # 285"D2 "0,*,! "D25#5  ,! + 3 #7& <0D-* ! #  & &' ,*2 :/*  ' + ,* = 8585 = -,!5 5    "D25 3 #,*7 & <0D85 3   : 85    " 855 3 #-,!5 '+7& <0D 3  2 5  '5*   855   " -/ 8 ; !7 , &  "D2 $#  &  3+77"  85 0  "D2 &.=. 2535 8"67 '* "D2-5   9 "5#5855#  67N"   /* 60+ "0!7  5#!  5  "D2  0# 4   ' 1)  5"D2&'* !   A$   '* 0   '* '85 '* 3 " C "5# 5&'* , P

85   ,= 2)  ,!5 -* ,*  "D2 5' &' ,*2< 3",*  85 ,*  = 85 5+P 8585   "D25'    '*  " C   0A D 3    '* 85 + !  "   ,!5 3""D2$# " 85  


12 $   % &'* +  # , -*

 ,!5 85 ,*  85 5+P 8585   "D2# ,!  ++ = D "D25* # ,! "D25#!  5 857& <0D# ,*0# 3)  !"D2" -*  2,! #5 ,+""D2 !-* # (Native species) $# "D" -* ,*  +"## 8 ,*!7+"D2 -* #!  5# 5 857& <0D# 4)  #P < 3" 3 & 0,! # !,2  E+&5 85" 5 85 8 85 :/* ,! #^2505$#  -+0# 5 "D2# +#'#   '*  - 5   '5+5P #, , ,! -* ,* = 85 5+ P 8585  -,!5 #

2.1.2  +(,")

3 ,= A,*  0P&* 8#5 , #'*$, 5   #   '*  3  # -   + (Carrying capacity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


13 $   % &'* +  # , -*

5' &' ,*,*" &5  ++ 3 &*/ ,0d /  # 67 # ,*# #  (1)  3,*# + - ,*#  ' 3,*# # P,   D 3,*# "0+" # $#  ,+:  8 ,*# +8 ,* 3,*# d 2523 &+ 3,*#   30 5   ,*0# P " E  ' 12 5   " d &.=. 2535 &+ 3,*# -/ 35.6 5   P" E  ' 3,*# &*/  21.2 5   ("  ,* 1) %) 1  3,*#  d &.=. 2523 85 2535   : 5  

> P ' P5 P" E  ' P"  P "   "0 :

,*

1

9F .$. 2523

9F .$. 25352

5 5 12 6 2 30

6.2 3.1 21.2 0.8 4.3 35.6

 3,#*   d &.=.2523   ,! ,#*   13 5   5&'3  + # ,* 14 5   ,! A" + ,* 3 3 5    d &.=. 2523   5&'3,*" + -  # 85 !,*# ,*" A"  3 &'* '* : 1. -+ <0  (2528) 2.  " D ,  (2535)

    3 $ 3 D,*# d &.=. 2541   +, ++ ,*#   ,=, &+ 3,*-" " - ,*#   101.87 5    ' 

5 31.8  &' ,* ,= $#  7  ,! + # ,* 90.415    5585 ' " + # ,* 17.51 5    5&'3 + ,*5#  35  D: "D !  3.95 5   85,*# ,*" A" + 8 - ! 3 $ 3 D # '* C 3    $  0"  + # 85 5D^  "


14 $   % &'* +  # , -*

(2)  3,*# $#  = +! 0 A &' ,*A"  ,*- 3 5  85 ,! <"0 &'3:/* " 8"#    85-&'3## 3   7"+$" +  -35 & ,5  '- !&#&# &' ,* A" ,* 3 '* ' ,! A" ,! $   #  $# # +" 8  5

 3 # # 8 0#+ D # 5#5 -/ 98.7 5   ( &B ,*# , 2541) (3)  3,*# # $ 3 D 0#"  &' ,*  A"  7  ,=,

  " = !1  5 ,*#  7-

3E& N#1 ,   N#85 -,#,  5  $ 3 D :/*  &  #85 !85 55",*""*! (4)  +0 0&' ,*2  8 3"  '* &' ,*,  A" ,* &' ,* +!# :/* "  +"  &*  3 ,* + &*/ "   ,<Z ,*# ,! 85 5" A" &'*  ,  &B ,$ $5 ,  A" "0" C 5  "0   +0 0&' ,*285  &' ,* A" $#  +0 ' \  & +   5 ,+"'*$,  , &  # 85,*#   #  3  7  # ,* 0#+ D  _`  &A # 8585 ! 85 #P 85  " (5)  + + 3%

8 60+ % ,*+ + 3  +085\  &'* 0 AD, &  #  + 85" 8"67,*   &+ 85   -8# ## #8  +0 0,!5 &' ,*2 3 2  8 3"85&' ,*" !5!< :/*  5 ,+", &  #    67 -'  ,*# ,*#$# -" "% ,  121_  ' 55* % * + 3 $ 3 D,*# &'*5 $ 3 D "   " 2.1.2.2 9?. ) (1)  -'  ,*# ,  A"  # D 3   ,=,

3 8 &B = A;85 8 3" E++,* 8 &+ !   3   ,=&*/  '* C $# # 3 60.0 5  d &.=. 2540 &*/  62.9 5  d &.=. 2544 85 65.9 5  d &.=. 2550  &*/   3  + "8 ,*!7"8  /* ,*,! #67  3,*# 85, &  < 3"


15 $   % &'* +  # , -*

!    ' A"  ! 8 $ &*/ ,0d :/*  "#   &* 3 ,*,*#    !# / ,!  # ',*-'  "  ' 8  $ 5#5 :/* d &.=. 2538 !    ' A" 5.25 5   ' 85 ',*-'  E5*   ' 5 25.24   + ',*-'  E5* "  '   

67 -'  ,*# E5* "  '    85  &+ 3  #,! ,*#  "     5 28.67 3,*#  5 11.39 !  ,*#  5 11.02 85 1,*#  5 0.17 :/* A" +  ,< ,*# ,! A"  '* &' ,*,*,! A" #$# #% 3  ,! 2   3,*<   $ 3 D  " / ,! #   #85 A ' 0 AD^_` ^,*#  C  P&,*#"5# # ,*# &'* A" "!   3   ,=, 8 $  ',*" 5# 5 $#

d &.=. 2828 #  3 ",*# 2.5   85 d &.=. 2538 # 5#5 5' 2.2    # 60+ ,*# + &5& &,*  + + ,  A" ,*&*/  " /  # 5#  7 6 " C ,!  A% "  3,#*  :/ *  - "*! ,! 5"+8, ,  A" 5#  5  '5# " +0 0,*# :/*  "2  8 3" (2) ,<Z ,*# 67 #/ + = 85,! ",*#    ,* 2  8 3" 0,  8 3" " A& <0D"D2 2- 85,*<  $ 3 D" C  !   ,  #,

d 2533 -'  ,*# "2  8 3" 35,204,205   + !  1,070,702 5 2- 2,409,275   85,*<  $ 3 D 2,629,281   &*/ ,*  =   2  8 3"  1,000,000  +   ',*  80 5   67   ,<ZE& &' ,*2  8 3"5#5  '* 

d &.=. 2536  2#+&' ,*2!  44 5   8!    9 ,*# &'* A"   (...) #!   9 ,*# $#

&' ,*,*+   &' ,*,* 33   = 85,!  "0,  8 3" " A& <0D"D285,*<  $ 3 D   67  ,<Z ...    3 d &.=. 2535-2542 # ="9 ,*# ,*  ; 40,704,696    ## 27,543,518   +  ' 07" ,! $ 3 D " 9 ,*# (... 4-01) 11,401,558   (!    9 ,*# &'*A"   2543)


16 $   % &'* +  # , -*

(3)   ,*# ,! -/ 8 ;+5# $ +  '*  # ,*,! " 8"d &.=. 2483 85" 8"   ,*# ,! !    !  d &.=. 2530 2531 25335 85 2539 &+ ,*# ,! !  572,755   ' 454,819   ' 538,470   ' 85 514,717   ' "5!#+ ("  ,* 2) %) 2 !   ,*# ,! d &.=.2530 2531 2535 85 2539 9F .$. 6! C)6 ( ) 2530 2531 2535 2539 ,* :

1. 2. 3. 4.

572,7551 454,8192 538,4703 514,7174

= D   &B 3 +,8 3" (2531) !    9 ,*# &'*A"   (2543) !  +  (2537) !  +  (2542)

 867 ,*# ,! ;+5##"  ,0 ,*# / d &.=. 2535 $# #,*# 8 “8  + ” 5 #!   (  ,* 1)  d &.=.2535-2539  -#,*# ,! 8 ,*# ,! # 2,624  &' ,* 29,274   (!    ,0 ,*# , 2542) 85  !5 #!      ,* 2 (4)  3,*#  3,*# 5A 38++3, #853+  $#

d &.=. 2530 2535 85 2539 &+ 3,*# !  1,343,643   ' 1,311,174   ' 85 1,407,950   ' "5!#+ ("  ,* 3) 5# 5 8#   3,*# &*/ 85 !  !   = A; A" &+ ',* 3# &*/ d &.=. 2518 :/*  *$  9 ,*#  13.59 5    19.24 5   d &.=. 2529 855#5 5' 14.85 5   d &.=. 2538 ,  5 9 ,*#  3 3 25 d,*  (&.=. 2518-2542)  -# ,*# 3 # 59,181   $# ,!773 19,268  ,!773:' 7,603  85$  ,<Z,*# 8A"  577  (!    9 ,*# &'*A"  , 2543)


17 $   % &'* +  # , -*

%) 3 5A 3,*# d &.=.2530 85 2535 85 2539 9F .$. "#) ( ) "# J  "# # 2530 572,755 2535 538,470 2539 514,717 ,* : 1. = D   &B 3 +,8 3" (2531) 2. !  +  (2537) 3. !  +  (2542)

770,888 772,704 893,233

 1,343,6431 1,311,1742 1,407,9503

2.1.2.3     /) '*$,  ,*#  -/  5* 85  0+",   P& 85 3P& #  ,! #  0P&5#5   - 3&'* A" #  - 85

55" ,* ,*"5# $# 5 # # # ,*-"  ++67 , # = A;85  (1)  35 & ,5   # '*$,  # ,* 0 8 ,*0#  ,=, # 35 & ,5  # :/* "0 3 $ 3 D,*# += P&&' ,* 3  0 AD 8"! / -/ 6 , # = A;  &B ,*# (2542)    35 & ,5  #  5 0 8 85 0 8  &' ,* ,=, !  108 5   85&' ,*35 & ,5  #  85  !  209 5  

  &' ,*P5#3 ,* ,=   96 5   &' ,*5  3  $ 3 D '+0 0,!5 ,! # 35 & ,5  #   0 8 67 35 & ,5  #  0 8 85#/ ,*,0P $# E&&' ,*P85,*,*5#3  :/*  7    P '85P" "  35 & ,5  #  67 ,* 5 ,+" '* $# ,! 7  # ,*0#+ D858 <"0 &'3 # &' ,*  134.5 5    '  5 41.94  &' ,*,* ,= " ,*-3 5 &#&5 85 ! d5 27 5 " /  5" &5 ,! 8 !5!< "'  85# !,E+&5 + &' ,*


18 $   % &'* +  # , -*

(2) #  #  ' # ,* 5'    "  "* 8#585 ++ = ,  # #  5'< 3"  # 3 # 8-+3 ,5  '* # + ,<&5 / 5  !,5 #  "P5 #" !  ,+- "# 8567# #/ # 3#,*0# P" E  ' :/*  +50&' ,*  105 5   $# &+ &' ,*#   17.85 5    '  5 17  &' ,* 85&' ,* ,*= P&  8&   5'  19.4 5    8&    #   #/  "< 3"85  #  ,!  0A D 3  + ! "# &'* ,! 5'  &5 "D !3 16X ,5  "#,!5 2+ &' ,*,*= P&  8& 5' 85    + ! &' ,*,* ,!  ! "# :// # 85 ## #  ##  P" E  '# ://  ! "#  :/* ! "#   3 50-1,000 " 85'*#67# / 85  5 ,+$# " "  7"+$"8555" &'3,*5 &' ,*# 5 "5#  67# * 8#5 #

(3) #   # &' ,*#   #    ,* &' ,* +50P5 " "&#,="  ,=" "  +50&' ,*  5.5 5    #&' ,*#   # 5 ,+"  3 $ 3 D,*# &'* A"   0 8 ,! 5&'3   3 #85 55""*!  ,*" 5 ,0  &' ,*&5'* C  5&'3# +5 ,+$# "  0 8   #,*#/ #     # 5* 85  ++ =23 5 ,! 7  &' ,*  85 && <0D"D !85 &5 "D !3 16X "5# ,! # 5* 85 0P& ! + ,* !5  &' ,*#   #85 ! "# #+"' # P5&A, ! ,!  !+ # 50P&5 - ! 30$P '+ $P # (4) # #  ,! A" 8  !:/*  3 '* ' '*  :/*  !   &' ,*A"    -&  +   / ,! $   # -,!5 # #"8  /  5  #3 # 3'*8 3 # -&  (Plough pan  ' hard pan) " :/  !5  # '*51 "# ##:+ !#  5 # !5 ,* # &*/  5 #


19 $   % &'* +  # , -*

!5+ (water ran-off) ,* # / /  "0 # 35  & ,5  # / 2.1.3  J6 ! , &   P,,* 0  #/ ,#8, #   7/  3'* ,=   !0#+ D 8" -  D60+ :/* "  3 !/  ,0P85 5" + 3 5/ #67 #85 !  0 8 ## 8    3 !, PA"   0"   +  0$P85+ $P 303 85 5# ! 675 C  '* , &  !  ,=, #8  #85 ! !, 85 0P& !'*$,  675  0 8 85#/ 0  8""  8"5d 85"PP/  +  !1 85    1     5 '+ '* '*$,  , &  28585 " ! 5!<  +  85 # , &  !   ++85# ,<P&  ! #,<85 ,*  3 ! , #   0 AD85 !85+0 3 !# 85 "#     ,<P& %

,**  +,+77"* + 0  85 !85+0 3 !  ,<P&  0# #  2.1.3.1 /+(J6 !8 67  P##  1) P ' 67 #85 !,*#/ E& + &' ,*85"N#5 :/*      P'* 8" #   & B 85  P  P     "      ++35  , / 85+ &' ,*"  \  P  '*  !, $# "02:/*  85 " !5!< -,!5  60+ 2) P" E  ' $# ,* PP,* !5"< 3" " 3 N# 85  '*, ++ # &' ,*50 ! 5! ! !7 #8 8 !5 8 !5 8 !   855! ! 8 !$ :/*  -  85 + ! # 7&'*+ ! N#1 # '* P ,='!   ++PP "   85 "  :/ !5 #  P'* C 67# 85671 , 3 #/   !,0d / # #85 !  0 8 N#85   1 #P !,


20 $   % &'* +  # , -*

"+ &' ,*50 16X 5! ! 50 !3 !5 !  8550 !'* C 55 +  67 PP ,*"   867    # 3) P5 &' ,* 7 ,* +50 3 =     8  85&' ,* &5P'* C  7 &' ,*&5 #  P5 / "  ! 3 &'* A"  !   $# E& &5 N#85  ++85 ! PP   ! #& &+"  :/* 60+ "  &*/ ,0d !,*+  + ! # 7 50 !&   #8  + !'* P&585'*  "Z + d# 85 85"   &'* 3  " C N#85 4) P"  -/ 8,1 "E5* , dP'* 8"67 ! &+"   '* 85 + !"5! !" C P"  85 303 16X ,5:/* 60+    " 7/   #  3 ' &,  85 0"  5 8 +  # 3 !+#5     ! + 5 '*  ! , N#85 +   $# E& # ,+0 85 #" # 8"+ &' ,*67 ! , + d3  5) P " 67 #85 ! + &' ,*8567# 0P& !  '* #  #   85#  67 '* !,*!7   /* ' !,E+&5 ,*#/ "  #" C $# E&&' ,*,! A"  '* 1 "30852+ " !5!< - +0 0,!5  *  6)  0 ,&  85 [5 P&P ,= &' ,* +"*!  #+&' # $#

E5*

5 + #+ !,5  + !#  33 =     8  85$  0" !   / "  !&'* 0$P  0" 85'* C "  858 $ "  &*/   #  67#  + ! 3 !,5 0 853 1 "  67 8 !&  855!5 " C N#85 ,0d  !,* + 5 '* P&585'*  "   ,  7"+$" 303  8   0 ,&  85" [5   8 85 # +0 2.1.3.2 J6#  ,=,   "   0&# 6 * 5   ,*# !,#  $# E&  5 ,*&' ,*2:/*  &' ,* + !85:/:+  ! 7 #- +0+ ,*# ,! 85 = #  / &+  5  !,&*/ ,0d 8


21 $   % &'* +  # , -*

+ , ,*,*  !, 3   -  D0,P   ,* 15   2543 &' ,* A"  +P  '* & 0 D & 0  85& 0  36  # &' ,* 5,950,962   #&' ,*  4,268,088   85&' ,* +P  1.4 5     P" E  ' P '&' ,* +P   1.2 5   $#  7  " #&3 + D:/* &' ,* +P  1.1 5    P5 85P"  &' ,* +P   3.7 8   85P "&' ,* +P 1 8   2.1.3.3 - >J6 -  D0P& !!8 "P ##  1) 50 !P5  85 !,*# +5 ,+5&A, P0"  A"  85303 ,*0# 67!7' 85 ! 50 !P5 5 8   _`  8+,  50^d5$5^ D     4,000  & " 100 555" (  ) :/*  #+ # 8&    $ , #  # 67  5  # 8 : 55 !+ 85      85&& ! + #! 3"  "D !$# ,* ,*+ " 5  8 !&  85, " &+  8$   $"  :/*  #3 8#  85 &A  ,* 

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24 $   % &'* +  # , -*

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25 $   % &'* +  # , -*

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2

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28 $   % &'* +  # , -*

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 0    !d 2542 = D+   33 ! 5<   ; " 

6 (,

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66.86

14.97 8.20 5.47 2.13


29 $   % &'* +  # , -*

6. 7. 8.

67* 8#5 6750 +3& 67 # $   ;

43 35 20

1.04 0.85 0.48

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50


31 $   % &'* +  # , -*

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5A   58  +   #0*  +! 0 A<  $ 3 D  30        ! PAD 33 + $P    *   3 8   5  3  " 60+ ,     ;  D &B 


35 $   % &'* +  # , -*

3 85 D  33 " 0  + 0    +   &'* N,<5' !   &B  :/* #5 +8 #" ;<  78 3 , &0,< = 3 2540 "  79 ,*+77" “ ;"   85 + 0  33      +! 0 A 85 3 $ 3 D, &  < 3"8555 , 3P&  #05 ,       +! 0 A 850  0P&* 8#5 "5 &B ,* * ' "5# +085!#P5&A,*5"0P&   #P&850P&3"  33 ” 85"  56 “,< +05,* + ;85 303  +! 0 A85 # $ 3 D, &  < 3"8555 , 3 P& 85  0     85 A0P&* 8#5&'* #! 3& #  " 85" '* * 8#5,* # "  "0P&  #P&  '0P& 3"  # +0  ,  ",*% +77"  #!    ' ,* #5 ,+  0 8 "0P&* 8#5  ,!#  8"#=/A85  5 ,+"0P&* 8#5 , #  D    :/*  +# 8,  D 3 # * 8#5 858, -+  =/A,*#  =/A# * 8#5   +  #!   # 5 , ",*%

+77" ,< +05,*^\   3     ; ; 3  , -*  D '*  ;&'* 9+" ,*",*+77" % "  /* 85   # +0  ” 2.2.4 -'$ % #   ) ## /9,"" 5 ,!   $  9  A" 85 &B 3 +, (WCARRD) d 1979 #5-/ 0,<=" D  ! +  3 +,$#

0,<=" D       4 "#  ' ( 3" 5 - 85, 2543 : 147) -     D ! +  -    !  -   8 #+, -* -     #,!$  &B 3 +, &' ;   *  + “! ” 5'     D + ,*!7 ! ,  '  50   +   33 ,* *  $# "


36 $   % &'* +  # , -*

    "#  8++1Â&#x20AC;#,*   3 +, '* '   *  $  &B   =   D0 (2541 : 113-114) # 0 + D ,!  ,*-'

0,<=" D        33  2 # ' 1.  # +     (Learning Process)  -,!#5 <3 #,  D-  D+ 855*  + D =/A#  1Â&#x20AC;+  5 '9+"   -# + D85 0+,  &'* + 0  +  ,!  2.  &B  '  !&'*  !#*    ' -,*  3

 ! -  *   867  ' &B #$#  855*      !, P

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


37 $   % &'* +  # , -*

+05,* ,!  + D  33 ,*  +    3 303  !7 +,+, 3 !67 ' #   7 C ,*#  $ 3 D  '  ,!   +  D   ,*  # "  +  &'*   *  #   3  85 ,* *   ,! ' # +  +/ ,! =/A #$#

 D 30 3    "# $#  &B   "0 38 85 !5    

60+ !#+   ,3 - $ +    303  7" /  + ++ 3  12    85# / -  33 0  + +!*   +-"   3 85    3 5'8,  3 "   # 85 55*  $"8  + 3 -  33 # # E&"  $  85" 5 '9+"$  ,  # 8++ +  -  D  33  7 #8585  5 $ 3 D +   ' 3  #-/ ' 33 $# ,* (0 3  , D8 =    " 0 =D#3 85, 2543 : 6)  !7"    33  #5'    / P   +#3+ 85 /     5 # * '  85 '  '* C  303  "&  â&#x20AC;&#x153;  &B ,* 33     3  &B ,*8,  8"  +  8++  Dâ&#x20AC;? (& " D #3  , D, ... : 17) â&#x20AC;&#x153;    33  * !785 5+"$  &B " C , ,!  33 3 +, -  &/* "  â&#x20AC;Śâ&#x20AC;? (3 " D '+, 2539 : 22) #    /  , < (means) 85\ (ends) 5#  2.2.5 9?.+(,-9 %# ) ## /9,"" 67,** + +        33 :/* * $    + 0 8% &'*  50 /  D 303  '-+ 5 "  #!   " C 303 ## * /  0##  1. 67,**  + $ +  ; 85 D " C  ;# ,*  =   D0 # +  ' 1) $ +  ;,**  +   '" ,!  2) ++ +   P ; ++= D !  "# + 5 3)    #+


38 $   % &'* +  # , -*

9+" ;# 85,A  j#$  33    &B  ( 3" 5 - 85 , 2543 :166) 2. 67,* 5$     , # ,*  3" 5 - 85 (2543 : 167)  -/  &&B D ,*# 0     37  33D   33 -!#$# 5A$   ,  85B < , 3  5,!  + 50 303   $  " C     8# # :/* #/   '585  # # &*" 8"" ,    # !  85- , = A; ++ ' -+0$# 3 50  85 # 5,* ,<P&  88 , &  2.2.6     -"- " ;<  78 3 , &0,<= 3 2540 +,+77"  + "   33 8++" C "  45  “                ! "#!$  %&'   ($%# #)& *+', ,-+',.&% )//*-0  1# !$,   #2   3 # !$    , !.  ' 3 #  ! !$4 *,  5"3'') . 6*%”  50  D ,*%  +/  <,*#,*0#     8 +303 , -* ,* * ' / !-"  "  D "%

#/  +"-0  D 303 85% #"  D   33 ,*  60+  ! +   8 +303 "8 , ,* ;<  78 3  , &0,<= 3 2540 "   D + 0 85 ' 303 ,* "$# - , %  % # "   +&'*#!      5 < 50A"  85 D #8 1.  5% 8& 85&3 D 2. &  3+77"B < 8 3" &.=. 2485 3. &  3+77" D &.=. 2542


39 $   % &'* +  # , -*

 5% 8& 85&3 D +    " 303 ,*-  " +05   " 8++ "+05,* ""  65  ' 8++ ""  78  ' 8++ 5 < ""  110  ++&  3+77" B < 8 3" &.=. 2485 303 5A# 5,<85 ,*",*%

! # #  (1)    D " 5% 8& 85&3 D ,*#" / &'*,!  ,*" '*  8" 3  5!  ' !  #8+ 6  " + +85# ,+  "+05"+,+77" % /   D ,*,!   &'*  $ 3 D+  $# %  +  #,+ &'*#"   !  ,* !     B < 8 3"  ,  =/A< ,*&  07" #"  "&  3+77" B < 8 3" &.=. 2485 8&*" (E++,* 2) &.=. 2486 ! #  #"  #  1. #"  " !  " 8" 3  /  2. #" " # 30 * #" &'* /A85&    + + ,*#" /  '* + +   !7 % 85

  30 *  #"   "      30  !      B < 8 3"& #

+ + ,* * #" "  30 /A85#  /    "    # "  (1) 3'* (2) "-0  D  (3) ,*" !   7 85,*" !   ,  (4) < +3 85 #3P& (5) " +! 0 (6) ! #* +    #8 !     "     #! "!8      & "!8     85  30  (7) ! # * + #  +73 85, & D    (8) ! #* +  30 7


40 $   % &'* +  # , -*

+ + 85  '* C %

 +,+77",*" &/ 9+" #8 (1) " 33'*:/* ! “”  ++3'*  (2)  #,+ #"    3  85 " 8 ++ +   3'* ,*  853&  3  + 85  3'*,*   853&     +!#

(3)  '* ! '* #,*!     B < 8 3" '*# + 07" 85#" " #!   #,+  "+05,* "!  ( !+  3  "!  "+5 2) (4) "-0  D " # "%  '=5<  #  33  '  P  "  " +0  33  '*   ; (5) '*  ,+  !-" " '*  %  +#,+ 85 +!78#  #,+ 8 85 = #" 

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


41 $   % &'* +  # , -*

3.4   ' +  - P&,      !* 77<  $#

+03'*! -   <  #

$# 5,*5 <,*"-0  D&'*    D " , & D   ,0    200,000 +, 85-, & D   '* "   # #    100,000 +, E   " 5 </ "  "   85" # + + 0  #

5 " &'*   ,0 & &  #,+ 5 <# 3.5.  # + 07" #" 5 <8 5 #" " #!   # ,+  "+05,*   85,+  0 ,&  "  #" ,* " #,+ ,* "!  '* #"  "+0585   ,*   5 <,* '   $ 3 D8 " (3)  D   D "% "&  3+77" D &.=. 2542 

 +05:/*  #!   &'*  $ 3 D, = A;85  $# 3 "  85 3 5':/ *  85 85##,+   D"%

 D,*#,+ #" 85 % ! # "-0  D &'*  5  $ 3 D, = A;85  + #3 $# <3 "  853 5':/*  85 "5  D 85" 1.   " P,  D,*#,+ 2. 3 +05< #85+ 50 "P 3. ,0 8+  0 5, C  3" -'0     /* 0 8"  /*

 0 ,*3! 85, #  #!     D      !+#85 D$#

 ,+  D   ,+ "   D ++73  '&    ,* :/*  ,+ + -' !+#85"%  #!     D"  "+ + :/* % ! #  !7   #  (1) 3'* D" !!# , 3'* (2)  P,  D (3) "-0  D (4) ,*" !   785


42 $   % &'* +  # , -*

(5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

,0 :/* 8+  0 50 ! #* + #!    +73 85     D 0+" 3 ! # * +  30 7  5'"  #! "!8   & "!8   ! #!   ,*85  +#3+ #

 #!     D 8++ D # - !      D +    D 5! "#  '* +  $# ,!<0  # #  5'" 5*   5,*! # ,   -# # ,* '3&+       D &B 3 (Non â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Government Organnization : NGO) ,*   " 50 ,*  '* #  3 &  3+77"  85 A0 P&* 8#5 &.=. 2535 +77" +  +,+,  D &B 3  &,AD* 8#5 "+,+77" "  7 85"  8 5' â&#x20AC;&#x153;  !$   

  3 #

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*)*3%' )#        ',   ,   *$  -',  -#    )   * #) *).   )22 -# *$-',   9 *  -# !$+3) $&'0 #) â&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x153;   ) $+',%')#     : -, % +',   ! !+',   %)   !$'+ ; (=)  %',    !$ ! ?** 3 %,   # //* ;  ! 0 !$) $  $3,  * -#  *$-',


43 $   % &'* +  # , -*

(@)   #   5-  3, " !3  !$ ,%*

&(3  ) $8",  $ ,   *$-', -#  )   * (A)   ! #!;) $'!;) $($ * *$ 2   !*%  !$,   *$-', -# )   *!;) $; (B)  .(*%  $ ,   *$-', -#  )   * -# -# *' C 6 !   ) $  $3, (D)  ,  !)0 - #5",+',    !

%# * *'% $+ !-  #%3 *  ); 5",-)' ) $  E4 ,. !$  , *+ )'-)  !

,-5",) $+',   !

;',   ) $ ) $+',%')#   # F/  !   '& **%   ($ -# ,3,#  *$-', - * ! , 6  2'&-#&3#  *$-', -* &% $,  !   #  ! $,     ! 6* *%) $  $3,'& *  ! !& #' + #  )2' C3#  *$-', %*% %' *)' ! *",,- ) $+',%')#   -, !$  *% '($ ) $ C   ) $+',%')#  -,% !$5",-)  !$ ,# 6  *% -;   5",) G*#  *$ -', -*+',   ) $ ') $+',%')#  -, '& **% 2'    !3'   , !+   # , 6 

&% $ *8 %')#  3 ;+',”  303 8++,*- , %  -/  ;  "+05 "% 3 33  303 8++ -'   "8++ ,    P

"+ + %  #"  ""    3  #!   


44 $   % &'* +  # , -*

5 "&   50 5 8++85"-0  D 8"# +  + ;  8303 - ,*,  "+05"% 85 "+05 8",0303 " 9+"",*% +77"* + '* 85!#  #!    3  5% 8& 85&3 D "  150 +77"  ,! "  +05 :/* -/ 303 , 5 " "-0  D"   3#8 $# %  '& 

 '#" +  +   '=5<  #  33 85   "  102 +77"   ,+ ! * - 3'*#  ,* 9 #!     #"%  '=5<  #  33  ' P  "  "  +0  33  '*   ; 3 # +5 <  ,+ &      ' #   /*  #  "=5 55 <& "0,*5 < ,! 5A# +",* "  102 +77"  5% 7 +77" " 5A,*  * ""  209 85: $ ""  210 85 #!   "  ,+ ,' "*   ;P

3 ""  113  '8# # $# 0 "&'* # 5* 85 % 8 #  ' #  #'*  33 ""  116 &  3+77"<9+" 3 &'* 33 &.=. 2539  % ,*  33    +   E *    ,* ;# "  21 +77" “+05 < # +05  ' "+05    & ,   #"+",* ,< " - ,+ ,'  '- ,+ ,' $# 55* #” &  3+77"%  =/ 5" #!   " C  ,*&' ,* # " ,* = 3%  =/ ! #  *0 30  ! 

  '8  ' * &&D   '&&D P& +,  '! & <D +05  - P

 5,*! # ' '=   , ,* #  " 2.3  9  2.3.1 +,6 #(

#  ;<  78 3 , &0,<= 3 2540 "  78 ;"   ! 

, -* &/* "  85"#   , -* # &B = A;, -* 85 ++ < $P85<  "5#, $   &' ;   ,= , -* ,*-/ 85


45 $   % &'* +  # , -*

,,  ,* ,= , &B  #,*&    D    , -*  # 7 $# ! / -/ "  D  33  #  " 8" ;<  7E++ ! #  3  , -*  8    !  !785! 8 ,=,  #"  D    , -*   8" 8  3  , -*  & &  ,*  *  8 8 3  , -* /   '* ! + ,=,  + D     !   ,=" C &+   ! ,!#   ! " #!      " ++ 85,0 ,**  " 0 * ,*8,     ! 0#   ,* j#$  33 8"5, -* # " ,*#   , -* 85,!  ,*  / " +,+,  # ,!&'* $ 3 D       !   3 8+ +P  ;+5 ;+5&'* 585 P      ,=3"/ \ 0#,     !  '    8 8, -* " C "  D  , ,*3     +  #   D  , -* + ; %3# ;<  78 3 , &0,<= 3 2540 # 9 "  282-290 ,*  ! , -*     +    , -* # "     "  #!   "  ++670    $# E&   * &   D , -* + , ,*:/* ;" 0 *    !  ,3 &  3 #85,= " :/* ! " ,! $ 85 +$ & ,= ",*# & 3  +  8   853P +". 0B =/A      8" +  / ! "   &  '*  85 +   +   # ( 0!5 0 7 ,&# ‰ D 5< .&., 2543 : 2-3 )    "5-/    ! # 

 '* ;+5 $ +

   ! $#

 8 D    , -* 85 ,! +,+, ;5#  5 85#  ,*0# # 3 “   !  8, -* " +",*  E  85  "  "P ;…"       ! <"

 7  P& ;…# !5  # &  D,*8    , -* :/*  P&8, -*  $# ,*0## 8" ;   ! " +0#85,=+5  C 8""# P&   !  ,* ,=+5 ' , -* $# ,*"   +0#85,+8  ,=   5  …”(# 5=&[ D, 2539 : 39-41)


46 $   % &'* +  # , -*

60+  ;<  78 3 , &0,<= 3 2540 &  3+77"8 85  "    !  &.=. 2542 85&  3+77" =/A8 3" &.=. 2540 ,*"  / &'*  +8 #    !  #5     , 9+" ;+5# 

 3 " C #,!8 9+" $#    *$  !  ,*  '  !      3 &5 ' (&.)  ,  #, 85 ,  A" 85 DP

"3'*$     +  # ,*#$#    ! , -* #!   3  #" 8++ '  #  3  +0  85    #'   2542 â&#x20AC;&#x201C;   2543 :/* ,!  # 0+,  & #  x ;" 8 , ,*  3 + 33  -   ' # 85 9+"  #  +77"% + + %[D" C ,* 3 + + '" &B , -*  '# 0  9+"  -,! 9+"# #  *   D "5#   ++ " +""#5  ,  5 85 , -* :/* P

"$  # "  0   + 0 % ,**  +, -*    +  85 x 67850    /*     ! , -* '  ,*  3  5 ,*" 9+"  , -* # 5 0P&3" ,!  3  +  P& ,!  #+ q5q :/* # +' # ',# x    !    5 85, -*  # ,*3# +,+,  "  !  ,* <9+"85    - $ !  :/*  5 PP 85, -* "      x # ++0-PD85;    5" # # +  :/*  '!  "50 "  +   D , -*   5'" x +  , -*  # +     =/A,* #+/ &'* $ 3 D  9+"   ,*  -,! + % + + 9+"" C "5#    ,= D,* 5 x ++ +   # 8++   0# 0 ,* 8, -* &'* # '# 0  +  / x "  &B  + 0 -+ / D ,* ,**  + &B  D    , -* #8  -+  =/A , -*   3 ,   / ,  5 85PP+,+, + 0     , -* /


47 $   % &'* +  # , -*

x    ! , -*  '* # C  "+,%  8 ,  9+"8"5 ,  &'* 5+ + 3     x  # +  D    , -* #5 +P&    #  #&' ,*  7  # 3 85 # 8+  #PA  ,,  x $     D    , -* ,  '* "!8   ,* !   9+"     ,*   3# ,,* x !  +    8++ ++ + &'* 3  - $ P  5 5 , -* ,*3# x  5 #85<9+"  - $ P  , -*  5* 85 "5#5 ,! #3#  #!   , + + % ,* 39+"  #+ q5q (!      3 &5 ' , 2543 : 101-107) 5< !      3 &5 ' # 0+,   #!   # 5&  C  1. P ,*,#5 - $ #5 +P&&' ,* 2. 9+"  +   <9+"85,0,  ,#5   ",* 3. 5  ,*,!#" ; 8"-' +!  $# 6 8 !  ' 1)   + 0  3 2)    , -* 85 33 85 3)  /   12 - $ 85 +$ 2.3.2 9 # 

,*   ,* D +   "!+5 (+".)  '*        , -* ,* 53#+ 33 85303 ,*0# ,  # ++  ,*5   ,*5 $# " "0P&3"85    33 , -* #

P"!+585 D +   "!+5 #" / "&  3+77"P"!+585  D +   "!+5 &.=. 2537 ,*! #  "!+5 /* P"!+5 ;  "+05 P"!+5,*  #$#    0# 0 d + ,*5 "#" d E5* "*! d5 /* 8 '* +, '"[D  #E5* #"   D +   "!+5 $# ,!  =  ,  #, 85 = 3 0+A85& P& P"!+5 +8" ,*# =#" /   D +   "!+5 " 


48 $   % &'* +  # , -*

 D +   "!+5  3  , -* ;  "+05 $    +# P D +   "!+585  +   D +   "!+5 (1) P D +   "!+5  +# 3,*# +5'"  A% 8" 5+ " +".  + 5 2  " +". #&  /* + P +".  3 !  6  85" +". #&  + P +".  +# 3P +". + 5 3  3 +".   #! "!8  4 d P D +   "!+5!  ,* #  1.  3+8 &B "!+5 &'* 8 ,  +     D +   "!+5 2. & 85  3+  + +"!+5  + + +   

 !d 85  + + +    &*" 3. +0 9+"     +   " $ + 858 &B "!+5" 1 85% + + 85+ + , 3 (2)   +   D +   "!+5  +#

 <   +   /*  85  +  !  2  :/* P +". 5' 3 +". 85    !P8" " 5# +". ,! ,* 5 0    +  !  ,*   +  #  1. +    +".  "" + + 858 &B "!+585 +# 3+ +    +". "P +". 2. #,!8 &B "!+585 +  !d&'*  P +". &    3+ 3.   5 9+"  85 3   P +". , +   d5   4. 9+" ,*'* C ",*, 3 +

(3) !  ,*  D +   "!+5 . +". !  ,*  &B "!+5 , # = A;   85B <  ""  6


49 $   % &'* +  # , -*

. !  ,*,*% ! #  +".  ,*" 9+" "!  ""  67 #  4 (1) # 85+! 0 A, !85, + (2) A# - , ! , # 85,*<  , !#51

85* 95 (3) \  $ 85  +$ "#" (4) \  85+ ,< P

(5)    =/A =  85B <  (6)    &B "  #  3   0 85& (7) 0  #85 85+! 0 A, &  < 3"85* 8#5 *(8) +! 0 A=5  " & P677, -* 85B <  # , -* *(9) 9+" ,*'* ",*, 3 + $# # +  '+05  "! 85  D +   "!+5#,! " D +   "!+5 ""  68 # "  5 (1)  !&'* 0$P + $P 85 A" (2) 85+! 0  ^^\ '8  $# <'* (3) 85+! 0 A, + ! (4) 85+! 0 - ,* 30  Q  &   85 <  (5) 85  50A"  85  D (6)    0"   +  (7) +! 0 85    +3& A% (8)  0  #8585 A, & D   < +" 8 # (9) 5 $ 3 D, & D   D +   "!+5 (10) "5# ,, + ' 85, (11)  * + &3 D *(12)  , ,*  *(13)   ' 4

 0 (8)  "  67 8&*"$# &  3+77"q (E++,* 3) &.=. 2542 85 0 (9) &*$# &  3+77"q (E++,* 3) &.=. 2542 5

 0 (12) (13) &*$# &  3+77"q (E++,* 3) &.=. 2542


50 $   % &'* +  # , -*

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51 $   % &'* +  # , -*

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8 D +   "!+5  ("  79) (7)  D +   "!+5! + +"!+5&'*+PA5&* $#

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*+  3  #! * 3P D +   "!+5:/* # +5'" & "!8   +&  ,  &N" '! * !  

7+  '8&, D !"!+5"!8  # '*+05   #

77+  D +   "!+5 '  ,* ,!8 D +   "!+5 ,   -*

!   ' 7+ :/*    +   D +   "!+5 "!8  !   ' 7+ '*+05# 5-P D +   "!+5" & "!8    3  #*  0+P D +   "!+5#"!  8   !P P D +   "!+5 ,! 121_ " +  + 

 '#P&  33  '55 9+"" '9+" 3+# !  ,*  , *   +  ,  '  +   +  & "!8 


52 $   % &'* +  # , -*

#"! 8   !P   +   ,! 121_  +  + 

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*+ P 5 ,*#  = 3&  3+77"P"!+585 D +   "!+5 &.=. 2537 5    0# -/ 8 +  88"5"!+5&'* 3  #!   , -* " 3 3  &B "- , -*  '     8 , -* " 8"  #  33  , -*   #&*"8"  #    !

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*   33  ,*  * !P# 85 + ,*#& &+"     5  ,!  # 85 867+    -"    33 #8"  #  3 D +   "!+5+    +,+, ,* "  #  -  #!   ,! #  8    ++ 85   5  8"  # 8  /  #  ' 85 +  :/*   ,*  5" 33 853 D +   "!+5 !   85   ,**  #    + D +   "!+5     67   /* ' +".  ;  P"!+5  D +   "!+5 #  "&' ,* +#3+ +". #"  ' &' ,*# P"!+5,*     +". 5' " +50&' ,*     "!+5" &. .+. 5A  , ,* &.=. 2457 ,*  ",=+5850P+5 -"!+5 #&' ,* ,

85 "  3 +  3 , -*    -/ E&&' ,*,*   "   +  3  , -* 3 # +P"!+5 8",  -/  D +    # #  "&' ,* +".    :!: +&' ,* +#3+  D +    # :/*    3 +   , -* 3 # 


53 $   % &'* +  # , -*

5 #!    '*     d 2542 !  4,135  '*  05 #!   1.     ,**  &  4,004  '* (  5 96.83) 1.1  #!     3 2,553  '* (  5 61.74) x     #!   1,742  '* (  5 42.13) x       #!   811  '* (  5 19.16) 1.2   5 & #!   85 1,451  '* (  5 35.09) x #"!  , # 615  '* (  5 14.87) x #"!+  248  '* (  5 6) x #"! 588  '* (  5 14.22) 2.  + '*  ' 0" '* 131  '* (  5 3.17)    ! + #!   * + 30 0     A% 8550&5 -  D 30 0     A% 8550&5 +d &.=. 2542 "     ,  #,  30 0 P& ,*,  ,= !  786   $#   30 0,* ,!  + ;+5 !  230   (  5 29.26) ! +67  A"   7 5'* 3   ,* 31   ,0d &   j#+73 <  &'* A" 85 D A"  67  55",  A" ""*!  75'*  3 " 8  d  #'  -   D ,*30 0" '*  -/  d 2542  4 50 :/* 5 8" 50,*"      ;+58673 ++ #  1.  30 0 A% ,*0,  8 3",+5  #  3 2.  30 0 33A"  

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54 $   % &'* +  # , -*

1.

2.

6750285,*# !  19   12  '*  7  '* ,*# ,!   &&, '* ,< ,*#  3 - ; 50,*!7 #8 1.1 5033A"  

 P ( ..)  # +5 ,+ $  &B 2# 5 !P3P  # 8 :/*  67,* 30 0" '*     ,*,! "2  8 3" 1.2 50   0 AD, &  < 3"85* 8#5 16 -+  867 5030 0 #3   67 285,*# 6750 A"   !  17   9  '* ,*!7 67* + 5"  ,  A" ""*!  #8  !5  + # :/*  #67  A"  " 50,*!7#8 2.1 50A"  5 !5  #  3  8 67  !5 ""*! 2.2 50"8, A"  3 

5 #!   867 '*  30 0     A% 8550&5 ,*,!  + ;+5 d 2542 !  131  '*  - 05 #!   ##  1     ,**  &  128  '* (  5 95.52) 1.1  #!     3 79  '* (  5 58.96) x     #!   49  '* (  5 36.57) x       #!   30  '* (  5 22.39) 1.2   5 & #!   85 49  '* (  5 36.57) x #"!  , # 11  '* (  5 8.21) x #"!+  22  '* (  5 16.42) x #"! 16  '* (  5 11.94) 2  + '*  ' 0" '* 6  '* (  5 3.17) 1.

= D    5 x !     3 5' 33    


55 $   % &'* +  # , -*

x 2.

= D    867#'#   A"      A" = D    PP x = D!     P 3 858, 33A"  P  !   A" 85 D # 8 x = D!     P 3 +8, 5 <A"  , 33A"  

 P !   A"  # 8 x = D!     P 3 858, 33A"  

 P (1) !   A"  # 

      D 3 &B 3 +, P (. &3. P


56 $   % &'* +  # , -*

) 3  ))/

+,    D% * + # , &  < 3"85* 8#5 %  + 0    8 +303 85%     , -* &'* , +5 % $#  0 85 ! 3 # 67   # 30 3 85# '* C ,* +  # 3 5,*   0 P& # 2  ' 1.  ))  ' "%  +#

1.1 % * +2 x &  3+77"2 &.=. 2484 x &  3+77"0,  8 3" &.=. 2504 x &  3+77"2  8 3" &.=. 2507 x &  3+77"  850  "D2 &.=. 2535 x &  3+77" 2 &.=. 2535 x  &  3+77"230Â&#x2039; &.=. â&#x20AC;¦. 1.2 % * +,*# x  5% ,*# &.=. 2597 x &  3+77"#,*# &'*   3& &.=. 2511 x &  3+77"# ,*# &'*A"   &.=. 2517 x &  3+77" 9 ,*# &'*A"   &.=. 2518 x &  3+77"&B ,*# &.=. 2526 x &  3+77"  ' &.=. 2518 x &  3+77" 0## 85-# &.=. 2543 1.3 % * + # !85   x &  3+77" 85 ! &.=. 2505 x &  3+77" 35 , A% D &.=. 2482 x &  3+77" 35 , 5 &.=. 2485 x &  3+77"   &.=. 2490


57 $   % &'* +  # , -*

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# 5  '*  8- 2 % ! #   8-  '2  ' ,!#   # C    ,!5 2 ' /#-' +  2&'*"   ' '*  8" ,!P

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58 $   % &'* +  # , -*

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59 $   % &'* +  # , -*

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60 $   % &'* +  # , -*

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2   8 3" "5#    8- 2 ,! + 2 ' ,!#  

# C :/* ,! '* P& 2 8"  ,! '+ 2$# # + 07" &    ,*  '"% # 2  '# + 07" ,! $ 3 D '  =

"2  8 3"""  16 "  16 , 85"  16 "   '# + 07"

=/A ' , 3  '       ' 3,  ! '5

"D5 " + +,*<+# 2! #  ' # + 07" ,! +! 0 2  '5   2 ' ' " "2'*$,  &  3+77"2  8 3" &.=. 2507  85   d 2528 8 &  3+77"2  8 3" (E++,* 3) &.=. 2528 &*""  16 , 85"  16 "    ,*,! $ 3 D ' =

+ 2'*$, ,*! # " + 0 2 


61 $   % &'* +  # , -*

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62 $   % &'* +  # , -*

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  !7 % 0 ,*0  3 #& <0D "D2$# ! #"  " C

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# 2 % ! #    /*        850  "D2  +# ; "   ,  A" 85 D   < 5#  ,  A" 85 D 5# ,  #, 5# ,   "  ,= <+#     <+# ,*# <+#   <+# =0"D <+# =05 <+#


63 $   % &'* +  # , -*

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" A& <0D"D2  # 8"# + 07"&    ,*  5"D2  "D2  "D20   ' 3  '+ ',! " 


64 $   % &'* +  # , -*

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67,*!7"&  3+77"  ' &.=. 2518 #867* + + + 3% ,*,!#   ,<P&  '*  &B ,*#    "8 , ,* &B ,*#  '$  " C  ;3 ! /  #,*#  7 &B " , ,*-  5"#  ' - ,*:/* $   # 7 ;#!   :/*  5  3,*# #"= P& ,*#  85   " &' ,* ' #    ++:/*  5"67* +   ++< $P#

   "   #,! '   #! # "  27 ,* +05 # 3 $ 3 D,*# #,*#! #  '   8" +   !## 5 5 # !#,< , , & D :/*  ,<,* ;<  7  +  ! + #,! ' E&   '* % +0 ,!#$#  "  &  3+77" ,! 

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 '&'* '*     8" 0##  '-# # 5   $# -" " 53 /  # "  8, & D 855#P   33 #     %   #   0 # # 85-# &'*     0 # #  '  -# ",=+5  0 ,&  ' &,   D    , -* '* ",*% $# E&#" / :/* ; "   ,  #,  =! # 3 0+A85+ ,*&  3 NA%  3+ +% #  +0 " ' "% #   ' 85 , ,*'* ,* ; "   ,  #,  =! # $# -" "53 % ! #    /*    "   0## 85- # "  +# <+# $ <<   <   8,  , &  <  8,   ,*# 8,  &B ,*# 8,  $  0"  8,  =5 8, !   $ + 858 * 8#5 8,    ' 8, P= 858, P-  8 5 /*  85, 00B * :/* ; " 8" "    85   !     +0  $ <<    855 0 ; " $# !8  !   ! % ,  ! # (1) + 0##  '-#


78 $   % &'* +  # , -*

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d  ' +  /* 8 +,  ', !,  +    


79 $   % &'* +  # , -*

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, ,* #"  &  3NA%$# 8 ,* +85 '* 3+ +85 ,*# " #,! +,*# 5A*  85 - ! ' # + &' # #   "*!  *+: "" 85    +: " "  85  P

! #5 d -<+# 35 ,  5  1 d 85  ,*# #,! 85  * &    ,*#!   $#  ,*# 3# 3 3 #  85 5A ! ",*<+# =! # &'* $ 3 D  8+ 6 !$# ,*-/  <+#! ! # &    ,* #,! " ! '* '* ,* 3  + + !  !$#

 ,*# ,* + $ 3 D   '   3

 #,!"  ',*#  "  85 +  ,*#  ,*  +! 0 A   ! 85 " ! '* '* ,* 3  + + ! ,*#  "   P& 3 ##  0#5 !d5  &    ,*!   8" "  "  :/*    ' +  ,*#

+   "  85 ! ,*#   /* &    " ;  3 &     ,* !  ,*",*&    ,*+    ' 85  "!8   5  d 3.1.3.2 ," .. %"(9,* .$. 2482 +77"/ &'*+0 35 , ,*#,!/ $# 3 :/* #,!85 !/ &'*

3 "   '  #,!/ &'* 3   '#,!/ &'* +  8+05'* +    % ,* *  +  8+   35 ,   P3 #!   8++ /* (Privatization) % #8+  P,  35 , A% D 3  P, '


80 $   % &'* +  # , -*

1.  35 ,  +05    35 , ,*+05 #  '5

 ##,!/ &'* $ 3 D8 &5 +05  C $# E& ("  4) $# "   07" ;  8" 35 ,  +05  ,!/  ',* 200    '   ,!3* $# ## , !<   ',! +05'*   ("  7 85 "  8)   ;  ! *  35 ,  +05,* ! ! E5* ! 8,*#   $#  ,*#   " 3 5'  '+0 35 ,  +05  " 85- ;      35 ,  +05  &'*  $ 3 D8 A% ! ,** 5*  35 ,  +05,*,!   +d85  35 ,  A% #$#

 A% ,*# + $ 3 D 35 , # 5     "+8, 8 35 ,  +05# ("  9) 2.  35 ,  A%    35 , ,* A% #  #,!/ &'* $ 3 D8 &5 A% , ,* $# "  07" ;  ,*#

   35 ,  A%  '     "   7  A% ,* # +  $ 3 D 35 ,  ("  12) ; 8" "   35 , "   7 A% "5# !   [D8   A%  :8: 8 35 ,  A% # ("  13 85"  14) 85 =  ,! # C    #  35 , 8 ! 5!<    5 +/ + , !  '85 ! # C :/* ! 8 35 , ("  11) 3.  35 ,       35 , ,*+05##,!/ &'* "+8, ,*"  3 !&'* &5 35 ,  $# " ,  ; :/* ; -+0 35 , #" '*  ,  35 , ,  P,-+0$# %

!  ;  * j# ' # 3 #  /*   35 , 3* #  ! &'* $ 3 D8 8+ 6 ! #85  '&'*5#P  '0 < 3 ("  5) ! +  35 ,  +05 ' 35 ,  A%  ;!  3 ! 3 ! !  ' !, $# 5 $ 3 D


81 $   % &'* +  # , -*

3.1.3.3 ," .. %"(9,( .$. 2485  % ,** +    +! 0 A ++35 , "5#  ! #

&    ,*! #!   # " C &'* $ 3 D8 35 , :/* % #+77"   35 , "35 ,  #  " 35 , "    ,* 35 , #,!/ &'* #:/* ! ' &'*+ A +0  +  '8+ !&'*A"    &5   < $P  ' 0"  85  -/  \     # ! + -/   , !:/*   "35 , #

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0 D8 35 , ! +, ! # , !35 ,  ' 85  P,

# ; "   ,  A" 85 D  = 3 0+A ;!   + 3 !, !35 ,  ! ! 3  A"   0"      ' '* # 85 3 !     ' "35 , $# % ! #  ; "   ,  A" 85 D% ,  ! #"  35 , 85+ ,*  + 35 ,  A"     +#   5+,"d ("  8) ,,*    % ,  * + +35  , A"   8" % ,    +  $      '  '* 5 , ,*85  # + 3 !# 5 %

 !+73 ,0 0  &'* 35 , $# " ! 5   #8 #    ! 8 ;5    ,*  3 ! 35 ,   $ 3 D/ 3  07"  ,*# ,*  , !,<,!, ! ,*#   '* #8"" 3 ,#8, 8  ' +  ,*# ,*, !   ("  9) *

  ' +  ,*# j#* j# &'*  ! 5,*# 5  '5 , # ("  20) *   ' +  ,*# 85 ,*&   + !,!  !&'*   5  "0 ,*#   # + !" ("  21)  0#5  ' , !3'*+, 35 ,  '3'*+, !'* ,*3'*+, !35 ,  '  ,!   #  ! , !35 , *5   #   8 35  ,  8"# + 07"   '<+# ',*<+#+ ("  26) 


82 $   % &'* +  # , -*

0#5 j# , !35 ,  8"# + 07" ("  34)  #3 ' 3 ! , !35 , '*  "0 #   8'* ("  35) $# %

#! #$,A! +121_ #

#  \  5PA"  " 3 !#  #  ",*% +77"   #, 51 :"D :&'3 --  '* 955 , !35 ,  ' ,!  !  "  8 &5 ' + $P 5 !:/* ,! # &A8 !" < 3"  '  &A5 , !35 ,  ,!  ! , !35 ,   "  8A"    + $P 0$P  '0P&  ("  28) &  3+77" 35 , 5 &.=. 2485  85   &'*  8 #!      +! 0 A 85 +0"5# " $,A &*!  &    ,*  +50 3 !  /  3 !&'*A"  85

3 !, !35 , &'* $      0"  85 '*  ,   0 AD* 8#5  ,** + 35 , 5+,+77"#   '   , & D,*+77"$# E& &  3+77" 35 , 5 &0,<= 3 2485 +   85:!: ++,+77" % #   '   , & D  " 3.1.3.4 ," .. %9,  .$. 2490  % ,* 3 &'*+0#85 ,!   ' +"D ! 7& <0D 0 0  85 ,* = 853 #& <0D "D ! "5# , &  , ! :/* *  + # &' ,*50 !#

 !7 &  3+77"   '  ! #85#" ",*+"D !85 "  +0 ,!   ' &5 "D ! 5  ,,  ',! "-0&A5  ,*+"D ! 85! #"  +0'* C &' ,*# 5 ! #       5" 850" "D ! "+0" # + 07"85! # '*    07",!  \  85+0  +  "D ! '5"P[D"D !3 # # 3 # /*  + 0  &5 "D !85 0 AD, &  < 3" ! 3  ! # P, “,*+"D !”  4  P,' 1. ,* A&'3& <0D ' ,*:/* 8 A&'3& <0D"D ! 2. ,* 5 ' ,*:/* +05 5#,!   85&5 "D !


83 $   % &'* +  # , -*

3. ,* 07" ' ,*:/*  07" +05,!    '&5 "D ! ',!+

"D ! 4. ,*<  $ 3 D ' ,*+"D !:/* +05,0 ,<,!   85& 5 "D !# $# # 5[D  ,!   ,*+"D !5 #

 ! #5[D* + #,+ 85  07",!   $# ,*  +3&   "D ! 5"P[D"D ! 850" "D ! " / ,+ 85 07"&    ,*&'* + 07"  , +" (858" )  85,* +   '* ',!   " #,+   +  "&    ,*&'* +37+"  ! #5[D* + $   +8,  &- + 07"  , +" 8537+" "5#  55 37+"  ! # # 3 #   + 85< 3 '* ',!   ! #     "  '* ',!   ,* 3<5 56  /  - ! # '* ',*  3 85 <,!   N#,*5   855 5 ! #3 #  # 85!      "D !,* 07" ,!   ,!   "D !3 # #3 # /* $# ###  ! #5[D* + +    #  '    , +"

+ 07" 8537+"  ! #5[D* + +-"  , ,*" C  ! #5[D  +0+05  ,*+"D !8 #8  /* + 0  +  "D !,  '* !   # "5#  "  "D !  ,*#8    ', & D  +05 '< 3 +0 !"D !+ 3 # 3  +0 5 "D !+ 3 #5  ,*+"D !  ! #!  &    ,*  "  +0 ,!    '* ' ,!   "D !,* 3   ,!# !   '-  ' /# '* ',!   ,*121_ % 85! #$,A! +121_ +,+77"" C %  85   ! #< ,!  :/* "  # "  8 3 #& <0D (Species) 85 ++ = (Ecosystem)   !"D !"  ,=+ 3 #,*  "   8   ,=   "D !+ 3 #  +00 D '* '


84 $   % &'* +  # , -*

+"D ! 85! #  / ,+ 3&     "D ! 5"P[D"D ! 850" "D !  ; "     ,  A" 85 D   A "&  3+77"   &.=. 2490 85 ! 8" " &    ,*85% ,  ! #"   85<    " "+73, &  3+77"  85! # '* C &'* 9+" "&  3+77"  3.1.3.5 ," .. %# '9, /%9, C .$. 2482  % * + ,<   8 , 85 $#  + 07" ! +,!   8 " #  ' 0  7  0  !# '+ A,!#,*

373",     ',*73""  ,= ' ', ,* " #   ! ',!   "   ,  "5 +"  ,=   '*   + 07"! +,!    #E&+05 ' ,*73",

"+05 '  "  ,<# + + 07"& 73", 85 " ' + 07" 5[D  3 '   ! ' ,*,!   "   ,

! #!  ,* &    ,*  "    ' +85 /# '*  ',*#  ,!# '"0    # ,!#"%  85 ^\ # -/ !    ,*12 , :/* ; " #" / ! 85 ,*^\ #

3.1.4  )   +( +(, (* 3.1.4.1 ," .. % #  +(, *- > +( +#"% .$. 2535 8  $ + 8 ;# P&8#585, &  < 3"-! #/    8  ;<  78 3 , &0,<= 3 2517 "  77 85"  78 ;<  7E++" d 2521 "  65 ;<  7 d 2534 "  74  ,* = 3 ;<  7E++60+ 5 ,* ;<  78 3 , &0,<= 3 2517 3+ +#  &  3+77"  85 A0P&* 8#58 3" &.=. 2518 &'*#"    * 8#58 3" 85!     * 8#58 3" !   ! # $ + 85    # * 8#5 +   " C  -/ 60+ #8 + 0  &  3+77"  85 A0P&* 8#58 3" &.=. 2535 85 &  3%A%8+     ,  , =" D,$ $5 85*


85 $   % &'* +  # , -*

8#5  !   $ + 858 * 8#5    0P&* 8#5 85  +05&A "05   = 3&  3+77"#    85 A0P&* 8# 58 3" &.=. 2535  '* "      33 85 D 3      85 A0P&* 8#5 # ++ +   # * 8#5  " 5 # 0P&* 8#5 ! #!  ,*  3 ; 85 3   , -* #    85 ,*     85 A0P&* 8#585! #8 , 9+"  ,*   # +#3+$# " ! #"  +05&A #  #  +++!+#= +++!+# ! ++!#  85 '* ' '0 D" C &'*867* +5&A ! # ,* +# 3+  ,**  +  #5&A  $# 3# ! # "     #  ,0 85 3 5'# " C &'*      +,*9+" ,*

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


86 $   % &'* +  # , -*

(4) &   3+8 9+" &'*# 0P&* 8#5 #+  #""  37 (5)  8 "  #     5  PA 85    5 ,0 &* 9+"" $ + 858    85 A0P&* 8#58 3"" ; "  (6)  8   8&*"  ' + 0 % * +   85 A 0P&* 8#5" ; "  (7) &   3+ 8 9+" &'*\   '8 "   #  8&    5&A 'P5&A,*  +05&A ""  53(1) (8) &   3+  ! #" ; +05&A85 ! #,* ; "  ""  55 (9) !+#8585  #  " &  3NA% % ,  + +  +77", -*  = + +85!* ,*! &'* % * +   85 A 0P&* 8#5 ++$# + D (10)   "   ; " &'*& *   ,* % 3   ' ; #121_  '9+""% + +  '+ +* + A 0P&* 8#5  ,! #     8 (11) ! #"  &'*    ' 85     3 ; 853  '* ,** +   85 A0P& * 8#5 (12) !+ # 85+     ,0 (13)     * +-  D0P&* 8#5  ,=" ;  "     d5 /*   (14) 9+" '* #",*! # &  3+77"   '% '*  !   ,*   * 8#58 3"   * 8#58 3"#!  ,*   $ + 85 ! # "  " C #8 (1) ! #" ; 0P&* 8#5"  ""  32 x " ; 0P& ! 8 !5!5   +/ ,5  + ! 8585 ! < '* C ,* P

' 8 # $# !8 "5A 3 $ 3 D + &' ,*50 ! 8"5&' ,* x " ; 0P& !,53 16X , + &' ,*8 ! x " ; 0P& !+#5


87 $   % &'* +  # , -*

x " ; 0P&= + =,* x " ; 0P& #+ 85* ,' $# ,* x " ; 0P&* 8#5  '* '* C (2)   8 # 0P&* 8#5  ; " $#  3+    * 8#58 3"#,!8 9+"    "8 # 0P&* 8#5" &'*9+"" $ + 858    85 A0P&* 8#58 3" :/* ! #/ ""  13(1) (3) " 0 AD85&' ,*0  * 8#5  ; " $# !8  !   * 8#5 8 3"  ! % ,  ! #  &' ,* ,*  " !5!<  '  ++ = D"< 3",*8"" &' ,*'* $# ,*  ' ++ = D"< 3",*- ,!5  '# +5 ,+ ,'  " C   0A D#$#   ' &' ,*,* 0, < 3" '=5   8  0 AD85&' ,*   #- =! #

 " 0 AD (4)  ! #"   D5 ,+* 8#5  ; " $#  3+   * 8#58 3" !  =! # P, 85 # $   '    3 ;  '3 ,*5 ,+* 8#5 :/* " #,!     D5 ,+* 8#5 &'*  3+""  47 "  48 85 "  49

 +05&A % ! #   +05&A  +#

5# ,  , =" D,$ $5 85* 8#5   <   <+#     <+# "!  <+#    , + <+# , <+# $ << <+#  , &  <  <+# $  0"  <+#   <+# 3 A" <+#   0P&* 8#5 855< !   $ + 858 * 8#5 5# 0 ,&  , 00B  :/*   * 8#58 3"8" "    85<+# +05&A   855 0   +05&A! 85 ,*# "  (1)  8 9+" &'*\   '8 "   # 8&    5&A 'P5&A"  * 8#58 3" (2)   * +  #!   8 &*"  ' + 0 % ,* *  + +0 \  5#  '#5&A"  * 8#58 3"


88 $   % &'* +  # , -*

(3)   * + ! #"    # PA 85 5 ,0  3 * + +05&A85   85 A0P&* 8#5"   * 8#58 3" (4)  8  ! #" +  ! + +++!+# !   ' ++!#    , 3 "  * 8#58 3" (5) !8  !8 ; "   ! #" ; +05&A85 ! # " "  55 (6) !8  !8 ; "   ! # P, 85 ! #5&A,*" 9+" ""  68 85"  69 (7) !8  !  % ,  ! #3 # 85 P,   "  " "  79 (8)      3 ;853 &'*+0 \  5#  ' #5&A (9) #,!   * +P& D5&A  "  * 8#58 3" d5 /*   (10)&  E  # !*  &   +05&A"&  3 +77"  (11) 9+" '* #",*! # &  3+77"   '% '*  !  ,*   +05&A (12) 9+" '* #",*  * 8#58 3"+

  ; " 85 ; "   ,  , =" D,$ $5 85* 8#5 A  "&  3+77"   ,** +!  ,* " ; "   ,  , =" D,$ $5 85* 8#5! 8" "  &   +05&A85&    ,* +% ,  ! #<    " , &  3+77"  85! # '* &'*9+" "&  3+77"  3.1.4.2 ," .. % ' -/ .$. 2535  % ,* = 38, &  3+77" < 0 &0,<= 3 2584 85 &  3+77"+0 30  0~ &0,<= 3 2480  + 0 +,+77"* + < 0  !+#8585"#"  9+""%

85#


89 $   % &'* +  # , -*

5 +P&   85&'*&* ,<P&  \  * +   * 8#5 $#

 3  , -* ; " $# !8  !   ! % ,  ! #5[D < 85"   +0 '!+#85! +  ' #!    '* " C "%

 ' ! #" ; P  ,*+ #! 3&  33 85<#!   &'*" ++0 '!+#85  '8* ,*5 ,+" P  ,*+ #! 3&  33 % ,  # 5! # 

3+ + ,*,0, -*  '  3+ +E&, -* #, -*  /* # % ! #    /*    “  < 0”  !  ,*# "  (1)   " ; "   ! # $ + 8  85"  * +  < 0 85&    '* #C * + < 0",* ; "  +

(2) =/A  D85  " ; "    + 0 % + + + + 85!* * + < 0 (3) !8  !" ; "   % ,  85" 3  , -*  ! # , -* (4) ! /A8  !8&   , -*  9+" "&  3+77"  (5) ! #$  85     3 85 3  , -* ,**   &'*#!   "&  3+77"  (6) +0 #  9+" ,*  3 ,*!  ,*  9+" "% * + < 0&'*   " ; "  (7) 9+" '* #",*% ! #  !  ,*   % ! #  " 3  , -* "  #8 ,=+5 0P+5  D +    #  0 ,&  ' &,  85 D   , -* '* ,*% ! #  3  , -* 3  D +   "!+51  -! # , -*  +77" # ,=+77" + +0P+5 + +"!+5 +77" 0 ,&   '+ +' &,  * + !#* 95 '51  5  '5 "D 

1

"&  3+77"P"!+585 D +   "!+5 &.=. 2537


90 $   % &'* +  # , -*

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