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ABSTRACT The association between widespread land speculation, the crash in the real estate sector and the economic crisis that surfaced in the middle of 1997 have rekindled the interests on the defects of land markets in Thailand. This has been the context where the Thailand Research Fund has initiated this study on problems of land tenure focusing in particular on the issue of land concentration, changes in land market and land use during the post economic crisis period. Areas seeking clarification also include the influence of the legal framework on the evolving land tenure system of Thailand as well as the changes that might result from legal development to open up channels for land acquisition by non-Thai nationals. The working definition adopted in this study is that concentration of land size refers to ownership of single parcels which are larger than 200 rai. Concentration of landownership, on the other hand, is defined as a single landowner with more than one parcels which may be scattered in different provinces add up to more than 200 rai. Based on statistics of the Department of Lands and the surveys conducted within the framework of this study, the majority of land holdings in Thailand, i.e. 87% were found to be smaller than 5 rai. Holdings that are larger than 100 rai account for 5% of the total number of holdings. In terms of land utilization, approximately 44% of Sor Khor 1 landholdings which are larger than 200 rai are utilized. Findings confirm the theoretical underpinnings of the association between tenurial security and the higher level of utilization where land parcels with title deeds are more intensively utilized, that is, from 66% upwards. The survey data does not indicate any clear relationship between land concentration and the level of land utilization. There are variations in the type and intensity of land use among large landholdings ranging from 200 rai to 50,000 rai. No clear pattern can be established that large holdings are inefficient or that land concentration necessarily leads to underutilization. Rather, it is the types of economic activities that determine the size of landholding which will ensure optimal scale of operation and returns from land. Nonetheless, survey data suggests that regardless of size, there is underutlization of land resources. Intensity of land use for 70% of the landholdings is under 50% of full capacity. The level of intensity of some of these holdings are low while some others are left entirely unutilized. The underlying reasons for the low intensity of land use can be attributed to landholding for speculative purposes as well as due to poor management decisions of the landowners themselves. To quantify the loss from under-utilization of land, the value added from the agricultural sector has been adopted. Presently, Thailandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s agricultural acreage of 132 million rai generate a value of 619,350 million Baht. If the highest level of land use intensity, now at 70.5% of the land carrying capacity, can be increased to 85%, the value added generated by the agricultural sector will increase to 746,734.03 million Baht, or an increase of 127,384.03 million Baht. It should be noted that the value of 127,384.03 million is a conservative estimate of the monetary loss from under-utilization of land resources. On the legal aspects of land administration, the analysis undertaken in this study confirms that the existing legal structures is part of the cause for problems of land distribution and underutilization of land resources. As there are no laws which limit


the ceiling of land holdings, there are no legal restrictions on the size of land that can be held by individual landowners. There are no effective taxes which can be used to discourage concentration of landownership or acquisition of land for speculative purposes. Furthermore, the emphasis of the Agricultural Land Reform Act is not on private landholdings as a means of equitably distribute land but rather on confirmation of occupancy rights of small and landless farmers in public lands. Ineffective enforcement of Town and Country Planning Act, the Land Development Act generate evolving pattern of land use that is inconsistent with the land use plans and utilization of land that does not accord with land capability. As for the pieces of legislation that came into being following the economic crisis in 1997, there has been no discernible impacts on expansion of landownership of foreigners. This is partly due to accompanying conditions that govern the process of land acquisition by non-Thais. In conclusion, rationalization of the various types of land document into one single document, namely the title deed is recommended to reduce management confusions as well as provide some uniformity of rights and entitlements of landownership. Land information needs to be revamped in the absence of which, no precise answers can be provided on the degree of land concentration. The study supports the adoption of a combination of land taxes based on the principle of progressive rates and land value taxation. Again, this requires the existence of a comprehensive and reliable land information system. Mechanisms should be sought whereby unutilized mortgaged land from NPLs can be utilized on a leasehold basis during the interval period. Lastly, combined with reinforcement of land use zones as opposed to the imposition of direct legal and command measures to limit the ceiling size of landholdings is recommended.


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(  2-5 0)"!" â&#x20AC;&#x153;)77â&#x20AC;? , ) 9"!""-  )'**7 S EE"*  : R. Barlowe, Land Resource Economics of Real Estate, 1986.

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2-13

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4

Hiroshi Ishijima, Rising Land Prices and Taxation Policies in Japan, E Real Property and Land as Tax Base for Development, edited by Isaac M. Ofori, (Taiwan: Land Reform Training Institute), 1992


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3

Maf Smith, John Whitelegg and Nick Williams, Greening the Built Environment, Earthscan Publications Ltd. London,1998.


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#  & #3

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%  (networking) +   % @)  $ $?!(;?!; )+ $2'G  ; (nongovernment organization, NGO) 3$ ;  +  )+%$

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5,959.37

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49.88

21,129.30

16,288.49

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,

0.31

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42,360.34

35,099.88

9,119.07

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6,546.15

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7,260.46

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701.15

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82.86

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41.70

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9,724.86

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17,755.40

8,976.79

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8-14


8-15

8.4

' ("0, ,F( &?  

.?01 .'  &  4 % 4.4.2   %  $2$    ( & ' *  Y! 8 . ?"  .+Y  

 01 %* * $2$    ( .+ !%$!!(  * 1) .+% ! !+N3' &' =  8 .+ #!&;' .   2) )A &;  (Land-use plan)  .+ !(A!

!)+A/'+" 3) +! !$ ' ' +; 2& .<34   ' & $2 !"' !%*  .+ #!&;#?  "%* .!342!(+! "& +   8!

)+8#! %$!!(' !$)+01 %$!!(  !.+= %  $2  #!  %  ) + +!".!342A %  $2  # )+.!! & ' * 3 !+<  5 +  * 1) ) %' *  <34 !$!;. & % %$!A; &  .<34  )+34# ? %  . ' * &  & $!A; %  . ) ! 

%"#+; 2< .+ 34&) . !( &;A(

$  " 2) @ 34 ;. )+ .   %&. % %%  # .'  .+ !( #!&;& T" +;; .+   $!$; . $" $2   .  .+ #&+;; .)+$? $(  . ..#= .+ ! +;!' N2' ).&A34 ' $!"&. .'  %  .  %! 3+  )   ; %  .  %!& B)<34"' 10  ) & B  2 )+B 3 <!(.<34"' !%* 3) .+ !? & )+?)A  34  )  &;T & 0..? $

 .%   ') ).' *  (

$    .+= % !' * @ & $#  )+<34  !' *   (

$  ). "! !.  ' *   ).!$!= .

"!  . "! !$!' !& %!3. * & %  . $ 2 .  !  )34#?  )+34

. $2  . != $2  #$ 2 !A $;#+34* +3 +!!)    #& . $ 2  !! *  ."'! .+  N  . !&;$! ? &!A ;#+" & +"! "# &#" 

. $ 2 '. &A ;#+"#& . " %! <"! " . 3

!! ;T  â&#x20AC;&#x153;.   $2;?!;  ( â&#x20AC;? . #   ?   ? . (.) ! N(   )+N $ $$+2   +'; 2 )!"! 2'  #3 &1 .%  8?2 28 $! 2543  =     % +!$!$& ' *  4 $*  $+." +!  ? ' !!.N $ $$+2


8-16 "! !$!' ! .+%!#    !+N3' . &  H ' *  "! < $! .#= & .+!%   ' !? &   *  "<! $+.!$!<  .#)A  34  (Land tax map) = .!' * @  $.+#  

'

 +% .<34   .+= "& #   # $1%  .   4) 01  "! "= 01  $2 ) = 01% +  ! )"%' &) T =  3'% ?  (1) ; A34 (2) @  &;< (3) 34 (4) "& +! $  )+'2 (5) # 4 5) 'G ?$%  . = $!     #  )+ = "

  

 )+'

&$!;# 1& .'  . %  $2 $    ( "! $!! 0..? !01.  = +.#  ) + $  &  ) &)    2 B '+.    *!$!.#=  .+ @ +%   "#)   & ' * 

H . * $2$    ( .#= .+ &;A ! $!;# 1

!4+/'+ ; A!

 +! !$ '2 .$.+! +&!(.!

;'& ; 4 ;  "  ? .$ +. "# #.8 $ $!!(%  $2$     ( & )A &;  !342.#    *! 401      +     300    !342& ?'! $ )+ 101   & .;? ( 4.4-1) $   ! $

+! + 58 !$!; ! & $!!( $2$     ( .+#  .)A &;  )+)! A $  $2$    ( "! !()A &;  ".+!    #  $

 + 37 ) <=    )+ (

  = !   #  ' ' !$! +2 )+' !4+& T ' ' !+$!! &.% A .+ !&;  8.4-1 : $!!(%  $2$    ( & )A &;  &@0@ " )A " 234 58.35 )A "! " 150 37.41 "!   17 4.24 , 401 100.00


8-17

8.5

,(&?  

4+&;  & %; )+; !

  )"!$! % $!   "!+))++)(    ) . *  )"!' !%* % +;)+$!) "% +;& +8  = ? #&&;   )" ! !$ ; %   (land rent triangle) %   ) +; <  )" " #+8"  )  *#&2+ ; 1) +.?% (

$   & ?$$ * *' #". '2    (

$   01 !!<$

01. )+01 ?  .+ !'

  ? &    (

$  * +; 2  .+ ##"!  2) 01  "! &;+; 2 3) 01 ) !)+3') ! !! 4) 01" # +8""!!  H ' Y  01 %* !  *" ?)"%<.+#&+N3'& Y  01  *" %* ! #$1 $.+ "? ") 1) !T  2) !N $  3) !.  4) !34  & .#  4 ! % !T  N $  )+.  $.+!8 2 ..*= $2   " $2.  "   .# !     % !"&     !34  $.+?&! 4+ "!.#  %    (

$ 

8.5.1 0E &   & )"%01 $2.  * $2%* !&! ."! &; $#    ? N !+!$

'. .+!

.+ $2 !  /'+&   #$1 

*

#  .  )+ A+

$2 !  !   ? )+#& ; ! $2  % "! ?  * ."!  &.*= +

  #  T  ' 4! (...) #  T  ' 4!& 4)+A" # /'+ !.?+$2' &A"!  # )  $ ?# & 0..? $

 &.#) ' *  _ !!' #!T!$!< ;. N. NQ&   )++&N&   )+N&    ". T  ?T  $$$ ?+N $  )+.


8-18   & $ .  = " $2.  " * * '+!  T   ..   % @ .+ #!.&4<$.+!   ... $   "#=   $

!#+; 2&   % 4&    ". &   ?  ' 4!)+.!    )+'. #"&; +; 2"! /'+T  ) $!"( ';!)+ ?! )+ .! "(' *  %!

 ' !$ ' !)+&;  &+; 2? . *  ?  T  ' 4!$    .& ! )+<$ ; 

$ ;  *   != $2  #  +!? &   ?  T  )+  *   .A+$2.+%   .+34&! *.+#&(

$   ' <#"# %* .  = !'! +N3'% &;    !&;& ?' * & !

 N $

!.&.&.%     H & ' *  Y! #   %  ! ! )#)A  ! & .#)A &;  +N3$%* & ' *   .+#&!$ %   & ' *  %* )+.%   ) +)  !$<.+" +; 2!  % ' *   %  & $ .  !( #!&;?' *  ;?!; )

 ?' *   &!( #!&;+; 2" ?+1.& !

 & +8" "$! # !.  !&;'G !

& &( '+! 9 & ?'! $ & ' *  +< #3 < . ? )+& #3

!

 .'?   $+) ; $&;!.  ' *  8+ %  ;?!;  ! %+?'! $ ) <"! "A.$ .+ !?$ != .!  %  " $2.  "  .+#  & %!

 #) $!N $  0..?  & $!A; % N $' 4 )+24 (N.) & %  ?    !"= N $  <! ) &  !N $  $ #"=     %  " $2.  " !   !&  ;?!;  ! $2% @ )+! ?    ?  ;. ' & " $2 .  " !(+!  *& ; )+& !

' &;'G ' +; 2N+"     .&;' .=  # #  T  ' 4!     . &;'

=   8$+) ;   .&;'

.  )+  .&;'

N3$ = 

$2.  ..*%* & %  $2 3& '+;11 $2 !; '.8. 2542  .+!@ += $2% @+3    #   !)A /'+   !$!= +)+$  .+#  !T+T)+% $= %    = !8 2)++   ' $!<)+    ".% ; )+@. !(?$ !$!; ;1!# .$  )  !+!" ' &!+N3'!( *  ? . !   % "  = +)+!( +  + 3$@)+ ; &+; 2? )+!()&= "! % @"


8-19 .* $2 .+ 

'+;U4.*%* !! 5 $  4 !@ += ?$$

$2.  .+T 3&#)% $+! $+@ ! ) * # .+;

! @3&#% $+! T    N++ 3$ ; )++ +8 = $2" ! )#" ! ? '

!?  )+&;. '

#   "!    "%@5   % @  % .  .% !=     %  $2 

! !   & $2#   .+ !&   .+ T $+! ;?    .)!?!! = $+ !#) $2.  ' &   & !

)+& ; = "& 8 *+ # $2& + (  .+#  .  &  ( .+! $2   # 8  = $2$    ( !!#   )  .+! ' !! $

$+!+;?!;   .! ' (?+$2& ). '   ! $2$    ( 

.!('

 .+!$

%  ; ! $2& +.)+; ! $2.  )+$+! #, +  *.+ !84.' !! ".  & +  ( '+) + ( .+!G N! +' $!; %  (  )  )+! @N! 1<"`; &!$!)    *"  * ..#=  .+ ) !+! !( #!&;" ")+; !.& ++8

8.5.2    34  .= 34  # "! $2$    ( )= ! !(Y  +.?% (

$    *    &  "! &;+; 2

4

“! ’ !

@!)A  

 &   /'+'

.#N+ )+!$!!+!. +. *  %* &! ) ".  ;

@.!$!!? !&!&;+; 2')+ ?$&+N3'? .+.* = $2!; = '+;U4!'+;11  * "<  …” 5 “! 5 $  .  = N+ .+.* $2!; !$  ")  !@ )+ +! $?3'84 84 !)+'G .  % @ + ?#?8+)+ G N! 'G )+  !“  !)+  ? 84)+. (  )+'G 82)+$   ?42  ) !)+'N!; )'2)+N?% $!$+2  # ) +;; 

#    = N+; 2

& * *  "! = . !(?+$2' )#"= "


8-20 34  % +8"& 0..?   &   #6 )+. 7 )&<   !   & 0..? !;  & 34"! .#= )+#&!(  34  (3$A  8.3)  &!?34  !!  & B '.8. 2517  ''G 2N!  &!$ 34#?  

34  &!  %    * !+  !(&;= ' * @ & ?34  "7 . * +$<!$!'! .+?34  & ++ ! )  &;?34    &  *= ?.%  ! !!)+  ?! * 1) ;?!;  ( $!   !& #  34 (

   = NQ % ;?!; )+".34  $= % ;?!;     ' ;?!; .+" # ""&;' +; 2% ;?!; 2) $)   .<!)A &;  (land -use plan) % ;?!; )+$)  .<=   &;# 2.1)  4!)+!+! )+8?2 2.2)  ?!)+!

) 2.3)  ';!)+ 2.4)   8 3)   % @.+ 34  ) & % *  # ?)+= 34  " !    * * '

&! . % !   '

$! &&   % @ 4) $!#+    (

$ ; + #!+ $' +& .<34  ) +)$!%+ #)+= @ % !  & +$ !' 2 $2$    ( $2% @ )+N; !( .+%(" +$ !' 2 &;.+"! ) + ATM %  N $ "& +8"& 0..? (Online) 5)     $<34& )+$' !%*  1   ? 3 B !% 

% +$ 6) $# !$ % 34!!$ %   )+.<34!' * @ $ ;  84@. (economic rent) 7) $&;34   !  !% %   (

$  ' Y  +.? %   )+&;+; 2"! <! .  8) &;34  '  !A% %84@. ). (real sectors) ; 4)+ ?!! A% +8

6

Prasit Kovilaikool , â&#x20AC;&#x153; Agricultural Land Taxation in Thailandâ&#x20AC;? in Isaac M.Oforiced, Real properly and Land as Tax Base for Development , (Taiwan: Land Reform Training Institute, 1992), p.5-91 7  ''G 2N! â&#x20AC;&#x153;34  â&#x20AC;? & N!82, B 4  ! 2 (!(?  -  2517),   2-66


8-21   $# 34   #  34  34 ,, $=

 "  # *= '  .+  #"T..+ ! '.  $*)+.+ !#+;'.2&=   ! 1)

@ 

 ''G 2N!$

34#?  $= $ 34 " % ! $    "  )   = ) $34  $<.$ ; 84@. (economic rent) $= *)  + 0.63 ( + 1.25 % !$    " ( 8.5-1)  34  *!"= 34  !.#  " 

% %    (

$  .+ (

!) $  34  $  + 1 % !$  


8-22

 8.5-1 : @4 ,' !"'  ? ?OE A, ;*

$!@ %   400 

1,200 

34 1/

1

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2

"

1,200

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"

2,000

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15

0.0094

3

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20

0.0080

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"

3,000

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4,000

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30

0.0086

5

"

4,000

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40

0.0089

6

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5,000

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8,000

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60

0.0092

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10,000

"

100

0.0111

8

"

10,000

"

"

15,000

"

140

0.0112

9

"

15,000

"

"

20,000

"

200

0.0114

10

"

20,000

"

"

30,000

"

280

0.0112

11

"

30,000

"

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50,000

"

400

0.0100

12

"

50,000

"

"

80,000

"

650

0.0500

13

"

800,000

"

"

100,000

"

900

0.0100

14

"

100,000

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150,000

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1,250

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15

"

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200,000

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1,750

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500,000

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300,000

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2,500

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(" +

34 " () 10

0.0125

&34 "  " *

() #$ %   1,000,000 ) &34 9,000  (%) #$ %       1,000,000  &? H 100,000  &  1,000  (( 50,000  &(

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.#.$!$< $!  ! .+.  (willingness to pay) 34  # #.  ! &1  !  !

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?$! '.8. 2543 '     ?     ?!  ';!)+

 8 A   .+. 34&  33  45  75  112  632  )+ 138


8-23  " !# ( 8.5-2) & $#  34  .$$# (% !  *  % !  *$.+= % ! &;'. %*  #%  34   8.5-2:    0  "      ?    ?!  ';!   8

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/- 32.50 44.30 74.12 111.46 631.16 137.26

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.+<34  ' +.?% % (

$ %   <34 * $.+ <=  !.#  " 

% %   )   !A(

$   (Concentration of land size) 

)! !A(

$ ' (concentration of land ownership) .$+2% !  & +$ !' 2% !    '     ! $

+! + 99.76 !%  25 " 

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   (

$ A &1  ?& #3   200 " *  = /  ..3 ..3 .$.1 )+   !

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$ $  !' *   200 " ! + 57.3 % $#   500 " ! + 36.1 % $#  )+  1,000 " * !  + 19.9 % $#  ( 6.3-11) .% !  * .?"  (

$     ! !%  25 " 

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$  200 " !+! + 28  500 " !+! + 19 )+ 1,000 " !+! + 11 % $#  $ 34    . .+=  )& %  ( 8.5-2)  +% !$  "   34!(" !$!!+!3'% 84@.)+$!   "   ..+#& 34 #  

      "& 


8-24  8.5-3:     !" 1/ % (

$  25 " 

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 +% !$    " 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00

!? : 1/ #   "! "#+; 2.+ 34 + 2 % !$    " )+.+ ' !%*  1   ? H 3 B

2)

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@!  !.!4)+ ?!$.+! 34   .#"&.!434  ' + 50 % 34 $# ! 34     )+.! ?!$34  ' + 75 % 34 $# !

34          =  #  8)+#';!.+ 34  <! ! 34   #     *$.+  )"!3' % 84@.)+ % @  A% +8  8.5-4 :  +3    8  ';!)+  ?!)+!

)  4! +! )+8?2 3)

 0% 0% 25% 50%

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$# 34 * #  8)+ ';! 100 )

0.25 " )"!  34     .+ ! 34 #  #' *  4 10 " )"!  34     .+ ! 34! #  #' *  ?! 5 " ) "!  34     .+ 34! # % %    "!  34 *$.+=   !% A!  " (Stake holders) !#+;'.2&=   !


8-25  8.5-5 : ''   -,    "     8  ';!)+  ?!)+!

)  4! +! )+8?2

'?I

0.25 " 0.25 " 5.00 " 10.00 "

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)+;?, 2543.

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" 23.92 24.32 25.25 40.46 0.36 0.47

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)+;?, 2543.

% %    "!  34  .#.$* ( 8.5-2) '  % %    "!  34 !  # "% ( 8.5-5) $

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?N % 30,000 50 2 100

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?N

?! 3,000,000 25 4 100 ?!N  ! 200,000 90 5 1 ?!N    8 6,000,000 0.75 6 5 ;&! &; #" 10,000 5 , 286 . 8.5-8 .+<  .#     "!  34 * &.   !!$  +! ? ; & %   #.!4%  !2 * &.  !%  !2  & .?!N )   %& . ?N  ! $# 34  .% %   "!  34 

) $.+ )  !!$  " %   .!$  #"!$ ).$# 34  ) +)%   8.5-9 : &@    ' ,E   ) ) !$ +!  " .!   %      () 34(" ) 6 10,000 &; #" 5 1 30,000 % 50 2 30,000 "! "# +" 100 4 200,000 ! 90 5 6,000,000   8 0.75 3 3,000,000  ?! 25


8-27

 8.5-10 :   ' ,E   ) ) %  !$  !$    34 34   34   %   +!   34   %  () 34!   (" ) " (1,000 (1,000 ) !$    () ) (%) A 6 5 10 50 1 500 50 250 1 20 30 600 6,000 50 3,000 1 30 30 900 1.2 1,080 50 540 2 70 30 2100 (2.0)1/ 42,000 100 42,000 2 30 30 900 (2.0)1/ 18,000 100 18,000 4 45 200 9000 1.4 126,000 50 63,000 4 45 200 9000 1.6 144,000 50 72,000 5 0.75 6000 4500 72,000 100 72,000 3 25 3000 75000 1,200,000 75 900,000 , 1,170,790 !? : 1/   )  "! "&;+; 2<34  + 2

 . 34"#  34 = ;  H % % %   #  = 6 ;  )+! 34*)  + 1.00 ( + 2.00 & $# 34.!$!.# =  ) )  %  !2  A ' ' !&= "! 34   .+ &; )+34   !2  A  $

1,170,790  ( 8.5-10) !  !2< .#   34   ..+ &.   A  !  $%* '+( <"<.+"! $?! !2<!(%  A * H &) $2.  !  &  . *   $2.  <.+

' N  &) !2' ;#+ $   !!$ )+.+#.#   %  !2 %&) A   " ; &) A" # 

#".  (land readjustment) ' +; 2&  #"&;'  N3$   .+%+!& N $  (land bank)  " ' $!+ !2  A .+34   8#+;N02 .?!N   =   %  !2 8#+;N02.+$34&;% !. +$ !' 2  !*!$   )+ 34%   %    H % +8 ! <34  ")8#+;N02.+  34 * &) +$ A  + $ !' 2 )+& %+ <#  34& . ?N )+.;&!   !2!    !$ &  *!" 8#+;N02    34 8+;N02$"< # %)A $% 8+;N02 ' +; 2&  # 34  !&;# ?#? ( % 8+;N02 "


8-28

8.6

' !"

.A84 $+A..!$!<  & )01+.?)+&; +; 2  $'.#  !%  ) +  " * 1) $# %&;  +3  H '.!( +%  $! !+!%  % % ' *   .+#&A )  !+!84@.  .  )A '. $2+   !% $$ "Y! $!)+ ) ! &$!#$1$&;)A &;     .+=  "%#$1 .+ #" &;    & 4+ .+ &+; 2?" 2) $.+ NQ&! &! NQ;  $

/   ' !& $! & N +;; .+" )+#&.  NQ )++   = "& +  +8 $#  .#) +3  ) 3)  .+@ % ! 3++.?& ?.% +8 '  .+ #!&;+ # !$$?!!&+.?% (

$ = ' * @ % 01% &;   %+N3' 4) $ $2)+!  .  ' &  3'& (?+$2 Y! )+N#   5) $.+% !     & N; %"&;+; 2    . $

% +   % @ ;?!; )+ $2'G  ;   T3.&      A; 3& .  )+ 6) ?  )!34#?  )+!34

)+  &!@  +! 34   ") +! $? '2&=  % #  +! $'2  . ' ! 34#?  )  34

)+  ( 34

)+  .% !NQ  8) ! )  ! 4+&;+; 2 ; ' =   8, ' #N?.#", ' ! =  

11* / )+1134'2  $ $?!+#$1 % .<34

)+  .   ;  '+;1134  )+   &;@ 34 7) $)+'G +34  % <34!   * *34  $.+<.$ ; 84@. .'2   $ )+!+! 3'84@.)+$!   )" 8)   N% !)+"& .   !  & 0..?  ..' ' !83'% &;" = $ !

 .+A &&;  +; 2? 9) $ #   ( *"! &;+; 2 .3+N $

(   = NPL !&;+; 2!&+(N% . * !  ' & 


8-29 "&;+; 2!$!!+!%   ) +)  .= 

!&  % @= A # 

&; &;+; 2; $ )+ " $ )&.%   

. * =  10) $&!84) & .'  % ;?!;  .. '

#"   !)+%  $2"!) % !@N! 1 '

A &  )&   !N% ?$$)+;?!; !%*


4, < , @N! 1) ; ." '?N8; 2540 +!!)' )+';2 +!!  '.8. 2497 '+;11)"%' !!+!!  (/ 8) '.8. 2542 '+;11)"%' !!+!!  (/ 9) '.8. 2543 '+;11.  ' $ ;' '.8. 2511 '+;11_"! '?N8; 2484 '+;11_ ) ; '.8. 2507

 '+;11_;?!; '.8. â&#x20AC;¦. '+;11.  ' 4! '.8. 2517 '+;11T  ' 4! '.8. 2518 '+;11 ;'? '.8. 2518 '+;11.+'2 X_'+!42 '.8. 2479 '+;11$+Â&#x2018;2 '.8. 2505 '+;11! ! '.8. 2490 '+;11A!

 '.8. 2518 '+;11N?% '.8. 2535 '+;11;  !'2' ';!)+ ?! '.8. 2542 '+;11 !? '.8. 2520 '+;11 $! ?!) +8" '.8. 2522 '+;114+$   '?N8; 2457

'+;118 '.8. 2496 '+;11+;?'! $ '.8. 2528 '+;113#)+ $2  # '.8. 2537 '+;1134#?  '.8. 2508 '+;1134

)+  '.8. 2475 '+;11# $ %   #+! 34#?  '.8. 2529 '+;11 

&  *#" '.8. 2496 '+;11$$?! $ '.8. 2522 '+;11 ' '.8. 2507 '+;11$+) ; '.8. 2537 '+;11(?   '.8. 2535 '+;11 *#! ; * ' '.8. 2521 '+;11(  '.8. 2507 '+;11 '.8. 2535 '+;11 '.8. 2535 '+;11 !)+4$?3' ) ! '.8. 2535


'+;114$!+ )+$!= + %  !

 '.8. 2535 '+;11 $;? '.8. 2522 '+;11 $;? (/ 2) '.8. 2534 '+;11 $;? (/ 3) '.8. 2542 +$+!.  ) ; / 9 ('.8. 2529) , 0"D,

      28  .. 2522 !$+@!  !   22 !(?  '.8. 2525

      8   .. 2526 !$+@!  !   26   .. 2528 !$+@!  !   1   '.8. 2530

      13   .. 2532       23   .. 2533       10   .. 2535       17   .. 2535

      4 !" .. 2536 .     )#   22 .$ *.1. 2538 .     )#   17   *.1. 2540 .     )#   29   *.1. 2540

      30   .. 2541 !$+@!  !   8   '.8. 2541   !;  82, ?ID0, - < , 0F  ?'! $ # '!'2 N!, 2537

!  84 = ,   '!'2 . !' N2';2 !  93 = ,     /'84 17 ?!3' N2 2537 '!'2;?! ?! 24+8" .# ?'! $ !  2542  "&@ = +2541 !_"! 2537 98 = , R-, !'G   , /"?'  '.8. 2524 !'G   ,  +/"?'  '.8. 2527 !'G   , (/   '.8. 2528 !'G   , !)(/   "B-  )A &;  '.8. 2536


!'G   , !)   !, S 4 ?.B.2540-2544 '.8. 2539 !'G   , (/   ?.B. 2541 '.8. 2542 !'G   , 0,@ ,?O   "&@ = ", 2542 '.8. 2542

+!  N!;, 2 82,   $2,  ) '!?1, @'42   )+$2 ' '8 "B' 1–2 4 4.18 2 .# ?'! $ '.8. 2533 +4)+2,  O4 E  +&  !3;?  2 200 B ?   .# 3''!'2 ?'! $ '.8. 2525 +4)+2, 100 = "!" E '.8. 2535 +!", 0, T  ", -!-' :; 0,' < # % ?$+! # ' )"%01$!

 % 4 ( .) '.8. 2538 +82$ )+ ) ! ! !$?3' ) !, “   ,!" 04? !,' "B-” ?'! $ : 4) '** .#, 2542

 $3, "34 +.$

$   ",   #  2542

$+!.  ) ;,    '.8. 2526 $+!+  $2 ; 'G ;  .”)++#$1 !  %  N;?!; & ';3')+3!011 ( ” ( A /4,/ : "&@&& ?. 4?, 0 : ( ;?!;  ( 'G , 2536 $+!84 +.(

$   ,  A84     : , < ,("&F0    + .[0$!$ <   “ +.(

$   ” . #  $+!'G  84@.)+$!) ; # %N @!  $+!+  $2 'G  ; (. ';.)

$+!+  $2'G  ; ,   : A, U / ?', 2541

$+84@82, B%0B%? &IA0    3 '  !"&IA0  ( "B- .?“2!, '.8. 2527 .#1 .  "/ "

,E/?OBD &'/ ( , 0 (  . 84Y  ; .) (?', : Y  ; ., 2532). . ?!, B?0'0E  @ (?', : ?%?!)+? .#, 2541).

.!8Q `—   )+$+, " O'4   @ (' R”, ( ;?! ;  ( 'G , ?', 2535.


;G 2 82G 8 2, < , A T  / 0 ?'! $ 

011, 2540 ";$2 ;;,  T    ? "&0,, 0 - )&  'G   2517 ";$2 ;;, “' 0 T    ? "&0,, 0 - -)&”,  T  / 8, #  T  ' 4! +4)+ 2, $! '.8. 2519

 . 2 . 2, :; F0  'J(?O/ #  T  ' 4! 2524  . 2 . 2, :; !"?  (0"S   +;? ! ;% !482  )    %  84@." $+84@82)+N?. !482 2529  . 2 . 2, BDB E  U<!" $+84@82)+ N?. !482 2530 N $,   'G ; )+'N!; 3!3$ +

)+)[`$, 4A B E? WXYW?O/' "B-  U BD &, !4 2543 8Q ?, "% ;!)+   'N!;” ( A /4,/ : "&@&&? ?'! $ : ( ;?!;  ( 'G , 2536

8Q ?, < ,, /, 3  ,!"   A ?'! $ N!, 2538 8Q ?, DA,; ?'! $ # '!'21˜; , 2542 + 1.?, 0@< , 0 '!'2$* 4 ?'! $ '!'2.?“2 !, 2538

'  ?+;T,  T    ? ,, +4)+2, N $! 2528 3 ;? ?", 0@A < ,   ?'! $ , 2536 3$ '? )+$+, !?O< , "&@&( 0E 0

F  ?'! $  .$+ 82 !!$#), 2538

.)2, " B E< ,- ,2 ?'! $ "G ' ;, 2526  2  !, B%0,-, ," ,((/  ? ' "B - !'G   2535  ; . 2/ !)(/   "B- ?', : !'G   2539.

8! "82, :; < ,!"'(/@&D  &   (' R 3$; 82 > .?“2! 2538


8! "82 )+ U4 ?1;, "'G   3!011 ( & +8 "” ( F"!  A /4,/ : !"0,0 -   A /4,/( ?/?!", :;;F  ?'! $ : 4'!'2 .#, 2541 8! "82, “& !,'D A '/4,/!"400( DA,;” FE !,- 2540-2541 ?'! $ : 4 ! 2'* *) 2' ;  .# !; , 2542 8  U4Q, 0@A  ",< ,  , '!'2$* 4 'N'!'2 ?', 2537

8 2+  'G ; ) ;, ',?ID" ,(/ = 2530 #  $+!'G 84@.)+$!) ; 2531 8 2+ 'G ; ) ;, !)?O/(/?OBD &!"

0,! / S 7 ('.8. 2535 – 2539) #  $+!'G  84@.)+$!) ; 2535 ?N' .+' N?,  T    ( "B-,  T  / 261, ! $! 2539 ( .' 'G +8", B%      ", 5 F0   2539 ( .' 'G +8", B%  T    ?  ,' "B- , 2 A (   2533 !8 ? 2, !)?OBD &!" 0,! / S 8 (?.B. 2540 – 2544) 0?O  0J,  $ !

.  % @    $<! !'G    2539 !$ 8"'>2, ,0,< , 0F - ?'! $ # '!'2  N!, 2539

!.  + 0@A < ,   ?'! $ , 2538 !.  8,   ",< ,!?!"? /E ?'! $ , 2540 ! ';2'82 )+N# ;++"2, !) (/ "/E  ,  1:1,250,000 !'G   2515  2 !;.,!... 0@A  ",< ,!?!"? /E "?E ?'! $ 42 , 2521 ?Q (", " )+! 11” A /4,/ : "&@&& ? ?'! $ : ( ;?!;  ( 'G , 2536

3 ;!;1, ' ,/  )!<(!-' :;  R-,'/ !'G   2538


3 ;!;1, , 0"D, : 35 = ! :;    !" R-, !'G   2538 3 ;!;1, !)(/  '/ !'G   2538 ( ;?!;  ( 'G , R-   !"0&. :   A, ?!3' N2 2535 ( ;?!;  ( 'G ,  .  R/4,/( "B- : ! ?O  ! 1 _X % 3'!% _;?!; & +8" !4 2536 #   ?   !)? , " A ? T    "" 2 '.8. 2542 #  T  ' 4! +4)+2, “0, ,' T     ( "B-”, ?', !$! '.8. 2519

#  T  ' 4!, A0   : ' 0&IA0   B &E .-/0E //  ;/ 6 '.8. 2520 #  T  ' 4!, 25 = T     6 ,0, 2543 #  84@.4, A0  ,  + +;?!!;;84@84)  +8"   84@.  : N $  , '.8. 2534

#  84@.4, F  ' "B- ?', ((B  H )

#  )+)A  ) !, !"!)   ,!"04?  !,! / ?.B. 2540 – 2559 #  3'G 84@.) ;, !)?OBD &!" 0,! / S 1 (?.B. 2504 – 2509) '.8. 2503

#  $+!'G 84@.)+$!) ;,  BD &!" 0, B 36 /

  - N $! 2542 #  %N3A) 4  !N 2 ,  % $+!N$  3A ) 4 ? &B%( ,004,(/ "/E  ? , 2542

#    .?!N , ;/0 ",    ?.B. 2543-2546 @@ &  4,A '.8. 2542 ? ) ?, 0,I < , - ?'! $ +', 2535

'  ; 842 "?  !" !," +!+;?;84@ 82 ) !   12 !?% N!N;, '.8.2542

'  ; 842 "?  " +!+;?;84@82 ) !   11 !?% N!N;, '.8.2542

N' 842, !" :;   T    ? , ! $+ 82 .?“2!, B 16 / 2 !4 2539

N' 842, A (  ,< , T     : :; !"'  !$!  &  $  84 B 8.2 . + 1. ? $+ 82 .?“2 ! 2539


 ?1 82Q?, 0,I < ,), ?'! $ : N!, 2538

   ?'N?., '<!"4,?(?,  "B /  29 'U43$! 2543  '84 9 $+!+  !;3A) 4 ($.) 2533 & @ (?I R

  ,,( <)- '- (/ "/E ( 

 . 5109 6/75   22 !(?  2533) $+ ?!  2526   " "/4,4,   $* 3/2526   7 !(?  2526 + 3.2 ' 2 ?N!,  T  < ,  ( ,?" ,J&?"&4&,&    ' N211!> )A +82 > .?“ 2!, 2520 '  2 428, ,< ,(@  A F0    ' N211!> 3$; 82 > .?“2 !, 2539 !;  ? ,?E S 5 4,?AE 2538 8?342 ' .3, “!0    ”   &  +;?! ! .  )!). 2, .+    14 ?$! 2543 .! N (   (2'42 ?;Q, “' @ T    ? ,"   &  +;?!!.  )!). 2, .+    14 ?$! 2543 .! N(  

!? ') @&D&,4/?A, 40  E  

'!'2!'2 /   21 'U8. 2537   3 '.8. 2537 NQ ; , :;   ,  + !!     ?42'N!;)+ ) !% +8" $* 3   31 ?$! – 'U8. 2535 # +!,   ", S 5  ",&&@!,0

!) "&@ = ", ?.B. 2538 #  @!  2537 # +!,   ", S 5  ",&&@!,0

!) "&@ = ", ?.B. 2543 #  @!  2542 ? 2   , 0,I < ,   !  B 29 / 1 '.8. 2526


3 ;!;1 "A0  "   &  +;?!!.  )! ). 2, .+    14 ?$! 2543 .! N(  

?; ^+84?, '@  , A (  '/,< ,  ' N2 11!> 3$; 82 > .?Â&#x201C;2!, 2539

'  ; 842 "(/  '& ""   &  +;?!! .  )!). 2, .+    14 ?$! 2543 . ! N(     "B

Australian Development Assistance Bureau (ADAB), Tung Kula Ronghai Rural Development Pre-feasibility Study, Northeast Region, Thailand. 1977 Barlowe , Raleigh, Land Resource Economics : Economics of Real Estate, (Englewood Cliffs, N.J: 1986). Charas Suwanmala, Tambon Councils and Tambon Administrative Organizations: Capacities and Strategic Assessments , Department of Public Administration, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 1996. Curtis A. Borden, Financial Management Consultant, Assessment of Increased Budgetary Allocations to Local Government Organizations, for the Asian Development Bank: June 2,2000. Dillinger, Urban Property Tax Reform: Guidelines and Recommendations, (Washington D.C.: World Bank , 1992). Farvacque, Catherine and Patrick Mc Ausland, Reforming Urban land Resource and Institutions in Developing Countries, (Washington D.C.: World Bank , 1992). Freeman, Myrick A., The Measurement of Environmental and Rosined Values: Theory and Methods, (Washington D.C., Resources of the Future, 1993). Harvey, Jack, Urban Land Economics (London: Macmillan Press Ltd, 1981). Hiroshi Ishijima, Rising Land Prices and Taxation Policies in Japan, & Real Property and Land as Tax Base for Development, edited by Isaac M. Ofori, (Taiwan: Land Reform Training Institute), 1992 Land Institute Foundation, and Planning and Development Collaborative International , PADCO, Bangkok Land and Housing Market Assessment (Prepared for National Economic and Social Development Board, 1990). Leman Group, UMA Engineering Co. Ltd., Team Consulting Engineering Co. Ltd., and TADE Consultants Co. Ltd., Metropolitan Reginald Structure Planning Study (Prepared for Nation Economic and Social Development Board. 1994).


Moormann F. R. and Van Breemen N., Rice : Land, Water, Soils. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos. p. 185 1978 Nathaniel Lichfield and Owen Cannellan, Land Value and Community Betterment Taxation in Britain: Proposals for Legislation and Practice, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy Working Paper: 2000. Nathaniel Lichfield and Owen Cannellan, Land Value Taxation for the Benefit of the Community: A Review of the Current Situation in the European Union Lincoln. NESDB, Spatial Development Framework Project, A Spatial Development Framework for Thailand, (Draft Final Report), NESDB/ Norconsult, Bangkok , 1996 [b]. Chapters 7 (National Spatial Framework) and 8 (Strategic Thrusts: National Spatial Policy). NESDB, Spatial Development Framework Project, Settlement Systems Analysis, (Technical Report), NESDB/Norconsult, Bangkok, 1996[c]. NESDB, Eighth National Economic and Social Development Plan, NESDB, Bangkok, 1996 [d]. Norconsult, A Spatial Development Framework for Thailand, NESDB/NORAD, Bangkok, 1997.

Norman B.W., Report on the Comparison of New and Old Development Areas. Thaiâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;Australianâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;World Bank Land Development Project, Chiang Mai. Thailand 1984 Ofori, Isaac M (ed) Real Property and Land as Tax Base for Development (Taoyuan, Taiwan, R.O.C.: Land Reform Training Insatiate, 1992). Orapan Nabangchang and Warin Wonghanchao. Biodiversity and Natural Resources Conservation of the Thai Western Eco-system Forestry Complex CA paper Presented to the Kunming Biodiversity Conference, (15-18 October, 1999). Orapan Nabangchang, The Rapid Rural Appraisal on the 13 Hill Tribe Villages in Chinang Rai, Chiang Mai and Tak (Prepared for Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1994). Orapan Nabangchang, Review of Land Tenure System in Thailand : Constraints to Future Development in Respect to Growth versus Distribution Prepared for Japan International Cooperation Agency, 1995). Orapan Nabangchang, Breakthrough Initiatives for Urban Environmental Management in Thailand: A Strategic Planning Process (Prepared for National Economic and Social Development Bonard,1996). O'Sullivan , Arthur, Urban Economics, (Chicago: Irwin , 1990) Pamela J. Brown and Charles J. Fausold, A Methodology for Valuing Town Conservation Land, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy Working Paper : 2000.


Planning and Development Collaborative International Wshington, D.C. U.S.A. Land Institute Foundation Bangkok Thailand, Bangkok Land Housing Market Assessment , National Economic and Social Development Board Royal Thai Government and Regional Housing and Urdan Development Office for Asia U.S. Agency for International Development Bangkok, Thailand , September 1990. Smity, J. Whitelegg and N. Williams, Greening the Built Environment, Eanthscon Pubticalrons, Ltd., London, 1998. Thailand Development Research Institute, National Urban Development Policy Framework, Final Report, Volume I, Office of the NESDB, Bangkok, 1991. Tietenberg T. Environmental and Nalusal Resources Economics, 4th Edition, Hanger Collins Collage Publishers, 1996. Tuslikte J Land Policy Working Paper : 2000. Utis Kaothien, Douglas Webster, and Voravit Vorathanyakit, Urban infrastructure Finance: Thailand Discussion Paper, Urban Infrastructure Finance Seminar, Asian Development Bank, Manila, April 16-18, 1996. Utis Kaothien, Douglas Webster, Joroonsri Chyehard, Ksemsan Suwarnaral and Voravit Vorathanyakit, Local Government Strengthening in the Context of Decentralization : The Thailand Case, Regional Workshop on National Urbanization strategies and Local Government Development in the Context of Decentralization, Bandage, Indonesia, September 26-29, 1994.

Williams J., World Investment Report on Transnational Corporations. Employment and the Workplace. UNCTAB/ESCAP 1994 Willam Britton, Keith Davies, Tony Johnson, Modern Methods of Valaution of Land, Houses and Buildings. The Estates Gazette Limited, 8th edition 1989 Woolery, Arlo , Property Tax Principles and Practice , (Taoyuan, Taiwan, R.O.C.: Land Reform Training Insatiate, 1989). World Bank, Urban Development Under the 8th and 9th Plans prepared for National Economic and Social Development Board of Royal Thai Government by World Bank Assessment Mission), (Washington D.C. World Bank, 1997


.3-1

0) 3 'D    

@0; & 8  4" #! %  @         !  ' &  < 3'%  !  .+#$+2 "   &1 = !$+@! /  H   %   _"! )+4!  !A $ $ )+&;+; 2     H !  * (1) &;)+!NQ  (2)   (3) !& )"%01  # % 4&  _ ) ; (4) % $+!.  ) ; (5) )A 'G 84@.)+$!) ; (6) )"%'+;11T  ' 4! (7) )"%01   & %_"! (8) .#) %&;+; 2')+  _"!& ' *  _ ) ; (9) +;?!..)"%01% !;;$ . (10) ..#   ..? !01_"!)+  (11) A+;?!..)"%01% !;;$ . (A"A+.$ % ) (12) !)+) )"%01  # )+??' *  _ )+

? ) ;& 3'!*+8 (13) )"%01  & ' *  _"! (!$+@! !   30 !(?  2541) 1. (/!", A ƒ   .3'&;  % +8"  )"  =  & %+ * %$!;. &  N)"%01 Y! )+ ++  #&    % "! !(T& $ )++  ' & +; 2?& &;)+'  % ; $+@! ."!! !   22 !(?  2525  " * . ' *  _"!(  "! "+8= _ ) ; &#   " * (1) &+4)+2  !!  !)A  )+    %  ##.)+.#) +3   + &<.3& '.8. 2530 * *3& #)% $+!'G   (2) ' *  !+!4 ) !3'= _"!  &4"= _ ""! $.#) 

= ' *  # (3) ' *   .#) = _ &!_"!#  +8= _ ) ;! >2 !_"!T "


.3-2

%. ' *  _  ) ;  !4??!)+! 30  " &#    " * (1) &.#$.#) +3  (Land Reclassification) & ' *  30  " & <.* 3& )A 'G , / 6 ('.8. 2534) &= $% +4)+ 2 ! !  !)A   )+ 

H   %  * * 3&# )% $+!'G   (2) ' *   "! !+!) 4! &!_"!

    % .# $!  _"! )+#  _ " (3) ' *   !+) 4&!_"! #  T  ' 4!)+   ;  % .#$&;+; 2  # &#  #.$!!+! %   = >2& .#$ $. ' *   4"! "??)+!3'= _!2 &!_"! )+  ;  % ?X_4' *     !+N3'( !T! . A.#) +3  !% .(1) )+ %.(1) & $+!.  )  ;'.#  &= "!T! " ..#   !% .(2) )+ %.(3) &#   8>2+! !  B 2497 &     .#     .+&(

$  /..       H  ##    & 0..? !% (2.4) &#    ") "! &%' *  #     & T   '

4!)+'G   )+ &    A; #)A T  

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& <. * 3& 5 B ;. &  ;  %  A; .#)A T

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$  &;+; 2=  # 4! ?! )+  8 * &!  * (1)  

 NQ&     ; (

$  &!N$ $   ( ! ! &$!  ? $'G !  )+ 

/    +8   ##    & 0..? (2) ?$+34  # ) +! $'2 & %&;    H &;)+% <.. #  34 !.#   *  (

$  "! &++

 4% < )+#  34&   ' .< A $ $   +*"!"&;#+; 2 

!"' +$2.+<#"


.3-3

' = !!& )01(

$   .#  !)+!"&;#+; 2 Y   * ' <#" )+; &@!"' !%* & #?4.' * @   H  

*

# &) &;  ' .!  H & ' *  * H (3)

!$?!$ ' *  4! '  ' *  #4 !$! ?! !2"!&  3'&;  ' .!

H (4)  #  'G 4 ) ' * 

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1.63%

-1.73%

182.29%

11.89%

  :% 2541

387,209

2,040,954

8,070,834

15,652,263

  :% 2541

A.6.1-1


112,397

164,050

114,072

838,294

48,367,798

30,601,778

2535

2537

4,074,730 4,120,796

19,152,157 19,552,513

49,689,183 50,023,332

34,809,727 37,536,590

2536

113.03%

13.56%

-

-10.85%

-

-

-

-

/ 

..3 

..3

&. 

 !: $# . 3

2531

2530

5.39%

-

13.24%

143.46%

2532

45.96%

-

-86.41%

71.73%

2533

-30.47%

-

485.99%

12.74%

2534

4405.74%

-

5669.79%

1172.02%

2535

-20.72%

-1.64%

2.73%

13.75%

2536

1.13%

2.09%

0.67%

7.83%

2537

2538

2539

-0.03%

-2.41%

-2.06%

10.13%

2538

-0.97%

1.18%

-1.58%

8.99%

2539

4,119,669 4,079,701

19,080,716 19,306,651

48,994,596 48,220,847

41,339,372 45,055,035

 4 : ' !%* % ' *  (

$ .#) !+3%  NQ& ; + B 2530-2541

 !:  +.#B 2530-2541 !  +!"

106,646

143,056

2,405,754

2534

5,139,793

119,622

1,052,952

2,133,916

2533

&. 

929,871

1,242,608

2532

19,470,754

818,860

..3 

510,391

2531

..3

239,584

/ 

2530

 3 : ' *  (

$ .#) !+3%  NQ& ; + B 2530-2541

A.6.1-2

2.78%

-3.23%

-2.83%

12.33%

2540

4,193,099

18,683,579

46,857,767

50,608,984

2540

-3.39%

-3.77%

-4.82%

18.12%

  : % 2541

4,050,792

17,979,293

44,599,238

59,779,871

 : % 2541

A.6.1-2


ยže

2530

2532

2534

2536

2538

2540

0

2,000,000

4,000,000

6,000,000

10,000,000

ร‚ยžยจยŠ

8,