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AUSTRALIA’S LEADING TRUCK TECHNOLOGY MAGAZINE

www.powertorque.com.au ISSUE 51 FEBRUARY / MARCH 2013 RRP: $7.95 (NZ $8.95)


FEATURE

A CHANGE IN

FOCUS Western Star launches the 4700 and starts a new chapter in its 30-year history. Chris Mullett reports from Portland, Oregon

it s

now three decades since the Western Star brand first headed out on Australian roads, and in that time the emphasis has always been to produce trucks for tough conditions at the top end of the market. The year ahead marks a significant change for Western Star in Australia, and, as the result of significant investment by DTNA and Western Star Trucks Australia in the sustainability of its future, there’s another major development occurring, the launch of the Western Star 4700. Those familiar with the Western Star product will understand where the brand and its models are placed in our market. The 4800, 4900 and 6900 series offer a set-forward front axle, while the 5800 series a set-back front axle. The 6900 FXC and XD Severe Duty are all top-end trucks in their own fields. The brand holds its own in terms of market share, averaging a consistent 9.1-9.5 percentage points throughout the past three years, and peaking at 9.8 percent in 2008. But, from February 2013 onwards, the game changes. The launch of the all-new 4700 range takes Western Star into totally new territory, increasing its product offering by providing trucks with a heavy-duty reputation to work with lighter tare weights and smaller capacity engines at lower GVM and GCM levels. The intended application areas for the 4700 include cement agitators, tilt trays, pump units, tippers, local warehouse delivery, container work, fertiliser spreaders and mine service applications such as a water tanker. The 4700 features a 110-inch bumper to back of cab dimension, all-steel, day cab that’s mounted some three inches lower to the chassis than a corresponding 4800 series. Power comes from the standard engine, in this case a Cummins ISL of 8.9 litres in outputs of 260-400 hp, and with torque ratings of 1,150-1,300 lb- ft. Current development is also continuing into the future availability and fitment of a CNG-fuelled version of the Cummins ISL engine. The development for the new 4700 model took place at DTNA headquarters at Portland, Oregon, which is also the home for Western Star manufacturing. The plant, which was built in 1969, originally handled Freightliner manufacturing. The next step in its history saw Western Star trucks added to the facility with both vehicles being manufactured in the same premises. By 2011, Freightliner production had been moved to Charlotte, NC, and Portland became a unique site for Western Star. 20

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The Portland plant today operates on a two-shift system, employing a total of 981 personnel. Daily production is currently 17 trucks per shift, 34 per day, giving an annual output of 8000 units. Some 25 percent of total production is for righthand-drive markets, such as Australia and New Zealand. Portland is also the home of the research and development centre, plus the wind tunnel laboratory, where full-sized truck and trailer combinations can be tested for their aerodynamic efficiency. As well as contributing to the aerodynamic improvements of both Western Star and Freightliner products, the centre also evaluates competitive makes, ensuring that DTNA products maintain their edge in the market. Paul Erdy, plant manager at Portland, is responsible for the continual upgrade and improvement of the factory processes, and PowerTorque noticed several major changes in the factory since our last visit in March of 2012. The plant is now more streamlined, and component supply is based on the Japanese principle of “Just in Time” (JIT) deliveries. By moving to the JIT system, the on-site parts and components storage at Portland has been dramatically reduced, meaning greater utilisation of assets and less capital expense tied up in warehousing. For those readers experienced in truck manufacturing, the Portland plant differs from many other plants by assembling the components onto the chassis from underneath the chassis assembly. This is in contrast to other manufacturing lines, where assembly is commenced with the chassis upturned for axle and component fitment prior to then turning the completed assembly over before the engine and transmission insertion and cab mounting. The operating rationale of DTNA is to promote its vertical integration of engines, transmissions and axles, in much the same way as the European truck makers. At this stage, though, it’s early days for customers to adopt a full Detroit driveline, and, correspondingly, the engine mix for the US and Canadian markets is currently 20 percent Cummins and 80 percent Detroit Diesel. For the Australian market the ratio is slightly different, at 30 percent Cummins and 70 percent Detroit. It might be easy to presume that as time progresses there will be a cloning of Western Star and Freightliner products, in much the same way as occurred with the Sterling brand as it adopted the same chassis as its Freightliner counterparts. That suggestion was strongly discounted by Western Star


A CHANGE IN FOCUS

With 350 hp and an Allison transmission this 6x4 was extremely impressive.

What does become obvious, when looking closely at component engineering, is that some design elements do spread over between different models. An example of this is the design of the air intakes and filtration systems where the R & D work completed for one make has obvious similarities to the fitment on another, illustrating the benefits of team work spreading over more than one product. Although production of EPA13 certified vehicles commences in early 2013 for the US and Canadian markets, it could be 2016 before this emissions level is released into the Australian and New Zealand markets. The Canadian market share is also expected to grow substantially through this period as a result of expansion in the oil and gas industries. So, let’s take a closer look at the new 4700 and see just where it fits into the market. The 4700SB (Set Back front axle), features the Cummins ISL 8.9-litre in power options from 260-400 hp, matched according to performance and application to 8, 9, 10, 13 and 18-speed Eaton transmissions in manual or UltraShift format. Also available are the Allison 3000 and 3500 six-speed automatic transmissions. This Cummins engine uses SCR for its exhaust emissions treatment and will enter the Australian market with Euro V compliance. This will be the first model to require AdBlue/DEF in the Western Star range. The first members of the 4700 range to be released are in 6x4 and 4x2 format. These will be followed almost immediately by an 8x4 version with a 4x4 all-wheel-drive following at the close of the second quarter of this year. The big news here for operators looking for low tare weights is that the 6x4 is expected to come in under 6.9 tonnes, with the 8x4 around the 7.9 tonnes mark.

Exhaust systems can be vertical or exit through the chassis rail.

The bonnet is an all-new, reinforced fiberglass design with a steep rake to provide excellent vision when operating in tight areas. The steering cut for the front axle is claimed to be 50 degrees. As well as a kerbside mirror and standard West Coast style mirrors, there’s an additional side mirror mounted on the front of the nearside wing. Tilting the bonnet is an easy to manage, one-handed operation. Air intakes are mounted in the bonnet assembly and match to the internally mounted air cleaner assembly. The front axle for a 6x4, which uses a single steering box, is a Meritor FG-941 rated at 6,5 tonnes. The 8x4 models,

general manager, Mike Jackson, as his team discussed with PowerTorque the background to the development of the 4700. The first misconception is that there is total commonality between Freightliner and Western Star chassis. Paul Erdy explained that neither frame is identical and that each brand has specific modifications to frames and rails to suit their respective markets.

which use a dual steering box design, run with a Meritor MFS-14-14A front axle rated at 13.4 tonnes. Both models feature taper leaf front suspension. At the rear, you’ll find three choices of manufacturer: the Airliner rated at 10.4-20.9 tonnes, the TufTrac rated from 18.1 to 20.9 tonnes and the Hendrickson HN402/Haulmaax RT403 and RT463 rated at 20.0-20.9 tonnes.

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PROFILE

A FAMILY

Back

in August 2010, PowerTorque ran a feature on Moss Vale, NSW-based transport operator, Graham Brown. At the time, Graham was operating two T604s and had recently upgraded his fleet with the purchase of a new T908. During the past three years, as Graham has gradually moved closer to celebrating his quarter of a century behind the wheel, there have been further changes and a degree of expansion. The fleet now comprises four Kenworth prime movers, one T908, two T609s and one T604. 28

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Each of the trucks is finished in deep purple with lighter coloured scroll work, with the exception of theT604, which is finished in gloss white and works exclusively on a contract with Primo Haulage. All trailers are also painted in gloss white. If you look closely at the signwriting on each truck, the business is described as Graham Brown and Daughter. For Graham, this recognises the contribution made to the business success by his daughter Cassie.


A FAMILY CELEBRATION “Cassie started looking after the bookkeeping at the age of 13, while still at school, after I became a single parent,” said Graham. “She has managed the accounts, paid the bills, looked after our customers, and, without her, there would not have been a business to maintain. I couldn’t have stayed in business without her,” Graham added. Graham and his partner Debbie Rothwell both drive regularly, Debbie with the T908 and Graham behind the wheel of his T609. The two additional drivers joining the team include Michael McLellan driving the second T609 and Cassie’s partner, Simon Bartlett of Hilltop, NSW, who now drives the T604.

“One of the most important aspects of our business has been to encourage younger drivers to join the industry. When we first met Simon, he came to us with a heavy rigid licence he gained while working for GMK Logistics of Smeaton Grange. We could see he was keen to move up to drive a heavy combination, but unable to get a start because of his age. “He was a very impressive young man with all the right focus, and, consequently, we made the effort to support that enthusiasm. “We purchased a 2003 Aerodyne specifically for him to drive. But before he could head out on the road on his own, he spent time working with Debbie as he accompanied her on some of the shorter runs we do. Debbie spent a lot of time showing him our standards and work ethic and helping him to improve his driving technique for long-distance prime mover work,” said Graham.

el e h w e h t ind h e b s r a e y es up 25 h c t o n r a e y this n w o r B Learning about m a h transport and the finer points of vehicle a r control with Debbie enabled Simon to graduate through to G gain a heavy combination licence. “My business is only as good as the people we employ,” said Graham.

“This story shouldn’t be about me, it should give credit to the great people we have working for us. They are the key to our company being successful.

“The aerodyne was a good truck for Simon to start with as it provides a novice driver with better vision and is easier to place on the road than a long-bonneted conventional truck,” said Debbie. PowerTorque ISSUE 51

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PROFILE

MOVING

Forward For Mildura-based GTS Freight Management, the future lies in closely monitored operating cost analysis

Back

in June 2009, PowerTorque ran its first feature on GTS Freight Management, and in the intervening years the company has seen its core business base change, along with its fleet profile.

The company has traditionally operated a range of vehicles, and, back in 2009, the fleet of 110 prime movers and 125 B-double trailer sets was predominantly involved in servicing the South Australian wine industry. At the time of the original interview, Damian Matthews, the company’s managing director, told PowerTorque that the company was closely focused on providing all transport requirements for the wine industry. Since that time, the glut in wine production has caused the company to broaden its client base substantially, looking to new areas to maintain fleet activity, such as within the fruit industry. The composition of the fleet was based originally on an equal three-way split between Volvo, Kenworth and Freightliner. “Keeping a differing model mix means we can continue to compare European technology with that of North America. When it comes to trailers, we have standardised on Vawdrey as our supplier,” said Mr. Matthews. “The Volvo FH units were mainly 520 Euro IV units running with I-Shift automated transmissions. For Kenworth the choice was for K108 units with Cummins engines, and with Freightliner Argosy prime movers there was a switch away from Caterpillar engines to those of Detroit Diesel with the Series 60 using EGR and a variable geometry turbocharger,” he added. At that time, the Detroits were relatively new in the fleet, but were already returning slightly improved fuel consumption figures, providing an advantage of 0.1 km/litre compared to the fleet average. Nearly four years later, the memories of the Detroit Series 60 with EGR and VGT is somewhat daunting, with fleet manager, Angelo Rodi, explaining that all the fleet with those engines has now been sold and replaced. “The Series 60 with EGR and VGT was a disaster, with some engines rebuilt three times as we replaced liners, pistons and cylinder heads. These have been replaced by the 15-litre DD15, and this new engine has been a totally different experience,” said Angelo. 32

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“The DD15 produces much less soot than the Series 60, and, so far, has been trouble-free. We monitor all engines through oil sampling, and the DD15 is a much cleaner engine. “We have not had to work on any Detroit DD15 to date, although the total distance travelled by those vehicles is currently only around the 135,000 km level. “Our oil drain intervals for our fleet are standardised at 50,000 km, for which we use Castrol Hypuron oil. In addition, we still complete our standard 25,000 km standard service schedules,” said Angelo. For GTS, the use of Castrol Hypuron enables the service department to adopt a one oil fits all strategy. With the same oil brand and specification used for Cummins, Cat, Detroit


MOVING FORWARD and Volvo engines in the fleet, there’s no risk of mis-matching. Regular oil sampling confirms the strategy. The workshops are better equipped than many official manufacturer-owned service outlets. The underground pit area

extends throughout the large workshop site with specialist oil evacuation systems to drain sump oil through quick fit connections under the engine. The evacuated oil is then filtered and cleaned prior to removal by a specialist waste collection company. “Using oil evacuation techniques with quick fit connections is an important part of our safety ethic,” said Angelo. “The system removes any risk of a technician coming into physical contact with hot oil. The system is fully automatic and is just one of the reasons why we have never had a safety claim in the workshop,” added Angelo.

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DRIVEN

PLUGGING

THE 8X4

GAP TEN GOOD REASONS TO CONSIDER ISUZU WHEN YOU LOOK FOR AN EIGHT WHEELER - AS ALLAN WHITING GETS TECHNICALLY ENTHUSED

We

had a hint of the newly released twin-steer Isuzu FY models when the company launched its specialist 6x4 agitator truck in March 2012. Obviously, a pitch at the competitive concrete business was incomplete without a heavier payload 8x4 version, but, back then, Isuzu execs just smiled. Now we know why. Isuzu doesn’t do anything by halves, which is why Australian truck operators have had to wait so long for an 8x4. Sure, Isuzu produces thousands of twin-steer trucks for the Japanese and other Asian markets, but none of these markets requires load sharing suspension links between first

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and second steer axles. Development of Isuzu’s innovative, patented, load sharing design has been ongoing for the past three years. The Isuzu FY front-end design features the expected cast rocker between the trailing end of the lead spring and the leading end of the second spring, but with the addition of a damper to control rocker movement and prevent unwanted steering inputs. The design was tested extensively at Isuzu’s facility in Hokkaido, in northern Japan, and also in Australia, at the Australian Automotive Research Centre. Our own test driving at Victoria’s Anglesea AARC confirmed that the design works very well. In releasing the new FY, Phil Taylor, Isuzu Australia’s director and chief operating officer, confirmed that the twinsteer models had been on his and Isuzu dealers’ wish list for a long time: “Isuzu is averaging around 40-percent share of the Australian light and medium truck market, but a relatively small 8.4 percent of the heavy end, and the new FY models will open up some new opportunities. “Twin-steer truck sales are up around 13 percent at present, with Iveco and Volvo being the main players, and our obvious lack of an 8x4 competitor has prevented our competing in this segment – but not anymore,” said Mr Taylor. In presenting the FY’s technicalities, Colin White, Isuzu Australia’s manager of product planning and engineering support, pointed out that Australia’s unique legal twin-steer market and requirements had required special project development.


PLUGGING THE 8X4 GAP

“A Japanese or Asian market 8x4 wasn’t the right starting point for us, because this type is typically a heavy-tare machine, with a frame designed for previous-generation, big-bore, naturally-aspirated engines, and without loadsharing between the steer axles. “The new Australian-market FX 6x4 agitator model was a much better base for our twin-steer development,” said Mr White.

ISUZU 2013 TWIN-STEER RANGE The shared cab across the nine-model twin-steer range is Isuzu’s short, 2160 mm bumper to back of cab, coilsuspended shed that complies with ADR 42-04, sleeper cab and mattress, Europe’s ECE R29x crash test safety, and R93x front underrun protection criteria. Inside is an ISRI 6860 seat with split-adjustable backrest and integrated seatbelt with pretensioner.

suspended on taper-leaf springs and connected by damped, load-sharing equaliser rockers. An anti-sway bar is fitted to the leading axle. Common tandem drives are Meritor RT-40-145s, fitted with power divider and two across-axle locks. All new 8x4 models have 30 tonnes GVM rating and can pull a 12-tonne trailer. ABS drum brakes are standard. Transmissions and rear suspensions vary with the model: Eaton’s constant-mesh RTO 11908LL, with PTO and Isuzu six-rod steel spring, or Hendrickson HAS 461 steel/air on 5770 mm or 6010 mm wheelbase, aimed mainly at the tipper market; ZF’s synchromesh 9S 1310TO and Hendrickson HAS 461 on 6010 mm or 6700 mm wheelbase, aimed at on-highway duties; and heavy-duty Allison HD 4430 six-ratio automatic transmission, with HAS 461, or Isuzu six-rod on 5770 mm or 6010 mm wheelbase, aimed principally at the agitator market.

The cab tilts electro-hydraulically over Isuzu’s proven 9.8-litre, common-rail, turbo-intercooled, Euro V six-cylinder, with outputs of 257 kW (345 hp) at 2000 rpm and 1422 Nm at 1400 rpm. The twin axle setup is common to all variants, consisting of two, 6.6-tonnes capacity Meritor FG941s,

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The

PROFILE

past decade has been the catalyst for countless changes in technology and engine development. Driven by the need to lower emissions, we’ve seen powertrain development make giant strides forwards to produce engines and transmissions with better fuel economy, yet higher performance and torque levels, all combined with a reduction of CO2 from the tailpipe. The development of these technologies has not been without drama, as anyone following the International Trucks and Navistar saga would know only too well. No matter that the European engine makers were all comfortable with SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) as they developed their emissions strategies. Navistar saw the approaching use of SCR treatment as the Devil’s work. In fact, the Navistar position of a straight refusal to include SCR in its engine development programme saw the company cancel its top performing combination of Cummins and the ProStar truck range when Cummins announced it would be using urea and SCR in its future engine technology.

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This move by Navistar would subsequently plunge the company into financial difficulties that continued to compound until the only position left was to replace the entire senior management team responsible for the fateful decision. Almost the next day, with ex GM-trained executive Troy Clark new at the helm, the company embraced


TIME FOR CHANGE

SCR, the world according to Navistar turned on its axis, and Cummins engines with SCR treatment began to form the company’s future in the 15-litre segment. For the Australian market, the introduction of SCR technology has not been without its concerns. But, in the main, it’s been a case of operator acceptance that, if they ran Europeanengined trucks, they would be adopting a strategy of using SCR and, in turn, adding urea to the exhaust treatment process. There are of course stories of drivers not wanting to accept the new technology and believing they could fool the engine into thinking it had urea in the appropriate tank by pouring in diesel, water, or, even in one example, urine. Fortunately, the correct information has filtered through and these obstacles are hopefully now just stories. But whatever the validity of the tales surrounding the adoption

to let others tackle the experimental work until all aspects of the new technology have been proven. For engine maker Cummins, the writing was on the wall in terms of producing engines that complied with the latest and future emissions legislation. But a sudden introduction across the board of brand new technology for an American engine was never going to be taken well by the operators. Especially those who wanted to see results before they adopted it without question. In conjunction with Australian truck maker Kenworth, Cummins embarked on a comprehensive Australian test programme to prove its SCR emissions treatment technology prior to general introduction into the Australian market. The programme indeed was the largest ever undertaken in this country by the engine maker and the truck manufacturer, with 20 test vehicles seeded into well known fleets working in harsh and varied conditions. Each engine would be monitored constantly with regular electronic downloads of information transmitted back to Cummins headquarters in Columbus, Indiana, where it was analysed by the design team responsible for the trial.

Time for of urea and SCR into a transport fleet, it underlines how, in general, the industry prefers to stay with technologies it understands and would prefer

Cummins headquarters in Australia has also been deeply involved in the ongoing trial, with its field service technicians supporting the programme by regular visits to the operators concerned.

CHANGE

PowerTorque joins the Kenworth and Cummins test programme, as both companies combine to extend SCR treatment to 15-litre ISX and Signature engines for the Australian market PowerTorque ISSUE 51

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FEATURE

CAT

CONNECTION

A new 13-litre moves the CAT team forwards for a stronger future

CAT

Trucks moves into its third year in Australia with strong plans for a continuing series of product improvements, showing that the brand intends to grow its presence in one of the most competitive truck markets in the world. Speaking to PowerTorque, Bill Fulton, managing director of CAT Trucks in Australia, said that 2013 marked the end of the company’s first era in CAT Trucks. “We are definitely on a journey. A long-term ambitious goal to become a leader in this industry,” said Bill. “We look forward to incremental growth to increase our product range. We have an intense focus on our strategy and on helping our customers to exceed,” he added. The opportunity to discuss the progress of CAT Trucks in Australia coincided with the company’s disclosure of its product range changes for the 2013 model year. To conform to ADR 80/03 regulations, our market will see the replacement of the Caterpillar C13 engine with a totally new engine for Australia. Called the CT13, this is an Australianised version of the 13-litre, Navistar MaxxForce 13, which has performed well in the American market. The heart of the CT13, which incidentally remains painted in CAT yellow, is a new block, which originates from MAN of Germany and is constructed from Compressed Graphite Iron (CGI). Stronger than cast iron, CGI is also lighter, and the use of this material is a major factor in the dry weight of the engine being some 222 kg less than the C13 it replaces, at 1,089 kg. This new 13-litre engine uses Bosch fuel injection systems with common-rail injection and a compression ratio of 17.0:1. In line with current European injection technology, the injectors are themselves capable of multi-sequencing with up to six separate injections per combustion cycle.

CAT engineers from the US conducted skills training sessions prior to the introduction of the CT13 engine.

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This enables the pre-combustion injection to initiate early onset of the combustion process, followed by a main injection to boost combustion and piston force, followed by a further injection to cool exhaust temperatures. The use of a front and rear gear train to drive ancillary equipment reduces strain on the traditional fan belt, or V-belts, and the two-stage viscous fan coupling is actually achieved through a direct drive. The engine design uses wet liners, a four valve per cylinder installation and dual turbocharging, and has a sump capacity in the region of 40 litres. Injection pressures have increased to 2,200 bar (32,000 psi). This engine uses advanced EGR for its emissions treatment, but the next generation of its development, for 2017 introduction into Australia, will follow the rest of the industry (with the exception of IVECO) and use a combination of EGR and SCRT technologies. Adrian Wright, CAT Trucks’ manager of Product Development told PowerTorque that to reach 2017 levels the engineers will have to reduce emissions, by comparison to the previous C13 engine, by a 90 percent reduction in particulates and a substantial ten percent reduction in NOx. “The current CT13 uses a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) manufactured by Johnson Matthey that does not require dosing or afterburn treatment. The system used is called CCRT (Catalytic Continual Regeneration Trap),” said Adrian. “The noise reduction of the engine that has been achieved by the use of CGI is quite substantial, making the CT13 one of the quietest engines in its class. The drive characteristics are much more European-like, with peak torque relatively low in the rpm band. This enables the driver to hold a specific gear ratio for longer, letting the engine lug at peak torque between 1,000 and 1,200 rpm, which in turn benefits fuel economy.


CAT CONNECTION “Compared to the previous C13, the CT13 provides an additional 50 lb-ft of torque in that 1,000-1,200 rpm band – a real bonus for drivers and fuel economy by reducing the need to downshift,” he added. Although the CT13 engine is new to the Australian market, it has been well accepted in the North American market where it is used to power Navistar product. With 65,000 engines already on the road, it’s been relatively trouble-free since introduction. It should be noted that all the operators contacted by PowerTorque, who are currently using CAT Trucks, seem to be very comfortable with the current product and its product support through the CAT dealership group. It’s not uncommon to find disgruntled truck operators, but, as far as the CAT Trucks’ introduction has been concerned, the general comment is that the drivers like the truck, it’s quiet and comfortable and has been well constructed. All the things a truck manufacturer likes to hear.

With the closure of the Navistar production facility in Garland, Texas, manufacturing of CAT Trucks for the Australian market will shift next year to the Navistar factory in Springfield, Ohio. Engine manufacturing of the CT13 will continue at Huntsville, Alabama. There are slight changes to vehicle specifications for the 2013 model year range, and Cat Trucks is introducing LED headlights across all models, a first for trucks sold into the Australian market. The steering column will now be adjustable for both reach and rake, the fuel cooler is relocated to the front of the engine bay, the front steering angle has been increased to 50 degrees and an additional 30 micron pre-filter has been added to the fuel system. The CT13 engine available in the CT610 products will be at 475 hp at 1,700 rpm with 1,700 lb-ft of torque rated at 1,000 rpm.

Compared to products such as Mack in the rigid and tipper market, or for single trailer and prime mover work, the CAT offering with the C13 engine has appeared to be slightly heavier in tare weight. Although perceived as a possible disadvantage, the higher tare weight appears to be of little concern to operators due to the higher engineering standards of CAT Trucks that are providing improved durability when compared to competitive brands. Whereas there have been reports of Mack products experiencing chassis cracking, there have been no such suggestions of similar occurrences in the CAT Trucks solution. The weight reduction of the new CT13 engine will also close the gap in tare weight difference without a loss of durability.

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TRAILER TORQUE

CAR ECARRYINGuro-Style e th om fr t ou d an st o lf Ro es ak m r ai Italian style and fl

are certain configurations of prime mover and semitrailer running in Europe that we can’t ever reproduce in Australia. But that’s not to say that we can’t look at the technology available, and see whether it can be adapted to suit our regulations and conditions. One of the major differences with trailer design in Europe is that of road height clearance. Almost everything running on European freeways is low to the ground. With our high crowns, steeply angled edges and deep drains on our roads, that’s something we are never going to see as a regular feature of our road network. 64

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crowd

But, before we walk away with the impression that nothing can be learnt, let’s have a closer look at the dimensions and carrying capacities that form part of normal life in Europe. Italian company Rolfo specializes in isothermal trailer bodies and car carriers, with a full range of open and closed designs, dependent on whether the vehicle carried is an exotic supercar heading for its first owner or an ex rental fleet clunker on its way to the auction. With a manufacturing history that dates back over 130 years, Rolfo today maintains six factories and has a presence in India, Argentina, Africa and South America as well as Europe.


The Auriga DeLuxe tandem axled semitrailer design features fully enclosed bodywork and couples to a single drive prime mover. The overall running length, including the prime mover, is 16.5 metres, and the overall height is set at 4.0 metres.

backwards, with the floor section tilted to place the front axle above the bonnet of the rear vehicle. The construction of the van body side is of fibreglassplywood, with the roof being constructed of fibreglass

What is interesting here is the capacity. With a payload in Europe of 27 tonnes, the Auriga

can carry six cars in a fully enclosed and watertight van body. The cars stack across the lower deck, with the lead vehicle reversed and the centre and rearmost vehicles pointing forwards. On the split upper deck, the lead vehicle and rearmost vehicles face forwards, while the centre vehicle faces PowerTorque ISSUE 51

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FEATURE

Cummins has brought the latest SCR treatment process to our market, well ahead of the original planned schedule for introduction. From February onwards, Cummins has announced a new addition to its heavy-duty truck engine line-up, the ISXe5. This is an engine meeting Euro 5 emissions compliance through selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology with production at Cummins’ Jamestown plant in the US. got to love the technology growth in the transport industry. Almost monthly, companies announce new levels of ability that even a decade ago were thought to be unattainable. But it’s one thing to announce a new development, and something totally different to implement the same. The announcement comes from Cummins, but, for the Australian market, the implementation is with Kenworth, as the Bayswater company plans to introduce SCR treatment, initially on four selected models, but, before long, across the board. This also supports the SCR technology currently included in the PACCAR MX engine sold with DAF product, and also to become available with selected models in the Kenworth range through 2013. Cummins Inc. is not backward in coming forwards, and, for this North American engine maker, there’s every reason to proclaim long and loud about its most recent technological achievements. As covered in PowerTorque’s last issue, the advances made by Cummins now extend to waste heat management, as just one of the latest formats under development to produce more power and torque while reducing emissions and improving efficiency. The latest news from Cummins is that rather than wait for the Australian industry to play catch-up in technology requirements for the lowest level of emissions, 74

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It will be offered alongside Cummins’ market-leading ISX and Signature engines, which use cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) to meet ADR80/03 emission requirements. “We will continue to see strong demand for our ISX and Signature EGR engines, based on feedback we have received from customers,” says Sean McLean, general manager of automotive products for Cummins South Pacific. “The ISXe5 is joining our 15-litre product line to provide a further technology choice backed by Cummins’ industryleading service support network.” The ISXe5 will have the same ratings as the current EGR engines, from 450 to 600 hp and 1650 to 2050 lb-ft of torque. The ISX and Signature are Australia’s biggest selling heavy-duty truck engines.


AHEAD OF THE PACK “The ISXe5 has the same base engine design as our current product but incorporates a new common-rail fuel system, a wastegate turbocharger and a single overhead camshaft,” says McLean. The XPI (extreme high pressure) common-rail fuel system provides very precise injection and combustion control. It operates independently of engine speed and provides injection pressures greater than 30,000 psi. As the only diesel engine manufacturer with in-house integration of all critical subsystems, from air handling to exhaust aftertreatment, Cummins is able to optimise the combustion process to maximise fuel economy. All ISXe5 engines will include the Cummins Intebrake, providing the strong engine brake retardation for which the ISX and Signature engines are renowned.

All ISXe5 ratings of 485 hp and above will feature peak retardation of 600 hp. The SCR exhaust aftertreatment on the ISXe5 is a fully integrated system developed by Cummins Emissions Solutions (CES), dosing urea into the exhaust stream to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. Cummins’ truck engine line-up includes a number of other engines utilising this aftertreatment system, including the ISFe5, ISBe5, ISLe5 and ISMe5. Cummins has been field-testing ten ISXe5 engines in Australia since early 2012 as part of the development program for this engine, and now has more than 20 trial engines in service across a range of heavy-duty applications. “Our extensive field test program will make certain that reliability and performance of the ISXe5 meets customer expectations while also ensuring that Cummins’ branch network is ready to support the product when it goes into service in 2013,” says McLean.

It’s SCR all the way with new Cummins technology for the Australian market.

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man scaping

FEATURE

German truck maker MAN looks at the whole equation behind achieving the best results of aerodynamics

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PowerTorque ISSUE 51


MAN SCAPING

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our readers are no doubt appreciating through our coverage of the IAA Commercial Vehicles Show 2012 in Hannover, the technology exchange seems to just continue without any sign of slowing down. MAN is undergoing a serious makeover for its Australian market with a new focus on bringing the brand into a level of prominence it has not achieved in the past. As it continues to establish its own identity, PowerTorque looks at MAN’s approach to the dark art of improved aerodynamics. MAN chose the IAA truck Show in Hannover to present its thoughts on creating an aerodynamically optimised road train. In this design study, the MAN Concept S and the AeroLiner trailer from Krone combine to form a complimentary streamlined unit. The overall combination has the load volume of a conventional semitrailer while at the same time achieving the extremely low drag coefficient of a passenger car. This enables savings in fuel consumption and, thus, CO2 of up to 25 percent. The fleet consumptions of passenger cars and light commercial vehicles are already stipulated by law. As a next step, the political discussion is focusing increasingly on heavy commercial vehicles. There are indications that a law regulating CO2 for heavy trucks over 12 tonnes will also be passed in Europe in the near future. “The area in which considerable savings in CO2 in the operation of heavy commercial vehicles are to be realised can be found in the consideration of trucks and trailers as a complete unit, and in the aerodynamic design of the vehicle as a whole. That’s where the biggest potential is,” says Anders Nielsen, CEO of MAN Truck & Bus. Until now, the external form of the truck has meant that these vehicles have had to cope with a great amount of air resistance. Depending on the route profile, overcoming this resistance requires up to 37 percent of the total energy used by the truck. That costs fuel and results in corresponding CO2 emissions. The rectangular block form of today’s trucks is accounted for by the need for maximum utilisation of the space available within the statutory limitation imposed on the length of European road trains at 16.5 metres. The innovative truck-trailer combination makes it possible to tap into considerable aerodynamic potentials. To this end, however, the prime mover and trailer have to be somewhat longer, extending both forwards and rearwards. This is in order to realise the more streamlined front end of the vehicle with its rounded radiator, as well as the aerodynamic rear end, while keeping the loading capacity the same. Manufacturers of commercial vehicles are capable of putting an aerodynamically optimised vehicle such as the concept

presented at Hannover on the road as early as the next vehicle generation. But this can become a reality only when the statutory regulations restricting the length of road trains have been amended. “Politicians could achieve big gains in environmental protection with a minor change to the law, while simultaneously utilising the innovative strength of Europe’s commercial vehicles industry. Just 2.30 metres more length would suffice,” says Anders Nielsen. The EU Commission has already announced a lengthening of the driver’s cab as well as the rear end of the vehicle in its proposed directive, expected at the beginning of 2013. By comparison with a conventional 40-tonne combination, the MAN Concept S with trailer and optimised auxiliary units reduce fuel consumption and, thus, CO2 emissions per tonne-kilometre by up to a quarter. The development of the aerodynamics took account of the airflow around the vehicle combination as a whole, starting with the prime mover’s rounded front section, the reduced area of its mirrors and the streamlined, integrated tanks. In a newly developed concept, the spoiler is integrated in a form-fitting manner into the roof of the driver’s cab. It closes the gap between tractor and trailer completely, allowing an even airflow over the vehicle without separation. The trailer’s full-size side finishers and tapered rear complete the optimal flow of air around the road train. This has additional synergetic effects: the side finishers enhance safety and also make a contribution to lightening the load on the environment by reducing noise. With its streamlined front, its projecting wheel arches and the soft, smooth lines of its cab, the MAN Concept S is a radical departure from the cubic design of the conventional trucks we see on our freeways today. The design was rigorously adjusted in the wind tunnel until its extremely low air resistance was attained. With its drag coefficient (cD value) of around 0.3, the concept road train enters a domain of aerodynamic quality previously inhabited only by modern passenger limousines. “Our Concept S in conjunction with an aerodynamically optimised semitrailer is as streamlined as a modern passenger car. We proved it in the wind tunnel. The savings in consumption are absolutely realistic,” states Holger Koos, head truck designer of MAN Truck & Bus. In the Concept S, the supporting frame and the two fuel tanks are integrated into the external bodywork design, where they help to guide the flow of air past the truck. Rear vision no longer relies on door-mounted mirror systems, but uses cameras built into the wing-like mounts for the indicator units left and right. Despite its tapered rear end, the road train’s loading volume is the same as that of a conventional truck. The development of the Concept S and the AeroLiner focused throughout on the demands of the haulage and logistics sector, where price is critical. Besides this aspect, loading and unloading operations are also straightforward and safe. “The semitrailer functions exactly like any other conventional trailer. Despite the streamlined tapering of the vehicle towards the rear, the trailer is suitable for every ramp,” explains Krone’s head of sales and marketing, Dr. Frank Albers. The trailer design meets all the requirements for loading and unloading at ramps and is equipped with a tailgate that can be raised. PowerTorque ISSUE 51

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PowerTorque Issue 51