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ANAIS

Editores: Zilá Luz Paulino Simões, Joyce M. Volpini Almeida, Eduardo A. B. Almeida


Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação (CIP)

(Câmara Brasileira do Livro, SP, Brasil)

Encontro sobre Abelhas (9.: 2015: Ribeirão Preto, SP) XI Encontro sobre abelhas = Annals of the XI Brazilian Bee Meeting [editores Zilá Luz Paulino Simões, Joyce M. Volpini Almeida, Eduardo A. B. Almeida] Ribeirão Preto, SP: Moringa Comunicação LTDA, 2015 Vários organizadores

1. Abelhas - Congressos. I. Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino. II. Almeida, Joyce M. Volpini III. Almeida, Eduardo A. B.

ISBN: 978-85-69903-00-0 10-07799

CDD-595.79906

Índices para catálogo sistemático 1. Congressos : Abelhas : Zoologia 595.79906 Anais do XI Encontro sobre Abelhas. Ribeirão Preto. 2015 Simões, Z.L.P.; Almeida, J.M.J.; Almeida, E.A.B.

Número páginas 427

Moringa Comunicação Rua Alexandre Gomes de Abreu, 403 - Jardim Palma Travassos - 14091-210 - Ribeirão Preto - SP (16) 3329 2064 www.moringa.ppg.br


ANAIS DO XI ENCONTRO SOBRE ABELHAS RIBEIRÃO PRETO 10 a 12 de outubro de 2015 Centro de Convenções, Ribeirão Preto - SP, Brasil Comissão Organizadora Eduardo A. B. Almeida - Presidente Tiago Falcon Lopes - Vice-Presidente Denise A. Alves - 1a Secretária Zilá Luz Paulino Simões- 2a Secretária Carlos Alberto Garófalo - 1o Tesoureiro Sidnei Mateus - 2o Tesoureiro Klaus Hartfelder - Relações Internacionais David de Jong - Relações Internacionais Lionel Segui Gonçalves - Relações Internacionais Comissão Científica Zilá Luz Paulino Simões Carlos Antônio Mendes Cardoso Júnior Daercio Adam de Araújo Lucena Denise A. Alves Denyse Cavalcante Lago Diego Moure Oliveira Diego Sasso Porto Giselle Alves Martins Gláucya de Figueiredo Mecca Gustavo Jacomini Tibério Joyce Mayra Volpini de Almeida Juliana Galaschi Teixeira Marcia R. Cavichio Issa Maria Juliana Ferreira Caliman Mário Sérgio Cervoni Michelle Manfrini Patrícia dos Santos Vilhena Reinanda Lima da Cruz Rogerio Pereira Sidnei Mateus Ulysses Madureira Maia Yara Sbrolin Roldão Sbordoni Comissão de Trabalho Aline Patrícia Claudinéia Pereira Costa Clycie Aparecida da Silva Machado Daercio Adam de Araújo Lucena Diego Sasso Porto Douglas Elias Santos Elisa Cimitan Mendes Elisa Queiroz Marcela de Matos Barbosa Maria Juliana Ferreira Caliman Marlene Lucia Aguilar Benavides Patrícia Daniela Gomes Pinhal Rodolpho Santos Telles de Menezes Rogerio Pereira Vanessa Bonatti


Patrocinadores FAPESP Departamento de Biologia, FFCLRP/USP

Apoios Apis Flora Banco do Brasil Natucentro Universidade de São Paulo Programa de Pós-Graduação em Entomologia, FFCLRP-USP Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética, FMRP-USP Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Comparada, FFCLRP-USP


PREFÁCIO O ano de 1994 marcou a primeira edição oficial do Encontros sobre Abelhas, uma iniciativa um tanto modesta, mas cheia de uma força para unir a comunidade de estudiosos das abelhas. Essa força cresceu ao longo de duas décadas e os Encontros chegam à maioridade em sua décima-primeira edição como um fórum científico de prestígio! A cada dois anos, a comunidade de estudiosos do campus de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo se organiza para uma discussão de temas nas amplas áreas da biologia, genética e comportamento de abelhas em geral e tecnologias relacionadas a essas áreas. Desde a sua primeira edição, os pós-graduandos de Ribeirão Preto são forças ativas na concepção e na organização desta reunião científica. Atualmente o Encontro é realizado graças a uma colaboração entre muitos estudantes (especialmente os pós-graduandos), docentes do campus de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo e de outras instituições. A Comissão Organizadora do XI Encontro sobre Abelhas vem realizando desde dezembro de 2014 os preparativos para a realização deste evento. Três programas de pós-graduação da Universidade de São Paulo dão especial apoio à realização do Encontro sobre Abelhas: Programa de Entomologia (FFCLRP/USP), Programa de Genética (FMRP/USP) e Programa de Biologia Comparada (FFCLRP/USP). O número de trabalhos recebidos aumentou edição após edição. É justo dizer que os Encontros sobre Abelhas tornaram-se um fórum indispensável para a disseminação de conhecimentos produzidos em alguns dos principais centros acadêmicos no Brasil, além da integração de nossa comunidade brasileira a pesquisadores de várias partes do mundo. Para o XI Encontro contaremos com três conferências plenárias, 10 simpósios com 51 palestrantes, e mais de 300 trabalhos científicos em forma de pôsteres sobre comportamento de abelhas, evolução social, apicultura e meliponicultura, polinização, anatomia interna e externa, ecologia química, genética e genômica, sistemática, biogeografia, mudanças globais, saúde e nutrição das abelhas, ecologia de paisagens e abelhas na interface da agricultura e conservação. Pesquisadores de todo o Brasil estarão presentes, e também reuniremos aqui no XI Encontro pesquisadores de ao menos quatro outros países da América Latina (Argentina, Chile, Colômbia e Venezuela), além de Austrália, Alemanha, Bélgica, Espanha, Estados Unidos, Canadá, Inglaterra e Portugal. Durante o XI Encontro sobre Abelhas será realizada uma homenagem especial ao Prof. Charles D. Michener, cuja contribuição acadêmica se faz sentir há mais de oitenta anos na comunidade de estudiosos das abelhas. A importância do Prof. Michener para nosso conhecimento sobre as abelhas pode ser pensada como uma revolução iniciada em 1934, com seu primeiro artigo científico, e que se manteve vigorosa por meio de muitas publicações seminais, orientação de dezenas de estudantes e contribuições diretas ou indiretas a quase todas as linhas de pesquisa sobre abelhas. Em 2000 tivemos o privilégio de contarmos com a participação do Prof. Michener no IV Encontro, e agora aproveitamos esta ocasião para saudá-lo com uma homenagem. Agradecemos o apoio recebido de várias instituições, em especial o suporte financeiro recebido da Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP, processo 2015/12332-3) e do Departamento de Biologia da FFCLRP da Universidade de São Paulo. Finalmente, registramos os agradecimentos a Ivan de Castro pela criação do logotipo. Eduardo A. B. Almeida Presidente da Comissão Organizadora XI Encontro sobre Abelhas Ribeirão Preto, Outubro de 2015


ÍNDICE PLENÁRIAS POPULATION GENOMICS OF HONEY BEES AND BUMBLE BEES Amro Zayed ..................................................................................................................................... 48 STINGLESS BEES: A MODEL GROUP TO STUDY ENVIRONMENTAL AND BEHAVIOURAL PHYSIOLOGY Michael Hrncir ................................................................................................................................ 49 PARASITISM, CLONING AND OTHER STRANGE THINGS IN THE CAPE HONEY BEE Madeleine Beekman & Ben Oldroyd ............................................................................................ 5 0 SIMPÓSIO 1 EVOLUÇÃO SOCIAL E COMPORTAMENTO DE ABELHAS Coordenadora: Solange C. Augusto ................................................................................................. 51 DIFFERENT BEES, DIFFERENT NEEDS – HOW NEST SITE REQUIREMENTS HAVE SHAPED THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES IN HOMELESS BEES (APIS SPP.) Madeleine Beekman ........................................................................................................................ 52 THE REACTIVATION PROCESS OF NESTS AND THE REPRODUCTIVE SKEW IN EUGLOSSA CORDATA (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, EUGLOSSINI) Gabriele Antico Freiria; Carlos Alberto Garófalo; Marco Antonio Del Lama ......................... 53 CUTICULAR DEVELOPMENT AND THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF BEES Tiago Falcon; Márcia Maria Gentile Bitondi .............................................................................. 55 OPTIMIZATION OF BROOD COMB ARCHITECTURE AND QUEEN PRODUCTION IN STINGLESS BEES PHYLOGENY Túlio Marcos Nunes; Estevan Eltink; Sidnei Mateus; Felipe Chinaglia Montefeltro .............. 56 PRE-WINTERING CONDITIONS AND REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS IN A SOLITARY BEE: IS THERE A TRADE-OFF BETWEEN DIAPAUSE AND POST-WINTER PERFORMANCE? Jordi Bosch ....................................................................................................................................... 57 INVESTIGATING EUSOCIALITY IN BEES WHILE TRUSTING THE UNCERTAINTY Eduardo A. B. Almeida; Diego Sasso Porto ................................................................................ 58 SIMPÓSIO 2

DECLÍNIO DOS POLINIZADORES Coordenador: Lionel S. Gonçalves ................................................................................................ 59


O IMPACTO CAUSADO NA APICULTURA E MELIPONICULTURA PELO USO INDISCRIMINADO DE PESTICIDAS, IDENTIFICADO PELO APLICATIVO BEE ALERT E O DECLÍNIO DOS POLINIZADORES (ABELHAS) NO BRASIL Lionel Segui Gonçalves; Dayson Castilhos ............................................................................... 60 DECLINE OF POLLINATORS IN THE AMERICAS AND EUROPE David de Jong .................................................................................................................................. 61 THE USE OF NEONICOTINOID INSECTICIDES AND ITS POTENTIAL RISKS TO SOCIAL BEES Annelise de Souza Rosa; Vera Lucia Imperatriz-Fonseca ........................................................... 62 A MELIPONICULTURA E SEU POTENCIAL PARA A CONSERVAÇÃO DAS ABELHAS SEM FERRÃO – GARGALOS PARA O SEU DESENVOLVIMENTO: ASPECTOS REGULATÓRIOS E ESTRUTURAIS Ricardo Costa Rodrigues de Camargo ........................................................................................ 65 DOES A HERBICIDE AFFECT HONEYBEE BEHAVIOR? Walter M. Farina, María Sol Balbuena, Lucila T. Herbert, Diego E. Vázquez, Andrés Arenas .......................................................................................................................................................... 67 SIMPÓSIO 3 ABELHAS NA INTERFACE DA AGRICULTURA E CONSERVAÇÃO Coordenadoras: Denise A. Alves; Blandina F. Viana .................................................................. 68 POLINIZADORES, POLINIZAÇÃO E IPBES: UM NOVO ESFORÇO GLOBAL Vera L. Imperatriz-fonseca; Blandina F. Viana .............................................................................. 69 AGRICULTURE: THE PARADOX BETWEEN DEPENDENCE ON AND THREAT TO BEES Breno M. Freitas ............................................................................................................................... 70 IMPORTANCE OF INTRA AND INTER-SPECIFIC ECOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS FOR THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CROP POLLINATORS Luísa G. Carvalheiro ...................................................................................................................... 71 POLLINATOR-FRIENDLY PRACTICES TO ENHANCE CROP PRODUCTION IN APPLES AND PEARS Lucas A. Garibaldi; B. Geslin; M. A. Aizen; N. Garcia; V. Le Feon; A. J. Pereira; B. E. Vaissiere .............................................................................................................................................................. 72


POLLINATORS IN THE CURRENT AGRICULTURAL MODEL AND THE CHALLENGES FOR THE INCLUSION OF BEES IN SUSTAINABLE SYSTEM Betina Blochtein; Sidia Witter; Patrícia Nunes-Silva; Rosana Halinski; Rosane Lanzer ............................................................................................................................................................ 74 CENTRIS (HETEROCENTRIS) ANALIS (FABRICIUS, 1804) AND CENTRIS (HEMISIELLA) TARSATA SMITH, 1874 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: CENTRIDINI): POLLINATORS OF MALPIGHIA EMARGINATA (MALPIGHIACEAE) WITH DIFFERENT POTENTIALS FOR MANAGEMENT Morgana S. Sazan; Carlos A. Garófalo ........................................................................................... 75 SIMPÓSIO 4

SAÚDE E NUTRIÇÃO DE ABELHAS Coordenador: David De Jong ......................................................................................................... 76 EFFECT OF NUTRITION ON HONEY BEE HEALTH David de Jong ................................................................................................................................... 77 FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS OF PESTICIDE DETOXIFICATION IN BEES Brian R. Johnson ............................................................................................................................ 78 DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF POLLEN SUBSTITUTE DIETS FOR BEES Gordon Wardell ............................................................................................................................... 79 A FERMENTAÇÃO INDUZIDA EM DIETAS ARTIFICIAIS E SEUS EFEITOS SOB AS ABELHAS APIS MELLIFERA Joyce Mayra Volpini de Almeida .................................................................................................. 80 SIMPÓSIO 5

ECOLOGIA QUÍMICA Coordenador: Fábio S. Nascimento ................................................................................................ 81 THE CHEMICAL RECOGNITION SIGNALS OF HONEYBEES AND HOW THEY CAN BE EXPLOITED BY ECTO-PARASITES Stephen John Martin ...................................................................................................................... 82 MICROBIAL CHEMICAL ECOLOGY IN STINGLESS BEES COLONIES DRIVES NATURAL PRODUCTS DISCOVERY Mônica T. Pupo; Camila R. Paludo; Taise T. H. Fukuda; Carla Menegatti; Amanda H. Cavalheiro; Weilan G. P. Melo ...................................................................................................... 83


THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF SOCIAL INSECT QUEEN PHEROMONES: NOVEL HYPOTHESES AND OUTSTANDING PROBLEMS Tom Wenseleers; Cintia A. Oi; Jelle S. Van Zweden; Ricardo C. Oliveira; Annette Van Oystaeyen; Fabio S. Nascimento ......................................................................................................................... 84 SOCIAL REGULATION IN EUGLOSSA MELANOTRICHA (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, EUGLOSSINI) MODULATED BY COMPLEX TRAITS Aline C. R. Andrade-Silva; Elder A. Miranda; Marco A. Del Lama; Fábio S. Nascimento ...... 85 SCENT OF ATTRACTION: FORMATION OF DRONE AGGREGATIONS AT ORPHAN COLONIES OF THE BRAZILIAN STINGLESS BEE SCAPTOTRIGONA DEPILIS Lea Böttinger; Stefan Jarau; Till Tolasch; Fabio Nascimento; Lucas Van Zuben; Wolf Engels ............................................................................................................................................................ 86 SIMPÓSIO 6 GENÉTICA DE POPULAÇÕES Coordenador: Tiago M. Francoy ................................................................................................... 87 REVISITING THE IBERIAN HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA IBERIENSIS) CONTACT ZONE: MATERNAL AND GENOME-WIDE NUCLEAR VARIATION PROVIDE SUPPORT FOR SECONDARY CONTACT FROM HISTORICAL REFUGIA Julio Chávez-Galarza; Dora Henriques; J. Spencer Johnston; Miguel Carneiro; José Rufino; John C. Patton; Maria Alice Pinto .................................................................................................. 88 INTRA NEST DYNAMICS OF THE BUMBLEBEE BOMBUS ATRATUS (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) José Ricardo Cure, Andrew Paul Gutierrez, Sandy Padilla, Daniel Rodriguez, Diego Riaño, Carlos Ariza ................................................................................................................................................. 89 CHARACTERIZATION OF POPULATION OF MOURELLA CAERULEA (FRIESE, 1900) AND PLEBEIA NIGRICEPS (FRIESE, 1901) (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINI) THROUGH GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRICS OF WINGS, ANALYSIS OF CUTICULAR HYDROCARBONS AND MTDNA Juliana Galaschi; Tiago Mauricio Francoy................................................................................... 92 FILOGEOGRAFIA E DEMOGRAFIA HISTÓRICA DE PARTAMONA RUSTICA (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, MELIPONINI), UMA ABELHA ENDÊMICA DE ÁREAS SECAS DO BRASIL Elder A. Miranda; Marco A. Del Lama ......................................................................................... 93


TETRAGONISCA ANGUSTULA: WIDE DISTRIBUTION AND REMARKABLE GENETIC STRUCTURE Maria Cristina Arias1; Flavio O. Francisco; Leandro R. Santiago; Yuri M. Mizusawa; Benjamin P. Oldroyd ...................................................................................................................................... 94 SIMPÓSIO 7 TAXONOMIA E BIOGEOGRAFIA DE ABELHAS Coordenador: Eduardo A. B. Almeida ......................................................................................... 95 EXTREME MORPHOLOGIES IN EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS: BEES OF THE ATACAMA DESERT Laurence Packer ............................................................................................................................ 96 PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF CORBICULATE BEES (APIDAE: APINAE: APINI) INFERRED FROM NEW DATA FROM INTERNAL STRUCTURES OF EXOSKELETON Diego Sasso Porto; Eduardo A. B. Almeida ............................................................................... 97 STATE OF THE ART AND CHALLENGES OF THE TAXONOMY OF THE SPECIES OF THE TRIBE CENTRIDINI (APIDAE: APINAE) Felipe Vivallo ................................................................................................................................. 99 EVOLUTION OF FLORAL OIL-COLLECTING HABITS IN THE NEW WORLD OIL-BEES CENTRIS AND EPICHARIS (APINAE) Aline C. Martins; Gabriel A. R. Melo; Susanne S. Renner .................................................... 101 SIMPÓSIO 8 ABELHAS E MUDANÇAS GLOBAIS: IMPACTOS E MITIGAÇÃO Coordenadores: Antônio Mauro Saraiva; Tereza Cristina Giannini ........................................ 103 ECOLOGICAL INTENSIFICATION FOR GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY: DIVERSE FAUNA CLOSE YIELD GAPS IN SMALL HOLDINGS OF AFRICA, ASIA, AND LATIN AMERICA Lucas Alejandro Garibaldi ........................................................................................................... 104 CLIMATE WARMING AND DIAPAUSE: BEES IN A HOTTER WORLD Charles Fernando dos Santos ...................................................................................................... 105 WILL BOMBUS TERRESTRIS REACH BRAZIL? A PREDICTIVE STUDY ABOUT A POTENTIAL INVASION Andre Luis Acosta; Tereza Cristina Giannini; Vera Lúcia Imperatriz-Fonseca; Antônio Mauro Saraiva ............................................................................................................................................ 106


STINGLESS BEEKEEPING DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL MAY BE IMPAIRED MY EXTREME WEATHER CONDITIONS Sheina Koffler; Cristiano Menezes; Paulo Menezes; Astrid De Matos Peixoto Kleinert; Vera Lúcia Imperatriz-Fonseca; Nathaniel Pope; Rodolfo Jaffé ..................................................... 107 SAFEGUARDING ECOSYSTEM SERVICES: A METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK TO BUFFER THE JOINT EFFECT OF HABITAT CONFIGURATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE Tereza C. Giannini, Leandro R. Tambosi, André L. Acosta, Rodolfo Jaffé, Antonio M. Saraiva, Vera L. Imperatriz-Fonseca, Jean Paul Metzger ........................................................................ 108 LANDSCAPE GENOMICS OF A KEY POLLINATOR FROM NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL: UNRAVELING LOCAL ADAPTATIONS IN THE STINGLESS BEE MELIPONA SUBNITIDA Rodolfo Jaffé1; Maria C. Arias; Airton T. Carvalho; Tereza C. Giannini; Vera L. ImperatrizFonseca; Robin F. A. Moritz; Antonio M. Saraiva .................................................................... 109 STANDARDIZATION AND DIGITIZATION OF POLLINATOR-PLANT INTERACTION DATA Antonio Mauro Saraiva, Etienne Americo Cartolano Jr, Allan Koch Veiga, Tereza Cristina Giannini, Juliana Saragiotto Silva, Marina Wolowski, Kayna Agostini ................................... 110 SIMPÓSIO 9

ASSINATURAS GENÔMICAS Coordenador: Francis M. F. Nunes ............................................................................................ 111 GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION MAPPING FOR STUDYING THE GENETICS OF COMPLEX BEHAVIOURS IN HONEY BEES Amro Zayed .................................................................................................................................... 112 THE REPRODUCTIVE STATUS OF HONEYBEE OVARIES, LESSONS FROM TRANSCRIPTOME Zilá L. P. Simões ............................................................................................................................. 113 FUNCTIONAL CROSSTALK BETWEEN DIET QUALITY AND AGING PROCESSES Felipe Martelli, Tiago Falcón, Daniel Guariz Pinheiro, Zilá Luz Paulino Simões, Francis Morais Franco Nunes .................................................................................................................... 114 MASS SPECTRAL IMAGING OF HONEYBEE BRAIN: IN SITU PROTEOMICS PAVING THE WAY TO RELATE SOCIAL BEHAVIORS TO NEUROCHEMICAL REGULATION Mario Sergio Palma. 115 SIMPÓSIO 10

ECOLOGIA DE PAISAGENS Coordenador: Danilo Boscolo ...................................................................................................... 116


LANDSCAPE GENETICS OF A TROPICAL RESCUE POLLINATOR Rodolfo Jaffé1; Antonio Castilla; Nathaniel Pope; Vera Lucia Imperatriz-Fonseca; Jean Paul Metzger; Maria Cristina Arias; Shalene Jha .............................................................................. 117 EROSÃO DA HISTÓRIA CO-EVOLUTIVA DAS INTERAÇÕES PLANTA-POLINIZADOR SOB A FRAGMENTAÇÃO DO HÁBITAT Marcelo A. Aizen ......................................................................................................................... 118 INFLUÊNCIA DA PERDA DE HÁBITAT FLORESTAL SOBRE AS COMUNIDADES DE ABELHAS EUGLOSSINI (HYMENOPTERA,APIDAE), EM PAISAGENS FRAGMENTADAS NA FLORESTA ATLÂNTICA, BRASIL Maxwell Souza Silveira; Eduardo Freitas Moreira; Danilo Boscolo; Blandina Felipe Viana .......................................................................................................................................................... 119 HABITAT LOSS IMPACTS ON PLANT-POLLINATOR NETWORKS IN TROPICAL ATLANTIC RAINFOREST NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL Patrícia Alves Ferreira; Danilo Boscolo; Luciano Elsinor Lopes; Luísa G. Carvalheiro; Jacobus C. Biesmeijer; Pedro Luis Bernardo Da Rocha; Blandina Felipe Viana ................................. 120 ENVIRONMENTAL HETEROGENEITY AND THE ENHANCEMENT OF BEE POLLINATION SERVICES IN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES Danilo Boscolo; Eduardo Freitas Moreira; Rafaela Lorena Silva Santos; Lady Catalina Angel Coca; Jefferson Gabriel; Blandina Felipe Viana ......................................................................... 121 WEIGHT AND SIZE OF MELIPONA QUEENS AND HOW THESE MEASUREMENTS RELATE TO THE HIVE POPULATION AND THE SIZE OF WORKERS (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, MELIPONINAE) Davi Said Aidar; Joice Cleide Toga Maciel; Brenda Meirelles .................................................. 122


PÔSTERES GYNE AND DRONE PRODUCTION IN BOMBUS ATRATUS FRANKLIN (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Sandy Padilla Báez; José Ricardo Cure Hakim; Diego Riaño Jimenez; Andrew Paul Gutierrez; Daniel Rodriguez; Eddy Romero ............................................................................................. 123 CAFFEINE IN SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD FOR TETRAGONISCA ANGUSTULA (LATREILLE, 1811) IN DEARTH SEASON Francieli das Chagas; Heber Luiz Pereira; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo; Maria Claudia Colla Ruvolo-Takasusuki ............................................................................................................. 124 ECDYSONE RECEPTOR (ECR) AND LNCOV-1/LOC726407 GENE SYSTEM EXPRESSION DURING PUPAL AND PHARATE-ADULT BRAIN DIFFERENTIAL MORPHOGENESIS IN APIS MELLIFERA CASTES Valdeci Geraldo Coelho Júnior; Ricardo Dias Caneschi; Gabriele David dos Santos; Márcio Tadeu de Oliveira; Délcio Eustáquio de Paula Júnior; Lívia MR Moda; Angel Roberto Barchuk .......................................................................................................................................... 125 EVALUATION OF PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS IN COLONY PRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS FOR MELIPONA RUFIVENTRIS STINGLESS BEE Patrícia Faquinello; Yuri Gonçalves; Rodrigo Alves Zanata; Leticia Fernanda Xavier Costa; Paulo Vitor Divino Xavier de Freitas; Clésia Cristina da Silva ............................................. 126 PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS EFFECT IN MELIPONA RUFIVENTRIS STINGLESS BEE COLONY DEVELOPMENT Patrícia Faquinello; Yuri Gonçalves; Rodrigo Alves Zanata; Leticia Fernanda Xavier Costa; Paulo Vitor Divino Xavier de Freitas; Clésia Cristina da Silva ................................................ 127 MELIPONINAE SPECIES MANAGED IN THE CEARÁ STATE, BRAZIL Jânio Angelo Félix; José Claudio Caetano; Fábio Ribeiro Sampaio; Leonardo dos Santos Gurgel; Francisca Natalia Brito Rocha; Cláudia Inês da Silva; Breno Magalhães Freitas ..... 128 EFFECT OF POLLEN COMPOSITION ON DEVELOPMENT OF BOMBUS ATRATUS FRANKLIN COLONIES (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) REARED IN CAPTIVITY Laura Natalia Rojas López; Diego Alfonso Riaño Jiménez; José Ricardo Cure ................... 129 POLLEN COLLECTION ACTIVITY OF SCAPTOTRIGONA BIPUNCTATA AND TETRAGONISCA ANGUSTULA IN A MELIPONARY LOCATED IN CAMPO MOURÃO, PARANA STATE Ivens Vinícius de Matos; Felipe Minoru de Oliveira Inagaki; Raquel de Oliveira Bueno; Elizabete Satsuki Sekine .............................................................................................................................. 130


ANNUAL EVALUATION OF PROTEIC CONTENT OF THE LARVAL FOOD IN MELIPONA SCUTELLARIS (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, MELIPONINI), A BRAZILIAN STINGLESS BEE Gláucya de Figueiredo Mecca; Hipólito Ferreira Paulino-Neto; Fabio Santos do Nascimento ......................................................................................................................................................... 131 PLANT SPECIES DIVERSITY OF STINGLESS BEE HONEY IN AREAS UNDER REFORESTATION Rio Branco, C. S.; Morgado, L. N.; Almeida, A. J. M. B.; Couto, M. A.; Terra T. S.; Freitas, A. S.; Barth, O. M. ......................................................................................................................... 132 MULTIPLYING COLONIES OF NATIVE POLLINATORS: IN VITRO STINGLESS BEES REARING AND QUEEN ACCEPTANCE IN COLONIES Patrick Douglas de Souza dos Santos; Charles Fernando dos Santos; Betina Blochtein ....... 133 PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HONEY PRODUCED BY MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA COLONIES: SEASONAL VARIATIONS AND INFLUENCE OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTATION Isabel Ribeiro do Valle Teixeira; Flávio Cruz; Josiane Carvalho; Rubens Marcelo de Castro; Angel Roberto Barchuk ................................................................................................................ 134 EFFECT OF NUMBER OF MATINGS IN COLONIES PRODUCTION BOMBUS ATRATUS (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Melissa Yvette Guerrero Torres; Diego Riaño Jiménez; José Ricardo Cure ............................. 135 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN BEES AND PLANTS IN FLOODPLAINS FIELD IN NATIONAL FOREST (FLONA) – TRÊS BARRAS / SC – BRAZIL Franciélli Cristiane Woitowicz-Gruchowski, Tayane Cristina Buggenhagen, Thiago Merighi Vieira da Silva, Jucélia Iantas, Mauro Ramalho ........................................................................ 136 FLORAL BIOLOGY OF WATERMELON PLANTS TREATED WITH THE FUNGICIDE PYRACLOSTROBIN Thais Regina Ramos Alves; Daniel Nicodemo; Alessandra Lima Santos; Amanda de Carvalho .......................................................................................................................................................... 137 BUZZ-POLLINATION: DIFFERENT GENUS VIBRATE IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES Priscila de Cássia Souza Araújo; Conrado Augusto Rosi Denadai; Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes; Lucio Antônio de Oliveira Campos ........................................................................ 138 SURVEY AND FREQUENCY OF FLORAL VISITORS IN TOMATO CROP FOR INDUSTRY Priscila de Cássia Souza Araújo, Paula Netto Silva, Fernando Mendes Barbosa, Camila Folly Baptista; Victor de Souza Almeida, Lucio Antônio de Oliveira Campos ................................... 139


POLLINATION OF RED LIST PETUNIA MANTIQUEIRENSIS (SOLANACEAE) BY TWO LOYAL SPECIES OF PSEUDAGAPOSTEMON (HALICTIDAE) Fernanda Figueiredo de Araujo; Reisla Oliveira; Clemens Schlindwein ................................. 140 COMPOSITION AND FREQUENCY OF FLORAL VISITORS (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA) IN OPEN-FIELDTOMATOCROP FOR INDUSTRY IN MINAS GERAIS STATE Fernando Mendes Barbosa; Priscila de Cássia Souza Araújo; Lucio Antônio de Oliveira Campos ......................................................................................................................................................... 141 FLOWER VISITING BEES OF TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L., SOLANACEAE) IN OPEN CROPS Bruno Ferreira Bartelli; Jaqueline Eterna Batista; Raysa Sales Teixeira Borges de Carvalho; Bárbara Matosda Cunha Guimarães; Fernanda Helena Nogueira-Ferreira ......................... 142 CONDITIONING OF THE PROBOSCIS EXTENSION RESPONSE AND OLFACTOMETER TEST WITH MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA (APIDAE, MELIPONINA) Jaqueline Eterna Batista; Ana Rita Tavares de Oliveira Baptistella; Fernanda Helena NogueiraFerreira .......................................................................................................................................... 143 THE ROLE OF SPECIALIZED FLORAL TRAITS ON THE BENEFITS OF AN OIL BEEPLANT MUTUALISM Liedson Tavares Carneiro; Isabel Alves dos Santos .................................................................. 144 BEHAVIOR OF INSECT VISITORS IN FLOWERS OF WATERMELON PLANTS TREATED WITH THE FUNGICIDE PYRACLOSTROBIN Amanda de Carvalho; Daniel Nicodemo; Alessandra Lima Santos;Thaís Regina Ramos Alves; Kamila Vilas Boas Balieira .............................................................................................. 145 INFLUENCE OF BEE POLLINATION IN OIL PRODUCTION OF SUNFLOWER (ASTERACEAE: HELIANTHUS ANNUUS) Ana Luisa de Sousa e Castro-Melo; Arthur Carlos de Oliveira; Laíce Souza Rabelo; Camila Nonato Junqueira; Maria Cristina Gaglianone; Solange Cristina Augusto ............................ 146 CAMBUCI (CAMPOMANESIA PHAEA - MYRTACEAE): A COMMERCIAL FRUIT OF THE ATLANTIC FOREST POLLINATED BY NOCTURNAL AND CREPUSCULAR BEES ATTRACTED BY FLORAL SCENTS Guaraci Duran Cordeiro; Mardiore Pinheiro; Stefan Dötterl; Isabel Alves dos Santos ......... 147 TAXOCENOSIS OF BEES AND WASPS IN PEPPER CROPS (CAPSICUM SP.) IN THE PARQUE NACIONAL SERRA DE ITABAIANA (PARNASI) AND ITS SURROUNDINGS Felipe Mendes Fontes; Alice Tâmara de Carvalho Lopes; Katia Peres Gramacho; Favízia Freitas de Oliveira; Frederico Machado Teixeira ....................................................................... 148


EFFECTS OF WARMING AND ELEVATED CO2 ON FLORAL VISITORS OF THE LEGUMINOUS STYLOSANTHES CAPITATA VOGEL Juliana Stephanie Galaschi-Teixeira; Fernando Bonifácio-Anacleto; Carlos Alberto Garófalo; Ana Lilia Alzate-Marin; Carlos Alberto Martinez ................................................................... 149 TEMPORAL ASPECTS OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN BEES AND CONVOLVULACEAE FLOWERS IN BRAZIL Autores: Miriam Gimenes; Eliane da Silva Anunciação ........................................................... 150 OILSEED YIELD IS SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECTED BY BEE DIVERSITY Rosana Halinski; Charles Fernando dos Santos; Tatiana Guterres Kaehler, Daniel Dornelles Guidi, Betina Blochtein .......................................................................................................................... 151 POLLEN COMPOSITION OF MELIPONA MONDURY (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINI) AT A FRAGMENT OF THE ATLANTIC FOREST IN THE STATE OF BAHIA, BRAZIL Rebeca Q. Panta de Jesus; Adriele Santos Vieira; Zaline Santos Lopes; Marizete Santos Alves; Lorena Andrade Nunes; Ana Maria Waldschmidt ................................................................... 152 A META-ANALYSIS OF CROP POLLINATION SERVICES BY APIS AND NON-APIS BEES Camila Nonato Junqueira; Laíce Souza Rabelo; Ana Luisa de Sousa e Castro-Melo; Marcela Yamamoto; Douglas Queiroz Santos; Solange Cristina Augusto ............................................ 153 POLLEN SOURCES USED BY XYLOCOPA FRONTALIS (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) IN CROP AREAS OF YELLOW PASSION FRUIT (PASSIFLORA EDULIS F. FLAVICARPA DEG.) Camila Nonato Junqueira; Laíce Souza Rabelo; Marcela Yamamoto; Douglas Queiroz Santos; Esther Margarida Alves Ferreira Bastos, Solange Cristina Augusto ..................................... 154 POLLEN RESOURCES USED BY THREE SPECIES OF MEGACHILE Ana Carolina Pereira Machado; André Rodrigo Rech; Anete Pedro Lourenço .................... 155 VISITORS FLORAL AND POLLINATORS IN GHERKIN CROP (CUCUMIS ANGURIA L.) Heloisa Aparecida dos Santos Maia; Darclet Teresinha Malerbo-Souza; Luana Gomes de Sousa; Jaqueline Aparecida Moraes ....................................................................................................... 156 POLLINATION BIOLOGY OF CIPURA SPECIES OF CERRADO BY OIL-COLLECTING BEES Ivan Konstantinov Malinov; Aline Cristina Martins; Antonio José Camillo Aguiar ........... 157 RICHNESS AND BEHAVIOR OF FLORAL VISITORS IN PASSIFLORA EDULIS F. FLAVICARPA (PASSIFLORACEAE) IN AN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE Natalia Seneda Martarello; Thalita Cristina Silva dos Santos; Kayna Agostini ................. 158


THE INITIAL STUDIES ABOUT POLLINATION: CHRISTIAN SPRENGELAND CHARLES DARWIN’S CONTRIBUTIONS Giselle Alves Martins; Fernanda da Rocha Brando ................................................................... 159 POLLEN ANALYSIS OF MEGACHILIDAE BEES THROUGH FOOD WEBS IN ATLANTIC FOREST AREAS, RJ Bruno Nunes da Silva Mello, Maria Cristina Gaglianone ........................................................ 160 NECTAR PRODUCTION AND VISITATION RATE OF THIEVES IN YELLOW PASSION FRUIT (PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS F. FLAVICARPA DEGENER) Lílian Rodrigues Ferreira de Melo; Thayane Nogueira Araújo; Camila Nonato Junqueira; Solange Cristina Augusto ............................................................................................................ 161 THEORETICAL PREDICTIONS OF PLANT-POLLINATOR INTERACTIONS IN SYMPATRIC SPECIES OF PSYCHOTRIA (RUBIACEAE) IN CERRADO OF BRAZIL José Neiva Mesquita-Neto; Carlos de Melo e Silva Neto; Edivani Villaron Franceschinelli .... 162 FLORAL SCENTS IN CATASETUM (ORCHIDACEAE): DO SCENT PATTERNS PREDICT POLLINATING EUGLOSSINE BEE GENERA? Paulo Milet-Pinheiro; Daniela M.A.F. Navarro; Roman Kaiser; Stefan Dötterl; Günter Gerlach .......................................................................................................................................................... 163 FLORAL VISITORS IN AREAS OF TOMATO CROP AND THEIR ROLE IN POLLINATION OF THE CROP Paula Netto; Larissa Freitas Ferreira; Lucio Antonio de Oliveira Campos ........................... 164 THE USE OF PAN TRAPS TO MONITOR BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA) IN CROP TOMATO AREAS Paula Netto; Larissa Freitas Ferreira; Lucio Antonio de Oliveira Campos ........................... 165 RELATION BETWEEN THE DIVERSITY OF ANTHOPHILOUS INSECTS AND THE POLLINATION AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF ‘FUJI’ APPLE Patrícia Nunes-Silva; Sidia Witter; Lívia Machado Schlemmer, Rosana Halinski, Jenifer Dias Ramos, Marcos Botton, Betina Blochtein ................................................................................ 166 RELATION BETWEEN THE DIVERSITY OF ANTHOPHILOUS INSECTS AND THE POLLINATION AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF ‘GALA’ APPLE Patrícia Nunes-Silva; Sidia Witter; Lívia Machado Schlemmer, Rosana Halinski, Jenifer Dias Ramos, Marcos Botton, Betina Blochtein ................................................................................... 167 A HIGHLY SPECIALIZED BEE-PLANT RELATIONSHIP OF NARROWLY ENDEMIC PARTNERS IN THE SERRA DA MANTIQUEIRA, BRAZIL Samuel S. Oliveira; Reisla Oliveira; Clemens Schlindwein ...................................................... 168


FLOWER VISITORS AND BREEDING SYSTEM IN TWO HETERANTHERIC SPECIES OF SENNA (FABACEAE) Bruna Pinheiro-Costa; José Neiva Mesquita-Neto; Matheus Pacheco Rabelo; Juliana Ordones Rego; Clemens Schlindwein .......................................................................................................... 169 FLORAL VISITORS DIFFERENTIATE NEW FROM POST-COLOR CHANGE FLOWERS IN KIELMEYERA RUBRIFLORA (CALLOPHYLLACEAE)? Bruna Pinheiro-Costa; Clemens Schlindwein ......................................................................... 170 SMALL ANTHERS HAVE THE FUNCTION TO FEED BEES IN SENNA RENIFORMIS (FABACEAE)? Matheus Pacheco Rabelo; José Neiva Mesquita-Neto; Bruna Karen Pinheiro-Costa; Clemens Schlindwein .................................................................................................................................... 171 COMPARISON OF TWO APPLE PLANTING SYSTEMS REGARDING HONEY BEE POLLINATION Jenifer Dias Ramos, Patrícia Nunes-Silva, Sidia Witter; Marcos Botton, Betina Blochtein .... 172 IS APIS MELLIFERA AN EFFICIENT POLLINATOR OF APPLE ORCHARDS? Jenifer Dias Ramos, Patrícia Nunes-Silva, Sidia Witter; Marcos Botton, Betina Blochtein .... 173 FLOWER DESTRUCTION BY WORKER BEES OF TRIGONA FULVIVENTRIS (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) DECREASES THE REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF ENDANGERED ERIOCNEMA FULVA (MELASTOMATACEAE) Juliana Ordones Rego; Clemens Schlindwein ......................................................................... 174 POLLINATION BIOLOGY OF ACHIOTE PLANTS CULTIVATED IN DRACENA, SÃO PAULO STATE Alessandra Lima Santos; Daniel Nicodemo; Favízia Freitas de Oliveira; Denise de Araujo Alves; Thais Regina Ramos Alves; Thais Monique de Oliveira Cardoso .................................. 175 POLLEN SOURCES USED BY CELETRIGONA LONGICORNIS FRIESE, 1903 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINI) AT THE CAMPUS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SÃO PAULO, RIBEIRÃO PRETO, SP, BRAZIL Luene Pessoa Vicente; Maria Juliana Ferreira-Caliman; Carlos Alberto Garófalo ............ 176 POLLEN ANALISYS OF MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA ANTHIDIOIDES LEPELETIER (APIDAE: MELIPONINI) IN AN URBAN AREA IN THE STATE OF BAHIA – BRAZIL Adriele Santos Vieira; Zaline Santos Lopes; Lorena Andrade Nunes; Ana Maria Waldschmidt ................................................................................................................................ 177


APITOXIN HARVESTING IMPAIRS HYPOPHARINGEAL GLANDS IN APIS MELLIFERA L. BEES Thaís de Souza Bovi; Paula Onari; Adriana Fava Negrão; Melina Stoian Modanesi; Sergio Alexandre Alcantara dos Santos; Luis Antonio Justulin Junior; Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi ..... 178 VARIATION IN THE INTERNAL TEMPERATURE OF HIVES OF AFRICANIZED HONEY BEES EXPOSED TO SOLAR RADIATION Domingos, H. G. T.; Santos, R. G .; Sombra, D. S.; Lima, N. L.; Gonçalves, L. S. ...................... 179 VARIATION IN THE INTERNAL TEMPERATURE OF HIVES WITH AFRICANIZED HONEY BEES UNDER SHADE CONDITIONS Domingos, H. G. T.; Sombra, D. S.; Santos, R. G.; Lima, N. L.; Gonçalves, L. S. ...................... 180 EVALUATION OF THE METHODS FOR REARING OF AFRICANIZED APIS MELLIFERA LARVAE Adna Suelen Dorigo; Daiana Antônia Tavares; Osmar Malaspina; Hellen Maria Soares; Roberta C.F. Nocelli .................................................................................................................................... 181 PROTEIC DIET FOR HONEYBEES Isabella Rodrigues Francatti; Weyder Cristiano Santana ..................................................... 182 LONGEVITY OF AFRICANIZED HONEY BEE QUEENS (APIS MELLIFERA L.) IN CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF RECIFE-PE, BRAZIL Renata Valéria Regis de Sousa Gomes; Lidiany Barros Rocha; Ednilson Nogueira Lima Filho; Maria Elaine Miranda Alves; Escarião da Nóbrega Gomes; Kátia Peres Gramacho; Lionel Segui Gonçalves ............................................................................................................................ 183 EVALUATION OF THE POLLEN PRODUCTION BY HYGIENIC AND NON-HYGIENIC AFRICANIZED HONEY BEES (APIS MELLIFERA L.) Camila dos Santos Rezende; Edgar Rodrigues de Araujo Neto; Felipe Mendes Fontes; Frederico Machado Texeira; Jonatan Mikhail del Solar Velarde; Kátia Peres Gramacho .................... 184 HYGIENIC BEHAVIOR OF AFRICANIZED HONEYBEE APIS MELLIFERA AND VARROA DESTRUCTOR REPRODUCTION IN COLONIES FROM DIFFERENT ORIGINS Tânia Patrícia Schafaschek; Carlos Lopes de Oliveira; Eduardo Rodrigues Hickel; Heber Luiz Pereira; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo .......................................................................... 185 GENE EXPRESSION ANALYSES OF BIVOLTINE BEHAVIOR IN THE SOLITARY BEE TETRAPEDIA DIVERSIPES AND ITS IMPLICATION IN EUSOCIALITY Natália de Souza Araujo; Maria Cristina Arias ....................................................................... 186


PRESENCE OF HEPTADECANONE, A DUFOUR’S GLAND COMPOUND, IN NEST PLUG OF CENTRIS (HETEROCENTRIS) ANALIS (FABRICIUS, 1804) (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: CENTRIDINI) Maria Juliana Ferreira-Caliman; Diego Moure Oliveira; Tiago Falcon; Carlos Alberto Garófalo ......................................................................................................................................................... 187 TROPHIC NICHE-OVERLAP BETWEEN CENTRIS BEES (C. ANALIS, C. TARSATA) IN TWO PHYTOPHYSIOGNOMIES OF THE BRAZILIAN SEMIARID REGION Paloma Fernandes de Oliveira, Airton Torres Carvalho, Eva Sara Santiago Pereira, Aline Oliveira de Souza, Vinicio Heidy da Silva Teixeira de Souza, Camila Maia-Silva ....................... 188 DOES PREDATION RISK AFFECT MATING BEHAVIOR? AN EXPERIMENTAL TEST IN PTILOTHRIX FRUCTIFERA (APIDAE) Reisla Oliveira; Christiane R. Pereira; Ana Laura A.F.D. Pimentel; Clemens Schlindwein .... 189 POLLEN TYPES COLLECTED BY CENTRIS BEES (C. ANALIS, C. TARSATA) IN TWO PHYTOPHYSIOGNOMIES OF THE BRAZILIAN SEMIARID REGION Eva Sara Santiago Pereira, Airton Torres Carvalho, Paloma Fernandes de Oliveira, Aline Oliveira de Souza, Vinicio Heidy da Silva Teixeira de Souza, Camila Maia-Silva ................. 190 ORCHIDOPHILIC BEES IN ECOTONE BETWEEN ATLANTIC FOREST AND CAATINGA IN PARQUE NACIONAL SERRA DE ITABAIANA (PARNASI), ATTRACTED BY EUCALYPITOL (1-8 CINEOL) André Luiz Alves do Santos; Roberta Mirella Barbosa Santos; Katia Peres Gramacho; Frederico Machado Teixeira .......................................................................................................................... 191 EFFECT OF SUNFLOWER SEED TREATMENT WITH PESTICIDES ON THE BEHAVIOR FORAGE POLLINATORS Ailton Egídio dos Anjos Silva; Darclet Teresinha Malerbo-Souza ..................................... 192 SCENT OF ATTRACTION: FORMATION OF DRONE AGGREGATIONS AT ORPHAN COLONIES OF THE BRAZILIAN STINGLESS BEE SCAPTOTRIGONA DEPILIS Lea Böttinger; Stefan Jarau; Till Tolasch; Fabio Nascimento; Lucas van Zuben; Wolf Engels ......................................................................................................................................................... 193 HYGIENIC BEHAVOR IN PLEBEIA LUCII (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Mayla Gava; Riudo de Paiva Ferreira; Lucio Antônio de Oliveira Campos .............................. 194 SEXUAL SELECTION IN STINGLESS BEES: DO COMPETITIVE MALES HAVE BETTER SPERM? Sheina Koffler, Hiara Marques Meneses, Astrid de Matos Peixoto Kleinert & Rodolfo Jaffé .......................................................................................................................................................... 195


ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE INFLUENCES THE COLLECTION OF WATER BY STINGLESS BEES (MELIPONA SUBNITIDA) IN THE BRAZILIAN SEMIARID REGION Amanda Aparecida de Castro Limão; Vera Lúcia Imperatriz-Fonseca; Camila Maia-Silva .... 196 A STRANGER IN THE NEST: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A TERMITOPHILOUS STINGLESS BEE (PARTAMONA SERIDOENSIS) AND TERMITES IN THE BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY-FOREST Thiago Felipe Fonseca Nunes de Oliveira; Michael Hrncir ...................................................... 197 SUCHLIKE: ROYAL CELL PRODUCTION IN PLEBEIA LUCII QUEEN-RIGHT AND QUEENLESS COLONIES Jaqueline Amorim Pereira; Talitta Guimarães Simões; Lucio Antonio de Oliveira Campos .......................................................................................................................................................... 198 HEAT PRODUCTION IN THE STINGLESS BEES MELIPONA SCUTELLARIS (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, MELIPONINI): EVIDENCES OF ACTIVE THERMOREGULATION Yara Sbrolin Roldão-Sbordoni; Guilherme Gomes; Sidnei Mateus; Fábio Santos Nascimento .......................................................................................................................................................... 199 COMPARATIVE MORPHOMETRY IN THE EGGS OF QUEEN AND WORKERS OF SCAPTOTRIGONA XANTHOTRICHA Raissa Santana Serra; José Eduardo Serrão ............................................................................. 200 TOUCH ME: ROYAL CELLS PRODUCTION IN PLEBEIA LUCII (HYMENOPTERA; APIDAE) Crislayne Maria de Souza; Lucio Antonio de Oliveira Campos ................................................. 201 ARE THERE DWARF QUEENS IN PLEBEIA LUCII? Geisyane Franco da Luz Teixeira; Crislayne Maria de Souza; Weyder Cristiano Santana; Lúcio Antonio de Oliveira Campos; José Eduardo Serrão ........................................................... 202 OVIPOSITION BEHAVIOR OF THE PLEBEIA LUCII Geisyane Franco da Luz Teixeira; Lúcio Antonio Oliveira Campos; José Eduardo Serrão ..... 203 REPRODUCTIVE QUALITY OF MELIPONA FLAVOLINEATA VIRGIN QUEENS (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) AND THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL CONTEXT Jamille Costa Veiga; Kamila Leão Leão; Ana Carolina Martins de Queiroz; Cristiano Menezes; Felipe Andrés León Contrera ........................................................................................................ 204 SEXUAL MATURITY AND THE ONSET OF FLIGHT BEHAVIOR IN MELIPONA FLAVOLINEATA FRIESE MALES (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) Jamille Costa Veiga; Kamila Leão Leão; Cristiano Menezes; Felipe Andrés León Contrera .......................................................................................................................................................... 205


THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD SOURCES IN THE AGONISTIC BEHAVIORS DISPLAYED BY THE STINGLESS BEE MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA (APIDAE: MELIPONINI) Bruno Gusmão Vieira; Weyder Cristiano Santana; José Henrique Schoereder ....................... 206 MONITORING OIL-BEES RICHNESS AND ABUNDANCE IN A SAVANNA AREA (CERRADO): BRAZILIAN LONG TERM ECOLOGICAL PROGRAM (PELD) Cândida Maria Lima Aguiar; Shantala Lua; Maise Silva; Juliana Caramés Duarte; Juliana Nascimento dos Santos; Edson Braz Santana; Gilberto Marcos de Mendonça Santos ......... 207 STINGLESS BEES FROM MIRADOR STATE PARK, MA, BRAZIL Ana Carolina Alves Malheiros Araújo; Patrícia Maia Correia de Albuquerque ..................... 208 STINGLESS BEES DO NOT AVOID NEEM-CONTAMINATED AREAS Rodrigo Cupertino Bernardes; Wagner Faria Barbosa; Hudson Vaner Ventura Tomé; Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes; Maria Augusta Pereira Lima ......................................................... 209 AZADIRACHTIN REDUCES FOOD INTAKE IN TWO STINGLESS BEES Rodrigo Cupertino Bernardes; Hudson Vaner Ventura Tomé; Wagner Faria Barbosa; Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes; Maria Augusta Pereira Lima ........................................................... 210 IMPLICATIONS OF RESCUING NESTS IN THE BIODIVERSITY OF MELIPONINA BEES AT A REGION OF CERRADO IN NORTHEAST MARANHÃO Murilo Sérgio Drummond; Claudivã Maia; Gisele Garcia Azevedo ...................................... 211 EFFICACY ANALYSIS OF A METHODOLOGY FOR INVENTORY AND RESCUE OF BEE NESTS IN AREAS OF OPEN FOREST, UNDER THE POINT OF VIEW OF TIME, COST AND SAMPLE QUALITY Murilo Sérgio Drummond; Rafael Cabral Borges; David Barros Muniz; Geizyane Franco da Luz; Raissa Santana Serra; Cristiane Marques Santos; Gisele Garcia Azevedo .................... 212 COMBINING PHYLOGEOGRAPHY AND ESTIMATES OF FUTURE CLIMATES TO INFORM CONSERVATION OF BOMBUS MORIO AND BOMBUS PAULOENSIS (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Elaine Françoso; Alexandre Rizzo Zuntini; Ana Carolina Carnaval; and Maria Cristina Arias .......................................................................................................................................................... 213 GENETIC DIVERSITY OF MELIPONA MANDACAIA SMITH, 1863 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) IN THE MIDDLE SÃO FRANCISCO RIVER IN THE STATE OF BAHIA - BRAZIL: PRELIMINARY DATA Leydiane da Conceição Lazarino; Sâmela Silva Mendes; Elder Assis Miranda; Rogério Marcos de Oliveira Alves; Ana Maria Waldschmidt ........................................................................... 214


BEES DIVERSITY (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) PRELIMINARY SURVEY AT THE UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DO SUDOESTE DA BAHIA, CAMPUS DE JEQUIÉ Leydiane da Conceição Lazarino; Rebeca Queiroz Panta de Jesus; Jonathan Barros Silva; Elias Luan Santos Souza; Lorena Andrade Nunes; Ana Maria Waldschmidt .................................... 215 THE EFFECT OF NESTS DENSIFICATION ON THE PARTITION OF RESOURCES IN MELIPONINA BEES Isla Rafanny Portela Lopes; Anna Vanniezy Marinho de Brito; Tainá Constância de França Pinto; Pedro Henrique Alves Pereira; Cintia de Cássia Melonio Pacheco; Monique Hellen Martins Ribeiro; Murilo Sérgio Drummond ............................................................................ 216 ACUTE TOXICITY OF DIMETHOATE TO SCAPTOTRIGONA POSTICA Raquel Chaves Macedo; Lorrayne Jacinto Pacheco; Stephan Malfitano Carvalho ............. 217 SAMPLING OF FAUNA EUGLOSSINI (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE) IN TWO ECOLOGICAL PARKS OF SÃO PAULO STATE: PARQUE ESTADUAL MORRO DO DIABO AND PARQUE ESTADUAL TURÍSTICO DO ALTO RIBEIRA Clycie Aparecida da Silva Machado; Tiago Mauricio Francoy ............................................. 218 RECOVER FORESTS IN LANDSCAPES WITH LOW PERCENTAGE OF NATIVE VEGETATION AND WITH A HISTORY OF LAND USE BY INTENSIVE AGRICULTURAL CONTRIBUTES TO THE REESTABLISHMENT OF BEE DIVERSITY? Osmar Malaspina; Roberta Cornélio Ferreira Nocelli; Rafael Alexandre Costa Ferreira; Tiago Egydio Barreto ................................................................................................................... 219 EUGLOSSINI BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) IN TWO CERRADO VEGETATION TYPES IN THE MIRADOR STATE PARK, MARANHÃO, BRAZIL Denilson Costa Martins; Gracy Chrisley Alencar Carvalho; Ana Carolina Alves Malheiros Araújo; Roberth Ricard Diniz Pereira; Francinaldo Soares Silva; Patrícia Maia Correia de Albuquerque ............................................................................................................................ 220 SAZONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ORCHID BEE (APIDAE, APINI, EUGLOSSINA) COMMUNITY OF URBAN WETLAND FOREST FRAGMENTS IN MATO GROSSO DO SUL Edivan dos Santos Mendes, Priscila Vicente de Moraes, Rodrigo Pires Dallacqua, Aline Mackert .......................................................................................................................................................... 221 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUITION OF SCAURA SCHWARZ, 1938 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINI) David Silva Nogueira; Marcio Luiz de Oliveira ........................................................................ 222


CORRELATION BETWEEN BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA) AND PLANTS IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST AREA IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL David Silva Nogueira; Karine Schoeninger; Alexandre Somavilla; Andreas Köhler ............. 223 MELIPONICULTURE AND RESCUE OF STINGLESS BEES: PROMISING SPECIES OF MELIPONA (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) FOUND AT THE MARGINS OF THE XINGU RIVER, BRAZIL Francisco Plácido Magalhães Oliveira; Gercy Soares Pinto, Nara Neiva Ferreira dos Santos; Jessé Buccioli Novaes; Gilliana Almeida da Rosa; Luciano Costa .......................................... 224 ASSESSMENT OF ACUTE TOXICITY OF THIAMETHOXAM TO SCAPTOTRIGONA POSTICA LATREILLE, 1807 Lorrayne Jacinto Pacheco; Raquel Chaves Macedo; Stephan Malfitano Carvalho ............ 225 EUGLOSSINA (APINAE, APINI) DIVERSITY AND FLIGHT ACTIVITY IN AMAZONIAN FOREST FRAGMENT AT BAIXADA MARANHENSE, MARANHÃO, BRAZIL José de Ribamar Miranda da Silva Pereira; Gisele Garcia Azevedo .................................... 226 EUGLOSSA ANALIS AND EULAEMA NIGRITA ARE ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY INDICATOR? Raimunda Gomes S. Soares; Luciano Elsinor Lopes ................................................................ 227 AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: SOURCE OF FLORAL RESOURCES FOR WILD BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA) Valdânia da Conceição de Souza; Andréia Perpetua da Silva; Kátia Sampaio Malagodi-Braga; Ricardo Costa Rodrigues de Camargo; João Carlos Canuto; Joel Leandro de Queiroga; Waldemore Moriconi ................................................................................................................... 228 EUGLOSSINE BEES IN SEASONAL SEMIDECIDUOUS AND GALLERY FORESTS: EFFECTS OF SEASONALITY AND PHYTOPHYSIOGNOMIES IN BEE DIVERSITY Thiago Henrique Azevedo Tosta; Laice Souza Rabelo; Solange Cristina Augusto ................. 229 COMPARING THE STRUCTURE OF THE EUGLOSSINE BEE COMMUNITY IN AGROFORESTRY AND ATLANTIC FOREST FRAGMENTS Willian Moura de Aguiar; Isaura Gabriela Mendonça Borges; Renata Lee dos Santos Medeiros .......................................................................................................................................................... 230 ATTRACTIVENESS OF BEES IN TOMATO FIELDS UNDER DIFFERENT FLORAL DENSITY Carolina Rabelo de Almeida; Gabriel Augusto Rodrigues de Melo; Maria Cristina Gaglianone ......................................................................................................................................................... 231


IMPACTS OF ANTHROPOGENICS ACTIONS IN RICHNESS AND ABUNDANCE OF BEES IN AN URBAN AREA Sônia Guimarães Alves; João Manoel Silva; Mariana Monteiro; Maria Cristina Gaglianone ......................................................................................................................................................... 232 THE EFFICIENCY OF PAN TRAPS IN BEE’S MONITORING ON CASHEW CROPS IN HORIZONTE, CEARÁ, BRAZIL Patrícia Barreto deAndrade,Alípio José de Souza Pacheco Filho, Breno Magalhães Freitas,Antônio Diego de Melo Bezerra ................................................................................................................ 233 BEE SURVEY IN THREE DIFFERENT FRAGMENTS IN SOROCABA-SP, BRAZIL Josimere Conceição de Assis; Monique Souza Silva; Larissa Thans Carneiro; Lilian Oliveira Ferreira; Roger Hartung Toppa; Elaine Cristina Mathias da Silva Zacarin ........................... 234 COMMUNITY OF EUGLOSSINA BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) IN A FRAGMENT OF THE ATLANTIC FOREST IN WESTERN REGION OF RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRAZIL Michelle de Oliveira Guimarães Brasil; Natalia Cristina Gama Raulino, Leticia Belarmino Diniz, Emanuela Gama Silva, Victória Thaís de Freitas Fernandes; Thiago Mahlmann ........ 235 SURVEY OF SOLITARY BEES THAT NEST IN PRE-EXISTING CAVITIES IN THE ALTO OESTE POTIGUAR, RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRAZIL Michelle de Oliveira Guimarães Brasil; Victória Thaís de Freitas Fernandes; Maria Antonia Marcia Fernandes; Daniel de Freitas Brasil; Thiago Mahlmann ....................................... 236 COLONIZATION AT OCCURRENCE SITES BY FEMALES OF PARTAMONA AILYAE CAMARGO, 1980 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINI) Pedro Filipe Menezes Cardoso; Marco Antonio Del Lama ........................................................ 237 NATURAL HISTORY OF PARTAMONA AILYAE CAMARGO, 1980 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINI) Pedro Filipe Menezes Cardoso; Marco Antonio Del Lama ....................................................... 238 MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF EUGLOSSINA BEES IN THE PRATIGI APASOUTHERN BAHIA Lázaro da Silva Carneiro; Mariléa Gonçalves Ribeiro; Willian Moura de Aguiar ................... 239 EUGLOSSINI MALES IN SEASONAL SEMIDECIDUOUS FORESTS IN THE BRAZILIAN SAVANNA: BODY SIZE AND WING WEAR Ana Caroline Fagundes de Castro; Thiago Henrique Azevedo Tosta; Laíce Souza Rabelo; Solange Cristina Augusto ............................................................................................................. 240


BEE DIVERSITY (HYMENOPTERA: MEGACHILIDAE) IN DRY TROPICAL FOREST ENCLAVE SECO TATACOA HUILA-COLOMBIA Carlos Alberto Poveda Coronel; Diego Riaño Jiménez; José Ricardo Cure Hakim ................. 241 NESTEDNESS OF ORCHID BEES ASSEMBLAGES IN FRAGMENTS OF HILEIA BAIANA Judson Albino Coswosk; Luiz Roberto Ribeiro Faria; Vander Calmon Tosta ..................... 242 CHANGES IN THE COMMUNITY OF BEE VISITORS OF RICHARDIA GRANDIFLORA FLOWERS ALONG AN URBAN-RURAL GRADIENT Renata Marinho Cruz; Celso Feitosa Martins ........................................................................... 243 A NEW FRAGRANCE TO ATTRACT ORCHID-BEES MALES (APIDAE: EUGLOSSINI) Enderlei Dec; Isabel Alves dos Santos ......................................................................................... 244 EUGLOSSINI BEES (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE): DIVERSITY IN A VERTICAL EXTRACT OF ATLANTIC FOREST, NORTHERN SANTA CATARINA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL Enderlei Dec; Isabel Alves dos Santos ......................................................................................... 245 OIL-COLLECTING BEES ASSOCIATED WITH BYRSONIMA SERICEA DC (MALPIGHIACEAE) IN RESTINGA AND ATLANTIC RAIN FOREST Mariana Scaramussa Deprá; Giselle Braga Menezes; Maria Cristina Gaglianone ............... 246 SPATIAL VARIATION IN THE DIET OF MELIPONA SUBNITIDA IN THE CEARÁ STATE, BRAZIL Jânio Angelo Felix; Cláudia Inês da Silva; Francisco Anderson Vieira de Almeida; José Elton de Melo Nascimento; Breno Magalhães Freitas ......................................................................... 247 RESPONSES OF BEES TO HABITAT LOSS IN FRAGMENTED LANDSCAPES OF BRAZILIAN ATLANTIC RAINFOREST Patrícia A. Ferreira ; Danilo Boscolo; Luísa G. Carvalheiro; Jacobus C. Biesmeijer; Pedro L. B. Rocha; Blandina F. Viana ............................................................................................................ 248 FLORAL RESOURCE PARTITIONING BY BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA) UNDER DIFFERENT RAINFALL CONDITIONS Emanuella Lopes Franco; Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho; Gilberto Marcos de Mendonça Santos ............................................................................................................................................ 249 SEASONALITY EFFECT ON THE CENTRALITY AND SPECIALIZATION OF BEES IN ECOLOGICAL INTERACTION NETWORKS Emanuella Lopes Franco; Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho; Gilberto Marcos de Mendonça Santos ............................................................................................................................................. 250


MULTIPLES MTDNA LOCI SUGGEST THREE GENETIC LINEAGES OF AN ORCHID BEE IN BRAZILIAN ATLANTIC FOREST Wilson Frantine-Silva ; Douglas Caldeira Giangarelli; Silvia Helena Sofia ............................ 251 NESTS AND STINGLESS BEES SPECIES (HYMENOPTERA MELIPONINAE) SURVEY IN CEMETERIES OF TWO CITIES IN THE SOUTH OF BRAZIL Roberto Gaioski Junior; Sergio Bazilio ...................................................................................... 252 BEES AND OTHERS HYMENOPTERA FOUND IN TRAPS OF FORENSIC INTEREST Caroline Tito Garcia; Taniele dos Santos Santana; Aline Vieira de Carvalho Santana; Daniele Santos Lopes; Fernanda Maria Pamponet; Favízia Freitas de Oliveira ................................. 253 DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF VISITS TO EIGHT CHEMICAL FRAGRANCES EXHIBITED BY MALE ORCHID BEES (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, EUGLOSSINI) DURING THREE YEARS OF STUDY Douglas Caldeira Giangarelli; Wilson Frantine-Silva; Silvia Helena Sofia ............................ 254 WING MORPHOGEOMETRICANALYSIS OFEUGLOSSAANNECTANS (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, EUGLOSSINI) SAMPLED DURING THREE CONSECUTIVE YEARS IN SUPERAGUI ISLAND André Luiz Gobatto; Thales Lizarelli; Douglas Caldeira Giangarelli; Silvia Helena Sofia .... 255 DOES LANDSCAPE CONFIGURATION INFLUENCE BEE DIVERSITY AND THE POLLINATION SERVICE PROVIDED TO COFFEE? Adrian González-Chaves , Rodolfo Jaffé, Jean Paul Metzger, Astrid de M. P. Kleinert ........ 256 BEES IN COFFEE AGROFOREST Clara Soares de Freitas Guimarães; Kevin Tanure Santos Correia; Weyder Cristiano Santana ......................................................................................................................................................... 257 DIVERSITY OF POLLEN RESOURCES USED BY BOMBUS MORIO IN TOMATO PLANTATION AREAS Anna Pazini Hautequestt; Maria Cristina Gaglianone ............................................................. 258 THE STINGLESS BEES (APIDAE: MELIPONINI) AND THE TREES OF AN URBANIZED ENVIRONMENT OF VIÇOSA – MG Ana Dária Leite Viana; Weyder Cristiano Santana; Santos Henrique Brant Dias .................. 259 SURVEY OF BEE DIVERSITY IN LOWLAND RAIN FOREST IN THE DISTRICT OF PIRABEIRABA, JOINVILLE, SANTA CATARINA, BRAZIL Johny Soares de Lima ; Andressa Karine Golinski dos Santos; Manuel Warkentin; Denise Monique Dubet da Silva Mouga .................................................................................................. 260


TRAP-NESTING BEES (HYMENOPTERA, APOIDEA) IN URBAN AREAS OF SALVADOR, BAHIA Reinanda Lima da Cruz; Caroline Tito Garcia; Josafá Jesus dos Santos; Taniele dos Santos Santana; Favízia Freitas de Oliveira & Carlos Alberto Garófalo ........................................... 261 DIVERSITY OF POLLEN COLLECTED BY EULAEMA NIGRITA LEPELETIER, 1841 (APIDAE, EUGLOSSINI) IN URBAN AREA Irailde do Nascimento Lima; Marco Antônio Del Lama; Cíntia Akemi Oi; Margarita María López-Uribe; Breno Magalhães Freitas & Cláudia Inês da Silva ............................................ 262 METHODOLOGIES EFFECTIVENESS TO SAMPLE BEES IN A CROP SYSTEM AT THE AMAZON FOREST Thiago Mahlmann; Juliana Hipólito; Karine Schoeninger; Cristiane Krug; Marcio Oliveira ......................................................................................................................................................... 263 FLORISTIC COMPOSITION AND VEGETATION STRUCTURE: INDICATORS OF HABITAT QUALITY FOR STINGLESS BEES (MELIPONA SUBNITIDA) Camila Maia-Silva; Vera Lucia Imperatriz-Fonseca; Michael Hrncir .................................... 264 DYNAMIC OF PLANT-BEE INTERACTIONS NETWORKS AT CERRADO VEGETATION IN THE JATAI ECOLOGICAL STATION, SP- BRAZIL Sidnei Mateus, Patrícia Alves Ferreira; Danilo Boscolo; Luciano Elsinor Lopes ................... 265 NEW OCURRENCE RECORD OF CENTRIS (TRACHINA) MACHADOI AZEVEDO & SILVEIRA 2005 (HYMENOPTERA: ANTHOPHILA: CENTRIDINI) FOR NORTHEAST REGION, BRAZIL Tércio Alves de Lima Matos; Eduardo Freitas Moreira; Rafaela Lorena da Silva; Aline Vieira de Carvalho Santana; Caroline Tito Garcia; Taniele dos Santos Santana; Favízia Freitas de Oliveira .......................................................................................................................................... 266 ABUNDANCE AND RICHNESS OF EUGLOSSINE BEE (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) OF ‘APA DO PRATIGI’, ATLANTIC FOREST OF EASTERN BRAZIL Renata Lee Medeiros; Willian Moura de Aguiar; Cândida Maria Lima Aguiar .................... 267 BEE FAUNA ASSOCIATED WITH TOMATO CROPS IN GUAPIARA, SÃO PAULO STATE Paula Carolina Montagnana ; Gleiciani Burger Patrício; Bruno Barufatti Grisolia; Felipe Gonçalves Brocanelli; Daniela da Costa Matsuda; Zhu Xingfang; Maria José de Oliveira Campos .......................................................................................................................................... 268 BEE-PLANT INTERACTIONS IN A SEASONAL SEMIDECIDUAL FOREST EDGE Paula Maria Montoya-Pfeiffer; Isabel Alves dos Santos .......................................................... 269


IS THE BROOD CELL VOLUME CORRELATED WITH THE OFFSPRING BODY SIZE IN SOLITARY BEES? A STUDY CASE WITH THE OIL-COLLECTING BEE CENTRIS (HETEROCENTRIS) ANALIS (FABRICIUS, 1804) (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, CENTRIDINI) Diego Moure-Oliveira; Carlos Alberto Garófalo ....................................................................... 270 POLLEN RESIDUES FOUND IN NEST OF CENTRIS TARSATA IN A COASTAL SAND DUNES VEGETATION IN NORTH OF BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL Patricia Oliveira-Rebouças; Marcos da Costa Dórea; Vinina Silva Ferreira; Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho; Cândida Maria Lima Aguiar ..................................................................... 271 THE IMPORTANCE OF FOREST COVERAGE TO BEE COMMUNITIES: COMPARISON BETWEEN REGIONS OF HIGH AND LOW AGRICULTURAL LAND CAPABILITY Gleiciani Bürger Patrício-Roberto; Paula Carolina Montagnana; Bruno Defane Borges; Matheus Mantuanelli Roberto; Maria José de Oliveira Campos ............................................ 272 WHICH ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCE THE POLLEN COLLECTION BY MELIPONA SUBNITIDA (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE IN THE BRAZILIAN SEMIARID REGION? Jaciara da Silva Pereira; Antonio Gustavo Medeiros da Silva; Geovan Figueirêdo de Sá-Filho; Michael Hrncir; Camila Maia-Silva ........................................................................................... 273 PROGRESSIVE SAMPLING OF PLANT-POLLINATOR NETWORKS IN A CERRADO FRAGMENT: HOW MUCH IS ENOUGH? Gabriel Guariglia Perez, Raimunda Albuquerque Gomes da Silva, Patrícia Alves Ferreira, Sidnei Mateus, Luciano Elsinor Lopes ....................................................................................... 274 FLUCTUATING ASYMMETRY IN SPECIES OF ORCHID BEES WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FOREST DEPENDENCE Lara Helena Pires-Vieira; Katherine Bombi Haedo; Elaine Della Giustina Soares; Luiz Roberto Ribeiro Faria ................................................................................................................................. 275 SIMILARITY OF THE FOOD-NICHE BETWEEN TWO SYMPATRIC OIL-COLLECTING BEES: EPICHARIS (EPICHARITIDES) COCKERELLI AND EPICHARIS (EPICHARITIDES) IHERINGI (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Laíce Souza Rabelo; Amanda da Costa, Esther Margarida Alves Ferreira Bastos; Solange Cristina Augusto ........................................................................................................................... 276 FOOD-NICHE BREADTH OF EXOMALOPSIS (EXOMALOPSIS) FULVOFASCIATA SMITH (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) IN TWO CERRADO AREAS Laíce Souza Rabelo; Esther Margarida Alves Ferreira Bastos; Solange Cristina Augusto ...... 277


ORCHID BEES IN RESTINGAS OF THE PARQUE ESTADUAL DE ITAÚNAS, NORTHERN ESPÍRITO SANTO STATE, BRAZIL Ana Luiza Morati Receputi; Vander Calmon Tosta; Luiz Roberto Ribeiro Faria Junior ...... 278 CHARACTERIZATION OF THE NATIVE BEES COMMUNITY OF NORTHERN CHILE (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA) Luisa Ruz; Yanet Sepúlveda; Dennis Navea; Sharon Rodríguez .............................................. 279 TRADE-OFF IN NECTAR COLLECTION BETWEEN CONCENTRATED AND DILUTED NECTAR BY STINGLESS BEES IN THE BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY-FOREST Antonio Gustavo Medeiros da Silva; Camila Maia-Silva; Geovan Figueirêdo de Sá-Filho; Jaciara da Silva Pereira; Viviane Siqueira de Moura; Michael Hrncir .................................. 280 THE THERMAL FORAGING WINDOW OF STINGLESS BEES (MELIPONA SUBNITIDA) IN MOIST FOREST ENCLAVES OF THE BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY-FOREST Geovan Figueirêdo de Sá-Filho; Camila Maia-Silva; Antonio Gustavo Medeiros da Silva; Jaciara da Silva Pereira; Airton Torres Carvalho; Michael Hrncir ......................................... 281 BEE VISITORS OF TURNERA SUBULATA SM. (TURNERACEAE) IN AN URBAN AREA Natália Uemura; Eliza Cristina Tanaka; Silvia Helena Sofia ................................................... 282 ORCHID BEES (APIDAE: EUGLOSSINA) OF PARQUE ESTADUAL DO RIO PRETO: COMPARISON OF SAMPLING METHODS Thaís Andrade Viana; Francisco Medeiros Martins; Anete Pedro Lourenço .......................... 283 SEASONALITY IN THE OCCURRENCE OF MALES OF EULAEMA (APEULAEMA) NIGRITA LEPELETIER, 1841 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: EUGLOSSINI) IN RONDÔNIA, WESTERN AMAZON, BRAZIL Patricia dos Santos Vilhena; Nicolle Veiga Sydney; Rodrigo Barbosa Gonçalves Carlos Alberto Garófalo ......................................................................................................................................... 284 MITOCHONDRIAL VARIABILITY OF MELIPONA SUBNITIDA (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) POPULATIONS IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL Vanessa Bonatti ; Zilá Luz Paulino Simões; Fernando de Faria Franco; Tiago Mauricio Francoy .......................................................................................................................................................... 285 PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF PARTAMONA HELLERI FRIESE, 1900 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINI) Tecavita Ananda Rodrigues Cardoso; Kátia Maria Ferreira; Elder Assis Miranda and Marco Antonio Del Lama ......................................................................................................................... 286 ALTITUDINAL AND GEOGRAPHIC EFFECTS THE GENETIC VARIABILITY OF ORCHID BEES POPULATIONS (APIDAE, EUGLOSSINI) IN THE NORTHEAST OF SÃO PAULO STATE Claudinéia Pereira Costa; Tiago Mauricio Francoy .................................................................. 287


MODELING OF THE INTRA NEST DYNAMICS OF THE BUMBLEBEE BOMBUS ATRATUS FRANKLIN (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) José Ricardo Cure, Andrew Paul Gutierrez, Sandy Padilla Báez, Daniel Rodriguez Caicedo ......................................................................................................................................................... 288 A HIGH WING VENATION HOMOGENEITY ACROSS TETRAGONISCA ANGUSTULA GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION Nefertiris Curi, Flávio de Oliveira Francisco, Maria Cristina Arias ....................................... 289 HOW STINGLESS BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINI) COLONIZE AN AREA? A STUDY CASE: THE PARTAMONA CUPIRA POPULATIONS (SMITH, 1863) IN CERRADO AREAS Mariana Cristina Dessi; Elder Assis Miranda; Marco Antonio Del Lama ............................. 290 INTRASPECIFIC DIVERGENCE IN THE STINGLESS BEE SCAPTOTRIGONA XANTHOTRICHA (MOURE, 1950) BASED CYTOCHROME OXIDASE DNA SEQUENCES Olívia Maria Pereira Duarte; Marco Antônio Costa ................................................................ 291 PHYSICAL MICROSATELLITE MAPPING IN FRIESELLA SCHROTTKYI (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Arthur Mayrink Elizeu; Ríudo de Paiva Ferreira; Mara Garcia Tavares ............................. 292 DIPLOID MALE DYNAMICS UNDER DIFFERENT NUMBER OF SEXUAL ALLELES AND MALE DISPERSAL ABILITIES Luiz Roberto Ribeiro Faria; Elaine Della Giustina Soares; Eduardo do Carmo; Paulo Murilo Castro de Oliveira ......................................................................................................................... 293 CHROMOSOMAL MAPPING OF 18S RDNA AND REPETITIVE DNA IN GENUS TRIGONA (HYMENOPTERA: MELIPONINI) Ríudo de Paiva Ferreira, Denilce Meneses Lopes ..................................................................... 294 HONEY PRODUCTION SNP’S IDENTIFICATION AND POPULATION STRUCTURE OF AFRICANIZED APIS MELLIFERA HONEYBEES Samir Moura Kadri, Paulo Eduardo Martins Ribolla, Amro Zayed, Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi .......................................................................................................................................................... 295 COLONIZATION OF URBAN AREAS BY SOLITARY BEES: A STUDY CASE WITH THE OIL-COLLECTING BEE CENTRIS (HEMISIELLA) TARSATA SMITH, 1874 (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, CENTRIDINI) Danielle Cristina de Luna Lucena; Kátia Maria Ferreira; Diego Moure-Oliveira; Carlos Alberto Garófalo; Marco Antonio Del Lama ............................................................................................ 296


OCCURRENCE, FREQUENCY AND ORIGIN OF B CHROMOSOMES IN PARTAMONA SPECIES (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE) Diana P. Machado, Elder A. Miranda, Mariana Dessi, Camila Sabadini, Vander C. Tosta e Marco A. Del Lama .................................................................................................................................. 297 POPULATION GENETICS OF PARTAMONA RUSTICA, AN ENDEMIC STINGLESS BEE FROM CAATINGA AND CERRADO AREAS Elder Assis Miranda, Kátia Maria Ferreira and Marco Antonio Del Lama ............................. 298 MICROSATELLITE MAPPING IN CHROMOSOMES AUTOSOMES AND SUPERNUMERARY CHROMOSOMES OF TETRAGONISCA FIEBRIGI (HYMENOPTERA: MELIPONINI) Camila Moura Novaes; Martinha Mapingala Capocco; Denilce Meneses Lopes ................... 299 PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF EUFRIESEA NIGROHIRTA (FRIESE, 1899) (APIDAE: APINI: EUGLOSSINA) José Eustáquio Santos Júnior; Davidson Pinheiro Campos; Fernando do Amaral Silveira; Fabrício Rodrigues dos Santos .................................................................................................... 300 GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN ISLANDAND CONTINENTALPOPULATIONS OF MELIPONA SUBNITIDA, IN THE NORTHEAST OF BRAZIL: ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA Flaviane Santos de Souza; Eddy José Francisco de Oliveira; Márcia de Fátima Ribeiro; Bruno de Almeida Souza; Maria Angélica Pereira de Carvalho Costa; Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho ......................................................................................................................................................... 301 DESCRIPTION CYTOGENETICS OF AUSTROPLEBEIA AUSTRALUS (APIDAE: MELIPONINAE) Natália Martins Travenzoli; Rute Magalhães Brito; Benjamim Oldroyd; Denilce Meneses Lopes .......................................................................................................................................................... 302 CUTICULAR HETEROCHRONY AND CIRCADIAN CLOCK GENES EXPRESSION IN BEES Fabiano Carlos Pinto de Abreu ; Tiago Falcon ; Juliana Ramos Martins; Daniel Guariz Pinheiro; Carlos Alberto Garófalo; Zilá Luz Paulino Simões; Márcia Maria Gentile Bitondi .............. 303 ALTERATIONS ON SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS AND NEUROLOGINS IN BRAINS OF APIS MELLIFERA (HYMENOPETA, APIDAE) EXPOSED TO IMIDACLOPRID Aline Fernanda Catae; Thaisa Cristina Roat; Marcel Pratavieira; Anally Ribeiro da Silva Menegasso; Mario Sergio Palma; Osmar Malaspina ................................................................ 304 NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AS REGULATOR DURING THE PROCESS OF CASTE DETERMINATION IN APIS MELLIFERA Mário Sérgio Cervoni ; Karina Rosa Guidugli Lazzarini; Daiana Almeida De Souza; Klaus Hartfelder ...................................................................................................................................... 305


EFFECT OF SUBLETHAL DOSE OF THIAMETHOXAM IN THE ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN THE BRAIN OF AFRICANIZED APIS MELLIFERA (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Pâmela Decio , Thaisa Cristina Roat, Daiana Antonia Tavares, Osmar Malaspina ................ 306 COOLING FOR SURVIVAL: STRATEGIES OF THE STINGLESS BEE MELIPONA SUBNITIDA TO COPE WITH THE THERMAL CONDITIONS OF THE BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY-FOREST Noeide da Silva Ferreira ; Vinício Heidy da Silva Teixeira de Souza; Michael Hrncir ............ 307 EFFECTS OF A RELEVANT FIELD CONCENTRATION OF THIAMETHOXAM IN BRAIN OF AFRICANIZED HONEYBEE APIS MELLIFERA (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE) AFTER EXPOSURE DURING THE LARVAL PHASE Priscila Sepúlveda Friol; Daiana Antonia Tavares; Aline Fernanda Catae; Thaisa Cristina Roat; Osmar Malaspina .............................................................................................................. 308 OCCURRENCE OF NOSEMA SPP. IN APIARIES OF SERGIPE STATE Eleci Adriano Hendges; Kátia Peres Gramacho; Marcelo da Costa Mendonça; Renata Araujo Simões; Leandro Eugenio Cardamone Diniz ............................................................................. 309 IDENTIFICATION OF MIR-34 TARGET INTERACTIONS DURING APIS MELLIFERA METAMORPHOSIS Natália Helena Hernandes; Flávia Cristina de Paula Freitas; Zilá Luz Paulino Simões ......................................................................................................................................................... 310 METHODS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA CHARACTERIZATION WITH POLYACRYLAMIDE GELS IN APIS MELLIFERA Marcia Regina Cavichio Issa; Vera Lucia Castelo Figueiredo; David De Jong; Zilá Luz Paulino Simões; Marcela A. Framartino Bezerra-Laure; Clarice Harumi Sakamoto ........................... 311 GENES DIFFERENTLY EXPRESSED DURING OVARY DEVELOPMENT IN HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA) Denyse Cavalcante Lago; Fernanda de Carvalho Humann; Gustavo Jacomini Tibério; Klaus Hartfelder ...................................................................................................................................... 312 NIEMANN–PICK TYPE C2 (NPC2) GENE EXPRESSION DURING CASTE DETERMINATION IN APIS MELLIFERA Karina Rosa Guidugli-Lazzarini; Mário Sérgio Cervoni; Klaus Hartmann Hartfelder ........ 313 AQUAPORINS IN THE OVARIES OF APIS MELLIFERA QUEENS Luanda Medeiros-Santana, José Eduardo Serrão ..................................................................... 314


MITOCHONDRIAL DYSFUNCTION ON HONEYBEES CAUSED BY A FUNGICIDE USED IN AGRICULTURAL FIELDS Daniel Nicodemo; Fábio Erminio Mingatto; Marco Aurélio Tavares; Paulo Francisco Veiga Bizerra; Alessandra Lima Santos; Thais Regina Alves; Amanda de Carvalho ....................... 315 ZELDA GENE EXPRESSION DURING OOGENESIS OF WORKERS AND QUEENS OF APIS MELLIFERA Franciene Rabiço Oliveira; Camilla Valente Pires; Zilá Luz Paulino Simões .......................... 316 ANTENNAL SENSITIVITY TO FLORAL SCENTS OF CAMPANULA (CAMPANULACEAE): A COMPARATIVE ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY OF POLYLECTIC AND OLIGOLECTIC BEES Paulo Milet-Pinheiro; Katharina Dering; Wittko Francke; Stefan Dötterl; Manfred Ayasse .......................................................................................................................................................... 317 THE ROLE OF OXIDATIVE METABOLISM IN CASTE DIFFERENTIATION IN THE HONEY BEE Douglas Elias Santos; Luciane Carla Alberici; Klaus Hartfelder ............................................ 318 GENE EXPRESSION IN DIAPAUSE LARVAE OF TETRAPEDIA DIVERSIPES (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Priscila Karla Ferreira dos Santos; Maria Cristina Arias ........................................................ 319 NEXT-GENERATION MRNA SEQUENCING FOR HIGH-THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF THE METAMORPHOSIS IN APIS MELLIFERA CASTES Michelle Prioli Miranda Soares; Daniel Guariz Pinheiro; Tiago Fálcon; Marcela Aparecida Framartino Bezerra Laure; Zilá Paulino Luz Simões; Márcia Maria Gentile Bitondi ......... 320 EXPRESSION OF THE GENE AQP-4-LIKE IN THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF APIS MELLIFERA WORKERS (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Débora Linhares Lino de Souza; José Eduardo Serrão ............................................................ 321 HONEY BEE APIS MELLIFERA HAVE THEIR DEVELOPMENT AFFECTED FROM SUBLETHAL INTOXICATION OF THIAMETHOXAM IN THE LARVAL STAGE Daiana Antonia Tavares; Claudia Dussaubat; André Kretzschmar; Stephan Malfitano Carvalho; Osmar Malaspina; Elaine C.M. Silva-Zacarin; Luc P. Belzunces ........................................... 322 THERMAL TOLERANCE OF STINGLESS BEES IN THE BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRYFOREST AND ITS RELATION TO BODY SIZE Vinício Heidy da Silva Teixeira de Souza; Noeide da Silva Ferreira; Michael Hrncir .......... 323 LNCOV1, THE FIRST LONG NON-CODING RNA IN APIS MELLIFERA, DURING CASTESPECIFIC OVARY DEVELOPMENT Gustavo Jacomini Tibério; Klaus Hartmann Hartfelder ........................................................... 324


DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE 3 IS SUBJECT TO REGULATION BY MICRORNA 29B AND INFLUENCES HONEY BEE LIFESPAN THROUGH VITELLOGENIN EXPRESSION Carlos Antônio Mendes Cardoso Júnior; Karina Rosa Guidugli; Klaus Hartfelder ............. 325 THE MICRORNA 317 IS A POTENTIAL REGULATOR OF DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE 3, WHICH CONTROLS VITELLOGENIN EXPRESSION THROUGH TRANS-ACTING ELEMENTS Carlos Antônio Mendes Cardoso Júnior; Karina Rosa Guidugli; Klaus Hartfelder .............. 326 GENOME-WIDE ANALYSIS OF HEX 110 AND HEX 70A BINDING SITES IN THE FAT BODY OF ADULT HONEY BEE WORKERS Juliana Ramos Martins ; Daniel Guariz Pinheiro; Amy Cash Ahmed; Gene Robinson; Craig Mizzen; Márcia Maria Gentile Bitondi ...................................................................................... 327 BORN IN A CRADLE OF FLOWERS: NESTING BIOLOGY OF THREE MEGACHILE SPECIES Júlia Colombelli Agostini; Anete Pedro Lourenço ..................................................................... 328 PLANTS USED BY XYLOCOPA (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) BEES FOR NEST BUILDING IN A PLUVIAL FOREST Francisco Anderson Vieira de Almeida; Gercy Soares Pinto; José Elton de Melo Nascimento; Jânio Angelo Félix; Breno Magalhães Freitas; Cláudia Inês da Silva .................................... 329 TRIGONA BRAUERI FRIESE, 1900 AND PARTAMONA SP (APIDAE: MELIPONINI) NEST IN TERMITERY IN ATLANTIC FOREST, REGION OF SOUTH BAHIA STATE Marcos Aurélio Pereira de Andrade; Maise Silva; Rogério Marcos de Oliveira Alves .......... 330 CARPENTER BEES MULTIPLICATION IN ESPÍRITO SANTO STATE, BRAZIL: INITIAL DATA TO RAINY PERIOD Adriana Baldi; Alex Fabian Rabelo Teixeira; Diego Alves Zonta; Henrique Paye; Marcia Neves Guelber Sales; Favízia Freitas de Oliveira ................................................................................. 331 SAMPLING SOLITARY BEE DIVERSITY WITH NEST TRAPS AND ODOR BAITS IN A CERRADO URBAN FOREST REMNANT OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL Camila Cristina Czernisz Barbosa, Edivan dos Santos Mendes, Aline Mackert, Rodrigo Pires Dallacqua ....................................................................................................................................... 332 TRAP-NESTING BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA) IN THE PARQUE ESTADUAL DE PORTO FERREIRA IN PORTO FERREIRA, SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL Marlene Lucía Aguilar Benavides; Carlos Alberto Garófalo ................................................... 333 SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURES IN TRAP-NESTING BEES (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE) IN THE MIRADOR STATE PARK, MA, BRAZIL Gracy Chrisley Alencar Carvalho; Ana Carolina Alves Malheiros Araújo; Márcia Maria Corrêa Rêgo; Patrícia Maia Correia de Albuquerque ........................................................................... 334


THIN TREE BRANCHES: A REDUCTION OF NESTING SITES FOR A NEOTROPICAL STINGLESS BEE Airton Torres Carvalho; Ulysses Madureira Maia; Dirk Koedam; Celso Feitosa Martins; Vera Lucia Imperatriz-Fonseca ............................................................................................................ 335 NESTING PREFERENCES OF TETRAPEDIA SPP. IN TRAP NESTS Arianne Moreira Cavalcante; Cláudia Inês da Silva; Nayanny de Sousa Fernandes; Epifânia Emanuela de Macêdo Rocha; Gercy Soares Pinto; Breno Magalhães Freitas ....................... 336 TRAP NESTS SELECTION BY FEMALE CENTRIS (HETEROCENTRIS) ANALIS Arianne Moreira Cavalcante ; Cláudia Inês da Silva; Epifânia Emanuela de Macêdo Rocha, Nayanny de Sousa Fernandes; Breno Magalhães Freitas .......................................................... 337 ALTITUDINAL VARIATION IN THE ABUNDANCE OF MEGACHILIDAE BEES (HYMENOPTERA) IN AN INSELBERG IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST Marcelita França Marques; Maria Cristina Gaglianone .......................................................... 338 DISCOVERED THE NESTS OF CENTRIS (PARACENTRIS) XANTHOMELAENA MOURE & CASTRO, 2001 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE, CENTRIDINI) Herbeson Ovidio de Jesus Martins; Patricia Luiza de Oliveira Rebouças; Vinina Silva Ferreira ......................................................................................................................................................... 339 AN ASSESSMENT OF A GUILD OF BEES IN RESTINGA RESTORATION AREAS IN RPPN CARUARA, RIO DE JANEIRO Ulli Barros Oliveira; Maria Cristina Gaglianone ...................................................................... 340 FLORAL RESOURCES USED BY MEGACHILE LATREILLE, 1802 SPECIES IN AMAZONIAN FOREST FRAGMENTS AND RESTINGA AT MARANHÃO ISLAND, MARANHÃO, BRAZIL Diego Marinho Pereira; David Barros Muniz; Gisele Garcia Azevedo .................................... 341 TREES USED FOR NESTING BY STINGLESS BEES AT THE MARGINS OF THE XINGU RIVER, BRAZIL Gercy Soares Pinto; Francisco Plácido Magalhães Oliveira; Nara Neiva Ferreira dos Santos; Jessé Buccioli Novaes; Gilliana Almeida da Rosa; Luciano Costa .......................................... 342 RELATION BETWEEN HIGH AT NEST ENTRANCE AND DIAMETER OF TREES WHICH SERVE AS NESTING SITES FOR MELIPONA MANDACAIA (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) Márcia de Fátima Ribeiro; Francimária Rodrigues; Nayanny de Sousa Fernandes .............. 343 NESTING ACTIVITY OF CENTRIS (PARACENTRIS) BURGDORFI FRIESE 1900 (APIDAE, CENTRIDINI) William de Oliveira Sabino; Cláudia Inês da Silva; Isabel Alves dos Santos .......................... 344


IINTERNAL ARCHITECTURE OF MELITOMA SEGMENTARIA (FABRICIUS, 1804) (APIDAE, EMPHORINI) NESTS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLLINIC CHARGES Andressa Karine Golinski dos Santos; Denise Monique Dubet da Silva Mouga ..................... 345 INFLUENCE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS ON FLIGHT ACTIVITY OF MELITOMA SEGMENTARIA (FABRICIUS, 1804) (APIDAE, EMPHORINI) AT JOINVILLE, SANTA CATARINA, BRAZIL Andressa Karine Golinski dos Santos; Manuel Warkentin; Rogério Nunes Barbosa; Jeniffer Cristine de Sena; Denise Monique Dubet da Silva Mouga ....................................................... 346 NEST ARCHITECTURE OF CAENOHALICTUS INCERTUS (APIDAE, HALICTINI) AT JOINVILLE, SANTA CATARINA, BRAZIL Andressa Karine Golinski dos Santos; Manuel Warkentin; Enderlei Dec; Denise Monique Dubet da Silva Mouga .................................................................................................................. 347 NESTING BIOLOGY AND MORTALITY IN CAVITY-NESTING BEES FROM AGRICULTURAL AREAS Claudia Oliveira dos Santos; Cândida Maria Lima Aguiar .................................................... 348 PREFERRED NESTING SITES OF AFRICANIZED BEES (APIS MELLIFERA L.) IN THE URBAN ZONE OF MOSSORÓ-RN, BRAZIL Ricardo Gonçalves Santos; Daison de Castilhos Pereira; Lionel Segui Gonçalves ................ 349 TIME-PLACE LEARNING IN STINGLESS BEES MELIPONA SUBNITIDA (APIDAE: MELIPONINI) Albeane Guimarães Silva; Gracy Chrisley Alencar Carvalho; Felipe Andrés Leon Contrera; Márcia Maria Corrêa Rêgo ......................................................................................................... 350 HISTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DIMETHOATE EFFECTS ON TROPHOCYTES AND OENOCYTES IN APIS MELLIFERA AFRICANIZED Grazielly Schimack Devitto; Roberta Cornélio Ferreira Nocelli; Carina Aparecida Silva Souza ......................................................................................................................................................... 351 ANALYSIS OF POLLEN GRAINS PRESENT IN THE NESTS OF CENTRIS (HEMISIELLA) TARSATA SMITH (APIDAE: CENTRIDINI): IMPORTANCE OF NATIVE PLANTS FOR THE MAINTENANCE AND CONSERVATION OF THESE BEES Jucélia Iantas; Francielli Cristiane Woitowicz - Gruchowski; Maria Luisa Tunes Buschini .... 352 POLLINATION BIOLOGY OF CIPURA SPECIES OF CERRADO BY OIL-COLLECTING BEES Ivan Konstantinov Malinov; Aline Cristina Martins; Antonio José Camillo Aguiar .............. 353


IS REALLY NECESSARY THE VIBRATION OF THE TOMATO PLANT TO PRODUCE FRUITS? Maira Coelho de Moura Moraes; Lucio Antônio de Oliveira Campos ..................................... 354 SPERM VIABILITY OF DIPLOID AND HAPLOID MALES OF SCAPTOTRIGONA DEPILIS (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) Marino da Motta Nanzer; Sheina Koffler; Denise de Araujo Alves; Hiara Marques Meneses; Ayrton Vollet-Neto ......................................................................................................................... 355 CONSUMPTION OF THE NEONICOTINOID THIAMETHOXAM DURING THE LARVAL STAGE REDUCES THE SURVIVAL OF THE STINGLESS BEE, SCAPTOTRIGONA AFF. DEPILIS Annelise de Souza Rosa; Juliana Stephanie Galaschi Teixeira; Ayrton Vollet-Neto; Elisa Pereira Queiroz; Betina Blochtein; Carmen Sílvia Soares Pires; Vera Lucia Imperatriz-Fonseca ...... 356 ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ENZYME ACTIVITY IN STINGLESS BEES MELIPONA SCUTELLARIS EXPOSED TO IMIDACLOPRID INSECTICIDE Jéssica Freitas Araújo; Roberta Cornélio Ferreira Nocelli; Osmar Malaspina; Thaisa Cristina Roat; Rodrigo Avelaira Barbosa; Hellen Maria Soares; Stephan Malfitano Carvalho ......... 357 MORPHOLOGY OF OVARY AND SALIVARY GLANDS IN VIRGIN QUEENS WITH DIFFERENT SIZES IN PLEBEIA LUCII MOURE, 2004 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINI) Camila Folly Baptista; Geisyane Franco da Luz Teixeira; Mayla Gava; Raíssa Santana Serra ......................................................................................................................................................... 358 IS THE FOOD COLLECTION REGULATED BY THE AVAILABILITY OF EMPTY POTS IN MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA (APIDAE; MELIPONINI)? Fernando Mendes Barbosa; Mayla Gava; Lúcio Antônio de Oliveira Campos; Weyder Cristiano Santana ........................................................................................................................................... 359 MORPHOLOGY OF THE MIDGUT OF FRIESELLA SCHROTTKYI (HYMENOPTERA: MELIPONINI) Marcelo Silva Barcellos; Wagner Gonzaga Gonçalves; Kenner Morais Fernandes; André Henrique de Oliveira; Gustavo Ferreira Martins; José Eduardo Serrão ............................... 360 INTRACELLULAR DIGESTION IN THE MIDGUT OF THE BEE MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA (HYMENOPTERA: MELIPONINI) Lenise Silva Carneiro; José Eduardo Serrão ............................................................................. 361 EFFECTS OF ACETAMIPRID IN THE PROBOSCIS EXTENSION REFLEX OF SCAPTOTRIGONA POSTICA BEES LATREILLE, 1807 (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, MELIPONINI) Sandra Eloisi Denardi; Eduardo Schneider Bueno de Oliveira; Antonio Carlos Simões Pião; Osmar Malaspina .......................................................................................................................... 362


IMPACT OF ISOLATED AND COMBINATED PESTICIDES ON LONGEVITY AND IMUNE CELLULAR RESPONSE IN WORKERS OF AFRICANIZED APIS MELLIFERA (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Caio Eduardo da Costa Domingues; Rodrigo Avelaira Barbosa; Paulo José Balsamo; Beatriz Vieira Ramos Pereira; Fábio Camargo Abdalla; Elaine Cristina Mathias da Silva Zacarin ..... 363 TOXICITY OF IMIDACLOPRID IN COMMERCIAL FORMULATION TO THE STINGLESS BEE SCAPTOTRIGONA SP. NOV. Leonardo dos Santos Gurgel; Roberta Cornélio Ferreira Nocelli; Jânio Angelo Felix; Cláudia Inês da Silva; Francisca Natália Brito Rocha; Breno Magalhães Freitas ................................ 364 TOXICITY OF ANNONIN-BASED COMMERCIAL BIOINSECTICIDE ON WORKER BEES OF APIS MELLIFERA LINNAEUS (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Cynthia Renata Oliveira Jacob, Odimar Zanuzo Zanardi, Monique Barbara Rosa Oliveira, Pedro Takao Yamamoto ................................................................................................................ 365 B CHROMOSOMES TRANSMISSION IN PARTAMONA SPECIES (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE) Diana P. Machado, Elder A. Miranda, Mariana Dessi, Camila Sabadini, Vander C. Tosta and Marco A. Del Lama ....................................................................................................................... 366 DOES PROTEIN LEVEL OF LARVAL FOOD AFFECT CASTE DETERMINATION IN MELIPONA SCUTELLARIS? Gláucya de Figueiredo Mecca; Ayrton Vollet Neto; Hipólito Ferreira Paulino-Neto; Fabio Santos do Nascimento ............................................................................................................................. 367 PROTEIN INTERACTION NETWORKS: A VIEW OF OLFACTORY LEARNING AND MEMORY ACQUISITION IN HONEYBEE BRAIN Anally Ribeiro da Silva Menegasso; Marcel Pratavieira; Thaisa Roat; Osmar Malaspina; Mario Sergio Palma ................................................................................................................................. 368 NATIVE BEES OF THE MAULE REGION AND THEIR ECOLOGICAL INTERACTION WITH NATIVE PLANTS Victor Monzón G.; Sandra Araya C.; Marcia Guzmán L.; Claudia Araya C .......................... 369 FLORAL VISITORS OF CEIBA GLAZIOVII IN THE SERRA DA MERUOCA, CEARÁ STATE, BRAZIL José Elton de Melo Nascimento, Jânio Angelo Felix, Yan Igor de Oliveira, Alípio José de Souza Pacheco Filho, José Everton Alves, Cláudia Inês da Silva ....................................................... 370


QUANTITATIVE DIFFERENCE OF CHITIN IN THE PERITROPHIC MATRIX IN APIS MELLIFERA WORKERS André Henrique de Oliveira; Kenner Morais Fernandes; Weyder Cristiano Santana; Lúcio Antônio Oliveira Campos; José Eduardo Serrão ...................................................................... 371 ASSESSMENT OF ACUTE TOXICITY OF THIAMETHOXAM TO SCAPTOTRIGONA POSTICA LATREILLE, 1807 Lorrayne Jacinto Pacheco; Raquel Chaves Macedo; Stephan Malfitano Carvalho ............. 372 THE USE OF PROBIOTICS IN ADMINISTRATION OF FEED FOR APIS BEES Juliana Pereira Lisboa M. Paiva ; Roseli de Fátima de Oliveira; William Vinícius de Mello Mira; Carolina Gama; Elisa Esposito; Michelle Manfrini Morais .......................................... 373 CORRELATION BETWEEN LARVAE WEIGHT AND ROYAL JELLY PER CUP IN APIS MELLIFERA COLONIES Heber Luiz Pereira; Erica Gomes de Lima; Fabiana Castelani Andreotti; Gustavo Henrique Simões Pereira; Francieli das Chagas; Maria Cláudia Colla Ruvolo Takasusuki; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo ............................................................................................................. 374 METABOLOMIC ANALYSIS OF HONEYBEE BRAIN UNDER LEARNING AND MEMORY PROCESS Marcel Pratavieira, Anally Ribeiro da Silva Menegasso, Thaisa Roat, Osmar Malaspina, Mario Sergio Palma ................................................................................................................................. 375 EFFET OF SUBLETHAL DOSES OF THIAMETHOXAM ON MIDGUT OF APIS MELLIFERA AFRICANIZED LINNAEUS, 1758 (HYMENOPTERA, APIADE) Ana Luiza Mendes dos Reis; Osmar Malaspina; Thaisa C. Roat ............................................ 376 ASSESSMENT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF ALFAVACA (OCIMUM SELLOI) ESSENTIAL OIL ON THE MORTALITY OF APIS MELLIFERA AND TRIGONA FUSCIPENNIS Francisca Natália Brito Rocha; Leonardo dos Santos Gurgel; Joilson Silva Lima; Jânio Angelo Felix; Raimundo Braga Sobrinho; Cláudia Inês da Silva; Breno Magalhães Freitas ............ 377 BROOD PRODUCTION IN MELIPONA MANDACAIA (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) Francimária Rodrigues; Márcia de Fátima Ribeiro; Vera Lúcia Imperatriz-Fonseca; Dirk Koedam .......................................................................................................................................... 378 JUST LOOKING FOR A SUITABLE MALE REPRODUCTIVE AGGREGATION Charles Fernando dos Santos, Maria Juliana Ferreira-Caliman, Fabio Santos do Nascimento ......................................................................................................................................................... 379


ECOLOGICAL WALK WITH PUBLIC SCHOOLS STUDENTS OF VIÇOSA/MG, AIMING THE PRESERVATION OF STINGLESS BEES Lucas de Amaral Silva; Arthur Mayrink Elizeu; Mara Garcia Tavares; Weyder Cristiano Santana; João Marcos de Araújo; José Lino Neto; Lucio Antônio de Oliveira Campos ....... 380 FORAGING ACTIVITTY OF MELIPONA MANDACAIA IN PETROLINA, PERNAMBUCO STATE, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL Eva Monica Sarmento da Silva; Yan Souza Lima; Géssica Andrade Paim; Daiane Dias Ribeiro ......................................................................................................................................................... 381 THE PROPOSAL OF A METHODOLOGY FOR APPLYING SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS METRICS IN THE BIODIVERSITY INFORMATICS DOMAIN Juliana Saragiotto Silva; Antonio Mauro Saraiva ..................................................................... 382 DENSITY-DEPENDENT PROPHYLACTIC IMMUNITY IN MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA Talitta Guimarães Simões; Débora Mello Furtado de Mendonça; Marcos Vinícius Vieira Mattos; Simon Luke Elliot ........................................................................................................... 383 DOES THE PROBABILITY OF CAPTURE OF EUGLOSSA MALES INCREASE WITH THE TEMPERATURE? Thiago Henrique Azevedo Tosta; Laice Souza Rabelo; Solange Cristina Augusto ................. 384 SURGICAL INTERVENTION IN QUEENS OF SCAPTOTRIGONA DEPILIS (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) FOR SPERMATHECA REMOVAL Ayrton Vollet Neto; Hayron Kalil Cardoso Cordeiro; Jamille Costa Veiga; Cristiano Menezes; Denise de Araujo Alves; Vera Lucia Imperatriz Fonseca .......................................................... 385 TOXICITY OF PYRACLOSTROBIN FUNGICIDE TO NEWLY EMERGED AFRICANIZED HONEY BEES Rodrigo Zaluski; Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi ................................................................................. 386 MONITORING OF NOSEMA SPP. IN NATURAL HIVES OF APIS MELLIFERA LOCATED IN A GREEN URBAN AREA Larissa Thans Carneiro; Monique da Silva Souza; Rayanne Vaz de Mello Marinho; Lilian Ferreira de Oliveira; Caio Eduardo Costa Domingues; Josimere Conceição de Assis; Elaine Cristina Mathias da Silva Zacarin .............................................................................................. 387 STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF DOSES SUBLETHAL THE INSECTICIDE IMIDACLOPRID THE INTESTINE AND BEE MALPIGHIAN TUBULES MELIPONA SCUTELLARIS Grella, Tatiane Caroline; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira (O); Costa, Letícia Mariano; Soares, Hellen Maria; Malaspina, Osmar ................................................................................... 388 BIOASSAY EVALUATION FOR HOST-FINDING BEHAVIOR OF VARROA DESTRUCTOR Marcia Regina Cavichio Issa; Elisa Cimitan Mendes; David De Jong .................................... 389


SEASONAL MONITORING OF NOSEMA SPP. IN HONEY BEE HIVES LOCATED IN AN ORANGE CROP Monique da Silva Souza; Josimere Conceição de Assis; Lilian Ferreira de Oliveira; Larissa Thans Carneiro; Elaine Cristina Mathias Silva-Zacarin .......................................................... 390 EFFECTS OF THIAMETHOXAM AND NOSEMA SPORES IN HYPOPHARYNGEAL GLANDS OF AFRICANIZED HONEY BEE Elaine C. M. Silva Zacarin; Thamiris Porto Sipriano; Caio Eduardo da Costa Domingues; Paulo José Balsamo; Ana Carolina Batista; Fabio Camargo Abdalla ..................................... 391 CAPACITY FOR POLLEN PRODUCTION OF HONEYBEES IN THE APIARY OF THE ANIMAL SCIENCE CAMPUS, UNIVASF, PETROLINA-PE DURING THE MONTH OF JUNE Jadson Cardoso de Almeida; Leandro Santos Silva; Daiane Dias Ribeiro; Bruno Henrique Alves de Souza; Alisson Willame Santos Silva; Eva Mônica Sarmento da Silva; David Ramos da Rocha ........................................................................................................................................ 392 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PROPOPLIS EXTRACT Fernando Antônio Anjo; Grasieli Beloni de Melo; Lorrany Matos Cardozo Silva; Rafaela Cristina Turola Barbi; Lucilene de Mattos Almeida; Rejane Stubs Parpinelli; Maria Josiane Sereia .............................................................................................................................................. 393 EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS IN THE PREPARATION OF POLLEN COLLECTORS Wellington Luiz de Paula Araújo; Emi Rainildes Lorenzetti; Rodrigo de Oliveira Almeida; Rafaelly Calsavara Martins; Ana Paula Vitor Martins ............................................................. 394 QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS APIS MELLIFERA HONEY SAMPLES OF WEST PARANA REGION - SEASON 2014/2015 Edirlene Andréa Arnhold; Karin Janaina Royer; Tatiane Kaiser; Thiago Henrique Radtke; Ana Tereza Borge da Costa; Alceu Maurício Hartleben; Regina Conceição Garcia ............... 395 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL QUALITY EVALUATION OF APIS MELLIFERA HONEY PRODUCED IN PALMEIRA DAS MISSÕES - RS Edirlene Andréa Arnhold; Karin Janaina Royer; Tatiane Kaiser; Thiago Henrique Radtke; Ricardo Schulz Mittanck; Regina Conceição Garcia; Luiz Eduardo Avelar Pucci ............... 396 HONEY CONSUMPTION ASSESSMENT IN LIMOEIRO DO NORTE-CE Lorena Galdino da Franca; Natálya Vidal de Holanda; Lunian Fernandes Moreira; Silmara Azevedo Lopes; Ana Josymara Lira Silva; Sandra Maria Lopes dos Santos; Marlene Nunes Damaceno ...................................................................................................................................... 397


PROPOLIS: A POSSIBLE USE AS ANTIOXIDANT FOR BIOFUEL Maíra Martins Franco; Camila Nonato Junqueira; Fernanda Helena-Nogueira; Douglas Queiroz Santos; João Carlos de Oliveira .................................................................................... 398 PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND POLLEN DESCRIPTION OF HONEY SAMPLES OF GEOREFERENCED APIARIES IN MARECHAL CANDIDO RONDON AND SANTA HELENA – PR Regina Conceição Garcia; Simone Cristina Camargo; Bruno Garcia Pires; Diana Jessica Pereira; Thiago Henrique Radtke; Karin Janaína Royer; Alceu Maurício Hartleben .......... 399 INFLUENCE OF BEE SPECIES AND FLORAL ORIGIN OF HONEY ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY Thaís Luana Grzegozeski; Murilo Keith Umada; Natália Martelozo Santos; Thalita Pereira Delduque; Paulo Agenor Alves Bueno; Raquel de Oliveira Bueno; Elizabete Satsuki Sekine ......................................................................................................................................................... 400 THE ACCEPTABILITY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF A COOKIE PREPARED WITH GREEN BANANA SWEETENED WITH HONEY BEE Natálya Vidal de Holanda; Lorena Galdino da Franca; Maria Claudilene da Costa; Lunian Fernandes Moreira; Silmara Azevedo Lopes; Ana Josymara Lira Silva; Sandra Maria Lopes dos Santos; Marlene Nunes Damaceno ....................................................................................... 401 IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF BEE PROPOLIS FROM THE NORTHWESTERN STATE OF CEARA AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Lidiana Souza Correia Lima; Luanny Lima Gadelha; Rinaldo dos Santos Araújo; Júlio Otávio Portela Pereira; Georgia Maciel Dias de Moraes ...................................................................... 402 IDENTIFICATION BY UV-VIS SPECTROSCOPY OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN PROPOLIS EXTRACTS FROM THE CEARA STATE, BRAZIL Lidiana Souza Correia Lima ; Luanny Lima Gadelha; Emanuela da Silva Batista; Rinaldo dos Santos Araújo; Júlio Otávio Portela Pereira .............................................................................. 403 DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PHENOLS, FLAVONOIDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BEE PROPOLIS FROM THE STATE OF CEARÁ, BRAZIL Lidiana Souza Correia Lima; Luanny Lima Gadelha; Emanuela da Silva Batista; Rinaldo dos Santos Araújo, Júlio Otávio Portela Pereira; Masu Capistrano Camurça Portela ............... 404 SENSORY ANALYSIS AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BEE PROPOLIS OF CEARÁ STATE NORTHWEST, BRAZIL Lidiana Souza Correia Lima; Luanny Lima Gadelha; Lukas Angelim Matos, Emanuela da Silva Batista; Rinaldo dos Santos Araújo; Júlio Otávio Portela Pereira; José Everton Alves ......................................................................................................................................................... 405


DEVELOPMENT, CENTESIMAL COMPOSITION AND MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF A CEREAL BAR WITH AND WITHOUT ADDED POLLEN Silmara Azevedo Lopes; Ana Josymara Lira Silva; Natalya Vidal de Holanda; Lorena Galdino de Franca; Antonia Lucivânia Sousa Monte; Júlio Otávio Portela Pereira ............................ 406 EFFECT OF SEASONALITY IN APITOXIN PRODUCTION Melina Stoian Modanesi; Thais de Souza Bovi; Adriana Fava Negrão; Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi ......................................................................................................................................................... 407 EFFECT OF SEASONALITY ON THE BROMATOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF POLLEN APICOLA PRODUCED IN BOTUCATU - SAO PAULO Melina Stoian Modanesi; Thais de Souza Bovi; Adriana Fava Negrão; Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi ......................................................................................................................................................... 408 CHARACTERIZATION OF POLLEN IN HONEY SAMPLES OF AFRICANIZED BEES FROM SANTA HELENA AND TERRA ROXA COUNTIES (PR) Fernanda Jacobus de Moraes; Regina Conceição Garcia; Edmar Soares de Vasconcelos; Simone Cristina Camargo; Diana Jessica Pereira; Bruno Garcia Pires; Alceu Maurício Hartleben ......................................................................................................................................................... 409 NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF APIS MELLIFERA L. DIET DURING FOOD SHORTAGE PERIOD IN RAINFOREST José Elton de Melo Nascimento; Hiara Marques Meneses; Jânio Angelo Felix; José Everton Alves; Alípio José de Souza Pacheco Filho; Breno Magalhães Freitas; Cláudia Inês da Silva ......................................................................................................................................................... 410 HARVEST SEASON INFLUENCES THE PRODUCTION AND BOTANICAL ORIGIN OF BEE POLLEN Adriana Fava Negrão; Thaís de Souza Bovi; Marcela Pedraza Carrilo; Melina Stoian Modanesi; Ricardo Oliveira Orsi .................................................................................................................... 411 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF HONEY SAMPLES OF MELIPONA AND TRIGONA BEES FROM THE STATE OF PARANÁ Rejane Stubs Parpinelli; Maria Josiane Sereia; Lucilene de Mattos Almeida; Fernando Antônio Anjo; Fabricio Batista Lins; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo .......................................... 412 MICROBIOLOGY OF HONEY SAMPLES OF MELIPONA AND TRIGONA BEES OF THE STATE OF PARANÁ Rejane Stubs Parpinelli; Maria Josiane Sereia; Lucilene de Mattos Almeida; Fernando Antônio Anjo; Juliana Martins; Carina Theodoro Nogueira; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo .... 413


MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF HONEYS OFFERED BY THE BEEKEEPING IN JAGUARIBE CEARENSE Sebastiana Cristina Nunes Reges; Júlio Otávio Portela Pereira; Masu Capistrano Camurça Portela ........................................................................................................................................... 414 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF HONEYS OFFERED BY THE BEEKEEPING IN JAGUARIBE CEARENSE Sebastiana Cristina Nunes Reges; Júlio Otávio Portela Pereira; Masu Capistrano Camurça Portela ............................................................................................................................................ 415 THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YOGURT WITH ADDED POLLEN AND FLAVORED WITH HONEY AND GUAVA Ana Josymara Lira Silva; Silmara Azevedo Lopes; Lorena Galdino de Franca; Natálya Vidal de Holanda; Daniele Maria Alves Teixeira Sá; Júlio Otávio Portela Pereira; Antonia Lucivânia de Sousa Monte .............................................................................................................................. 416 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF HONEY FROM STINGLESS MELIPONA MANDACAIA BEES Paulo Ricardo da Silva; Celso Amorim Camara; Eva Monica Sarmento da Silva; Rodolfo França Alves; Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos Santos; Tania Maria Sarmento Silva ............. 417 A NEW SPECIES OF MEGACHILE (PSEUDOCENTRON) MITCHELL, 1934 (HYMENOPTERA, MEGACHILIDAE), WITH A SYNOPSIS OF THE SPECIES OCCURRING IN THE BRAZILIAN STATE OF MINAS GERAIS Igor Rismo Coelho; Paula Caetano Zama .................................................................................. 418 PHYLOGENY AND SUBGENERIC CLASSIFICATION OF THYGATER HOLMBERG, 1884 (APIDAE: EUCERINI) Felipe Vieira de Freitas; Fernando A. Silveira ............................................................................ 419 DISTRIBUTIONAL PATTERNS AND AREAS OF ENDEMISM OF ORCHID BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) IN THE BRAZILIAN ATLANTIC FOREST André Rinaldo Senna Garraffoni; Filipe Rodrigues Moura; Anete Pedro Lourenço ............ 420 DIVERSITY OF BEES OF THE APIDAE FAMILY (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA) FROM THE TROPICAL DRY FOREST DESERT OF TATACOA, HUILA-COLOMBIA Rubén Darío Martín; Carlos Alberto Poveda; Diego Alfonso Riaño ....................................... 421 FIRST DISTRIBUTION MODEL OF MOURELLA CAERULEA AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SPECIES CONSERVATION Nicolás Oliveira Mega; Juliana Stephanie Galaschi-Teixeira; Sidia Witter ............................. 422


MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY AND DIVERGENCE TIMES OF ANDRENINAE BEES (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE) Kelli dos Santos Ramos ................................................................................................................ 423 MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF THE LINEAGE ARHYSOCEBLE AND LANTHANOMELISSA (APIDAE, TAPINOTASPIDINI): IMPLICATIONS FOR UNDERSTANDING THE EVOLUTION OF SOUTH AMERICAN OPEN AREAS AND OIL HOSTS SHIFTS Taís Mattoso de Andrade Ribeiro; Aline Cristina Martins; Antonio José Camillo Aguiar .... 424 PHYLOGENY OF THE CLEPTOPARASITIC MEGACHILINI GENERA COELIOXYS LATREILLE AND RADOSZKOWSKIANA POPOV WITH THE DESCRIPTION OF SIX NEW SUBGENERA IN COELIOXYS (HYMENOPTERA: MEGACHILIDAE) Léo Correia da Rocha Filho & Laurence Packer ...................................................................... 425 IS PLEBEIA (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) A NON-MONOPHYLETIC GENUS? Hugo A. Werneck; Gabriel A. R. Melo; Lucio A. O. Campos .................................................. 426 A NEW CASE OF GYNANDROMORPHISM IN XYLOCOPA SUBGENUS NEOXYLOCOPA (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, XYLOCOPINI). Paula Caetano Zama; Igor Rismo Coelho .................................................................................. 427


PLENÁRIAS

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POPULATION GENOMICS OF HONEY BEES AND BUMBLE BEES Amro Zayed. Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ABSTRACT. Population genomics provides a powerful framework for understanding the relationship between genetics, fitness and the evolution of behaviour in social insects. We sequenced over one hundred individual genomes from two species of the highly social honey bees (Apis) and four species of the primitively social bumblebees (Bombus) to quantify patterns of adaptive molecular evolution. We use this rich dataset to search for common patterns of positive selection in both groups that may be associated with the evolution and maintenance of sociality. We also examined if taxonomicallyrestricted and caste-biased genes underlie adaptive evolution in both Apis and Bombus. The results provide a fascinating glimpse into the evolution of behaviour in honey bees and bumblebees.

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STINGLESS BEES: A MODEL GROUP TO STUDY ENVIRONMENTAL AND BEHAVIOURAL PHYSIOLOGY Michael Hrncir. Departamento de Ciências Animais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Mossoró, RN, Brazil. ABSTRACT. Stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini) are a group of highly eusocial bees comprising more than 500 identified species, distributed in the tropical and southern subtropical areas of our globe. In contrast to the well-known and extensively studied honey bee, Apis mellifera, most meliponine species occur in rather narrow geographic ranges and, consequently, show strong environmental specialisations. Hence, the meliponine bees offer an excellent opportunity to investigate whether and how different forms of ambient pressure evolutionary shaped the physiology, morphology and behaviour of individuals as well as the organization and coordination of colony life. In my talk, I will give a brief overview of almost 20 years of study of the behavioural and environmental physiology of this fascinating group of bees. In the first part of my presentation, I will provide a glimpse into the huge diversity of foraging strategies and underlying recruitment mechanisms that evolved among the stingless bees, all with the same goal, to gather as much food as possible notwithstanding the high competition over resources in the tropics. I will focus on two highly successful strategies, “the fast” (bees recruiting as quickly as possible foragers to highly profitable food sources) and “the furious” (bees recruiting huge amounts of foragers to a specific food patch, aggressively defending it against other colonies or species) and discuss their advantages and disadvantages in the struggle for food. The second part of the talk approaches an important question in the light of climatic changes foreseen for the coming decades: How do stingless bees cope with elevated ambient temperatures and unpredictable environmental conditions? Here, I will provide the first insights from recent experiments with meliponine bees performed in the Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest, the Caatinga, an inhospitable environment for social bees. I will discuss how individuals are able to cope with foraging temperatures far beyond the lethal limit, how colonies are able to maintain tolerable hive temperatures, and how species adjust their life cycle to the environmental conditions. Despite their environmental specialisations, however, these bees are threatened by climate warming, even if only by one or two degrees, given that they already live at their upper thermal limit.

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PARASITISM, CLONING AND OTHER STRANGE THINGS IN THE CAPE HONEY BEE Madeleine Beekman & Ben Oldroyd. Behaviour and Genetics of Social Insects Lab, School of Biological Sciences A12, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. ABSTRACT. The Cape honeybee (Apis mellifera capensis) from South Africa is unique because its workers are able to produce female offspring without mating (thelytoky). The shift to thelytoky has profound consequences for the kin structure of colonies, many of which favour worker reproduction. Thelytoky also changes relationships between the queen and her workers. Whereas in arrhenotokous subspecies workers can only compete with the queen and their worker-sisters over the production of males, Cape workers can compete for the production of queens. In relatedness terms a worker that produces the next queen via thelytoky effectively becomes the queen herself. Hence, the potential fitness payoff is enormous. We therefore expect conflict among subfamilies over queen production, with different subfamilies attempting to prevent other subfamilies from reproducing. Specifically, we predict that worker reproduction should be tolerated outside the period in which queens are reared, but that workers will compete during the production of queens prior to swarming and when queenless. Our work has shown that workers are indeed often the mother of new queens, indicating that laying eggs in queen cells is a highly profitable reproductive strategy. But we also found that many nonnatal workers contribute to queen production. When a daughter of such parasitic workers takes over the colony, the host’s fitness is reduced to zero as the colony is now headed by an unrelated queen. We further showed that such parasitic workers are not a random subset of the Cape bee population, suggesting strong selection for this parasitic reproductive strategy. In addition to parasitizing queen cells, individual Cape honeybee workers can also become parasites of other honeybee colonies, in particular of colonies of the neighbouring A. m. scutellata. Cape bee workers enter A. m. scutellata colonies and lay eggs in worker cells to produce clonal daughters. Because these workers do not work and the host colony’s queen is at some stage dispatched, the colony faces certain death. We have shown that the clonal lineage currently parasitising A. m. scutellata colonies in South Africa originates from a single worker that lived in the 1990s. Inbreeding in honeybees is costly due to the bee’s sex determination mechanism. Our work aims to unravel the means by which some Cape bee workers avoid the costs of asexual reproduction as well as the underlying genetics of thelytoky.

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SIMPÓSIO 1 Evolução Social e Comportamento de Abelhas Coordenadora: Solange C. Augusto

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DIFFERENT BEES, DIFFERENT NEEDS – HOW NEST SITE REQUIREMENTS HAVE SHAPED THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES IN HOMELESS BEES (APIS SPP.) Madeleine Beekman. Behaviour and Genetics of Social Insects Lab, School of Biological Sciences A12, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. ABSTRACT. During reproductive swarming and seasonal migration, a honeybee swarm needs to locate and move to a new nest site. Our current knowledge of swarming and nest site selection in honeybees is based primarily on studies of just one species, Apis mellifera. Natural colonies of A. mellifera live in tree cavities. The quality of the cavity is often critical to the survival of a swarm. The scouts must search thousands of trees to ensure that they do not settle for a poor cavity when a better one is available. More recently another species of honeybee has been included in studies of nest site selection: the open-nesting dwarf honeybee Apis florea. A. florea builds a small nest comprised of a single comb suspended from a twig of a shrub or tree in the open. For a cavity-nesting species like A. mellifera there is only a limited number of potential nest sites that can be located by a swarm, simply because suitable nest sites are scarce. In contrast, for an open-nesting species like A. florea it seems that there is an abundance of shaded twigs that would be equally suitable for building a nest. Here I pull together recent research that shows that the nest site selection processes of A. florea and A. mellifera have been shaped by each species’ nest site requirements. I argue that both species use the same behavioural algorithm, tuned to allow each species to solve their species-specific problem.

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THE REACTIVATION PROCESS OF NESTS AND THE REPRODUCTIVE SKEW IN EUGLOSSA CORDATA (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, EUGLOSSINI) Gabriele Antico Freiria1; Carlos Alberto Garófalo2; Marco Antonio Del Lama1. Universidade Federal de São Carlos – UFSCar (São Paulo, Brazil). 2Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo – FFCLRP, USP (São Paulo, Brazil).

1

gfreiria@gmail.com ABSTRACT. Although there are about 200 described species for Euglossini tribe, nesting biology and social structure of this group of bees is still little known. However, Euglossini bees demonstrated to be promising organisms in studies focusing the evolution of social behavior (Garófalo, 2006; Zucchi et al., 1969). This interest is because the species of this tribe are the only clearly not social within the monophyletic group known as corbiculate clade (Michener, 2007). Studies have been suggesting that the species of the genus Euglossa are the most suitable for studies on the evolution of social behavior since in this genus occurs solitary, communal and primitively eusocial species (Garófalo, 2006). The information available shows that in Euglossa, the foundation process seems to be done by a single female, unlike the nest reactivation process in which more than one female can participate. During the reactivation of nests of some species (E.cordata – Augusto & Garófalo, 2011; E.fimbriata – Augusto & Garófalo, 2009; E.viridissima– Cocom Pech et al., 2008; E. townsendi – Augusto &Garófalo, 2004) there may be a clear division of the reproductive labor between the females. Females who take a dominant position, leave more offspring than other females, producing a reproductive skew. The present study investigated the reactivation processes of twelve nests of E. cordata associated with kinship analysis using microsatellite markers between offspring and females involved in these processes. Different types of associations between females occurred in these reactivations: between mothers and daughters, sisters, cousins and unrelated females. In this sense, our purpose was to estimate reproductive skew rates in these different types of associations formed by females, making sure that there was a positive correlation between the genetic relatedness between them and reproductive skew rates. The analysis of behavior and the kinship inferences, conducted through Mendelian segregation analysis of 12 twelve microsatellite loci (Egc 17, Egc 18, Egc 24, Egc 26, Egc 30a, Egc 35, Egc37 and Egc 51 – Souza et al., 2007 and ann 3, ann 4, ann 8 and ann 24 – Paxton et al., 2010),attributed the offspring to just one of the females, the dominant. This female was considered the mother of the mother-daughter associations, the oldest in the associations between sisters or cousins and in the case of the association between unrelated females, a strange female at the nest. The results showed a full reproductive skew at the different processes of reactivation analyzed, in spite of the type of association established between females. Thus, the data indicate that the genetic relatedness between females was not associated with different reproduction deviation rates. The Mendelian segregation analysis also allowed to infer that the dominant female mating system was monogamic so that full siblings compose the offspring. Thus, in the mother-daughter associations the mother produces full sisters of the subordinated female, whereas, in sororal associations, there are two full sisters (r= 0,75). Keywords: Euglossini, Euglossa cordata, corbiculate clade, social behavior, reproductive skew, microsatellite loci.

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References Augusto, S. C.; Garófalo, C. A. Nesting biology and social structure of Euglossa (Euglossa) townsendi Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini). Insectes Sociaux, v.51, p. 400- 409, 2004. Augusto, S. C.; Garófalo, C. A. Bionomics and sociological aspects of Euglossa fimbriata (Apidae, Euglossini). Genetics and Molecular Research, v. 8, n. 2, p. 525–538, 2009. Augusto, S. C.; Garófalo, C. A. Task allocation and interactions among females in Euglossa carolina nests (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini). Apidologie, v. 42, n. 2, p. 162–173, 2011. Cocom Pech, M. E.; May-Itzá, W. D. J.; Medina Medina, L. A.; Quezada-Euán, J. J. G. Sociality in Euglossa (Euglossa) viridissima Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini). Insectes Sociaux, v. 55, n. 4, p. 428–433, 2008. Garófalo, C. A. Comportamento social nos Euglossini (Hymenoptera, Apidae). In: VII ENCONTRO SOBRE ABELHAS, n. 7, 2006, Ribeirão Preto. Anais do VII Encontro Sobre Abelhas. RibeirãoPreto: 2006. p. 24-27. Michener, C. D. The Bees of the World.2 ed. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkings University Press, 2007. 953 p. Paxton, R. J.; Zobel, M. U.; Steiner, J.; Zillikens, A. Microsatellite loci for Euglossa annectans (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and their variability in other orchid bees.Permanent Genetic Resources note, p. 1221–1223, 2009. Souza R. O.; Cervini, M.; Del Lama, M. A.; Paxton, R. J. Microsatellite loci for euglossine bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Molecular Ecology Notes, v. 7, p.1-5, 2007. Zucchi, R.; Sakagami, S. F.; Camargo, J. M. F. Biological observation on a tropical parasocial bee, Eulaemanigrita with a review on the biology of Euglossinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae). A comparative study. Journal of the Faculty of Science Hokkaido University, Series IV, v. 17, p. 271-380, 1969.

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CUTICULAR DEVELOPMENT AND THE SOCIAL EVOLUTION OF BEES Tiago Falcon1; Márcia Maria Gentile Bitondi2.. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética - FMRP-USP. 2Departamento de Biologia - FFCLRP-USP.

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ABSTRACT. In insects, the integument is composed of a cuticle, or exoskeleton, and a subjacent epidermis. The integument serves as an interface between the insect and the environment, besides being a barrier against predators, parasites and pathogens. It also provides attachment sites for muscles, thus allowing movements and locomotion. Recent data from our laboratory (Laboratório de Biologia do Desenvolvimento de Abelhas-USP-Ribeirão Preto) on integument morphology and expression of genes involved in cuticle maturation, pointed to the hypothesis that the cuticle of highly eusocial bees species, such as Apis mellifera and Frieseomelitta varia, would remain not fully developed while they are young and protected inside the nest, performing intra-nest activities. This would be in contrast with the cuticle of solitary bees, such as Centris analis, which allows them to carry out extranest activities immediately after adult eclosion. In this context, we used the integument of these bee species in RNA-seq experiments, GC/MS hydrocarbon characterization and transmission electron microscopy to investigate the variation in the timing and rate of cuticular maturation, or heterochrony. Our partial data on comparisons of gene expression profiles, structural hydrocarbons profiles, and cuticle ultrastructure, showed significant differences between the integument of forager and younger bees of the social species, but clustered together the foragers and younger bees of the solitary species. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the changes in the timing or rate of adult cuticle maturation are important components of the evolution of eusociality in bees. Keywords: Apis mellifera, Frieseomelitta varia, Centris analis; cuticular maturation heterochrony; integument gene expression profiles; cuticular hydrocarbon profiles; cuticle ultrastructure. Financial support: FAPESP (2010/16380-9; 2011/03171-5; 2012/24284-5; 2014/13136-0); CAPES.

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OPTIMIZATION OF BROOD COMB ARCHITECTURE AND QUEEN PRODUCTION IN STINGLESS BEES PHYLOGENY Túlio Marcos Nunes1; Estevan Eltink2; Sidnei Mateus2; Felipe Chinaglia Montefeltro3. NPPNS, Departamento de Física e Química, FCFRP, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. 2Departamento de Biologia, FFCLRP, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. 3 Departamento de Biologia e Zootecnia, UNESP, Ilha Solteira, Brazil. 1

ABSTRACT. Stingless bees display a remarkable diversity on behavioral, ecological and morphological aspects in comparison to their related groups, the honeybees. While all the species of honeybees (Apis) share a unique brood cell architecture with the brood cells vertically disposed, stingless bees display a diversified range of brood cell arrangement, classified into five different categories: (a) horizontal flat brood, (b) spirally arranged brood cells, (c) clustered cells, (d) vertically arranged and (e) irregular arranged brood cells. In the same way, while honeybees has a single mode of queen production by feeding a regular larvae with a specially nutritious diet (i.e. royal jelly), stingless bees show three different ways to produce new queens: (a) oversized royal cell, (b) the fusion of normal worker destined brood cells and by (c) genetic predetermined larvae. These two characters were optimized on a genetic-based phylogeny of the stingless bee in order to evaluate its ancestral states, as well as the modifications occurred along the stingless bees’ diversification. The results demonstrated the clustered brood cells as the ancestral state of comb architecture for the group along with several modification along the clade including reversion to the plesiomorphic state. Concerning the mode of queen production, the ancestral state was uncertain between the fusion of regular brood cells and the oversized royal cell. There are few independent origins for the genetic predetermined larvae. The reversion of the brood architecture to the clustered cells are associated to the reversion of the mode of queen production to the fusion of regular worker destined cells suggesting a correlation between the two characters.

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PRE-WINTERING CONDITIONS AND REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS IN A SOLITARY BEE: IS THERE A TRADE-OFF BETWEEN DIAPAUSE AND POST-WINTER PERFORMANCE? Jordi Bosch. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona- Spain. ABSTRACT. Diapause is a dynamic process of low metabolic activity that allows insects to survive periods during which conditions are unfavourable. Notwithstanding the lowered metabolism, diapause has an energetic cost that may affect post-diapause performance. Previous studies on the solitary bee Osmia lignaria have shown that prolonged pre-wintering periods (the time during which individuals have already entered diapause) are associated with elevated lipid consumption, fat body depletion, and body weight loss. Here, we investigate whether prolonged pre-wintering also affects reproduction, i.e., whether there isa trade-off between diapause and post-diapause performance. We exposed females to a range of pre-wintering conditions and monitored ovary development and individual post-wintering performance throughout their adult life span. We ask the following questions: Do individuals exposed to prolonged pre-wintering periods take longer to emerge? Do they take longer to mature their ovaries? Are they less likely to establish a nest? Do they exhibit reduced longevity and/or fecundity? Do they have low provisioning rates resulting in low parental investment, small offspring size and/or male-biased progeny? We did not find evidence for a trade-off between diapause and post-diapause reproductive success. Expected differences in the timing of establishment were not observed because ovary maturation was, surprisingly, not arrested during pre-wintering. Prolonged pre-wintering duration did not result in decreased life span, probably because emerging females could rapidly replenish their metabolic reserves through feeding. However, we found a very strong effect of the duration of the pre-emergence period on female establishment and nest establishment. Because longevity is subjected to extremely high levels of intrinsic variability (even among females of similar size exposed to identical conditions during development and nesting), the effect of other factors on fecundity may be difficult to detect.

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INVESTIGATING EUSOCIALITY IN BEES WHILE TRUSTING THE UNCERTAINTY Eduardo A. B. Almeida; Diego Sasso Porto. Laboratório de Biologia Comparada e Abelhas (LBCA), Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto (FFCLRP), Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. ABSTRACT. Phylogenetic hypotheses and estimates of divergence times have already been used to investigate the evolution of social behavior in all lineages of bees. The interpretation of the number of origins of eusocial behavior and the timing these events depends on reliable phylogenetic hypotheses for the clades in which these lineages are nested. Three to six independent origins of eusocial behavior are interpreted to have occurred in bee taxa that differentiated in the Late Cretaceous, or much later in the Paleogene. Only two groups of bees exhibit the behaviors that qualify their members to be considered obligate eusocial, the honey bees (Apina) and the stingless bees (Meliponina). The evolutionary history of corbiculate bees remains uncertain in many respects, but phylogenetic research has been paving the path for comprehensive comparative approaches likely to shed light on the origin of diversity of forms and behaviors of these bees. In total, corbiculate bees encompass about 1000 species, roughly 5% of the described species diversity of bees. These bees are rather heterogeneous in terms of social organization, particularly stingless bees and orchid bees, which display a fascinating range of behavioral variation. Using phylogenetic tools, it has been possible to infer that caste polymorphism, division of labor and other traits of corbiculate bees probably started evolving over 80 million years ago. Phylogenetic hypotheses must be interpreted as more or less uncertain scenarios for studying the biological diversity, but when trusted they can provide powerful tools to investigate the evolution of social behaviors. Keywords: Apidae, Euglossina, Meliponina, phylogeny social behavior, systematics. Financial support: São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) grant # 2011/09477-9 to E.A.B.Almeida and FAPESP fellowships # 2012/22261-8 and # 2014/10090-0 to D.S.Porto.

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SIMPÓSIO 2 Declínio dos Polinizadores Coordenador: Lionel S. Gonçalves

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O IMPACTO CAUSADO NA APICULTURA E MELIPONICULTURA PELO USO INDISCRIMINADO DE PESTICIDAS, IDENTIFICADO PELO APLICATIVO BEE ALERT E O DECLÍNIO DOS POLINIZADORES (ABELHAS) NO BRASIL Lionel Segui Gonçalves; Dayson Castilhos. Departamento de Ciências Animais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Mossoró, RN, Brasil. RESUMO. As abelhas em geral e em especial a apicultura e a meliponicultura brasileira vem passando por uma difícil fase de declínio e eliminação de população de suas colônias no Brasil, devido principalmente ao uso indiscriminado dos pesticidas sistêmicos altamente tóxicos usados no combate a pragas na agricultura. O declínio no mundo dos principais polinizadores de plantas, as abelhas, tem sido atribuído a várias causas destacando- se na literatura o ácaro Varroa destructor, o fungo Nosema ceranae, mudanças climáticas, deficiências alimentares, desmatamento e efeito de agrotóxicos, principalmente dos pesticidas neonicotinoides, entre outros fatores. Há também algumas polêmicas sobre os efeitos desses fatores porém uma convergência de opinião sobre a ação sinergística dos mesmos no declínio das populações de abelhas. Independente das causas, os danos causados nesses insetos e os prejuízos causados aos apicultores e meliponicultores é notório, fato que a cada dia é mais comprovado por publicações científicas e pela mídia (Time 2014, New York Times 04/2015), o que vem motivando várias ações no exterior e também no Brasil, inclusive a Campanha brasileira de proteção às abelhas (BEE OR NOT TO BE: www.semabelhasemalimento.com.br) cuja Petição já encaminhada ao MMA, IBAMA e MAPA reuniu mais de 22 mil assinaturas. Paralelamente a essa ação foi criado um Aplicativo eletrônico (BEE ALERT: www.semabelhasemalimento.com.br/beealert ) permite a todos os interessados registrar toda e qualquer ocorrência de morte, desaparecimento (CCDColony Colapse Disorder) ou intoxicação de colônias de abelhas sem ferrão, abelhas solitárias ou Apis mellifera, permitindo o monitoramento ou registro de detalhes como número de colônias atingidas, causa da ocorrência, registro de documentação (fotos, vídeos entrevistas e prejuízos registrados bem como identificar num mapa mundi, on line, o local exato da ocorrência. O impacto negativo do uso indiscriminado dos pesticidas no Brasil é tão grande que os registros de apenas treze meses de aplicação do Bee Alert no Brasil ,até Abril de 2015, o registro de mais de 15.000 colônias de abelhas ( >3000 colônias de abelhas sem ferrão e >12.000 colônias de Apis mellifera) em 14 estados brasileiros (maior frequência no Estado de São Paulo) acusam a morte de mais de 900 milhões de abelhas devido principalmente a pesticidas sistêmicos, estatística extremamente alarmante que reflete o caos em que se encontra a apicultura e meliponicultura , o desespero dos apicultores e meliponicultores brasileiros que não tem a quem recorrer e, consequentemente, as perspectivas negativas do agronegócio apícola brasileiro e do declínio dos principais polinizadores brasileiros, as abelhas.

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DECLINE OF POLLINATORS IN THE AMERICAS AND EUROPE David de Jong Departamento de Genética, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil ABSTRACT. There is considerable concern worldwide about pollinator decline. This has become more apparent in recent years as agriculture has intensified and taken over large areas of natural landscapes, resulting in both a reduction in pollinators and an increased need for their services. In 2006, major losses of bees were reported in the USA, with symptoms that included sudden weakening of strong colonies, and loss of adult populations without evidence of dead bees in or near the colonies. No clear cause was found at the time, and the phenomenon was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), annually affecting hundreds of thousands of colonies since then. One of the results of this severe decline in honey bee populations has been increased fees for pollination. This is especially evident in almond pollination. In 2015, about 1.8 million colonies were rented at about US$200 per colony. In the 1990s, the price was about US$45. Large scale losses of bees have also been reported in Europe in recent years, though not in all regions and not at the same scale as in the USA. Some reports of CCD have also come from South America, and there is concern about negative effects for agriculture and the environment. The heightened concern about bee health has resulted in numerous studies to try to understand why the bees are declining. Although it is not clear which of them are most important, there is considerable evidence that bee mites (Varroa destructor), bee viruses, pathogenic fungi, nutritional deficiencies and pesticides are causing considerable bee losses. Some of the most recently discovered culprits include insect growth regulators and fungicides, which originally were considered to be relatively innocuous to bees. Though most of the evidence concerns loss of honey bees (Apis mellifera), it is clear that native bees are also severely affected and some species have disappeared from large regions of various countries, including Brazil. This situation requires urgent actions to avoid losing these valuable components of agriculture and the environment.

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THE USE OF NEONICOTINOID INSECTICIDES AND ITS POTENTIAL RISKS TO SOCIAL BEES Annelise de Souza Rosa1*; Vera Lucia Imperatriz-Fonseca1,2. Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil. Bioscience Institute, University of São Paulo, Brazil.

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annesouzar@gmail.com ABSTRACT. The current concern about the decline of pollinator populations worldwide has been linked, at least in part, to the use of neonicotinoid insecticides (Godfray et al. 2014). Neonicotinoids reach pollen and nectar at residual levels, due to its systemic composition (Thompson 2010, Blacquière et al. 2012). In social bees, the pollen and nectar collected in the field by forager workers are later processed by nurse bees, and is ultimately destined for offspring, composing the larval food (NogueiraNeto 1997, Blacquière et al. 2012). Thus, if any residues contaminate the floral resources, the bees in the colony will come into contact with the residue by eating the contaminated food (Blacquière et al. 2012). In this context, Rosa et. al. (2015) detected the presence of neonicotinoids in forager bodies of Scaptotrigona aff. depilis that were returning to the colony after foraging, maintained at meliponary, at University of São Paulo, Brazil. In vitro tests showed that larvae of the same stingless bee species exposed to a dose of thiamethoxam at field-realistic level and to doses ranging this level had their survival rates significantly impaired (Rosa 2014). Thus, it is evident the importance of considering all stages of development of bees in toxicity studies. Tomé et al. (2012) reported adverse effects of neonicotinoid on stingless bee species Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, showing significant reduction on survival rates, impairment on the mushroom bodies in the brain and on the walking behavior of newly emerged adult workers, when individuals were exposed to imidacloprid during larval phase. Tavares et al. (2015) found high toxicity of neonicotinoid to honey bee larvae, showing that sublethal doses of thiamethoxam can cause atypical progression of larval development stages, and brain impairment. Using a two-choice feeding assay, Kessler et al. (2015) showed that honeybees and bumblebees do not avoid nectar-relevant concentrations of three of the most commonly used neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin) in food. The authors warn that if foragers prefer to collect nectar containing the substances, they will also bring more neonicotinoidlaced food back to the colony. Cresswell (2011) reports that the intake of neonicotinoid residues at field realistic concentrations usually does not show direct effect on mortality of honey bee adult workers. On the other hand, the adverse impacts are observed through the sublethal effects, such as decreasing on foraging success and survival (Henry et al. 2012). Bumble bees exposed to neonicotinoids showed reduced pollen collecting efficiency (Gill et al. 2012, Felthan et al. 2014), decreasing on reproductive success (Laycok et al. 2012, Whitehorn et al. 2012) and on ability to return to the colonies (Gill et al. 2012). Thompson and Maus (2007) highlight the relevance of sublethal effects in honey bee testing for pesticide risk assessment. Nevertheless, caution is needed when attempting to extrapolate the results of laboratory studies to the colony level (Thompson and Maus 2007, Fairbrother et al. 2014). Emphatizing stingless bees, Rosa (2014) considers important some preventive measures as an initial step for the investigation of the problem involving the use of neonicotinoids and its potential effects on bees. Firstly, it is essential a survey of the crops to surrounding areas where the colonies are, extrapolating the flight distance of the bees, as well as a survey of the flowers from within the flight radius of the bees. This information will allow knowing which crops make use of neonicotinoids, and maybe the periods of application of the insecticides. This could help in the development of preventive measures of direct contamination of the colonies, at least in the first instance. In parallel, using the ANAIS DO XI ENCONTRO SOBRE ABELHAS, 2015

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techniques developed by Rosa et al. (2015), it is possible to monitor toxicity levels in stingless bee species with the potential to create proposals that use stingless bee contamination as an environmental indicator. Keywords: Bumble bees; honey bees; stingless bees; sublethal effects. References Blacquiere, T., Smagghe, G., Van Gestel, C. A., & Mommaerts, V. (2012). Neonicotinoids in bees: a review on concentrations, side-effects and risk assessment. Ecotoxicology, 21(4), 973-992. Cresswell, J. E. (2011). A meta-analysis of experiments testing the effects of a neonicotinoid insecticide (imidacloprid) on honey bees. Ecotoxicology,20(1), 149-157. Fairbrother, A., Purdy, J., Anderson, T., & Fell, R. (2014). Risks of neonicotinoid insecticides to honeybees. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 33(4), 719-731. Feltham, H., Park, K., & Goulson, D. (2014). Field realistic doses of pesticide imidacloprid reduce bumblebee pollen foraging efficiency. Ecotoxicology,23(3), 317-323. Gill, R. J., Ramos-Rodriguez, O., & Raine, N. E. (2012). Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual-and colony-level traits in bees. Nature,491(7422), 105-108. Godfray, H. C. J., Blacquiere, T., Field, L. M., Hails, R. S., Petrokofsky, G., Potts, S. G., ... & McLean, A. R. (2014). A restatement of the natural science evidence base concerning neonicotinoid insecticides and insect pollinators.Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences,281(1786), 20140558. Henry, M., Beguin, M., Requier, F., Rollin, O., Odoux, J. F., Aupinel, P., ... & Decourtye, A. (2012). A common pesticide decreases foraging success and survival in honey bees. Science,  336(6079), 348-350. Kessler, S. C., Tiedeken, E. J., Simcock, K. L., Derveau, S., Mitchell, J., Softley, S., ... & Wright, G. A. (2015). Bees prefer foods containing neonicotinoid pesticides. Nature. Laycock, I., Lenthall, K. M., Barratt,A.T., & Cresswell, J. E. (2012). Effects of imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid pesticide, on reproduction in worker bumble bees (Bombus terrestris).  Ecotoxicology,  21(7), 1937-1945. Nogueira-Neto, P. (1997). Vida e criação de abelhas indígenas sem ferrão. São Paulo: Nogueirapis. Rosa, A. (2014). Efeitos da exposição de Bombus terrestris audax, Apis mellifera carnica e Scaptotrigona bipunctata ao neonicotinóide tiametoxam e uso de Scaptotrigona aff. depilis como bioindicador. Tese de Doutorado, Entomologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo. Rosa, A., I’Anson Price, R., Ferreira Caliman, M. J., Pereira Queiroz, E., Blochtein, B., Sílvia Soares Pires, C., & Imperatriz Fonseca, V. L. (2015). The stingless bee species, Scaptotrigona aff. depilis, as a potential indicator of environmental pesticide contamination.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 34(8), 1851-1853. Tavares, D. A., Roat, T. C., Carvalho, S. M., Silva-Zacarin, E. C. M., & Malaspina, O. (2015). In vitro effects of thiamethoxam on larvae of Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Chemosphere, 135, 370-378. Thompson, H. M. (2010). Risk assessment for honey bees and pesticides—recent developments and ‘new issues’. Pest management science, 66(11), 1157-1162. Thompson, H. M., & Maus, C. (2007). The relevance of sublethal effects in honey bee testing for pesticide risk assessment. Pest Management Science,63(11), 1058-1061. Tomé, H. V. V., Martins, G. F., Lima, M. A. P., Campos, L. A. O., & Guedes, R. N. C. (2012). Imidacloprid-induced impairment of mushroom bodies and behavior of the native stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides.PLoS One, 7(6), e38406. Whitehorn, P. R., O’Connor, S., Wackers, F. L., & Goulson, D. (2012). Neonicotinoid pesticide ANAIS DO XI ENCONTRO SOBRE ABELHAS, 2015 RIBEIRÃO PRETO, SP, BRASIL

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reduces bumble bee colony growth and queen production. Science, 336(6079), 351-352. Financial support: The authors thank to CNPq for financial support.

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A MELIPONICULTURA E SEU POTENCIAL PARA A CONSERVAÇÃO DAS ABELHAS SEM FERRÃO – GARGALOS PARA O SEU DESENVOLVIMENTO: ASPECTOS REGULATÓRIOS E ESTRUTURAIS Ricardo Costa Rodrigues de Camargo Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Embrapa Meio Ambiente e Representante oficial de Meliponicultura do Estado de São Paulo para a Confederação Brasileira de Apicultura, SP, Brasil. RESUMO. A relação entre os povos tradicionais na América do Sul e América Central e as abelhas sem ferrão remonta ao período pré-colonização europeia, a partir da existência de inúmeros artefatos arqueológicos que comprovam como as abelhas e seus produtos eram considerados especiais para esses povos. A criação de abelhas sem ferrão (ASF) denominada de Meliponicultura no Brasil, também é uma atividade secular, ligada principalmente aos agricultores familiares e às comunidades tradicionais, a partir da valorização e consequente inserção dos produtos das abelhas, principalmente o mel, na sua alimentação e na medicina popular. O Brasil é o país com maior abundância de espécies deste grupo (Meliponini), tendo sido identificadas cerca de 300 espécies, com muito mais espécies ainda a serem catalogadas. Dentre essas espécies existem inúmeras espécies sociais já domesticadas pelo homem, com técnicas de manejo bem desenvolvidas e com alto potencial para a produção de mel e outros produtos e como potenciais polinizadores de dezenas de culturas. Tais fatores, aliados a riqueza florística de nossos biomas naturais, coloca o nosso país em uma posição de destaque mundial no uso sustentável da biodiversidade. Nos últimos anos o interesse pela criação das abelhas sem ferrão em caixas racionais vem crescendo sobremaneira, com a atividade presente em todos os estados e com inúmeras associações exclusivas de meliponicultores formadas em todas as regiões do país. O interesse do público em geral em relação a sua criação, como de setores produtivos como o da gastronomia, indústria de cosméticos, a partir do uso de seus diferenciados produtos e na produção agrícola, com o potencial de uso das ASF em sistemas de polinização de frutas e olerícolas, também vem se destacando. Todavia, a despeito das inúmeras potencialidades que a Meliponicultura apresenta para a geração de renda e a conservação de nossa biodiversidade, o modelo hegemônico de produção de alimentos do agronegócio, principalmente o das commodities, calcado em monocultivos e sistemas de baixa diversidade, com ocupação de grandes extensões de terra e aplicação intensiva e muitas vezes indiscriminada de agrotóxicos, formam um cenário extremamente desfavorável para à manutenção e expansão da atividade. Aliado a esses aspectos, a acentuada perda de áreas naturais pela expansão do sistema agropecuário dominante, também é um fator de enorme risco para uma atividade, que precisa de um ambiente preservado e que é por sua vez tão estratégica para a conservação de nossa biodiversidade. Um dos aspectos mais nocivos e impactantes desse sistema intensivo de produção é a situação dos agrotóxicos no Brasil, que superou os Estados Unidos como maior importador de agrotóxicos do planeta. Com um setor produtivo altamente demandante, pelo modelo de produção agrícola aplicado, o consumo de agrotóxicos em nossas lavouras alcança índices altíssimos. Como consequências graves dessa situação, inúmeros casos de contaminação dos trabalhadores envolvidos em sua aplicação também são registrados, assim como da contaminação dos produtos alimentares oriundos desses cultivos, como do solo e das águas subterrâneas e pluviais, o que afeta diretamente a saúde das populações presentes nas áreas circundantes dos grandes empreendimentos agrícolas. Tais produtos que são altamente venenosos aos insetos, podem estar gerando impactos severos nas populações naturais de abelhas, que ainda permanecem nos poucos remanescentes florestais próximos as áreas de cultivo, como tem causado acentuada mortalidade de colônias, nas criações racionais de abelhas, tanto na apicultura, como na meliponicultura. Além disso, ANAIS DO XI ENCONTRO SOBRE ABELHAS, 2015 RIBEIRÃO PRETO, SP, BRASIL

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o uso indiscriminado desses produtos químicos pode também comprometer toda uma produção, pela sua contaminação química, com sério risco à saúde, a partir do consumo desses produtos e gerando impactos econômicos extremamente negativos a toda cadeia produtiva do mel, uma vez que como um dos principais exportadores mundiais de mel, o Brasil pode ter perdas significativas pela restrição aos nossos produtos nesses mercados importadores. Pelo sistema de produção empregado e com um sistema de avaliação, controle e fiscalização desses produtos também deficitário e pela carência de recursos e de pessoal, para atender à forte demanda de volume e variedade de produtos que os produtores utilizam, tais fatores tornaram o Brasil um mercado atraente para todas as empresas fabricantes desse produtos, inclusive para “desovar” em nosso mercado, agrotóxicos proibidos ou que tiveram a produção suspensa em países mais ricos por riscos à saúde e ao meio ambiente identificados. Segundo dados levantados pela Agência Reuters sobre os produtos registrados no país, pelo menos quatro grandes fabricantes de defensivos agrícolas – a norte-americana FMC Corp, a dinamarquesa Cheminova A/S, a alemã Helm AG e a gigante suíça do agronegócio Syngenta AG, comercializam no mercado nacional produtos banidos em seus mercados domésticos. Além desses fatores negativos ao uso racional das abelhas como agentes polinizadores efetivos para a produção agrícola e manutenção dos biomas naturais, o aparato regulatório voltado às ASF em nosso país é extremamente deficiente, altamente punitivo, ao não considerar as características intrínsecas da meliponicultura e seu potencial conservacionista. A situação é tão distorcida que meliponicultores acabam sendo enquadrados na categoria de “criminosos ambientais” pelo poder público, considerando-os no mesmo patamar dos traficantes de animais, o que tem gerado uma intranquilidade generalizada aos milhares de criadores qualificados, que vem praticamente interrompendo suas atividades sob o risco de sofrerem penalidades severas. Isso se deve à precariedade do sistema de regularização de sua criação, engessando a expansão da atividade com a inserção de novos meliponicultores. O sistema existente nos órgãos ambientais para a regularização da atividade é inadequado, altamente burocrático e que exige o estabelecendo de requisitos que não consideram as características socioeconômicas dos criadores, inviabilizando, na prática, exatamente a regularização dos meliponários que a própria legislação exige, um verdadeiro gargalo para o desenvolvimento da atividade, já tão pouco valorizada e incentivada pelos órgãos públicos. As incongruências não param por ai quando se verificam, por exemplo, que em algumas regiões do país, programas governamentais regionais de incentivo à meliponicultura vêm aportando somas consideráveis de recursos, visando a tecnificação dos produtores e a expansão da atividade, ações que não encontram respaldo no arcabouço regulatório federal que é deficiente, inadequado e de cunho apenas punitivo e não estimulador do processo. Dessa forma, para que a Meliponicultura passe a ser considerada como uma atividade sustentável e altamente promotora da conservação não apenas diretamente das ASF, como de toda nossa biodiversidade, a partir dos serviços ecossistêmicos prestados por elas, ações articuladas devem ser promovidas com os diversos atores governamentais e principalmente com os produtores, no sentido de se estabelecer um processo de revisão e criação de regulamentações que venham de fato a contribuir com seu desenvolvimento da atividade. Nesse contexto a contribuição da classe científica, também é um fator importante nesse processo, que há anos vem trabalhando, no sentido de entender melhor a biologia desse grupo altamente diverso e de comprovar sua eficiência e potencial como agentes polinizadores. Nesse sentido, a Meliponicultura, deve ser fomentada em uma política pública, que considere e valorize o papel dos meliponicultores, pois é uma das poucas atividades produtivas capaz de aliar conservação de recursos da biodiversidade com geração de renda e valorização de produtos naturais.

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DOES A HERBICIDE AFFECT HONEYBEE BEHAVIOR? Walter M. Farina, María Sol Balbuena, Lucila T. Herbert, Diego E. Vázquez, Andrés Arenas. Grupo de Estudio de Insectos Sociales. Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón II, Ciudad Universitaria (C1428EHA), Buenos Aires, Argentina. walter@fbmc.fcen.uba.ar ABSTRACT. Glyphosate (GLY) is a broad spectrum herbicide used for weed control. During the evaluation stages for product approval, only lethal effect studies on invertebrates were reported. Sublethal damage of GLY to non-target organisms such as insect pollinators has not been evaluated. Honeybee Apis mellifera is the main pollinator in agricultural environments and a well-known model for behavioral research. Moreover, honeybees are also accurate biosensors to determine environmental pollutants and their appetitive behavioral response is a suitable tool to test sub-lethal effects of agrochemicals. With this in mind, we studied the effects of GLY traces on honeybees exposed chronically or acutely to this herbicide. We focused on sensitivity to reward, olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) and foraging related behavior. Results show that mortality, food uptake and locomotive activity did not differ between treated groups. However, reduced sensitivity to sucrose and learning performance were found for the groups chronically exposed to concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 mg/L of GLY (values within the range of recommended doses). When olfactory PER conditioning was performed with sucrose reward that contained the same GLY concentrations (i.e. acute exposure), elemental associative learning and short-term memory retention decreased significantly for the treated group. We also performed an experiment in which honeybee homeward trajectories were tracked using harmonic radar technology. Forager honeybees were trained to an artificial feeder, and then captured, fed with sugar solution containing GLY concentrations of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L, and then released from a novel site. We found that honeybees that had been fed with solution containing 10 mg/L GLY spent more time performing homeward flights and performed more indirect homing flights. Altogether, these results show that GLY at concentrations used in this study produced sub-lethal effects in honeybees, reducing chemosensory perception and learning abilities. Moreover, since honeybees did not interrupt their foraging activity in GLY-contaminated food sources, successful foragers can become a source of a constant inflow of nectar with GLY traces into the hive, which in turn could have long-term negative consequences on colony survival.

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SIMPÓSIO 3 Abelhas na Interface da Agricultura e Conservação Coordenadoras: Denise A. Alves; Blandina F. Viana

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POLINIZADORES, POLINIZAÇÃO E IPBES: UM NOVO ESFORÇO GLOBAL Vera L. Imperatriz-fonseca1; Blandina F. Viana2. Instituto Tecnológico Vale Desenvolvimento Sustentável, Belém, Brasil; 2Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brasil. 1

RESUMO. O desaparecimento das abelhas no hemisfério Norte foi um dos motivos para a criação da Iniciativa Internacional dos Polinizadores (IPI), aprovada em 2000 como uma atividade da área de Diversidade Agrícola. Para esta Iniciativa foi proposto um plano de ação, que compreendeu atividades e metas, fundamental para nortear os trabalhos das Iniciativas que iniciaram a partir da IPI. Com a detecção do fenômeno do desaparecimento das abelhas, em 2007, nos Estados Unidos, a sinergia entre os vários drivers de mudanças mostrou o seu efeito inesperado, e a morte súbita de colônias colocou em evidência este fenômeno. Muitas publicações e meta-análises foram disponibilizadas em 2010, ano internacional da biodiversidade. No final deste ano, em Nagoya, a CBD propôs e foi aprovada pela ONU a criação de um órgão independente para tratar da biodiversidade e serviços ecossistêmicos, a Plataforma Intergovernamental de Biodiversidade e Serviços Ecossistêmicos, IPBES. A IPBES tem entre suas funções solicitar avaliações globais de temas de relevância. Polinizadores, Polinização, e produção de alimentos foi o primeiro deles. Trataremos dos desafios e oportunidades que esta nova abordagem traz para as atividades de pesquisa em uso e manejo de abelhas.

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AGRICULTURE: THE PARADOX BETWEEN DEPENDENCE ON AND THREAT TO BEES Breno M. Freitas. Universidade Federal do CearĂĄ, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. ABSTRACT. The world agriculture is highly dependent upon the pollination services carried out by a large number of bee species; approximately 73% of plant species cultivated worldwide relies on bee pollination to set fruits and/or seeds. However, agriculture has been blamed as one of the major causes for bee population decline in many parts of the globe. Recent studies have pointed out both the importance of bees to the yield in self-incompatible plant species, increase in crop productivity, improvements to fruit quality, higher oil/sugar concentration, shortening of crop cycles, reduction to yield losses, among other benefits; and that present agriculture practices can affect the diversity and abundance of bees at a large scale by the expansion of the agriculture, deforestation and burning of new areas, and localized due to agriculture practices at the cropped fields such as the soil disturbance, use of pesticides, destruction of nesting sites, monoculture, large cultivated areas, etc. In this paper, I present and discuss the paradox of agriculture; despite depending so much in bees for pollination, it is still largely based on practices which usually are harmful to bees and that minimize the benefits these insects can provide to the crops.

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IMPORTANCE OF INTRA AND INTER-SPECIFIC ECOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS FOR THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CROP POLLINATORS Luísa G. Carvalheiro. Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil. ABSTRACT. There is a vast number of crop pollinator species, which include managed species (e.g., Apis sp., Bombus sp., Osmia sp.) and at least several hundreds of wild species. Such wild species are embedded in complex networks of trophic interactions, which regulate their presence in a given region. In addition, behavioral interactions can have an important role regulating the efficiency of both wild and managed pollinators. A vast number of studies have shown how the presence of a given species within a particular site is highly susceptible to changes in the patterns of interactions of the community of plant and insects. Such changes can compromise the stability of the communities and consequently their efficiency in the provision of pollination services. However, only few studies evaluate how crop pollinators and the crop itself integrate in the local networks of trophic interactions, interacting with a diverse set of floral resources that are present within agricultural landscapes. Such flower resources may include ruderal plants that may exist within farmland and many plant species present in the surrounding habitats. In addition, ecological interactions with higher trophic levels, such as predators and parasitoids, can also have an important influence on pollinator abundance and community composition. Behavioral interactions among flower visitors and between flower visitors and other trophic guilds (e.g. predators, leaf herbivores, non-pollinating nectar feeding species) can interfere in the patterns of flower visitation, hence affecting the efficiency of crop pollinators. Additionally, pollinators’ abundance and behavior may be affected by indirect ecological interactions with many non-pollinator species (e.g. leaf herbivores, soil fungi) that affect plant biomass, architecture and physiology. As many agricultural practices interfere on how the crop species interact with such species (e.g. use of insecticide, tilling) and some may even simulate the effects of herbivory (e.g. pruning), to fully understand the mechanisms that enhance pollination services, an holistic data collection approach is needed, involving information on the overall patterns of the ecological networks of interactions. Here I review the current knowledge on the importance of intra and interspecific ecological interactions between crop pollinators and the vast number of species present within crop field and in the surrounding landscape, as well as on practices that may enhance pollination services.

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POLLINATOR-FRIENDLY PRACTICES TO ENHANCE CROP PRODUCTION IN APPLES AND PEARS Lucas A. Garibaldi1*; B. Geslin1; M. A. Aizen2; N. Garcia3; V. Le Feon4; A. J. Pereira5; B. E. Vaissiere4. Grupo de Investigación en Agroecología (AGRECO) Sede Andina, Universidad Nacional de Río Negro (UNRN) and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina; 2Laboratorio Ecotono, INIBIOMA, Universidad Nacional del Comahue and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina; 3Centro PYME, Agencia de Desarrollo Económico Del Neuquén, Neuquén, Argentina; 4Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), UR406 Abeilles et Environnement, Avignon, France; 5Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Alto Valle, Argentina *Corresponding author: e-mail: lgaribaldi@unrn.edu.ar; Address: Mitre 630, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro; Argentina. Tel: + 54 929 44 63 65 12. 1

ABSTRACT. Deployment of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in cultivated fields is a widely used management practice to enhance crop yield through pollination. However, worldwide the stock of domesticated honey bees is growing slower than the agricultural demand for pollination which could lead to a current or future mismatch between supply and demand. We thus need to develop friendly managing procedures that can enhance the effectiveness of bees to pollinate crops. Honey bees are the most commonly used bee to pollinate a wide array of crops globally, however their contribution to crop yield quantity and quality remains largely unknown for most crops. We studied the pollination of pear and apple (the first and third most exported fruit by weight in Argentina, respectively) in the main fruit producing area of Argentina (Neuquén region, North Patagonia) and the impact of pollinator management on fructification. During the flowering of 2014, we sampled 88 trees of apples and pears distributed across 24 farms, from pollination to fruit set and harvest quality. In half of the farms, we installed high quality colonies of Apis mellifera, which were previously prepared following a standard protocol. These colonies were free of American and European foulbrood, with a rate of Varroa infestation <5% (based on worker sealed brood), and a laying queen with a population of at least 15 000 workers. The remaining farms received honey bee colonies without any specific quality control. We thus studied the effects of crop and colony management on bee visitation and behaviour, fruit set, and fruit yield and quality (circumference, height, weight, number of seeds, and sugar concentration). The pollination process relied solely on managed honey bees as we did not observe any wild pollinator visiting pear or apple flowers during our whole survey. Fruit set was positively influenced by the visitation rate (number of visits/100 flowers/minute), which in turn was related to both colony number and quality. Trees that were located in farms supplied with high-quality colonies received significantly more visits. High visit frequency was also related to changes in bee foraging behaviour that resulted in higher pollination effectiveness of single visits. The fact that pollination process relied solely on Apis mellifera is of great concern because of the high vulnerability of such a simple pollination network. Yet our study depicts a situation that might become widespread in the future if wild bee populations continue to decline, with the service of pollination relying on honey bees only. We discuss these results in regards to economic costs and benefits for farmers. In the future, we will launch several studies (including the introduction of a local bumblebee species) in order to provide alternative and complementary practices to achieve more sustainable pollination in this region.

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Keywords: Pollination, orchard production, management practices Financial Support: This work was funded by a Bernardo Houssay fellowship (Campus France and Conicet, Resolution D79) with the help of the University Nacional de Río Negro and the University of Comahue. The material and the logistic support was funded by Centro Pyme-Adeneu (Agencia de desarollo económico del Neuquén). Great thanks.

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POLLINATORS IN THE CURRENT AGRICULTURAL MODEL AND THE CHALLENGES FOR THE INCLUSION OF BEES IN SUSTAINABLE SYSTEM Betina Blochtein¹; Sidia Witter²; Patrícia Nunes-Silva¹; Rosana Halinski¹; Rosane Lanzer³. Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. 2Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária. 3Universidade de Caxias do Sul. 1

ABSTRACT. The loss of biodiversity due to human activities has been attributed mainly to the loss and alteration of habitat and the use of pesticides. In a landscape scale, these changes lead to a habitat fragmentation and reduced gene flow between populations of insects in these areas. In this context the community of bees is given attention due to the pollination services that they provide, which significantly influence the yield of many crops. Considering that semi-natural fragments are essential for the conservation of wild bee populations we evaluated the diversity of bees associated with canola crops in agricultural landscapes in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The agricultural areas were analyzed using satellite images, assessing the proportion of semi-natural remnants in a 1 km radius. Systematized samplings of bees were carried out in the same period, from 2010 to 2012, using pan traps inside the fields in the canola flowering period. The semi natural areas within a radius of 1 km surrounding eight canola fields represented from 7% to 38% of the landscapes. In these areas, the diversity of bee species was represented by Halictidae, followed by Apidae, Andrenidae and Colletidae. However, in the fields Apis mellifera was the most abundant species. Whereas managed pollination with honey bees is not a current practice yet and the abundance of native pollinators in agricultural areas was low, there may possibly exist a pollination deficit in these areas, which is known to have repercussions on agricultural crops, as well as on the reproduction of the native plants of the semi-natural habitats. This scenario highlights the need for changes in agricultural practices aiming the protection of native bee populations, the incentive to the management of stingless bees and the research directed to the sustainable management of native wild bees.

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CENTRIS (HETEROCENTRIS) ANALIS (FABRICIUS, 1804) AND CENTRIS (HEMISIELLA) TARSATA SMITH, 1874 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: CENTRIDINI): POLLINATORS OF MALPIGHIA EMARGINATA (MALPIGHIACEAE) WITH DIFFERENT POTENTIALS FOR MANAGEMENT Morgana S. Sazan; Carlos A. Garófalo. Universidade de São Paulo, R. Preto, SP, Brazil. ABSTRACT. The search for new species of bees that can be managed as pollinators of crops is growing. Nowadays, only a few species are used commercially for this propose and among these Apis mellifera is the most widespread. Despite this, many authors have highlighted the solitary bees as better pollinators for many crops, such as West Indian cherry, which requires pollination to produce a larger number of fruits. The oil produced by West Indian cherry attracts pollinators that need this resource to build their nests and, in some cases, for larval feeding. The most efficient species for pollinate this crop belong to Centridini tribe. Some of the Centridini species place the nest in preexisting cavities and accept the use of trap nests, which are easily handled. According to the criteria used to select candidate species for commercial pollination of a crop, the species should show a preference for flowers of the crop and be an efficient pollinator. Here, we used trap nests to evaluate the population of two species of Centridini, the major floral visitors, in crops of West Indian cherry located in Indaiatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The nesting phenology of Centris analis showed that females reproductive activity occurred during all the year. The lesser frequency of nidification was in the dry and cold season, and the highest frequency was in the hot and rainy season, along with the period of the bloom of Malpighia emarginata. Centris tarsata placed nests only in the periods of flowering of the West Indian cherry. Among the three generations produced per year by C. tarsata, in one of them the immature bees entered into diapause at the time that West Indian cherry plants were not flowering. The analysis of the sources of pollen for larval feeding revealed that both species prefer pollen from M. emarginata. In this case, it is clear that the floral availability from M. emarginata is in agreement with the reproductive commitment of these two Centris, indicating that they are important pollinators of this crop Indaiatuba. In this sense, we revealed that both C. analis and C. tarsata satisfactorily fulfill the prerequisites for their use as commercial pollinators of the West Indian cherry crop. Keywords: Centris analis, Centris tarsata, pollinators, trap nests, nesting phenology, diet larval, West Indian cherry, management.

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SIMPÓSIO 4 Saúde e Nutrição de Abelhas Coordenador: David De Jong

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EFFECT OF NUTRITION ON HONEY BEE HEALTH David de Jong. Departamento de Genética, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. ABSTRACT. Modernization of agriculture has provoked an increased need for bee pollination. At the same time, and probably directly related to this increased demand, there have been widespread losses due to colony collapse disorder, changes in land use and farming practices, and new bee diseases and pests. One of the main changes made by beekeepers in their struggle to meet the pollination needs of agriculture has been to invest heavily in supplemental feeding of pollen substitutes. We have examined both the consequences of the feeding of artificial feeds and the reasons why they are now needed much more than in previous decades. It has become evident that poorly nourished bees have a weakened immune response and are more susceptible to disease organisms. One of the reasons that bees are poorly nourished is that chemicals applied to crops affect the gut microflora of the bees and the microorganisms responsible for turning pollen into beebread, exposing the bees to pathogens and limiting the availability of essential nutrients. These changes also alter food and gut pH. Two different strategies are used to study and resolve these problems. One is to ferment the diets, which is possible but generally difficult. The other is to formulate diets so they resemble beebread.

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FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS OF PESTICIDE DETOXIFICATION IN BEES Brian R. Johnson. Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA. ABSTRACT. Pollinators, including honey bees, routinely encounter microorganisms and phytochemicals during foraging, but the mechanisms that confer protection are poorly understood. We examined the expression of antimicrobial, immune and detoxification genes in Apis mellifera and compared forager and nurse bees using tissue-specific RNA-seq. Our analysis revealed extensive tissue-specific expression of genes in all classes, with specialization among tissues. Variation in gene expression between worker stages was pronounced in the mandibular and hypopharyngeal (HPG) glands, where foragers were enriched in transcripts that encode antimicrobial and immune response peptides. Additionally, forager HPG and mandibular glands were enriched in transcripts encoding enzymes that detoxify common plant-derived compounds. High expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in nectar-processing tissues suggests that these peptides contribute to antimicrobial properties of honey. Together, these results suggest that worker role and tissue-specific expression of AMPs and detoxification enzymes contribute to defense against microorganisms and toxic plant phytochemicals encountered while foraging.

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DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF POLLEN SUBSTITUTE DIETS FOR BEES Gordon Wardell. Paramount Farming, Bakersfield, CA, USA. ABSTRACT. We developed a non-soy based, highly balanced protein supplement that is designed to improve honeybee health and overall life expectancy. It boosts colony strength, population and brood production, resulting in a more effective pollination season and higher honey yields. It can be fed as a patty, liquid, candyboard, or a dry feed. Fed with this diet, honey bees live an average of 20% longer. It has a very small particle size, about half the size of a typical pollen grain. This facilitates digestion by the bees and makes it possible to mix it with sugar syrup as a liquid feed. The pH is balanced for the bee gut and it includes all 10 essential amino acids in proper ratios for bees. Beekeepers should avoid soy-based feeds because they contain trypsin inhibitors and the sugar stachyose, which is toxic to bees. Another reason to avoid soy is because contamination of bee products with transgenic materials can result in market rejection, especially in European and Japanese markets. Currently US beekeepers invest heavily in pollen substitutes in order to prepare their colonies for pollination rentals, which is their main source of income. It is important to offer inexpensive and effective alternatives.

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A FERMENTAÇÃO INDUZIDA EM DIETAS ARTIFICIAIS E SEUS EFEITOS SOB AS ABELHAS APIS MELLIFERA Joyce Mayra Volpini de Almeida. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Entomologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. RESUMO. A nutrição adequada é a base para o crescimento e desenvolvimento de colônias de abelhas do gênero Apis. Para tal, as abelhas requerem em sua alimentação: proteínas, carboidratos, minerais, lipídios, vitaminas e água para o seu crescimento e desenvolvimento adequado. Estas necessidades normalmente são supridas quando não há escassez alimentar. Atualmente, a falta de pólen no campo é um dos grandes problemas para a apicultura mundial. Suplementos dietéticos artificiais podem superar essa falta e ajudar a reduzir o enfraquecimento e perdas das colônias durante os períodos críticos, no qual ocorre a falta de recursos naturais. Para que os substitutos de pólen sejam tão eficazes como as fontes naturais, tais dietas artificiais precisam fornecer todas as necessidades nutricionais além de uma palatabilidade agradável para as abelhas, assemelhando-se ao máximo com o alimento natural: o “Beebread” (pólen fermentado consumido pelas abelhas). No presente trabalho houve a investigação sobre o efeito da fermentação induzida em dieta artificial sob os níveis de proteínas na hemolinfa de abelhas alimentadas e confinadas em gaiolas, comparadas àquelas alimentadas com uma dieta não fermentada. Para este experimento, foram utilizadas abelhas africanizadas do Apiário Experimental da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto/USP. Operárias recém-emergidas confinadas em gaiolas de plástico (100 operárias para cada gaiola) foram alimentadas por sete dias com diferentes dietas: Dieta 1 (Beebread e água); Dieta 2 (xarope de sacarose 70% v/v); Dieta 3 (a base de levedura de cana, farinha de soja, farelo de arroz e açúcar); e Dieta 4 (a base de levedura de cana, farinha de soja, farelo de arroz, açúcar e um inoculo fermentado: “Beebread” coletado diretamente dos favos das colônias misturado com xarope de sacarose a 50% (v/v), deixando 28 dias na estufa para que ocorresse a fermentação). Nos dias zero e sete foram retiradas dez abelhas de cada gaiola para extração da hemolinfa através de uma incisão na base da asa com auxílio de micropipeta. Foi adicionado Inibidor de Protease e Feniltiocarbamida à hemolinfa. A concentração proteica das amostras foi determinada pelo método de Bradford (1976), sendo utilizada Albumina Sérica Bovina para a curva padrão. E a análise qualitativa do perfil das proteínas foi feita através de gel de poliacrilamida SDS-PAGE. Verificamos que as dietas 1, 3 e 4 promoveram a síntese de proteína. Quando analisamos por densitometria uma das principais proteínas de estocagem, a vitelogenina observamos que a dieta 4 possui diferença estatística em relação aos encontrados da dieta 3, com um valor de p=0,0027. Concluímos assim, que ambas as dietas artificiais proteicas (3 e 4) são eficientes em relação aos níveis proteicos, contudo ao analisarmos a expressão de Vg, a dieta 4 (fermentada) é mais eficiente.

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SIMPÓSIO 5 Ecologia Química Coordenador: Fábio S. Nascimento

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THE CHEMICAL RECOGNITION SIGNALS OF HONEYBEES AND HOW THEY CAN BE EXPLOITED BY ECTO-PARASITES Stephen John Martin. School of Environment & Life Sciences, University of Salford, Salford, Inglaterra. ABSTRACT. Social insect colonies provide a stable and safe environment for their members. The integrity of a colony is maintained by recognising and removing intruders. Nest-mates use chemical cues on the cuticle of the individual they encounter to determine whether or not it is part of the colony. Despite colonies being heavily guarded, parasites have evolved numerous strategies to invade and inhabit these hostile places. Two such strategies are (true) chemical mimicry via biosynthesis of host odor, and chemical camouflage, in which compounds are acquired from the host. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor feeds on hemolymph of its honey bee host, Apis mellifera. The mite’s odor closely resembles that of its host, which allows V. destructor to remain undetected as it lives on the adult host during its phoretic phase and while reproducing on the honeybee brood. During the mite life cycle, it switches between host adults and brood, which requires it to adjust its profile to mimic the very different odors of honey bee brood and adults. In a series of transfer experiments, using bee adults and pupae, we tested whether V. destructor changes its profile by synthesizing compounds or by using chemical camouflage. We show that V. destructor required direct access to host cuticle to mimic its odor, and that it was unable to synthesize host-specific compounds itself. The mite was able to mimic host odor, even when dead, indicating a passive physico-chemical mechanism of the parasite cuticle. The chemical profile of  V. destructor was adjusted within 3 to 9 h after switching hosts, demonstrating that passive camouflage is a highly efficient, fast and flexible way for the mite to adapt to a new host profile when moving between different host life stages or colonies. It remains, however, to be tested whether Varroa destructor also mirrors colony-specific cues to retain its camouflage when switching host colonies. I show that the mite’s chemical mimicry is colony-specific and that these colony-specific differences were based on differences in the n-alkane and alkene part of the mite’s chemical profile, even though overall chemical mimicry was imperfect.

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MICROBIAL CHEMICAL ECOLOGY IN STINGLESS BEES COLONIES DRIVES NATURAL PRODUCTS DISCOVERY Mônica T. Pupo; Camila R. Paludo; Taise T. H. Fukuda; Carla Menegatti; Amanda H. Cavalheiro; Weilan G. P. Melo. Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. ABSTRACT. Microorganisms are ubiquitous organisms that establish different interactions with higher organisms, ranging from parasitism to symbiosis and mutualism. The symbiotic interactions between microorganisms and some insect species, such as leaf cutting ants, has been studied, and has lead to interesting discoveries like antibiotic natural products. Stingless bees comprehend an interesting social insect system that might harbor a plethora of microorganisms. However, compared to fungus growing ants, there are very few studies in the literature prospecting for bee associated microorganisms and their bioactive natural products. Our laboratory has been engaged in a multidisciplinary project that aims to discover new bioactive natural products from insect microbial symbionts and to describe the ecological roles of the microbial natural products in mediating interspecies interactions. In this presentation I will show preliminary results about the microbial isolation from three stingless bees, Scaptotrigona depilis, Melipona scutellaris and Friesomelitta varia, as well as microbial interactions and natural products characterization. The results indicate that stingless bees are a promising source for prospecting new microbial and new chemical diversity.

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THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF SOCIAL INSECT QUEEN PHEROMONES: NOVEL HYPOTHESES AND OUTSTANDING PROBLEMS Tom Wenseleers; Cintia A. Oi; Jelle S. Van Zweden; Ricardo C. Oliveira; Annette Van Oystaeyen; Fabio S. Nascimento. Laboratory of Socio-Ecology and Social Evolution, Zoological Institute, KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium. ABSTRACT. Queen pheromones, which signal the presence of a fertile queen and induce daughter workers to remain sterile, are considered to play a key role in regulating the reproductive division of labor of insect societies. Although queen pheromones were long thought to be highly taxonspecific, recent studies conducted by our lab as well as those of others have shown that structurally related long-chain hydrocarbons act as conserved queen signals across several independently evolved lineages of social insects. These results imply that social insect queen pheromones are very ancient and likely derived from an ancestral signalling system that was already present in their common solitary ancestors. Based on these new insights, I here speculate on what signal precursors social insect queen pheromones may have evolved from, and provide several possibilities, such as them originally being produced as by-products of ovary development, sex pheromones or oviposition deterring pheromones. Furthermore, I provide new comparative evidence that queen pheromones should best be seen as honest signals of fertility as opposed to suppressive agents that chemically sterilize the workers against their own best interests, thereby settling a long-standing controversy.

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SOCIAL REGULATION IN EUGLOSSA MELANOTRICHA (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, EUGLOSSINI) MODULATED BY COMPLEX TRAITS Aline C. R. Andrade-Silva1; Elder A. Miranda; Marco A. Del Lama; Fábio S. Nascimento. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.

1

ABSTRACT. Animal societies exhibit remarkable variation in their breeding strategies. Groups may contain one or a few individuals that maintain a monopoly over reproductive output, or be formed by individuals that have an equal share in the reproductive process. Ultimately, an individual may maximize its fitness by either reproducing itself or contributing to the success of its close relatives. Social structure may be maintained by the discrimination of relatives through the differential treatment of conspecifics. In social insects, relatives may be recognized by their odor, with chemical signaling being fundamentally important for the resolution of conflicts. Queens indicate their social status through chemical signals and the response of workers to these signals may include the suppression of ovarian activity. In primitively social insects, dominant individuals may communicate their status and inhibit reproduction in subordinates by aggressive behavior alone, although they may also be docile, but still maintain their reproductive monopoly, indicating that chemical signaling may act synergistically with dominance behavior. The present study investigated the mechanisms determining social regulation of Euglossa melanotricha, a primitively social bee. This investigation was based on the analysis of behavioral interactions, experimental tests, the analysis of the chemical composition of the cuticle of the females, and the relatedness between the females and their offspring in 30 Euglossa melanotricha families. The results indicated that the dominant females maintain a reproductive monopoly through coercion and oophagy, although the differences in the chemical profiles of the cuticle of the dominant and subordinate females suggests that chemical signaling may also be involved in the communication of reproductive dominance. However, this factor was not dependent of the fertility associated with the mating condition and ovarian activity. The results of the genetic analysis indicated o unique mating system for the species, with the relatedness among females indicating three distinct types of group: families of sisters, mother-daughters, and families of unrelated females. Reproductive skew varied according to relatedness, aggression, and oophagy. The participation of the subordinates in total production was lower in the related females (sisters and mother-daughters) than in the unrelated families. However, the production of the subordinates in the related families was biased towards males. These findings support the predictions of concession models, in which sharing of reproduction results from the incentives of the dominant females and the tolerance of the subordinate in exchange for cooperation. This study provides evidence of a rare positive correlation between reproductive skew and relatedness, as predicted by concession models, and indicates the existence of a social hierarchy maintained by a “social contract” in relation to reproductive effort in Euglossa melanotrica. The data also indicate that the organization of small societies, such as those found in Euglossa, may be modulated by complex traits, as in advanced insect societies.

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SCENT OF ATTRACTION: FORMATION OF DRONE AGGREGATIONS AT ORPHAN COLONIES OF THE BRAZILIAN STINGLESS BEE SCAPTOTRIGONA DEPILIS Lea Böttinger¹*; Stefan Jarau²; Till Tolasch³; Fabio Nascimento4; Lucas Van Zuben4; Wolf Engels¹. ¹University of Tuebingen, Institute of Evolution and Ecology, Evolutionary Biology of Invertebrates, Tuebingen, Germany; ²University of Ulm, Institute of Neurobiology, Ulm, Germany; ³University of Hohenheim, Institute of Zoology, Animal Ecology, Stuttgart, Deutschland; 4Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Biologia, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Lea.Boettinger@gmx.de ABSTRACT. During mating season, aggregations of competing males are a phenomenon that occurs throughout the animal kingdom. In many insect species, however, males gather in mating swarms without showing agonistic interactions. Drone aggregations as well as sex pheromones involved in mating behavior have been extensively studied in the western honey bee Apis mellifera L. By contrast, the reproductive biology and its underlying mechanisms in the largest group of eusocial bees, the stingless bees, are far from being understood. In Scaptotrigona species it is generally assumed that sex pheromones emitted by virgin queens within colonies trigger the arrival of large numbers of drones, which remain for several days or even weeks in close vicinity to these colonies. We studied how males of the Neotropical stingless bee species Scaptotrigona depilis are attracted to orphan colonies. In particular, we examined whether male aggregations are induced by chemical compounds originating from the nest atmosphere and whether virgin queen sex pheromones are responsible for drone attraction. We analyzed (head-space samples, GC-MS) the nest odors from colonies that differed in their attractiveness to males, as well as in having a physogastric queen or being orphan for a known period of time at the University of São Paulo in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Changes in nest odor composition after the removal of the physogastric queen and during the establishment of new virgin queens in a colony and the co-occurring arrival of drones point to specific male attracting components in the nest odor of orphan colonies. However, final proof for the actual function of individual compounds as drone attractants has to be provided by bioassays. A comparison of the changes in nest odors with the pheromones emitted by virgin queens will shed light on the origin of male attracting substances in S. depilis. Keywords: Stingless bees; nest odor; virgin queen pheromones; drone attraction; drone aggregations.

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SIMPÓSIO 6 Genética de Populações Coordenador: Tiago M. Francoy

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REVISITING THE IBERIAN HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA IBERIENSIS) CONTACT ZONE: MATERNAL AND GENOME-WIDE NUCLEAR VARIATION PROVIDE SUPPORT FOR SECONDARY CONTACT FROM HISTORICAL REFUGIA Julio Chávez-Galarza; Dora Henriques; J. Spencer Johnston; Miguel Carneiro; José Rufino; John C. Patton; Maria Alice Pinto1. Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Centro de Investigação de Montanha, Bragança, Portugal.

1

ABSTRACT. Dissecting diversity patterns of organisms endemic to Iberia has been truly challenging for a variety of taxa, and the Iberian honey bee is no exception. Surveys of genetic variation in the Iberian honey bee are among the most extensive for any honey bee subspecies. From these, differential and complex patterns of diversity have emerged, which have yet to be fully resolved. Here we used a genome-wide dataset of 309 neutrally-tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), scattered across the 16 honey bee chromosomes, which were genotyped in 711 haploid males. These SNPs were analyzed along with an intergenic locus of the mtDNA, to reveal historical patterns of population structure across the entire range of the Iberian honey bee. Overall, patterns of population structure inferred from nuclear loci by multiple clustering approaches and geographic cline analysis, were consistent with two major clusters forming a well-defined cline that bisects Iberia along a northeasternsouthwestern axis, a pattern that remarkably parallels that of the mtDNA. While a mechanism of primary intergradation or isolation by distance could explain the observed clinal variation, our results are more consistent with an alternative model of secondary contact between divergent populations previously isolated in glacial refugia, as proposed for a growing list of other Iberian taxa. Despite current intense honey bee management, human-mediated processes have seemingly played a minor role in shaping Iberian honey bee genetic structure. This study highlights the complexity of the Iberian honey bee patterns and reinforces the importance of Iberia as a reservoir of Apis mellifera diversity.

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INTRA NEST DYNAMICS OF THE BUMBLEBEE BOMBUS ATRATUS (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) José Ricardo Cure1,3, Andrew Paul Gutierrez2,3, Sandy Padilla1, Daniel Rodriguez1, Diego Riaño1, Carlos Ariza1. Facultad de Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, ecologiadeabejas@ unimilitar.edu.co. 2 Professor of the Graduate School, College of Natural Resources, University of California, Berkeley, USA. 3 Research Fellow. Center for the Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Systems (www.casasglobal.org). * Project UMNG, CIAS-1569. 1

ABSTRACT. Considerable progresses has been made in modeling the weather-driven dynamics of growth and development of plants and other organisms, mainly insects, and their linkages to higher trophic levels. Much of the progress has involved the use of Physiologically Based Demographic Models (PBDMs) pioneered by the Gutierrez and colleagues (Gutierrez & Baumgartner; 1984; Gutierrez, 1996; Regev et al., 1998) at the University of California, Berkeley. The approach has early roots in the work of Fritzpatrick and Nix (1968) and de Wit & Goudriaan (1978). The underlying idea of PBDMs is that all organisms are consumers and have similar resource acquisition (inputs) and allocation (outputs) priorities with similar shaped functions. Based on analogies the dynamics of all species can be captured using the same resource acquisition and birth-death rates sub-models imbedded in an age-mass structured population model. Resource acquisition (i.e. the supply, S) is a search process driven by organism demand (D), while allocation occurs in priority order to egestion, conversion costs, respiration, and reproduction, growth, and reserves (Gutierrez & Baumgärtner, 1984). The ratio 0£S/D<1 is due to imperfect consumer search, and in the PBDM scales maximal growth rates of species in a time-place varying manner. The PBDM simulates the age-mass structured population dynamics of plant subunits and of pest and predator/parasitoid numbers. This approach models the biology of the species that when driven enables the model to predict the dynamics of the interacting species based on observed and climate model weather (see Gutierrez & Ponti, 2013). A bumblebee nest is initiated by a solitary queen. After first workers emergence the colony enters into a social phase. A very important trait of Bombus is that they build egg-cells, ovipositing more than one egg per cell; the cells are continually rebuilt as larvae growth and mature (Sladen , 1912). Bombus, like Apis, fed the larvae progressively through its development. The goal of a bumblebee colony, from the solitary initiation by the queen, to the social phase, is the production of the next generation of drones and gynes (future queens), and hence all colony activities are directed to that goal. Field studies of our research group with native bumblebees were begun in 1998, with B. atratus recognized as a very promising species to be reared in captivity and used as a pollinator because it can develop good colonies in artificial chambers, its capacity to thrive in grasslands, and its broad geographical distribution (Aldana et al. 2007; Cruz et al. 2007; Riaño et al. 2014; Lobaton et al. 2012; Romero et al. 2013). Basic important studies of the bionomics of B. atratus were those of Sakagami et al. (1967), Zucchi (1973), Garófalo et al. (1986), Silva-Matos & Garófalo (1995, 2000) and Gonzalez et al (2004). In this study, the dynamics of 31 individual field colonies of B. atratus and 9 laboratory colonies were followed from the time the new-mated queens were placed into the rearing boxes to the emergence of all her progeny. The founder queen carried out daily counts of cells, larvae, pupae and adults from the beginning of colony initiation. In one colony the increase in grams as colony grows were following up. The laboratory colonies were all kept inside rearing chambers and fed manually (Pacateque et al. 2012). To calculate the cumulative number of the different stages the increment from one sample to the next was calculated according to Eq.1 (Gutierrez et al.1998): ANAIS DO XI ENCONTRO SOBRE ABELHAS, 2015 RIBEIRÃO PRETO, SP, BRASIL

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where stgi-1 is the number of individuals observed in the previous sampling, stgi is the actual observed number, DT is the developmental time in days for the stage, and TIME is the time interval in days from stgi-1 to stgi. The biology of Bombus colony dynamics is embedded in an Erlang distributed maturation time demographic model (Vansickle 1977, DiCola et al. 1999) used here to simulate the age structured population of the bumble bee colony starting from its initiation by the founder queen until the death of the queen and the production of next generation drones and queens (e.g. gynes). The colony model consists of an individual based models of the founder queen and of subunit populations for the number (N) and mass (M) dynamics. The model simulates population dynamics of age-mass structure of six functional populations (n = 1…6) of the workers {morph sub models n=1, 2}, drones {3, 4} and gynes {5, 6}. The mathematics of the model are found in Gutierrez et al. (2008) and Gutierrez & Ponti (2013). For convenience, separate models are used for the egg, larvae, pupae and adults stages of each morph (Si=egg, larval, pupa, adult) each having stage-specific characteristics (e.g., with the outflow of the last age class of a stage (yi (t)) entering the first age class of the next stage (xi+1, 0(t)), and all eggs produced by the adult stage entering the first age class of eggs as x0(t). Birth and death mortality rates and rates of growth and development through the different life stages and sub-stages of the life cycle depend on temperature (Heinrich 2004), measured in physiological units (degree days) and on the interplay between the demand and the supply of pollen and nectar. The demand includes metabolic costs and the supply is calculated via functional response sub-models. Preliminary results of the simulations at the individual colony level are consistent with the observed data. The aim of our study is to study populations of B. atratus at the local and regional levels and the understanding of the very plastic behavior observed in their colonies, from monogynyc, to polygynyc and perennial (Sakagami et al. 1967; Garófalo et at. 1986). This study is on their way. References Aldana J; J.R.Cure; M.T. Almanza; D. Vecil; D. Rodriguez (2007). Efecto de Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) sobre la productividad de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) bajo invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia. Agronomía Colombiana, 25: 62-72. Cruz P; M.T.Almanza; J.R.Cure (2007). Logros y perspectivas de la cría de abejorros del genero Bombus en Colombia. Revista Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, 3: 49-60. de Wit C.T.; Goudriaan J. (1978). Simulation of ecological processes, 2nd edn. – PUDOC Publishers, The Netherlands, pp. Di Cola G.; G. Gilioli; J. Baumgaertner (1999). Mathematical models for age-structured population dynamics, pp. 503Ð534. In C. B. Huffaker and A. P. Gutierrez (eds.), Ecological Entomology, Second ed. Wiley, New York, NY. Fitzpatrick, E.A.; H. A. Nix. (1968). The climatic factor in Australian grasslands ecology, pp. 3-26. In R.M. Moore (ed.). Australian grasslands, Australian National University Press. Garófalo, C.A.; R. Zucchi; G. Muccillo (1986). Reproductive studies of a neotropical bumblebee, Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Rev. Brasil. Genet. (Brazil. J.Genetics), 9: 231-243. González, V; A. Mejía; C. Rasmussen (2004). Ecology and Nesting Behavior of Bombus atratus Franklin in Andean Highlands (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 13: 234-242. Gutierrez, A.P., (1996). Applied population ecology: a supply-demand approach. – John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA, 300 pp. Gutierrez, A.P.; J.U.Baumgärtner (1984). Multitrophic level models of predator-prey energetics: II. A realistic model of plant-herbivore-parasitoid-predator interactions. Can. Entomol., 116: 933-949. Gutierrez A.P.; L.Ponti (2013). Eradication of invasive species: why the biology matters. Environmental Entomology 42: 395-411. Gutierrez, A; A. Villacorta; J.R.Cure; K.Ellis (1998). Tritrophic Analysis of the Coffe (Coffea arabica) ANAIS DO XI ENCONTRO SOBRE ABELHAS, 2015

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– Coffee Berry Borer [Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari)] – Parasitoid System. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 27: 357-385. Gutierrez A.P.; L. Ponti; T. d’Oultremont; C.K. Ellis (2008). Climate change effects on poikilotherm tritrophic interactions. Climatic Change 87: S167-S192. Heinrich, B. (2004). Bumblebee Economics. Harvard University Press. Massachusetts, USA. 245 pp. Lobatón, J.D.; J.R.Cure; M.T. Almanza (2012). Fenología y oferta floral de trébol rojo Trifolium pratense (Fabales: Fabaceae) en praderas de kikuyo Penissetum clandestinum (Poales: Poaceae), como fuente de alimento para Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) en Cajicá, Colombia. Revista Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, 8:18-27. Pacateque, J.; P. Cruz; M.L. Aguilar; J.R. Cure (2012). Efecto de la alimentación vía bolsillo en etapas tempranas de desarrollo de Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Revista Colombiana de Entomología, 38: 343-346. Regev, U.: A. P. Gutierrez, S. J. Schreiber & D. Zilberman (1998). Biological and Economic Foundations of Renewable Resource Exploitation. Ecol. Econ. 26: 227-242. Riaño, D.; M. Veloza; J.R. Cure; M.T. Almanza (2014). Desarrollo de dos colonias de Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) mantenidas bajo dos modos de alimentación. Revista Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, 10: 132-141. Romero, E.; C. Pinilla; J.R. Cure; D. Riaño; S. Padilla; M.L. Aguilar (2013). Desarrollo de un escenario de campo para el estudio de especies nativas de abejorros (Bombus spp.) de los Andes Colombianos (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Revista Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, 9: 200-211. Romero, E; C. Pinilla; J.R. Cure; D. Riaño; S. Padilla; M.L. Aguilar (2013). Desarrollo de un escenario de campo para el estudio de especies nativas de abejorros (Bombus spp.) de los Andes Colombianos (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Revista Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, 9: 200-211. Sakagami, S.F.; Y. Akahira; R. Zucchi (1967). Nest architecture and brood development in a neotropical bumblebee, Bombus atratus. Insectes Soc., 14: 389-413. Silva-Matos, E.V.; C.A. Garófalo (1995). Observations on the development of queenless colonies of Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera, Apidae). J. Apic. Res., 34: 177-185. Silva-Matos, E.V.; C.A. Garófalo (2000) Worker life tables, survivorship, and longevity in colonies of Bombus (Fervidobombus) atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Rev. Biol. Trop, 48(2/3): 657-664. Sladen, F.W.L. (1912). The humble bee, its life-history and how to domesticate it. London. Macmillan and Company. 283 pp Vansickle, J. 1977. Attrition in distributed delay models. IEEE T. Syst. Man. Cyb. 7: 635-638. Zucchi, R. (1973) Aspectos bionômicos de Exomalopsis aureopilosa e Bombus atratus incluindo considerações sobre a evolução do comportamento social (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Tese de Doutoramento. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto; Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. 172 pp.

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CHARACTERIZATION OF POPULATION OF MOURELLA CAERULEA (FRIESE, 1900) AND PLEBEIA NIGRICEPS (FRIESE, 1901) (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINI) THROUGH GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRICS OF WINGS, ANALYSIS OF CUTICULAR HYDROCARBONS AND MTDNA Juliana Galaschi; Tiago Mauricio Francoy. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. ABSTRACT. Mourella caerulea and Plebeia nigriceps are two stingless bee species with occurrence in the South region of Brazil. Both are important pollinators of native flora and crops. M. caerulea is related to Pampa biome and place nests on the ground. P. nigriceps occurs in both Pampa biome and Atlantic Rain Forest. The population variability of these species was evaluated with three techniques: wing geometric morphometrics, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) profiles and sequencing of fragments from mitochondrial DNA genes. We collected workers from 24 colonies for M. caerulea from five localities, and 53 colonies of P. nigriceps from eight localities in Rio Grande do Sul state. For geometric morphometrics analyses, we used 13 landmarks plotted in the right forewing of five to 20 workers per nest. The fragments of mtDNA genes used for the molecular approach were from Cytochrome Oxidase I for M. caerulea and Cytochrome B for P. nigriceps. The morphometric approach discriminated the populations of M. caerulea from different localities (α<0,0001). The morphometric distances are correlated to geographic distances and go along with the physiographic regions of Pampa biome. CHC profiles differentiated the colonies of M. caerulea from different localities, but chemical distances are not in agreement with geographic distances. We found six haplotypes with a nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.01631 and a haplotype diversity (Hd) of 0.74. For P. nigriceps, morphometric analysis was significant separating localities and in accordance with the geographic distances and biomes. CHC distinguished the colonies, but there was no significant correlation between this result and the geographic distances or biomes. mtDNA revealed 17 haplotypes with π = 0.0147 and a Hd = 0.94. The discovery of different exclusives haplotypes, the morphometric and CHC profiles when comparing population belonging to different biomes indicate that we need to give a particular attention for these species at the moment of create conservation strategies for both biomes from Rio Grande do Sul. M. caerulea deserves a special concern once it is the only species of the monospecific genera, and its populations are distant between themselves.

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FILOGEOGRAFIA E DEMOGRAFIA HISTÓRICA DE PARTAMONA RUSTICA (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, MELIPONINI), UMA ABELHA ENDÊMICA DE ÁREAS SECAS DO BRASIL Elder A. Miranda; Marco A. Del Lama. Programa de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brasil. RESUMO: As áreas secas da América do Sul se expandiram durante o Pleistoceno com a descontinuidade entre a Floresta Atlântica e a Floresta Amazônica. Pouco se conhece sobre os padrões filogeográficos, sobre os processos e eventos que influenciaram na diversificação de espécies endêmicas destas áreas. Partamona rustica ocorre no Brasil em regiões de campos cerrados do norte de Minas Gerais e áreas de caatinga no sudoeste da Bahia. O objetivo do presente estudo foi elucidar o padrão filogeográfico e a demografia histórica de populações de P. rustica ao longo de sua área de distribuição total. Os resultados utilizando quatro mtDNA e oito locos SSR indicaram a existência de dois grupos (leste e oeste), separados pelo Rio São Francisco. O tempo estimado pela análise de coalescência indicou que a separação entre os grupos ocorreu há 132,7 Kybp (HPD 95% = 222,7 – 69,7 Kybp). A análise Continuous Phylogeography mostrou o possível centro de origem da espécie no sudoeste da Bahia, localizado na Serra do Espinhaço, e datado por volta de 210 mil anos atrás, de onde houve a dispersão para as áreas ao sul e leste da Chapada Diamantina, ao norte da Serra do Espinhaço, e ao oeste do Rio São Francisco. Além disto, propomos por meio de Continuous Phylogeography e Modelagem de Nicho Ecológico a possível rota de colonização das áreas ao oeste do Rio São Francisco. Frente ao grau de endemismo e às constantes ameaças antrópicas nestas áreas, os resultados aqui apresentados reforçam a necessidade de mais estudos relacionados às áreas secas da Região Neotropical.

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TETRAGONISCA ANGUSTULA: WIDE DISTRIBUTION AND REMARKABLE GENETIC STRUCTURE Maria Cristina Arias1; Flavio O. Francisco; Leandro R. Santiago; Yuri M. Mizusawa; Benjamin P. Oldroyd. Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

1

ABSTRACT. The stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula Latreille 1811 is one of the most widespread bee species in the Neotropics, distributed from Mexico to Argentina. However, its wide distribution contrasts with the low distance that females travel to build new nests. Previous genetic structure studies of T. angustula are discordant. These studies were based on nuclear markers and on small and/ or limited sample size. Here we evaluate the genetic structure of several populations of T. angustula by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellites. At inter-populations level we verified high genetic differentiation for both markers, although it was higher for mtDNA. Within populations, we found low mtDNA diversity but moderate to high nuclear diversity. This scenario suggests queen philopatry and ancient bottlenecks during Pleistocene and males higher dispersal capability.

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SIMPÓSIO 7 Taxonomia e Biogeografia de Abelhas Coordenador: Eduardo A. B. Almeida

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EXTREME MORPHOLOGIES IN EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS: BEES OF THE ATACAMA DESERT Laurence Packer. Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ABSTRACT. The Atacama Desert is the driest in the world and one of the oldest. In many areas rainfall averages less than 1mm per year, but with enormous variance. Bees are found in the desert in numerous habitats, from coastal fog oases, to inland oases where the water table from Andean mountain runoff comes close to the surface, river valleys and high altitude moister areas. In the far north, rainfall is primarily in summer (the “invierno Boliviano”), whereas to the south rainfall is primarily in the winter. The bee diversity of the high altitude, summer rainfall area has been poorly surveyed and some very unusual bees have been found there. Many of the more interesting desert bees specialize on collecting pollen and nectar from flowers of the solanaceous genus Nolana, which is the most speciose genus of flowering plant in the Atacama, often with very deep nectaries. Several bee lineages have evolved to specialize on flowers of this genus, including Nolanomelissa toroi, which belongs to a monotypic tribe; all but one species of Neofidelia and at least two species groups of Xeromelissa. These bees often have enormously elongate mouthparts, with Xeromelissa rozeni being one of the most extreme. This bee has enormously elongate maxillary palpomeres 3 and 4, which form a tube through which I suspect nectar rises by capillary action. Nolana is a very young plant genus according to dated molecular phylogenies. Interestingly, some of the Nolana specialist bee lineages diverged from their nearest common ancestor seemingly well before the origin of their current floral hosts.

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PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF CORBICULATE BEES (APIDAE: APINAE: APINI) INFERRED FROM NEW DATA FROM INTERNAL STRUCTURES OF EXOSKELETON Diego Sasso Porto; Eduardo A. B. Almeida. Laboratório de Biologia Comparada e Abelhas (LBCA), Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto (FFCLRP), Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. ABSTRACT. A remarkable diversity of social behaviors in Apidae, ranging from strictly solitary taxa to groups showing highly sophisticated behaviors related to life in society. One of the most fascinating groups included into this family are the corbiculate bees (Apidae: Apini). Amongt its four subtribes, Apina and Meliponina comprise the so-called “fixed-caste eusocial” groups; Bombina includes “totipotent-caste eusocial”; and the majority of the Euglossina is represented by solitary species. Phylogenetic relationships of corbiculate bees have been under intense controversy for the last two decades mainly due to incongruences between distinct sources of data. Molecular datasets support a scenario with the clade Bombina+Meliponina whereas the majority of the morphological and/or behavioral datasets recover the clade Apina+Meliponina. These controversies hamper a robust understanding of the evolution of eusocial traits in Apini. One of the possible alternatives suggested to clarify the “corbiculate controversy” is the inclusion of new sources of data from still underexplored portions of the morphology. In this talk, the results of a comparative morphological study of head capsule and mesosoma of corbiculate bees will be discussed, accompanied by phylogenetic analyses exploring the new sources of information from internal skeletal structures of these organisms. Also, it was attempted to standardize the current morphological terminology used for bees to that used for other Hymenoptera. In total, more than 100 morphological terms used for internal and some external structures of head capsule and mesosoma of bees were evaluated. For the comparative study, representatives of 25 species pertaining to the family Apidae were chosen, 15 encompassing the tribe Apini and 10 from eight other tribes. Three sets of analyses were undertaken and the cladistics analysis of the complete morphological matrix with 93 characters from external morphology and 42 from internal structures of exoskeleton resulted into two most parsimonious trees with 376 steps, CI=45 and RI=78. The Apini were recovered as the sister group of a monophyletic Centridini; each subtribe is also recovered as a clade and their phylogenetic relationships were congruent with the current morphological/behavioral hypothesis for the phylogeny of corbiculate bees: Euglossina + (Bombina + (Apina + Meliponina)). In the Euglossina, the cleptoparasite genus Exaerete is found sister to the remainder genera, and in Meliponina the Neotropical species group into a clade. The main sources of phylogenetic informative characters from internal structures where prevenient from sitophore, tentorium, prosternum, meso/metafurca, and mesophragma. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that characters built from internal structures of exoskeleton (e.g., phragmata, furcae, apodemes), although poorly explored, can provide critical evidence to elucidate the “corbiculate controversy”. In total, they offered 18 unique derived character-states supporting groupings inside the corbiculate clade. It is also discussed the possibility of including fossil morphological data coupled with new technologies for anatomical studies (e.g., MRI, CLSM, CT-Scan) could open new windows for comparative morphological studies in bees, particularly for Apini. Keywords: Apina, Bombina, comparative morphology, Euglossina, eussociality, Meliponina, Systematics. ANAIS DO XI ENCONTRO SOBRE ABELHAS, 2015 RIBEIRÃO PRETO, SP, BRASIL

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Financial support: São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) fellowships # 2012/22261-8 and # 2014/10090-0 to D.S.Porto; FAPESP grant # 2011/09477-9 to E.A.B.Almeida.

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STATE OF THE ART AND CHALLENGES OF THE TAXONOMY OF THE SPECIES OF THE TRIBE CENTRIDINI (APIDAE: APINAE) Felipe Vivallo. HYMN Laboratório de Hymenoptera, Departamento de Entomologia, Museu Nacional/ Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Quinta da Boa Vista-São Cristóvão CEP 20940-040 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. ABSTRACT. Centridini includes the most important and abundant species of non-corbiculate bees of the New World. This tribe contains approximately 300 species divided into two genera, Centris and Epicharis, both widely distributed in the continent. Due de high number of species described and the lack of modern taxonomic revisions, the identification of the species of this tribe is very difficult, despite of being well represented in entomological collections and profusely cited in scientific papers. In this work are presented the main identification problems at species level and challenges of the taxonomy of the species of Centris and Epicharis, highlighting the efforts that are currently done to known the real species richness of both genera of oil-collecting solitary bees. Among the endemic groups of America, Centridini represents the most abundant, important and diverse group of noncorbiculate bees of the New World. This tribe of solitary bees has approximately 300 species divided into two genera: Epicharis and Centris, both of which are widely distributed in the Neotropics. The first genus contains 35 species grouped in nine subgenera mainly distributed in South America, while the second one has about 250 valid species grouped into 12 subgenera widely distributed in the continent, from southern Chile and Argentina to southern United States. The large number of described taxa and the lack of modern revisions make the taxonomy of species of all subgenera of the tribe very confuse, being at this time only reviewed Centris (Wagenknechtia) and Epicharis (Hoplepicharis), along with the monotypic subgenera E. (Anepicharis), E. (Triepicharis) and E. (Cyphepicharis). This implies that most of the species of Centridini have not been studied taxonomically applying modern and comprehensive methods of analysis; the species of both Centris as Epicharis need urgent taxonomic revisions, especially those lineages widely distributed in South America. The different groups that occur in this region are very diverse and exhibit considerable morphological variation, being frequent the cases where this variation reaches extreme situations, with dichromatic specimens of both sexes as in C. (Centris) varia (Erichson), C. (Aphemisia) quadrimaculata Packard and Epicharis (Triepicharis) analis Lepeletier, or species with dimorphic males, as found in some Centris (Centris) and C. (Paracentris). Additionally, a large number of species of Centridini have synonymies, some of them apparently highly subjective, while on the other hand, there is also apparently a large number of undescribed species in virtually all subgenera. Notwithstanding the species of Centris and Epicharis are relatively abundant and well represented in entomological collections, the taxonomy at species level is particularly complex due to two factors: the large number of described species and the lack of modern revision works, being the monograph of the tribe published by Friese in 1901 the only existing revision group that includes all described species until the nineteenth century. This fact implies that a considerable number of species described during the following centuries are not present in the unique revision made on the group. An important additional problem is that most species of Centridini were described from type-series (apparently composed) and therefore the designation of lectotypes becomes an essential task to provide stability to the different specific names, allowing the correct identification of the described species, evaluate synonymies and/or revalidations, as well as to allow the recognition of new species. This difficulty is also increased by the fact that more than half of the type-material of the species of the tribe is housed in European museums, which have strict policies on loan of primary types, making often impossible to send those specimens to be studied in ANAIS DO XI ENCONTRO SOBRE ABELHAS, 2015 RIBEIRÃO PRETO, SP, BRASIL

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Brazil. An example of the urgent need to conduct a taxonomic revision of the species of the tribe is that by the high diversity of taxa, as well as by their wide distribution through the continent and their relative abundance in different ecosystems, they are frequently cited in scientific publications, mainly in wildlife species lists and in pollination studies, being extremely common to appear identified only at genus level, making difficult to associate the knowledge obtained in different researches with the species actually studied. This fact is noticeable by searching through electronic search engines (e.g., Google Scholar). Using this tool can be found that in the last 10 years were published over 200 scientific papers where the species of the tribe were identified only as “Centris sp” or “Epicharis sp”, including monographs, dissertations and doctoral theses. Unfortunately, this problem will endure until a complete taxonomic revision of the species of the tribe is completed. This work presents a state of the art of the taxonomy of species and subgenera of Centridini, highlighting the difficulty of identifying the species of the tribe and the efforts that have being made to known the real diversity of species of this important group of Neotropical bees. Keywords: Oil-bees, species diversity, solitary bees, New World. Financial support: Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (FAPERJ, grant E-26/110.416/2014), and Brazilian Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, grant 444320/2014-8).

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EVOLUTION OF FLORAL OIL-COLLECTING HABITS IN THE NEW WORLD OIL-BEES CENTRIS AND EPICHARIS (APINAE) Aline C. Martins1,4; Gabriel A. R. Melo2; Susanne S. Renner3. Laboratório de Filogenia e Genética da Conservação de Plantas. Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil; 2Laboratório de Biologia Comparada de Hymenoptera. Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil; 3 Botanische Staatsanstalten. Department of Biology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany; 4 Corresponding author: martinsalinec@gmail.com. 1

ABSTRACT. Most female bees provision their young with pollen and nectar collected in the flowers as reward for their service as pollinators. Some 450 species in the Apinae and Mellitinae collect fatty oils instead of nectar to provision their larvae and waterproofing their nests cells. About 2000 species in 11 angiosperm families produce this “alternative” reward to oil-bee pollinators in almost all continents. Undoubtedly polyphyletic, “oil bee/oil plant system” was explored using molecular clock dated phylogenies for bees and plants from the New World. In this region, the apine bees Centris, Epicharis, Tetrapedia and all tribe Tapinotaspidini collect floral oils. We focused on Centris and Epicharis, two solitary bee genera traditionally placed together in the “Centridini”, and their floral oil host families Malpighiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Krameriaceae, Iridaceae, Solanaceae and Calceolariaceae. Some species of Centris have lost the oil-collecting habit while all Epicharis collect oils, only from the malpigh flowers. We extensively sampled all subgenera of Centris (72 out of 230 described species) and Epicharis (22 out of 35), considering morphological and geographical differences among entities. Our bee DNA matrix included 4300 aligned nucleotides from four regions for about 170 taxa of Apinae and Megachilinae, and were calibrated using corbiculate bee fossils from Eocene and Miocene. We also molecular clock-dated the relevant oil-offering plant groups to reconstruct the framework of interactions among bees and plants though time (except for Malpighiaceae, whose age were gathered from the literature) using plastid and nuclear substitution rates. We plot the level of oil-host specialization, generalization, or loss of oil foraging on the bee phylogenetic tree and link specialization to geographic range sizes (km2) for 23 bee species. The resulting phylogeny for Apinae rooted in Megachilinae shows Centris as sister to the corbiculate bees and Epicharis sister to both, all with high support. The oldest oil plant clade, the Malpighiaceae, date to the Upper Cretaceous, while the others are progressively younger, roughly matching bee divergence times. Iridaceae and Nierembergia, here dated as originated in the Miocene, are sporadic partners of Centris, but mainly pollinated by a younger group of oil bees, Tapinotaspidini. The direction of host shifts is canalized by bees’ oil-collecting structures (particular combs on two or four legs) and is always from Malpighiaceae or Krameriaceae towards Calceolariaceae, Iridaceae, Plantaginaceae or Solanaceae. A possible link between host specialization and geographic range size could not be detected. Epicharis showed a long history of diversification in South America, with expansions to Central and tropical North America occurring only recently, in the last 3 My. Although the early diversification in Centris also occurred in South America, only Melacentris exhibits a pattern similar to Epicharis. Both groups, Melacentris and Epicharis, are strictly associated to Malpighiaceae flowers, a plant group occurring exclusively on humid tropical habitats. At least three events of diversification explains the occupation of dry temperate regions of South America by Centris species in the lineage Trachina and Centris. A different kind of oil exploitation, the two-legged pattern or the lack of it, emerged from this events of diversification in the absence of the primary oil host, Malpighiaceae, and Krameriaceae, both requiring a four-legged pattern of floral oil exploitation. On these dry areas, females collect oils from the thricomatic glands of Plantaginaceae and Calceolariaceae. The most remarkable biogeographical ANAIS DO XI ENCONTRO SOBRE ABELHAS, 2015 RIBEIRÃO PRETO, SP, BRASIL

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history occurred in the group Centris, which diversified in South America, but had moved to North America about 20 Mya, diversifying in many clades now exclusive from the Nearctics, including many non-oil-collecting species. One of the most speciose subgenera, Centris s. str., originated from within the North American lineages. The early history of diversification of the apine line, 90 Mya, entangle with the origin of the malpighs, consequently with the “floral oil” as an “evolutionary novelty” in humid warm habitats. In spite of that, the amazing diversity of species and forms seen in Centris reflects events of adaptation to “younger” floral oil hosts originated only 40 Mya after the origin of the floral oil syndrome, or rarely to the life without floral oil.

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SIMPÓSIO 8 Abelhas e Mudanças Globais: Impactos e Mitigação Coordenadores: Antônio Mauro Saraiva; Tereza Cristina Giannini

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ECOLOGICAL INTENSIFICATION FOR GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY: DIVERSE FAUNA CLOSE YIELD GAPS IN SMALL HOLDINGS OF AFRICA, ASIA, AND LATIN AMERICA Lucas Alejandro Garibaldi. Grupo de Investigación en Agroecología (AGRECO), Sede Andina, Universidad Nacional de Río Negro (UNRN) and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina. ABSTRACT. Closing gaps in crop yield while enhancing sustainability is one of the greatest challenges for achieving food security. Ecological intensification, the improvement of crop yield through ecosystem services, has been proposed as a sustainable pathway. However, data supporting such an approach are missing, especially for two billion small holders, many of which are undernourished. Hence, we quantified how crop yield varies with pollination services (flower-visitor density) through the same, coordinated protocol on 326 fields from 34 pollinator-dependent crop systems in small and large holdings of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. We found that 0-54% of yield gaps could be closed through higher flower-visitor density, depending on the crop system. Yield gaps can be closed to a higher degree for smaller holdings (19–54% for <2ha fields), and when honeybee dominance is lower (higher evenness). Therefore, ecological intensification creates win-win scenarios between wild biota and crop yield for small holdings worldwide.

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CLIMATE WARMING AND DIAPAUSE: BEES IN A HOTTER WORLD Charles Fernando dos Santos. Programa de Zoologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. ABSTRACT. Climate change is predicted to adversely affect various animal behaviors such as diapause. Diapause is a very common behavior in insects. Such phenomenon has been described as a gradual and progressive interruption in development or ontogeny of insect in some phase of its life cycle in order to survive unfavorable environmental conditions that occur cyclically. Recent studies indicate that over the next 50-100 years some bee species may be active during periods previously devoted to diapause due to the milder winters predicted to occur in coming decades. Here, we will discuss this issue using as model neotropical stingless bee species that inhabit the southern of South America. In this region, stingless bees like Plebeia spp. usually perform reproductive diapause during autumn/ winter by temporarily interrupting provisioning and oviposition process, regardless other ongoing tasks such as forage, waste removal, building of wax pillars/ involucres. Our research data indicated that a substantial part of the population these bees may has its diapause threaten due climate warming. Consequences are still unclear. But if that scenario is confirmed we can expect a larger future demand for floral resources (pollen and nectar) for this bee species to provide food for its larvae and energy reserves for adults during less rigorous winters in southern Brazil. Greater conservation efforts will be required then to maintain suitable areas for nesting, foraging, and sheltering to sustain these bees in coming decades.

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WILL BOMBUS TERRESTRIS REACH BRAZIL? A PREDICTIVE STUDY ABOUT A POTENTIAL INVASION Andre Luis Acosta1*; Tereza Cristina Giannini1,2; Vera Lúcia Imperatriz-Fonseca1,2; Antônio Mauro Saraiva1,3. Research Center on Biodiversity and Computing – BioComp (http://www.biocomp.org.br/). Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, travessa 3, n.158, 05508-900. São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil. 2Vale Institute of Technology - Sustainable Development. Rua Boaventura da Silva, n. 955, 66055-090. Belém, Pará State, Brazil. 3Department of Computing and Digital Systems Engineering. Polytechnic School, Universidade de São Paulo. Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, n.380, 05508-970. São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil. 1*

andreluisacosta@usp.br ABSTRACT. The bee Bombus terrestris is an efficient pollinator, providing important ecosystem services in Europe, where it is a native. Their colonies have been reared in large-scale for agricultural pollination, which are internationally traded, including for countries outside its native range. The species has been introduced into non-native environments, becoming invasive in many cases. When invasive, the species is a potential vector of diseases and competes with other bees for resources; many impacts have been reported in invaded countries. In South America, the species was introduced in Chile at first, but the invasion was quickly spread; nowadays it is found living in natural environments of Argentina. The high invasiveness and speed of its invasive expansion raised the possibility of the species reach Brazil through suitable environmental corridors connected with already invaded places, raising the concerns about impacts to natural and agricultural systems. In this work, we assessed of the potential of Bombus terrestris to reach Brazil by developing an interdisciplinary methodological approach, integrating a variety of analytical methods from different areas of ecology (e.g. Ecological Modeling, Landscape Ecology) to detect susceptible areas to new invasions and the potential spread from invaded places, considering also climate change. We mapped the susceptible areas to invasion at global scale; for the South America, were identified the corridors that could allow the species reach Brazil. For Brazil, the most susceptible municipalities at the entrance and spread of the species have been identified. Crops and native species of genus Bombus that the invasive species can interact in Brazil were verified. Priority areas were delineated, supporting the planning of monitoring and control actions of the invasion process, also preventive and mitigating measures of environmental and economic impacts after the invasion, if it eventually occurs. The developed methodology is promising for other studies about invasive species at large-scale. Keywords: Bombus terrestris, invasive species, susceptibility to invasion. Financial Support: FAPESP

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STINGLESS BEEKEEPING DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL MAY BE IMPAIRED MY EXTREME WEATHER CONDITIONS Sheina Koffler1; Cristiano Menezes2; Paulo Menezes3; Astrid De Matos Peixoto Kleinert1; Vera Lúcia Imperatriz-Fonseca1,4; Nathaniel Pope5; Rodolfo Jaffé4 Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, trav. 14, 321 (05508-090), São Paulo-SP, Brasil; 2Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Tv. Dr. Enéas Pinheiro s/n, C.P. 48 (66.095-100), Belém-PA, Brasil; 3Meliponário Mons. Huberto Bruening, Rua Julinha Paula, 180 (59628-720), Mossoró-RN, Brasil; 4Vale Institute of Technology -Sustainable Development, Rua Boaventura da Silva, 955 (66055-090), Belém-PA, Brazil; 5Department of Integrative Biology, 401 Biological Laboratories, University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712, USA. 1

RESUMO: Even though stingless beekeeping has a great potential as a sustainable development tool, the activity remains essentially informal, technical knowledge is scarce, and management practices lack the sophistication and standardization found in apiculture. Here we contributed to the further development of stingless beekeeping by investigating the long-term impact of management and climate on honey production and colony survival in the stingless bee Jandaíra (Melipona subnitida). We analyzed a ten year record of 155 Jandaíra colonies kept by a commercial honey producer of Northeastern Brazil. This constitutes the longest and most accurate record available for a stingless bee. We modeled honey production in relation to time, age, management practices (colony division and food supplementation) and climatic factors (temperature and precipitation), and used a model selection approach to identify which factors best explained honey production. We also modeled colony mortality in relation to climatic factors. Although the amount of honey produced by each colony decreased over time, we found that the probability of producing honey increased over the years. Colony divisions decreased honey production, but did not affect honey presence; while supplementary feeding positively affected honey production. In warmer years, the probability of producing honey decreased and the amount of honey produced was lower. In years with lower precipitation fewer colonies produced honey. In contrast, colony mortality was not affected by climatic factors, and some colonies lived up to nine years, enduring extreme climatic conditions. Our findings provide useful guidelines to improve management and honey production in stingless bees and alert that if global warming predictions are correct, honey production in drier areas of Brazil may be compromised. Keywords: honey production, meliponiculture, stingless bees. Financial support: CAPES, FAPESP (2012/13200-5), and the National Science Foundation of the USA.

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SAFEGUARDING ECOSYSTEM SERVICES: A METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK TO BUFFER THE JOINT EFFECT OF HABITAT CONFIGURATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE Tereza C. Giannini1,2,3*, Leandro R. Tambosi1, André L. Acosta1, Rodolfo Jaffé1, Antonio M. Saraiva2, Vera L. Imperatriz-Fonseca1,3, Jean Paul Metzger1. Department of Ecology, Institute of Bioscience, University of Sao Paulo (USP), R. do Matao 321, 05508– 090, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 2Computation and Digital Systems, Engineering School, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto 380, 05508–010, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 3Vale Institute of Technology Sustainable Development, Rua Boaventura da Silva 955, 66055– 090, Belém, Pará, Brazil. 1

*tereza.giannini@itv.org ABSTRACT. Biodiversity and ecosystem services are increasingly threatened by land use and climate changes, challenging the prioritization of new conservation and restoration areas and the adaptation of human activities face to those alterations. Here we propose a new methodological framework, which allows integrating species distribution modeling and graph theory to identify key areas to improve connectivity, considering climate change and landscape configuration. When applying this approach for species that promote ecosystem services, like pollinators, it is possible also to identify areas where these services will change. To illustrate, we applied the framework to a stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, a key pollinator of native flora from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, as well as an important pollinator of agricultural crops. Based on the bee species current distribution and that of plant species used by the bees to feed and nest, we projected the joint distribution of bees and plants in the future considering a moderate IPPC climate change scenario. We then used this information and the current mapping of Atlantic Forest remnants to infer habitat suitability into the distribution forecasts, and quantified local and regional landscape connectivity for 2030, 2050 and 2080, based on a graph theory approach and on the bee´s reported flight range. Our results revealed north to south and coastal to inland shifts in the pollinator distribution during the next 70 years. Current and future connectivity maps unraveled the most important corridors, which if protected or restored, could facilitate the dispersal and establishment of bees during distribution shifts. Landowners and governmental agencies can thus use this type of information to promote new agricultural practices. The proposed methodological framework can help to implement land use designs and agricultural practices that can buffer the joint effect of habitat configuration and climate change, contributing not only to support species finding new suitable areas when facing climate change, but also helping to face the future changes in the provision of ecosystem services.

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LANDSCAPE GENOMICS OF A KEY POLLINATOR FROM NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL: UNRAVELING LOCAL ADAPTATIONS IN THE STINGLESS BEE MELIPONA SUBNITIDA Rodolfo Jaffé1; Maria C. Arias2; Airton T. Carvalho3; Tereza C. Giannini1; Vera L. ImperatrizFonseca1; Robin F. A. Moritz4; Antonio M. Saraiva5. Vale Institute of Technology - Sustainable Development. Rua Boaventura da Silva # 955, 66055090 Belém-PA, Brazil; 2Department of Genetics and Evolutionary Biology, University of Sao Paulo. Rua do Matão 277, 05508-090 São Paulo-SP, Brazil; 3Department of Animal Sciences, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido. Avenida Francisco Mota 572, Mossoró-RN, Brazil; 4Molecular Ecology Research Group, Institut für Biologie, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle/Wittenberg, Hoher Weg 4, D 06099 Halle/Saale, Germany; 5Computation and Digital Systems, Engineering School, University of Sao Paulo. Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto 380, 05508-010, Sao Paulo-SP, Brazil. 1

ABSTRACT. Wild bee populations are increasingly threatened by climate change and the degradation of natural habitats. Pollinator declines could have important negative ecological and economic consequences, because they could hinder the maintenance of wild plant diversity, narrow ecosystem stability, reduce crop production, and decrease food security and human welfare. It is thus essential to understand the interplay between habitat degradation, climate change and the population dynamics of key wild pollinators. Using next generation sequencing (Illumina-RADseq) we identified nearly 30 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Melipona subnitida, one of the most important commercial stingless bee species of Northeastern Brazil. We genotyped 160 samples collected throughout the species distribution range, and employed novel landscape genomic tools to identify genetic polymorphisms exhibiting a significant association with environmental variables. After controlling for false discovery rate, we found between 3000 and 8000 candidate SNPs showing a significant association with temperature, precipitation, elevation and forest cover. We then identified the genes contained in these candidate SNPs and grouped them by function. Our results reveal local adaptations that could determine the future survival of wild Melipona subnitida populations. Based on our findings, we identify priority areas for conservation, which could help preserve these local adaptations. Our work is the first landscape genomics study in a non-model pollinator.

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STANDARDIZATION AND DIGITIZATION OF POLLINATOR-PLANT INTERACTION DATA Antonio Mauro Saraiva1, Etienne Americo Cartolano Jr1, Allan Koch Veiga1, Tereza Cristina Giannini1, Juliana Saragiotto Silva1,4, Marina Wolowski2, Kayna Agostini3. Universidade de São Paulo, SP. 2Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP. 3Universidade Federal de São Carlos, SP. 4Instituto Federal de Mato Grosso, MT.

1

ABSTRACT. Primary data of pollinators and plants are increasingly available on web portals that are the user`s access points to data networks that aggregate data from collections, museums, herbaria, and other data sources on specimens and observations. These data were digitized and their integration was facilitated by internationally accepted standards for biodiversity data, such as the Darwin Core (DwC), an effort of the Biodiversity Information Standards (or TDWG). Although data on the interactions between (potential) pollinators and the plants they visit are critically important to understand the role, importance and effectiveness of (potential) pollinators, they do not have the same ease of access, sharing and reuse. In many cases, these data exist and were collected as part of research related to pollinators or plants, but they have not been digitized along with the occurrence data (or specimen observation) since the predominant data standard (Darwin Core) did not support it. In other cases, data on interactions were digitalized, but did not follow an internationally accepted standard. This hinders or even impedes sharing, comparison and use of such data by users, as well as their integration and deployment in online data networks and portals. An initiative to address this issue started with the Pollinators Thematic Network (PTN), from the Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN), in 2006, with the support of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), which resulted in the definition of a simple interaction standard for data based on DwC. A later work, also supported by FAO, aimed to broaden the scope of this standard, but bumped into the great diversity of types of data collected by researchers, according to the different and varied purposes of their research. Now a new effort is starting to propose a standard for interactions data based on these previous initiatives. The goal is to obtain a pattern that can encompass many protocols and research interests, while maintaining the simplicity of use.

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SIMPÓSIO 9 Assinaturas Genômicas Coordenador: Francis M. F. Nunes

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GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION MAPPING FOR STUDYING THE GENETICS OF COMPLEX BEHAVIOURS IN HONEY BEES Amro Zayed. Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ABSTRACT. Although it is possible to carry out controlled genetic crosses in honey bees, cross-based genetic analyses of complex honey bee traits is time consuming and seldom yields high resolution data on the causal mutations that underlie honey bee traits. Here we pilot the use of next-generation sequencing in honey bee populations to study the genetics of two complex traits: hygienic behaviour and aggression. We show that genome-wide association mapping utilizing individual or pooled genome sequences offers an efficient method for characterizing the genetics underlying complex traits in honey bees.

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THE REPRODUCTIVE STATUS OF HONEYBEE OVARIES, LESSONS FROM TRANSCRIPTOME Zilá L. P. Simões. Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. ABSTRACT. In this study, we based ourselves on the extreme reproductive capacity of the queen ovaries and the ability of the worker to reverse its sterility to understand the complex process governing the reproduction in the eusocial insect Apis mellifera. We analyzed the genetic ‘non-protein-coding’ factors driving changes in the state of ovary activity and during the ontogenetic development. We performed deep sequencing of small RNAs from activated ovaries of workers along with validation of selected miRNAs in ovary samples of queens and workers undergoing distinct reproductive status and small RNAs and mRNAs embryos in progressing of development, from 0 h to 72 h. Most of the differentially expressed miRNAs found in the ovary library are related to ovary physiology or to the oogenesis process. In the library, miR-306, for example, was the most expressed one. It is a conserved miRNA described as important for germ cell differentiation, being highly expressed in activated ovaries either in workers or in queens, and less expressed in non-reproductive ovaries of both females. We selected 19 miRNAs among the more and less expressed, in order to compare their expression in inactive and activated ovaries of queens and workers. Furthermore, using modern bioinformatics tools and miRNA-target predictions, we reconstructed a partial gene regulatory network depicting the reproduction status in honeybees. Comparing these data with the expression of relevant miRNAs in worker’s activated and inactive ovaries, and ovaries from virgin and matted queens, we got insights to understand the dynamic of ovary activation in A. mellifera. Our findings show that the same miRNA is differently modulated in both types of ovaries, reproductive or not, but independently of the caste. This study is per se of relevance, either to insect experts or for researchers interested in developmental biology and environmentally induced phenotypic plasticity.

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FUNCTIONAL CROSSTALK BETWEEN DIET QUALITY AND AGING PROCESSES Felipe Martelli1, Tiago Falcón1, Daniel Guariz Pinheiro2, Zilá Luz Paulino Simões3, Francis Morais Franco Nunes4. Departamento de Genética, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil; 2Departamento de Tecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal, 14884-900, Brazil; 3 Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil; 4Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP, Brazil. 1

ABSTRACT. Nutrition, oxidative stress and gene expression regulation are features responsible for development and lifespan. Many animals have a well-established relationship between an increase in longevity and a decrease in reproduction when subjected to dietary restrictions. However, the biological circuit nutrition-longevity is not fully elucidated in organisms primarily infertile and whose food consumption varies during adulthood, such as honey bee workers A. mellifera. To explore such questions, newly-emerged A. mellifera workers were confined in cages and fed a high protein diet (PD) or a protein-free diet (PFD) for seven days. Workers from PFD group had lower survival and lower activation of hypopharyngeal glands than workers from PD group. The functional annotation of PFD group transcriptome revealed activation of response to stimuli, cell differentiation, cell migration, cell growth and development of neuronal projections. All these biological processes are consistent with naturally older workers, such the foragers. The functional annotation of PD group transcriptome revealed activation of protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and regulation of the immune system, features linked to younger workers, such nurses. Large-scale sequencing revealed that 436 protein-coding genes are diet-responsive (fold change > 2). Small RNAs sequencing revealed that three miRNAs are diet-responsive (fold change > 2), miR-31a, miR-100 and miR-125, all of them overexpressed in PFD group. Among these 439 coding (mRNA) and non-coding (miRNA) genes, 10 were validated in fatty bodies by RT-qPCR, and four of them showed a similar expression profile in brains in response to diets. Altogether, our results support the existence of an integrated biological circuit between head and fat body, which regulates different aspects of lifespan control and social behavior. Oxidative stress assay showed no difference between damage accumulation in honeybees’ heads from PD and PFD groups; maybe supporting the existence of a sharp resistance or antioxidant defense in the nervous system, protecting it. On the other hand, we observed a greater accumulation of oxidative stress markers in fat bodies of PFD, suggesting a deficit of antioxidant response, an aging feature. The CHC profiles are similar between PD group workers and young workers (high proportion of n-alkanes), and also similar between PFD group workers and old workers (high proportion of alkenes).Taken together, our results suggest that protein-free diet anticipates aging process and provides new markers of nutritional status and progression of workers adult development.

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MASS SPECTRAL IMAGING OF HONEYBEE BRAIN: IN SITU PROTEOMICS PAVING THE WAY TO RELATE SOCIAL BEHAVIORS TO NEUROCHEMICAL REGULATION Mario Sergio Palma. Departamento de Biologia, Instituto de BiociĂŞncias de Rio Claro, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, SP, Brasil. ABSTRACT. Apis mellifera is a social insect with many fascinating behaviors, including the bee (waggle) dance, which is a highly developed and complex way of communication, and very accurate long distance navigation capacity. Due to these abilities, and despite its tiny brain, honey bees have been considered a model organism in neurobiology for many years, and tremendous efforts have been made to understand the principles of learning and memory. In contrast to vertebrate species, which may also exhibit a distinct social behavior, insects operate with much fewer brain neurons. The communication between these nerve cells is, relatively similar to that of other vertebrates / invertebrates, in which messenger molecules such as neurotransmitter and neuromodulators are responsible for the information transfer through the nervous system. Among the messenger molecules, neuropeptides show the highest degree of structural diversity and play vital roles both as neuromodulators within the nervous system and as hormones released from neurohemal sites or endocrine cells into the circulation. Thus neuropeptides occupy a high hierarchic position in the coordination of physiological events, and are likely to be involved in processes related with communication, learning and memory. It is therefore surprising that, until recently, neuropeptide research in honeybees few exploited. Concomitantly, it was completely unknown whether neuropeptides complexity is somehow numerically related to degrees of social complexity in insects. Generally these neuropeptides are produced from their corresponding precursor proteins by cleavage at specific sites, followed by additional posttranslational modifications, specially the C-teminus amidation. The availability of genome sequences associated to the use of modern mass spectrometric methods, provided new approaches for studying these neuropeptides under different behavioral situation. We decided to apply a state-of-art mass spectrometry analysis to understand the regulation neuropeptides in honey bee brain during the aggressive behavior of stinging. Mass spectral imaging (MSI) using a MALDI-TOF-TOF instrument and LC-IT-TOF-MS and MSn analysis of honey bee brain permitted the detection of about 41 different neuropeptides and their precursor proteins at different brain regions. A series of different mature neuropeptides were reported to be resulting from a same precursor protein, like Allatostatin and Tachykinin. MSI analysis provided a clear view about the precursors distribution and degradation during the aggressive action; some neuropeptides seems to be clearly produced and accumulated during the stinging behavior, while other neuropeptides were degraded during this action.

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SIMPÓSIO 10 Ecologia de Paisagens Coordenador: Danilo Boscolo

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LANDSCAPE GENETICS OF A TROPICAL RESCUE POLLINATOR Rodolfo Jaffé1; Antonio Castilla; Nathaniel Pope; Vera Lucia Imperatriz-Fonseca; Jean Paul Metzger; Maria Cristina Arias; Shalene Jha. Instituto Tecnológico Vale, Instituto Tecnológico Vale - Belém I. Belém, PA, Brazil.

1

ABSTRACT. Pollination services are increasingly threatened by the loss and modification of natural habitats, posing a risk to the maintenance of both native plant biodiversity and agricultural production. In order to safeguard pollination services, it is essential to examine the impacts of habitat degradation on the population genetics of key pollinators and identify potential ‘rescue pollinators’ capable of persisting in these heterogeneous landscapes. Using landscape genetic tools, we assessed the impact of landscape structure on gene flow in the widely-distributed tropical stingless bee Trigona spinipes (Apidae: Meliponini) across coffee landscape mosaics composed of coffee plantations and Atlantic forest fragments in southeastern Brazil. We genotyped 115 bees at 16 specific and highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, developed using next-generation sequencing. Our results reveal that T. spinipes is capable of dispersing across remarkably long distances, as samples separated by more than 200 km were found to belong to one panmictic population, and no fine-scale spatial genetic structure was found. Furthermore, gene flow was not affected by forest cover, land cover, or elevation, indicating that reproductive individuals are able to disperse well through agricultural landscapes and across an elevation gradient ranging between 660 and 1800 m. Our results thus suggest that T. spinipes can persist in heavily-altered landscapes and can be regarded as a rescue pollinator, potentially compensating for the decline of other native pollinators in degraded landscapes.

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EROSÃO DA HISTÓRIA CO-EVOLUTIVA DAS INTERAÇÕES PLANTA-POLINIZADOR SOB A FRAGMENTAÇÃO DO HÁBITAT Marcelo A. Aizen. Laboratorio Ecotono-CRUB, Universidad Nacional del Comahue and INIBIOMA, Quintral 1250, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina. RESUMO. A semelhança entre espécies em características morfológicas e funcionais, que moldam as interações ecológicas, é frequentemente associada com uma ancestralidade comum. Assim, a semelhança fenotípica entre espécies relacionadas filogeneticamente pode resultar em uma tendência a interagir com assembleias ecológicas semelhantes de espécies parceiras, um padrão que pode ser reforçado por diversos processos co-evolutivos. O grau em que o sinal filogenético em interações interespecíficas e congruência filogenética planta-animal são afetados pela fragmentação do habitat é uma pergunta sem resposta. Aqui avaliei em que medida o sinal filogenético e congruência cofilogenética das interações planta-animal dependem do tamanho do habitat e isolamento. Para este objetivo analisei a estrutura filogenética de 12 redes de polinização de serras isoladas, variando de dezenas a milhares de hectares, projetando-se a partir duma paisagem agrícola nas planícies das Pampas. O sinal filogenético em interações interespecíficas diferiu entre redes de polinização, e foi mais forte para insetos visitantes florais do que para as plantas com flores. O sinal filogenético e o grau de congruência filogenética aumentaram de forma independente com o tamanho da serra e do isolamento. Com base nestes resultados, proponho que a fragmentação do habitat corrói a estrutura filogenética de redes de interação. Para interações planta-polinizador, uma diminuição do sinal filogenético e correspondência co-filogenética podem estar associadas com um mutualismo menos confiável e a uma mudança co-evolutiva mais errática.

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INFLUÊNCIA DA PERDA DE HÁBITAT FLORESTAL SOBRE AS COMUNIDADES DE ABELHAS EUGLOSSINI (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE), EM PAISAGENS FRAGMENTADAS NA FLORESTA ATLÂNTICA, BRASIL Maxwell Souza Silveira1*; Eduardo Freitas Moreira1; Danilo Boscolo2; Blandina Felipe Viana1. Laboratório de Biologia e Ecologia de Abelhas (LABEA), Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia. Rua Barão de Geremoabo, s/n, Campus de Ondina, Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, CEP 40170-210. 2Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de São Paulo. Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, Vila Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil. CEP 14040901. 1

silveiramaxwell75@gmail.com RESUMO. Neste estudo, avaliamos o padrão de resposta das espécies de Euglossini em função de um gradiente de redução de cobertura florestal da Floresta Atlântica, entre 60% e 10%. A avaliação da existência de limiares de extinção é importante porque paisagens com proporções de hábitat abaixo dos níveis críticos podem conduzir a declínios populacionais abruptos ou outras mudanças ecológicas. Tais limiares são difíceis de identificar, considerando que as paisagens são heterogêneas e que espécies ou processos ecológicos distintos podem apresentar diferentes respostas a supressão florestal. Para o estudo foram selecionadas 12 paisagens de 6x6 km. Em cada paisagem, foram sorteados 16 pontos amostrais: oito em interior de floresta e oito em área não florestada. Para identificar os padrões de resposta da riqueza de espécies e da abundância da comunidade geral, bem como grupos de espécies dependentes e não dependentes de floresta, em função do gradiente de redução da cobertura florestal, testamos três modelos: 1) Modelo Linear Generalizado (GLM); 2) Piecewise, e; 3) Modelo nulo. Nossos resultados mostraram que a riqueza de espécies decresce gradativamente conforme a quantidade de cobertura florestal na paisagem vai sendo reduzida. Esses achados reforçam a dificuldade na detecção e determinação de limiares para comunidades bióticas e principalmente em encontrar congruência de resultados entre comunidades. Palavras-chave: Conservação, ecologia da paisagem, limiares de extinção, supressão florestal.

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HABITAT LOSS IMPACTS ON PLANT-POLLINATOR NETWORKS IN TROPICAL ATLANTIC RAINFOREST NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL Patrícia Alves Ferreira1; Danilo Boscolo; Luciano Elsinor Lopes; Luísa G. Carvalheiro; Jacobus C. Biesmeijer; Pedro Luis Bernardo Da Rocha; Blandina Felipe Viana. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

1

ABSTRACT. Mutualistic interactions between plants and pollinators play an important role in the organization and persistence of biodiversity. The structure of the interaction network affects the resilience of ecosystems. Conservation of these interactions may be more important for maintaining biodiversity and ecological services than the preservation of isolated species in fragmented environments. We investigated whether there are effects of habitat loss and landscape changes on the structure of plant-pollinator networks in the understory of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. We explored the role of landscape configuration, the quantity and spatial pattern of forest remnants on the structure of plant-bee interaction networks. Our results indicate that habitat loss affects the structure of plantbee networks of the fragmented Atlantic Rainforest. Not only network size (number of species) was positively influenced by the amount of available forest in the landscape, but network nestedness declined with mean patch area and increased with more irregular patch shapes. We consider that the reduction of habitat may have determined the loss of species. In those simplified networks, the increased nestedness mean that the remaining generalist plant and bee species tend to interact with each other in a more widespread way, and many of the possible interactions in the network are actually fulfilled. Similarly, the positive effect of more irregular patch shapes in nestedness might lead to higher frequency of specialists interactions with generalists, due to edge effects, and lower presence of specialists, with more generalists in the remain forest patches. Generalist species generate a cohesive interaction core in these networks. The nested organization can keep the robustness of the interaction web in these fragmented landscapes. This may be an indication of landscape quality, where smaller networks with many generalist species highly connected among them indicate landscapes with fewer remaining available habitat. Our results add a new perspective to studies of plant-pollinator networks in fragmented landscapes, as those interaction networks might also be used as indicators of the impacts of natural habitat changes on biodiversity conservation.

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ENVIRONMENTAL HETEROGENEITY AND THE ENHANCEMENT OF BEE POLLINATION SERVICES IN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES Danilo Boscolo1; Eduardo Freitas Moreira; Rafaela Lorena Silva Santos; Lady Catalina Angel Coca; Jefferson Gabriel; Blandina Felipe Viana. Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

1

ABSTRACT. Pollination in tropical environments is a process mostly dependent on bees’ abilities to move between flowering plants while foraging. In order to survive and effectively transfer pollen year round, these bees must not only access flowers, but also several other resources dispersed within different environments. Landscape structure thus greatly affects the availability of pollinators and their accessibility to these resources and crops. The shape, size and spatial arrangement of natural environments, as well as the existence of different types of land use, can create varying degrees of landscape quality and permeability, interfering with the maintenance of pollination services. Efforts to improve the ability of bees to move through the landscape and ensure effective pollen transfer and the production of fruits and seeds is thus of paramount importance in agricultural landscapes. I will present recent research done mostly in Brazilian landscapes with intense agricultural influence. The results show that we can guarantee sustainable bee populations by creating landscapes that are sufficiently heterogeneous within their foraging ranges. Pollination-efficient agricultural landscapes must have crops interspersed by natural environments in several spatial scales, creating a variety of environments that can promote the conservation of local bee diversity while maintaining pollination services. This shall allow bees accessibility to all their required resources as well as to pollinationdependent crops. I argue that a wider view of landscapes as complex and diverse entities is needed to plan pollination sustainable agricultural landscapes.

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WEIGHT AND SIZE OF MELIPONA QUEENS AND HOW THESE MEASUREMENTS RELATE TO THE HIVE POPULATION AND THE SIZE OF WORKERS (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, MELIPONINAE) Davi Said Aidar1; Joice Cleide Toga Maciel2; Brenda Meirelles3 Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias-FCA; Departamento de Produção Animal e Vegetal-DPAV; Laboratório de Abelhas-LABEL; Universidade Federal do Amazonas-UFAM; Av. Rodrigo Otávio, 3000, 69077-000, Manaus, AM, Brasil. 1,2,3

davisaidaidar@gmail.com Meliponiculture has shown technological progress and remarkable growth in activity during the last few decades, with considerable growth of specific zootechnical indices. There is plenty of research trying to establish the phenotypical characteristics of queen bees and to correlate it to reproductive capacity so as to determine selection parameters. There is positive correlation between the sizes of queens and their daughters (workers) in the Apis melifera and Melipona seminigra merrillae species. The queen weight and size factors in these species may be used as selection criteria for honey production improvement. The objective of this writing is to study Melipona compressipes manaoensis and verify whether weight and size of their queens influence the size of workers and of the colony. The experiments were carried out in the Bee Laboratory (LABEL) of the Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus-AM, Brazil. Five hives of Melipona compressipes manaoensis (jupará) were assessed. The assessment measured the queen and ten workers for each generation in the five hives, totaling fifty-five bees in each generation. The final total was two hundred and seventyfive bees. The SISVAR Statistical Program, developed at the Lavras Federal University, was used to generate the correlation between the queen and worker bees weights, and between the weight of the queen and size of the population. T test and linear regression were used. We observed that the weight of Melipona compressipes manaoensis mated queens bears direct correlation to the number of individuals in a colony. The correlation between weight and size of the queen and the weight of the worker bees were also significant in the studied species. There fore, selecting the largest queens will bring greater productivity to the Melipona beekeeper, as well as stronger and more resistant colonies, which also contribute to better productivity. Keywords: Melipona; Queens; Weight; Workers; Population. Financial support: CNPq.

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GYNE AND DRONE PRODUCTION IN BOMBUS ATRATUS FRANKLIN (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Sandy Padilla Báez1; José Ricardo Cure Hakim1; Diego Riaño Jimenez1; Andrew Paul Gutierrez2; Daniel Rodriguez1; Eddy Romero1 Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Faculty of Basic and Applied Science; Applied Biology Program; Biodiversity and Ecology of Wild Bees research group (BEAS); Cajicá, Colombia; 2 University of California; College of Natural Resources; Graduate School; Berkeley, USA.

1

sandycarolinapadilla@gmail.com For more than a decade, our research group has been studying the biology of the Neotropical bumblebee, Bombus atratus, and the methodology for its rearing in captivity and its efficiency as a pollinator of different horticultural crops. An effective breeding process was developed, but the necessity for a better control of the initiation of the sexual phase are still on their way. The aim of this work was to study in detail the conditions that facilitate the production of the sexual forms (gynes and drones). 31 colonies were started in captivity and transferred to the field for the observations: 16 colonies produced drones and gynes (D&G), 11 produced only drones (D) and 4 didn’t get to the sexual phase. The probability of producing gynes decreases as the days in captivity of the colony increases. Three groups of D&G colonies were recognized. The first group produced the sexual forms faster than the other colonies. They had a linear phase of growth of 3.7 cells/day and a mean number of 121 drones and 60 gynes were produced. The average duration of the colony cycle was 193 days. In the second group, the founder queens didn’t produce sexual forms and after its death a new queen assumed the control of the colony. The new queens shortened the time to oviposit the first gyne eggs, but a lower number of sexual forms were produced. The third group of colonies went into a second or third cycle of drone-gyne production. A new queen commanded each cycle. The number of cells/day in the linear phase was similar in the two cycles of the colony and the same as in the first group. In the second and the third cycles the starting of new drones and gynes were extremely reduced. Keywords: Sexual forms; Captivity breeding; Bumblebees. Financial support: UMNG Project CIAS1569 – 2014/2015.

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CAFFEINE IN SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD FOR TETRAGONISCA ANGUSTULA (LATREILLE, 1811) IN DEARTH SEASON Francieli das Chagas1*; Heber Luiz Pereira²; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo²; Maria Claudia Colla Ruvolo-Takasusuki¹. Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Departamento de Biotecnologia, Genética e Biologia Celular; Maringá; Brazil. 2Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Departamento de Zootecnia; 5790 Colombo Avenue, building J45 – zipcode 87020-900 Maringá, Brazil. 1*

franci_chagas@hotmail.com Supplementary food for bees is used when the availability of flowers in nature is dearth. Preventing weakness and colony loss stimulates the laying of the queen near blossoms and promotes energy savings of bee workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of Tetragonisca angustula colonies to keep weight receiving supplementary food with different concentrations of caffeine during lack season. Five colonies were used, distributed in: control colony – no food; colony that received 2.5g of candy; and colonies that received 2.5g of candy with 0.66%, 0.44% and 0.22% of caffeine, respectively. The colonies were weighed at the beginning and at the end of autumn 2015. At the starting assay colonies weighed on average 3.38kg. At the end of the experiment just control colony increased 1.44% in weight, however a weight loss of 1.38; 3.12; 1.36 and 1.66% for colony that received 2.5g of candy; and colonies that received 2.5g of candy with 0.66%, 0.44% and 0.22% of caffeine, respectively. The use of caffeine can have a negative effect when added to the supplement, because the higher concentration of caffeine (T3) was observed at greater weight loss of the hive. The best result was obtained in the colony that was not fed, probably because this colony not to be opened for food supply, avoiding stress and variation in colony microclimate. Keywords: Jataí; lack season; Stingless bees.

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ECDYSONE RECEPTOR (ECR) AND LNCOV-1/LOC726407 GENE SYSTEM EXPRESSION DURING PUPAL AND PHARATE-ADULT BRAIN DIFFERENTIAL MORPHOGENESIS IN APIS MELLIFERA CASTES Valdeci Geraldo Coelho Júnior1; Ricardo Dias Caneschi; Gabriele David dos Santos; Márcio Tadeu de Oliveira; Délcio Eustáquio de Paula Júnior; Lívia MR Moda; Angel Roberto Barchuk. Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL-MG), Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Depto. Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Alfenas, MG, Brazil. valdeci.coelho94@gmail.com

1

Learning and memory-related skills honeybees use for navigation, foraging and other activities are associated with a central region of the brain, the mushroom bodies, which are relatively more developed in workers than in queens. During larval period, however, the differential feeding offered to prospective queens promotes faster brain development and higher expression of several “neurogenic genes”. It seems in some point during pharate-adult development there happens a shift in this trend. In fact, queen’s brain experiences higher cell death rates than worker’s brain. Here we first show the morphological differentiation of honeybee brain during pupal and pharate-adult development, which takes place already from white-eyed, unpigmented cuticle pupa stage. We also assessed the transcription profile of key player genes in the differential morphogenesis of brains between the two castes. First, we assessed by RT-qPCR the profile of EcR variants (which mediate ecdysteroid action and are probably involved in differential brain cell death/proliferation). Our results suggest the existence of a hormone/receptor threshold above which (hormone excess), in queens, it would be triggered more cell death than proliferative events. Second, we assessed the transcription levels of the lncov-1/LOC726407 gene system. lncRNAs are responsible for silencing gene transcription thus regulating the development of a variety of life-history traits. In honeybees, lncov-1 expression was showed to be associated to cell death events seen in the ovaries of worker larvae. Our results show a differential expression of lncov-1 (but not of LOC726407) favoring queens just at the critical phase of the differential cell death between castes. Summarizing, our results suggest the existence of a dual system governing differential brain development in honeybee castes: one allowing higher cell proliferation in workers (by neurogenic genes and the anti-apoptotic action of an ecdysone receptor), and one promoting cell death in queens (lncov-1), all in response of differential ecdysteroid titers. Keywords: gene expression; brain; caste differentiation; adult development; honeybee. Financial support: FAPEMIG; FINEP/PROINFRA 01/2008; PIB-POS UNIFAL-MG; CNPq; CAPES.

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EVALUATION OF PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS IN COLONY PRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS FOR MELIPONA RUFIVENTRIS STINGLESS BEE Patrícia Faquinello1; Yuri Gonçalves1; Rodrigo Alves Zanata1; Leticia Fernanda Xavier Costa1; Paulo Vitor Divino Xavier de Freitas1; Clésia Cristina da Silva1. Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Goiano – Campus Ceres; Ceres; Brasil.

1

patricia.faquinello@ifgoiano.edu.br Pollen source influenced colony health, productivity and honey production, as another factors. The food supplements studies are important, especially for pollen source fluctuations during the year. The objective of this work is evaluate different protein supplements in colony productive parameters of Melipona rufiventris stingless bee. The ingredients studied are soybean isolated protein and beer yeast, fermented with pollen from the specie. Three treatments were evaluated: two of them with protein supplementation (soybean isolated protein and bee yeast) and a control treatment without supplementation. To study colony productive parameters the number, height, diameter of pollen and honey pots and volume of honey pots were evaluated. Measurements were taken during 62 days period. No differences were found in number, diameter and height of honey and pollen pots between treatments. The honey pots height was higher in treatment with soybean isolated protein than control (31.09 and 27.65 mm, respectively) and treatment with bee yeast (27.06 mm). The volume of honey pots with soybean isolated protein treatment was higher (10.14 ml) compared with beer yeast treatment (7.84 ml) but did not differ from the control treatment (9.24 ml). In practice higher honey pots facilitate collect management and ensure greater productivity. The results demonstrate that colonies supplied with soybean isolated protein promoted higher honey pots with more volume, being interesting to the producer. Keywords: beer yeast; soybean isolated protein; fermentation; food source. Financial support: CNPq Process 460490/2014-1and 468714/2014-6; IF Goiano.

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PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS EFFECT IN MELIPONA RUFIVENTRIS STINGLESS BEE COLONY DEVELOPMENT Patrícia Faquinello1; Yuri Gonçalves1; Rodrigo Alves Zanata1; Leticia Fernanda Xavier Costa1; Paulo Vitor Divino Xavier de Freitas1; Clésia Cristina da Silva1. Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Goiano – Campus Ceres; Ceres; Brasil.

1

patricia.faquinello@ifgoiano.edu.br The food source, and another factors, affect colony development and can be responsible of the colony death. This study evaluated different protein supplements in stingless bee colonies Melipona rufiventris considering and its effects on colony development. The ingredients studied are soybean isolated protein and beer yeast, fermented with pollen from the specie. Three treatments were evaluated: two of them with protein supplementation (soybean isolated protein and beer yeast) and a control treatment without supplementation. To evaluate colony development were considered the colony weight, number, diameter and width of brood comb in 62 days tested. The colony weight was higher with soybean isolated protein supplement for colony weight and control (4.07 and 4.10 Kg, respectively) compared to beer yeast treatment (3.79 kg), but not different between them. There were no differences for number and brood length. For the other hand, the treatment with beer yeast and control were higher for brood width parameter (61.55 and 66.26 mm, respectively) compared to colonies that received soybean isolated protein supplement (54.65 mm). These results suggest that during study period, there were enough food sources to ensure the development of not supplemented colonies. However, the protein supplement with beer yeast is an alternative in period of limited food source. Keywords: beer yeast; soybean isolated protein; fermentation; food source. Financial support: CNPq Process 460490/2014-1and 468714/2014-6; IF Goiano.

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MELIPONINAE SPECIES MANAGED IN THE CEARÁ STATE, BRAZIL Jânio Angelo Félix¹*; José Claudio Caetano¹; Fábio Ribeiro Sampaio¹; Leonardo dos Santos Gurgel¹; Francisca Natalia Brito Rocha¹; Cláudia Inês da Silva¹; Breno Magalhães Freitas¹. ¹*Universidade Federal do Ceará; Av. Mister Bloco 808, CEP 60021-970, Fortaleza - CE, Brasil.

Hull,

2977

-

Campus

do

Pici

janiozootecnia@yahoo.com.br In Brazil, stingless beekeeping or meliponiculture is still widely practiced as an artisanal activity, although ithas been developing fast in recent years and there is a wide diversity of meliponini especies in the country. However, information about the species managed in various states of Brazil is still lacking. In this context, this study aimed to investigate which species of stingless bees are reared in the Ceará State. The research was carried out in 159 meliponaries distributed in 52 municipalities of different regions of the Ceará State, with the use of questionnaires and collection of 10 individuals per colony in each meliponary. Specimens collected were killed with ethyl acetate, and then pinned, dried and identified by a bee taxonomist. Several stingless beekeepers rear more than one species and the most reared is Melipona subnitida present in 79.87% of the meliponaries. Besides this species, it was also observed Plebeia cf. flavocincta (Cockerell, 1912) in 24.53% of meliponaries; Scaptotrigona spp. (Moure, 1942) in 11.32%; Melipona mondury (Smith, 1863) 7.55%; Partamona spp. (Smith, 1863) 10.69%; Frieseomelitta doederleini (Friese, 1900) 8.81%; Frieseomelitta varia (Lepeletier, 1836) 4.40%; Nannotrigona sp. (Cockerell, 1922) 3.14%; (Melipona asilvai Moure, 1971) 3.14%; Melipona scutellaris (Latreille, 1811) 2.52%; Cephalotrigona sp. (Schwarz, 1940) 1.89%; Melipona fasciculata (Smith, 1854) 1.26%; Melipona quinquefasciata Lepeletier, 1836) 1.26%; Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863) 1.26%; Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811) 0.63%; totaling over 15 species. It can be concluded that there is a high diversity of meliponinae bee species managed in the Ceará State, especially M. subnitida, probably due to the wide distribution, good adaptation to the different environments of the State and breeding systems, and because they have highly-valued products, both economically and for medicinal purposes. Key words: Melipona subnitida; meliponiculture; stingless bees. Financial support: UFC; CAPES; Embrapa meio Norte.

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EFFECT OF POLLEN COMPOSITION ON DEVELOPMENT OF BOMBUS ATRATUS FRANKLIN COLONIES (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) REARED IN CAPTIVITY Laura Natalia Rojas López1,2; Diego Alfonso Riaño Jiménez1, 2; José Ricardo Cure1,2. Laboratory of Biodiversity and Ecology of Wild Bees – BEAS,2 Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Básicas; Cundinamarca; Bogotá; Colombia.

1

u0500812@unimilitar.edu.co; diegorianojimenez@gmail.com; jrcureh@gmail.com The pollination is an important ecological and agroecological process mediated principally by bees. Bombus atratus is an important pollinator of natural Andean ecosystems and agroecosystems in Colombia. The laboratory has developed a rearing system of B. atratus colonies under controlled conditions to pollinate crops. During the process, larvae are feeding with fresh pollen collected from Apis mellifera colonies; however, both species probably have different pollen preferences in its diet. This study had as a principal objective to evaluate the effect of four pollen diets (monofloral and polyfloral) in the development time of workers and growth of B. atratus colonies under captivity conditions. We classify pollen by colors and then each of them was identified using palynology analysis. After identification, we established four diets, two multifloral and two monofloral considering the pollinic sources reported in B. atratus. The multifloral diets were constituted of a proportional mix of Taraxacun officinale, mix of Rafanus sp and Brassica napus, mix of Trifolium pretense and T. repens and Eucaliptus globulus. The monofloral diets was constituted only by T. officinale and E. globulus. Ten colonies were evaluated for each diet during 4 months. Three batch in larval instar in each colony were fed daily with 0.25 g. The results showed that diets did not have significant effect in the size of B. atratus workers; contrary, development time were different, considering that workers feeding with monofloral diet had a higher development time (38±3 days) in contrast with workers feeding with multifloral diet (23±4 days). The number of batches produced by queen during 4 months was similar in all diets; nevertheless, the number of workers emerged by batch was higher in the multifloral diets (20±4) than monofloral diets (10±4). We conclude that the heterogeneity in the composition of pollen affects production and development time of B. atratus workers. Key words: bumblebee; pollination;diet. Financial support: FCBA.

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POLLEN COLLECTION ACTIVITY OF SCAPTOTRIGONA BIPUNCTATA AND TETRAGONISCA ANGUSTULA IN A MELIPONARY LOCATED IN CAMPO MOURÃO, PARANA STATE Ivens Vinícius de Matos; Felipe Minoru de Oliveira Inagaki; Raquel de Oliveira Bueno; Elizabete Satsuki Sekine. Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR; Campus Campo Mourão. Departamento de Ambiental; Campo Mourão-PR, Brasil. essekine@gmail.com Native bees are widely distributed throughout the country, and have been created by traditional and indigenous populations for a long time. The aim of this study was to monitor the pollen collection activity throughout the day in Scaptotrigona bipunctata (tubuna) and Tetragonisca angustula (jataí) in the Federal Technological University of Paraná (UTFPR-Campo Mourão). Two hives of each species were observed in two days in April 2015. To quantify pollen collecting, observations lasting one minute at the entrance of each colony were made by quantifying the workers returning with pollen loads in six times throughout the day, from 6:30 to 17:30. The counts were made using a hand counter and at each observation time, temperature, wind speed, light intensity (lux) and the relative humidity were measured at the entrance of the nest. Collecting activity began earlier in S. bipunctata (9:30 h) than in T. angustula (11:30 h), but the two species showed similar activity schedules, with intensification from 11:30 h and peak at 13:30 h, decreasing after this time. Using the Pearson correlation it was observed that the environmental variables correlated with pollen collection activity in T. angustula were the temperature (p = 0.002; r = 0.62), light intensity (p = 0.004; r = 0:59) and relative humidity (p = 0.011; r = -0.60). In S. bipunctata only correlation with temperature (p = 0.002; r = 0.63) was observed. The findings agree with several studies showing that the activity of the stingless bees is influenced by climatic factors such as temperature, light intensity and relative humidity. Keywords: Native bees; climatic variables; stingless bee.

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ANNUAL EVALUATION OF PROTEIC CONTENT OF THE LARVAL FOOD IN MELIPONA SCUTELLARIS (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, MELIPONINI), A BRAZILIAN STINGLESS BEE Gláucya de Figueiredo Mecca1; Hipólito Ferreira Paulino-Neto1; Fabio Santos do Nascimento1. Universidade de São Paulo; FFCLRP; Ribeirão Preto; Brasil.

1

glaucyafm@bol.com.br Melipona scutellaris is an indigenous, highly eusocial stingless bee species with perennial colonies and caste differentiation. The nests are built in trees trunks exhibiting elaborate architecture. Pollen and honey constitute the main food source. This food is stored in the pots and the available amount is associated with the colony development. This study evaluated the protein variation of monthly samples of larval food collected from new brood cells of M. scutellaris in 12 colonies from April 2012 until March 2013. The protein content was calculated as a proportion of dry weight of larval food and analyzed using standard Bradford method with modifications. The protein value ranged from 0.29% to 32.98% along one year. September presented the lowest monthly mean (3.86%) and July the highest one (19.74%). When evaluated independently of the colony, the protein contents of larval food were significantly different just for June and July compared with the other months. Just two colonies were significantly different in relation to the level of protein content in the larval food. There was no positive correlation between the variation of protein content and the colony conditions. Our results showed that the protein content of larval food varied for all colonies for all months, but this variation was relatively uniform for most of months and almost all colonies. This difference in protein contents belonging to different larval food samples probably could be related to environmental conditions (i.e. temperature and relative humidity) and resource availability. Keywords: larval food; protein; Melipona; stingless bees.

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PLANT SPECIES DIVERSITY OF STINGLESS BEE HONEY IN AREAS UNDER REFORESTATION Rio Branco, C. S.¹; Morgado, L. N.1; Almeida, A. J. M. B.1; Couto, M. A.1; Terra T. S.2; Freitas, A. S.3; Barth, O. M.3. CLM Consultoria e Gestão; Jacarepaguá; Rio de Janeiro;Brasil; 2Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro; Instituto de Zootecnia; Campus Universitário; Seropédica; Rio de Janeiro; Brasil; 3 Laboratório de Morfologia e Morfogênese Viral Pavilhão Hélio e Peggy Pereira (HPP); Instituto Oswaldo Cruz; Fiocruz; Brasil. 1

contato@gclconsultoria.bio.br The Brazilian biomes are characterized by richness in species of stingless bees, which are known for maintaining more than 50% of wild flower species. The goal of the project is to assess the diversity of floral species in honeys produced by stingless bees and obtained in regions subject to anthropogenic activities through reforestation. The survey was conducted in two areas of the “Projeto Mutirão Reflorestamento da Secretaria de Meio Ambiente da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro – SMAC da Prefeitura” (Effort Reforestation Project of the Department of Environment of the City of Rio de Janeiro – SMAC) inside the Água Santa and Campo Grande districts. Eighteen colonies of three species of native bees - Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (mandaçaia), Tetragonisca angustula (jataí) and Nannotrigona testaceicornis (iraí) were established in each area and in six boxes of each species. The honey was collected monthly from the pots during one year. The melissopalynological analysis was executed without the use of acetolysis. A total of 37 samples were analysed comprising 42 pollen types that belong to eight families and 26 genera. Each sample presented two to 10 pollen types. The most representative families were Fabaceae and Myrtaceae (63%) and the majority of honey samples were the monofloral ones (65%). Dominant pollen types represented 54% of the plant species recognized in the honey samples and that belong to four families (83%). Key words: Stingless bees; honey; pollen; bee plants. Financial support. FIOCRUZ, UFRRJ.

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MULTIPLYING COLONIES OF NATIVE POLLINATORS: IN VITRO STINGLESS BEES REARING AND QUEEN ACCEPTANCE IN COLONIES Patrick Douglas de Souza dos Santos1*; Charles Fernando dos Santos1; Betina Blochtein1. Departamento de Biodiversidade e Ecologia; Faculdade de Biociências; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Av. Ipiranga, 6681, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

1

patricksouzz@gmail.com The bees are important pollinators and play an important role worldwide. However, their population is decreasing in many regions of the planet what may cause a significant pollination deficit. Nevertheless, many species of stingless bees produce a small number of queens limiting the management possibilities for colonies multiplication. The in vitro queen rearing can bring advances to produce bee colonies in large scale for pollination. This study aims to establish a protocol of in vitro rearing of Plebeia droryana (Meliponini) queens and their introduction in queenless colonies. First, we compared the amount of larval food given to queens and workers. After that, we transferred 66μL of larval food to cells in acrylic plates and over it we put the larvae. The plates were placed into an incubation chamber under controlled temperature (25°C) and relative humidity (98% to 65%) using saline solutions (NaCl, KCl). After emergence we compared size (intertegular distance) of in vitro and natural queens using t test and the acceptation of these queens in hives was tested using odds ratio. The results indicate that queen larvae receive seven fold more food than workers (X2 = 40, d.f = 8, p < 0.001). 66μL of larval food is enough to rear in vitro queens similar to natural queens (t = -1.521, d.f = 68, p = 0.132). The chances of queen acceptance are better in colonies containing only callow workers, with low pigmentation (OR = 0.02; X2 = 14.70; d.f = 1, p < 0.001). Finally, our technique had a success of > 75% of queen emergence and of > 90% of queen acceptance in queenless colonies. Therefore, the in vitro protocol proved to be efficient and may contribute significantly to the production of pollinators. Keywords: Meliponini; Plebeia droryana; pollination; conservation; management of pollinators. Financial support: FAPERGS.

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PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HONEY PRODUCED BY MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA COLONIES: SEASONAL VARIATIONS AND INFLUENCE OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTATION Isabel Ribeiro do Valle Teixeira1; Flávio Cruz2,3; Josiane Carvalho2,3; Rubens Marcelo de Castro3; Angel Roberto Barchuk4. Departamento de Biologia; Instituto Federal Sul de Minas – IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Poços de Caldas; Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais. 2Departamento de Biologia; Instituto Federal Sul de Minas - Campus Muzambinho, IFSULDEMINAS, Muzambinho, Minas Gerais. 3Setor Apicultura e Meliponicultura; Instituto Federal Sul de Minas - Campus Muzambinho, IFSULDEMINAS, Muzambinho, Minas Gerais. 4Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento; Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas; Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL-MG), Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

1

barchuk@unifal-mg.edu.br

4

Native stingless bees have critical economic and environmental value. Rearing them, however, requires considerable investment, particularly when the objective is to exploit some of their products. Adequate food supplements would improve colony health and help in conservation efforts. We tested the influence of four commonly used food supplements on the physicochemical characteristics of honey produced by Melipona quadrifasciata colonies: D1: Sucrose solution; D2: Sucrose solution + lemon juice; D3: Sucrose solution + honey; D4: Sucrose solution + honey + a Nutritional complex. Experiments were conducted in 2011-2012 in Muzambinho, Brazil. Honeys collected in the rainy summer differed from those produced during the dry winter in acidity, protein concentration, nonreducing sugars and ash levels (p<0.05). Mean acidity was 38.9 meq.kg in summer and 20.3 in winter. D1, D3 and D4 neutralized differences in acidity between seasons. Protein percentage in the honey was 0.28 in summer and 0.11 in winter. During summer, all artificial diets resulted in lower protein concentration and ash levels. The percentage of reducing sugars and moisture was similar in the two seasons (56.81 and 23.82 %, in summer, and 48.93 and 27.59 %, in winter, respectively), though it was increased in summer by the use of food supplements. Summer honey had more non-reducing sugars and ash than winter honey (5.76 % and 0.23 %, and 2.44 % and 0.16 %, respectively). Our results suggest that food supplementation strategies should consider seasonal influences on colony productivity in order to determine the best food supplementation options. Keywords: stingless bees; nutrition; season; winter; summer. Financial support: FAPEMIG; CNPq.

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EFFECT OF NUMBER OF MATINGS IN COLONIES PRODUCTION BOMBUS ATRATUS (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Melissa Yvette Guerrero Torres1; Diego Riaño Jiménez1; José Ricardo Cure1. Universidad Militar Nueva Granada- Facultad de Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas. Km 2,5 Via CajicaZipaquira, Colombia. 1

melissayvetteg85@gmail.com The bumblebees are critical in the pollination process, they can stand low temperatures, they have vibration pollination, and they have long tongues that allow pollinate flower with stretch and long corollas, is imperative develop a successful breeding for contribute to conservation and continue with the pollination process. The group “Biodiversidad y Ecologia de abejas silvestres” has made significant progress in developing a system of breeding colonies of native bumblebee Bombus atratus. Among the progress is production of males and gines, under controlled conditions. Although this process has the potential to feed back a system of breeding colonies, the system is not efficient in matings. The objective of the study was contribute to the development of a standardized system of matings from the evaluation of the effect of the number of matings in the production of colonies; matings were carried out under controlled conditions (temperature and humidity) in the entomology laboratory. Copulations 1, 2 and 3 times, each with 30 repetitions were made in a bridal chamber, and males were chosen with 9mm in size. Each queen was exposed to four males in a bridal chamber. The matings was made in three days continuous. We evaluate worker and male production moreover time to produce the first cell, using generalized linear model (GLM) in which it was shown that the time and production of workers and males have significant difference P <0.05, we obtain that queens with 3 matings are better produced workers in a short time also a less number of male was produced, the matings will be influence production of viability colonies this variables can be important to be included in the standardization mating process. Keywords: Breeding; Bumblebees; pairing; Workers. Financial support: Vicerrectoria de Investigaciones; Universidad Militar Nueva Granada CIAS 19222015; COLCIENCIAS.

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INTERACTIONS BETWEEN BEES AND PLANTS IN FLOODPLAINS FIELD IN NATIONAL FOREST (FLONA) – TRÊS BARRAS / SC – BRAZIL Franciélli Cristiane Woitowicz-Gruchowski, Tayane Cristina Buggenhagen, Thiago Merighi Vieira da Silva, Jucélia Iantas, Mauro Ramalho. franciellicgw@gmail.com The mutualistic interactions between bees and plants have a key role in the organization of ecological communities, because they carry great influence on the survival of many organisms. Thus, it is extremely important to know the factors responsible for the organization, distribution and influence of mutualistic networks in various systems. This research aims to understand the interactions between the bees and native plants in foodplains fields in the National Forest (FLONA) Três Barras - SC. FLONA is located in the North Plateau of Santa Catarina in a region of Araucaria forest. We selected three areas of foodplains fields in which were set three sampling areas of bees in the flowers, each with 01ha (500m long x 20m wide). The collections of bees in the flowers were standardized on walks in the sampling points at intervals of 30 minutes from 9: 00h to 16: 30h during the months of October and November 2014. He collected 362 bees, about 23 morpho-species and 13 plant species. Symplocos glandule marginata Hoehne was the plant species that received the highest number of visits of bees and had the highest diversity of floral visitors (at least 15 species). Apis mellifera visited 12 plant species, focusing on their visits Symplocos glandule marginata Hoehne. Depicted herein bee-plant networks are typical of mutualistic interactions with extremely nested structure; low connectance; low average degrees of both plants and animals; prevalence of weak interactions and the occurrence of asymmetrical interactions. Keywords: Araucaria Forest; Apis mellifera; mutualistic networks.

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FLORAL BIOLOGY OF WATERMELON PLANTS TREATED WITH THE FUNGICIDE PYRACLOSTROBIN Thais Regina Ramos Alves*; Daniel Nicodemo; Alessandra Lima Santos; Amanda de Carvalho. *UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista; Câmpus de Dracena; Dracena; Brasil. thaisalves16@live.com Pyraclostrobin is an effective fungicide which can contribute to senescence, oxidative stress delay and promote resistance to viruses attack in many crops. However, as it is a broad-spectrum, locally systemic fungicide used in food crops visited by bees, the physiological changes in plants treated with this fungicide can have negative implications for pollinators. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the use of pyraclostrobin in watermelon plants (Citrullus lanatus) affects the floral biology of this crop. Watermelon plants of Crimson Sweet cultivar were cultivated in Dracena, São Paulo State in a 3,000m² area. It was performed four applications at 10 days intervals of a commercial fungicide based on pyraclostrobin during flowering period, on 50% of the cultivated area. It was observed the number of staminate and pistilate flowers per plant and the period of anthesis. It was determined pollen production, viability and stigma receptivity. There was no difference on staminate and pistilate flowers production between plants from the treated (116,6±27,6; 10,1±2,4) and control (131,0±27,3; 8,9±,81) areas, respectively. The ratio staminate pistilate flowers was 14,6±1,7:1 (control area) and 11,47±3,0 (treated area). There was no difference on anthesis duration between the studied areas. Flowers were opened around 8 am ± 18 minutes and became withered at 4:25±35 minutes. The production of pollen was higher (p<0.05) in flowers of not treated plants (22621±1946) than in treated plants (20083±2979). Pollen viability was constant from 9 am to 4:30 pm in flowers of both areas. However, the pollen viability of flowers in the control area (91.8%) was higher (p<0.05) than flowers from the treated area (77.7%). The flower stigmas of plants for both areas were receptive up to 3 pm. These results suggest that watermelon pollen quantity and quality can be negatively affected by the fungicide pyraclostrobin. Keywords: Citrullus lanatus; honeybees; nectar; pollen; pollination; strobilurin. Financial support: Núcleo de Operações Sustentáveis.

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BUZZ-POLLINATION: DIFFERENT GENUS VIBRATE IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES Priscila de Cássia Souza Araújo*¹; Conrado Augusto Rosi Denadai¹; Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes¹; Lucio Antônio de Oliveira Campos². Departamento de Entomologia – UFV Contato: Campus Viçosa, Av. PH Rolfs, s/n, 36570-900 Viçosa, MG – Brasil. ²Departamento de Biologia Geral – UFV Contato: Campus Viçosa, Av. PH Rolfs, s/n, 36570-900 Viçosa, MG – Brasil.

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araujopri8@gmail.com The buzz-pollination behavior has already been observed in more than 50 genera of bees. These bees can vibrate the stamens to liberate and collect their pollen in poricidal anther flowers. Poricidal anthers occur in over 15,000dicot and monocot plant species, including economically important species such as Solanum lycopersicum, which rely on buzz-pollination by bees to increase pollination success. It’s clear that thebuzzing originatesfrom periodic contractions of indirect flight muscles within the bee’s thorax, but little is known onhow fundamental frequencies differ among native bee species of South America and whether variationon these frequencies relate to morphological traits. At this study we measured the fundamental frequency of sounds produced by Bombus and Exomalopsis and verified if they correlate tothe weight and intertegular distance of bees within each genus. We recorded sounds from 6 individuals of each genus using a Portable Audio Recorder (SONY PCM-M10) while they were buzz-pollinating tomato flowers and measured their fundamental frequency using Avisoft-SASLab Lite software.We used Regression Analysis and Student-T-Test to determine, respectively, how pairs of variables are related within each genus and to compare variables between genera.The vibration frequency isn’t related with body size in specimen of the same genus. However, both weight and intertegular distance are greater at Bombus than Exomalopsis (p<0.0001), with respective averages of 0.3583g (SD=0.077) and 0.0272g (SD=0.003) for weight and 5.9mm(SD=0.25) and 1.9mm(SD=0.10) for intertegular distance. Bombusbees also vibrate with higher fundamental frequency than Exomalopsis(p=0.001), with averages of 217.2 Hz (SD=20.3) and 161.0 Hz (SD=22.0).We found a relationship among body size and frequency of vibration among genera.This difference in frequencies between species might be consequence of differential muscle activity. Keywords: Bombus; Exomalopsis;Solanum lycopersicum; sounds. Financial support:CAPES; CNPq; FAPEMIG.

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SURVEY AND FREQUENCY OF FLORAL VISITORS IN TOMATO CROP FOR INDUSTRY Priscila de Cássia Souza Araújo*¹, Paula Netto Silva¹, Fernando Mendes Barbosa¹, Camila Folly Baptista¹; Victor de Souza Almeida², Lucio Antônio de Oliveira Campos³. Departamento de Entomologia – UFV Contato: Campus Viçosa, Av. PH Rolfs, s/n, 36570-900 Viçosa, MG – Brasil. ²Departamento de Fitotecnia – UFV Contato: Campus Viçosa, Av. PH Rolfs, s/n, 36570900 Viçosa, MG – Brasil. ³Departamento de Biologia Geral – UFV Contato: Campus Viçosa, Av. PH Rolfs, s/n, 36570-900 Viçosa, MG – Brasil.

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araujopri8@gmail.com Bees are important pollinators of many crops including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, Solanaceae). Some surveys were done describing and analyzing the effect of visitation of these insects in the indeterminate growth tomato crops. There are few studies about bees assembly present in industrial tomato crop. Our aim was to analyze the flower-visiting bee fauna in industrial tomato plants in the open field. Forty hours of active collection were performed with insect net, from 8:30 to 10:00 hours and 13:30 to 15:30 hours in Experimental Field of the UFV. We collected 238 bees: 103 Exomalopsis, 66 Apis, 18 Melipona, 17 Trigona, 16 Eulema, 12 Bombus, from Apidae and 6 from Halictidae. Bees species capable to vibrate tomato flowers during their visitation were considered potential pollinators of tomato plants. Among the bees collected in this study, approximately 70% were considered potential pollinators of this crop: Exomalopsis, Eulema, Bombus, Melipona and Halictidae species. Bumble bees are also considered important pollinators of crops around the world and Melipona bees, particularly M. quadrifasciata, has shown satisfactory results in the pollination of tomato cultivation in greenhouses. Apis and Trigona are not capable of vibrating the flowers during the foraging, they collect pollen inserting glossal the cone of anthers (milking behavior). Recent studies indicate Apis as potential pollinator of tomato plants in open field. Keywords: buzz-pollination; milking; bees; tomato. Financial support: CNPQ; Capes; Fapemig.

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POLLINATION OF RED LIST PETUNIA MANTIQUEIRENSIS (SOLANACEAE) BY TWO LOYAL SPECIES OF PSEUDAGAPOSTEMON (HALICTIDAE) Fernanda Figueiredo de Araujo¹*; Reisla Oliveira²; Clemens Schlindwein3. ¹*Programa de Pós-graduação em Ecologia, Conservação e Manejo da Vida Silvestre, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Grupo Plebeia – Ecologia de Abelhas e da Polinização, Belo Horizonte, Brasil, ²Departamento de Biodiversidade, Evolução e Meio Ambiente, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Grupo Plebeia – Ecologia de Abelhas e da Polinização, Ouro Preto, Brasil, ³Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Grupo Plebeia – Ecologia de Abelhas e da Polinização, Belo Horizonte, Brasil. figueiredofaraujo@gmail.com Several species of Petunia (Solanaceae) are reported to have oligolectic bees as effective pollinators. Petunia mantiqueirensis, an endangered species endemic to the Serra da Mantiqueira in Minas Gerais, occurs isolated from other species of Petunia at the northern distributional limit of the genus. The herb has showy purple flowers and blooms from October to March. The aim of this study was to determine the flower visitors and effective pollinators of P. mantiqueirensis. The study was conducted between November 2014 and February 2015. Bees were recorded along the flowering period of the species and the abundance of flower visitors was determined along anthesis. Petunia mantiqueirensis is self-incompatible. The five anthers sum, on average 124,000 pollen grains, which were available already during the first hour of anthesis, when also stigma receptivity started. The flowers produced only tiny amounts of nectar. Flowers open at any time throughout the day and last up to 6 days (mean longevity is 4.6 days). They were visited by bees of 9 species, but only Pseudagapostemon fluminensis, P. cyanomelas (Halictidae) and Anthrenoides sp. (Andrenidae) were loyal to Petunia and recorded in their flowers during weeks. Visitation rate, however, was low in general. To time their visits to the unpredictable moment of flower opening when pollen is available, Pseudagapostemon females monitor patches of Petunia and inspect flower buds repetitively, as shown by individually marked bees. Thus, they collect large amount of pollen in a few visits soon at the beginning of anthesis. Two hours after flower opening, pollen in general is emptied. Scopa pollen analysis of P. fluminensis revealed that the species is not oligolectic. The abundance of P. fluminensis was high in the first two months of flowering when the species was replaced by P. cyanomelas. Keywords: Petunia, flower monintoring, food specialization, endangered species. Financial support: FAPEMIG, FEPEMIG PAPG, CNPq.

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COMPOSITION AND FREQUENCY OF FLORAL VISITORS (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA) IN OPEN-FIELDTOMATOCROP FOR INDUSTRY IN MINAS GERAIS STATE Fernando Mendes Barbosa¹*; Priscila de Cássia Souza Araújo¹; Lucio Antônio de Oliveira Campos². Departamento de Entomologia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa. 2Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Viçosa – Viçosa-MG.

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fernandosagarana@gmail.com

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Bees are the main pollinators of the most crops that need biotic pollination. The biodiversity knowledge in crop areas is still incipient, with studies limited to few plants species and areas. Tomato has poricidalanthers which need to be shaken to release their pollen and are pollinated by some species of bees able to perform buzz pollination. In the present study, we investigated the composition and frequency of bees in tomato crops for industry in the northern region of the Minas Gerais state. The field work was performed at campus of Instituto Federal do Norte de Minas in the municipality Januária (15° 29′ 16″ S, 44°/21′ 43″ W; 554m altitude) between July 6 and July 22, 2015. We studied an area with 600 plants, spaced 1.2m, between rowsand 0.3m between plants. The bees was collected along the planting lines three days of each week (8:00am to 3:00pm). We collected 189 bees distributed in two families and seven genera. The frequency of bees was: Apidae: Apismellifera L. (0.006) Centris spp. (0.006), Exomalopsis spp. (0.185), Trigona spinipes Fab. (0.060), Trigona recursa Smith (0.016), Paratrigona spp. (0.444); Halictidae: Augochloropsis spp. (0.159) and Pseudaugochlora spp. (0.132). Only four of the seven genera perform “buzz pollination”. The activity peak occurred between 10:00 am and 12:00 pm. Considering other studies on the bees’ fauna in tomato crops, Exomalopsis, Centris, Augochloropsis and Pseudoaugochlora are important genera for pollination of tomato flowers. However, additional studies as pollination tests and landscape analysis are required to understand the relationships between pollinators and fruit production beyond bees’ population dynamics in the growing area. Keywords: Pollination; Apidae; Halictidae; Tomato. Financial support: Fapemig; CNPQ; IFNMG.

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FLOWER VISITING BEES OF TOMATO (SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L., SOLANACEAE) IN OPEN CROPS Bruno Ferreira Bartelli1*; Jaqueline Eterna Batista1; Raysa Sales Teixeira Borges de Carvalho1; Bárbara Matosda Cunha Guimarães1; Fernanda Helena Nogueira-Ferreira1. *Instituto de Biologia (INBIO) - Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU) Contato: Rua Ceará s/n, 38400-902, Uberlândia, Brasil.

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brunofbartelli@gmail.com A highly effectivesolution for increasing agricultural production in open tomato crops is the presence and maintenance of natural pollinators. This study aimed to evaluate the community of flower visiting bees of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae) and to verify the similarity between the sampled areas based on the abundance of species. The study was conducted in eight areas of commercial cultivation, four located in the municipality of Araguari-MG (18°38’45,74”S/48°11’37,81”W) and the other four in the municipality of Indianópolis-MG (19°02’4,59”S/47°54’57,24”W). In order to evaluate the community of bees, only one sampling was carried out in each crop during the flowering period. In all areas, the samples were taken every 30 minutes of every hour (from 7 am to 2 pm) in two 100m transects located in the center of the crop. Bees were collected with entomological nets, sacrificed in lethal chambers containing ethyl acetate and then pinned and identified. To verify the similarity between areas, anUPGMA cluster analysis was performed using the software R. A total of 1,168 bees belonging to three families (Andrenidae, Apidae and Halictidae) were sampled. Exomalopsis analis was present in all areas and, overall, it was the most abundant species (n=373), followed by Paratrigona lineata (n = 354), Apis mellifera (n = 314) and Melipona quinquefasciata (n = 83).The UPGMA presented a cophenetic correlation of 0.687. Despite showing a tendency to separate areas of the two municipalities, the analysis revealed a greater similarity between one of the areas of Araguari-MG with the areas of Indianópolis-MG. This shows that, possibly, local conditions such as the characteristicsof the surrounding matrix are more relevant than regional in determining the abundance of bee species that visit tomato crops. Hence the importance of maintaining natural areas near these crops, since these areas are sources of pollinators. Keywords: Natural pollinators; Community of bees; Similarity; UPGMA; Exomalopsis analis. Financial support: FAPEMIG; CNPq; CAPES.

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CONDITIONING OF THE PROBOSCIS EXTENSION RESPONSE AND OLFACTOMETER TEST WITH MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA (APIDAE, MELIPONINA) Jaqueline Eterna Batista1*; Ana Rita Tavares de Oliveira Baptistella1; Fernanda Helena Nogueira-Ferreira1. Instituto de Biologia (INBIO) - Universidade Federal de Uberlândia(UFU) Contato: Rua Ceará s/n, 38400-902 Uberlândia, Brasil. 1*

eternabatista@gmail.com Bees may experience a wide range of odoriferous information throughout the life. Information about choice and preference of floral odors for foragers can be used for pollination experiments and eventually contribute to management techniques. Using the method of conditioning Proboscis Extension Response (PER),the volatile compounds hexanol and linalool that are naturally present in tomato flowers (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were tested on 228 foragers of Melipona quadrifasciata. Twelve presentations of linalool (0.3 µl) and 12 of hexanol (0.5 µl) were made per individual alternating the pure essence with a mixture of essence and sucrose solution 50%. 33.3% of bees (n = 79) showed a positive response (proboscis extension) for both compoundsand participated in the choice test (Y- tubeolfactometer). For the control group (unconditional bees), 25 foragerswere tested. We found significant differences for the free choice between compounds, with a preference for linalool (x2 = 19.69, p<0.001). Comparing the choice time between conditioned bees (C) and unconditioned (UC), there is statistical difference between groups (p = 0.010147, U = 282.5000, Z = -2.57081). Conditioned bees took a longer time to choosein relation to unconditional. Among the analyzed compounds, linalool is the suggested one for researches of conditioning and attractiveness in this species. Although UC bees have made the tunnel route in less time, they made it in a disoriented way, ignoring the smell slopes and walking quickly towards the exit points of the tunnel. With these results, associative learning for olfactory conditioning proved to be an applicable method for Melipona quadrifasciata and will contribute to studies about pollination and productivity analysis in open tomato crops and greenhouses. Keywords: PER; Olfactory conditioning; Associative learning; Linalool; Hexanol. Financial support: FAPEMIG; CNPq; CAPES.

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THE ROLE OF SPECIALIZED FLORAL TRAITS ON THE BENEFITS OF AN OIL BEE-PLANT MUTUALISM Liedson Tavares Carneiro1*; Isabel Alves dos Santos1. Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Ecologia, São Paulo-SP, Brazil. 1*

liedson.carneiro@ib.usp.br Reduction or loss of benefits within specialized mutualisms is expected if changes in associated traits occur by evolutionary means or interactions with external species (e.g. antagonists). Complex mechanical-fit and signal traits are involved in oil flower systems but little is known on their role in the mutual matching. We tested the effect of removing specialized structures of Krameria grandiflora flowers on visitation and fruit set. Krameria flowers bear a showy pink/purple calyx and dimorphic corolla: upper reduced petals with a colored clawed apex, by which oil bees hold with their mandibles, and two lateral petals modified into elaiophores with a glandular outer surface, scraped by the bees for oil gathering. As the detection of floral signals varies over close and far distances, field experiments were set in two scales: within-plant and among-plant paired. Visitation and fruit set were recorded from flowers with removals of the specialized structures (calyx, reduced petals and elaiophores) and combinations of them. The results showed that the elaiophores were essential as mechanical-fit trait (i.e. no scraping, no fruit set) but not as signal trait. The upper reduced petals were expected to be important as mechanical-fit trait; however, when absent the flowers set fruits. These petals functioned as signal trait over close distance. The showy calyx played a greater role as signal trait over far distance and only when removed along with the upper grouped petals its importance as signal trait was evident over low distance. Our results indicate that the upper reduced petals would not be evolutionarily favored even functioning as part of the oil gathering mechanism. These petals also play a signal role additional to the calyx when damaged. Other accurate experiments and approaches are needed to understand the evolution and maintenance of those traits in this system. Keywords: oil-collecting bees; Krameria; elaiophores. Financial support: FAPESP – 2013/00181-5.

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BEHAVIOR OF INSECT VISITORS IN FLOWERS OF WATERMELON PLANTS TREATED WITH THE FUNGICIDE PYRACLOSTROBIN Amanda de Carvalho¹*; Daniel Nicodemo¹; Alessandra Lima Santos¹;Thaís Regina Ramos Alves¹; Kamila Vilas Boas Balieira1. *UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Câmpus de Dracena, Dracena, Brasil; Contato: Rod. Comte. João Ribeiro de Barros, km 651, 17900-000, Dracena, Brasil.

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manda.dcarvalho@gmail.com Fungicides can negatively impact the bees, making them more susceptible to certain diseases and parasites. Considering bees’ foraging abilities, the aim of this study was to determine whether the use of the fungicide pyraclostrobin in watermelon plants (Citrullus lanatus) influences the behavior of insect visitors on flowers of this crop. The Crimson Sweet watermelon cultivar was installed in May 2015 in Dracena, São Paulo State, in a 3,000m² area. It was performed four applications at 10 days intervals of a commercial fungicide based on pyraclostrobin during flowering period, on half of the cultivated area. It was verified the behavior of insect visitors in the watermelon flowers and observed the duration per visit of honeybees in the staminate flowers (n=100 flowers). Honeybees were the most common visitors to watermelon flowers, accounting for more than 60% of all insect visits. There were no differences in the abundance, diversity of insects and visitation periods throughout the day between watermelon flowers from treated (pyraclostrobin) and control areas. The average number of daily visits of honeybees collecting pollen per flower in the control area (8.0) was 43.1% higher (p<0.05) compared to the treated area. There was no difference between the studied areas regarding the number of visits to nectar collection, occurring on average 22.1 and 13.2 daily visits per staminate and pistillate flowers, respectively. The time spent on visits to staminate flowers decreased during the day, however no differences were observed between the evaluated areas, considering each evaluation period (8-9am; 11-12am and 2-3pm), though the reduction in the time spent between the last and the first visit per day was 2.1 and 1.9 times higher in flowers of plants treated with pyraclostrobin, respectively for pollen and nectar collection. These results suggest that honeybees can avoid visiting staminate flowers of watermelon plants treated with pyraclostrobin. Keywords: Citrullus lanatus; honeybees, nectar; pollen; pollination; strobilurin. Financial support: Núcleo de Operações Sustentáveis.

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INFLUENCE OF BEE POLLINATION IN OIL PRODUCTION OF SUNFLOWER (ASTERACEAE: HELIANTHUS ANNUUS) Ana Luisa de Sousa e Castro-Melo1*; Arthur Carlos de Oliveira¹; Laíce Souza Rabelo1; Camila Nonato Junqueira¹; Maria Cristina Gaglianone²; Solange Cristina Augusto¹. Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Instituto de Biologia, Uberlândia, Brazil; ²Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Laboratório de Ciências Ambientais, Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil. 1*

analuisa.scmelo@gmail.com Sunflower is an oilseed species with vigorous development and excellent oil quality. It has been used as a rotation option to soy in Central Brazil. The species is self-compatible but the seed production is increased by pollinator’s visits, especially bees. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of bee pollination on seed production and oil quantity in an experimental sunflower crop. The study was conducted at Água Limpa Farm, in Uberlândia-MG, located in a woody savanna ladscape. We cultivated the hybrid cultivar Helium 360 (Helianthus annuus L. LTDA) from June to July 2012. In this experimental crop we marked 60 inflorescences, 30 of them bagged in order to restrict floral visitation (negative control - NC) and 30 remained open with no exclusion of pollinators (open pollination OP). The visits of bees were monitored from 9:00am to 4:00pm, during eight alternate days, until the end of flowering. After inflorescence maturation, the seeds were removed, weighed (1000 achenes to standardize the sample) and the oil was extracted from 5 grams of seeds using Soxhlet. We observed in the field Apis mellifera as the prevailing bee with frequency of occurrence of 75.47%, followed by bees of genus Trigona (FO=4.70%), Paratrigona (FO=3.07%) and Exomalopsis (FO=1.02%). We found that the inflorescences pollinated by bees presented a higher weight (OP= 60.77±1.02g; NC= 48.37±1.64g; t=-3.515; df=58; p=0.001) and oil quantity (OP= 2.28±0.3g; NC= 0.84±0.40g; t=-8.773; df=18; p<0.001) than the negative control. The absence of bees reduced 20.40% of the seed weight and 63.16% of the oil production. Our results showed a significant increase in oil productivity of sunflower promoted by the pollination of bees. Therefore, commercial crops can benefit from the pollination services of bees by maintaining appropriate agricultural practices to these pollinators and natural areas that provide other floral sources and nest substrates. Keywords: sunflower pollination; Helianthus annuus; oil production; bees. Financial support: FAPEMIG; CNPq; CAPES.

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CAMBUCI (CAMPOMANESIA PHAEA - MYRTACEAE): A COMMERCIAL FRUIT OF THE ATLANTIC FOREST POLLINATED BY NOCTURNAL AND CREPUSCULAR BEES ATTRACTED BY FLORAL SCENTS Guaraci Duran Cordeiro1; Mardiore Pinheiro2; Stefan Dötterl3; Isabel Alves dos Santos4. Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Biologia, Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. 2Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Cerro Largo-RS, Brazil. 3University of Salzburg, Department of Organismic Biology, Salzburg, Austria. 4Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Ecologia, São Paulo-SP, Brazil. 1

guaradc@usp.br The cambuci (Campomanesia phaea) is a fruit tree of economic interest and endemic of Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Diurnal bees (Meliponini, Bombini, and Apis mellifera) were pointed out as the main pollinators of Brazilian Myrtaceae, however some plants are pollinated by nocturnal/crepuscular bees, and the pollinators are underestimated. This study aimed to describe the role of diurnal and nocturnal/crepuscular bees in pollination of cambuci. Therefore, we investigated the floral biology, reproductive system, floral visitors, and the floral signals to attract their pollinators. We monitored anthesis time, floral resources, and floral volatiles. Flower volatiles were collected at night and day by dynamic headspace and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We made manual pollination tests and captured the floral visitors, determining the most efficient pollinators by count the pollen grains deposited on stigma and fruit set (1 visit). Field bioassays were performed with synthetic compounds to test the attractiveness of the identified floral volatiles to bees. The results showed that cambuci flowers last one day and have pollen as the only floral resource. The anthesis is nocturnal and begins 5:00. The cambuci flowers emit 14 floral volatiles the same at night and day, but some are more eminent at night (e.g. 1-Octanol). The pollination tests showed that reproductive system of cambuci is self-incompatible; therefore depend on floral visitors to pollination. We collected 44 species of floral visitors, mainly bees (n=36 species). The nocturnal/crepuscular bees (Megalopta sodalis, Megommation insigne, Ptiloglossa latecalcarata and Zikanapis seabrai) were the only efficient pollinators. These bees deposit much pollen on stigmas (39-85 grains/visit) and form fruits about 30-50% of them visits on flowers. In the bioassays the nocturnal/crepuscular bees were attracted by synthetic scent of cambuci flowers and 1-Octanol. We concluded that volatiles emitted at night have a primordial role to attract nocturnal/crepuscular bees, ensuring the pollination of cambuci. Keywords: Nocturnal anthesis; Pollinator effectiveness; Colletidae, Halictidae, 1-Octanol. Financial support: FAPESP (2011/06811-5, 2013/26599-6).

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TAXOCENOSIS OF BEES AND WASPS IN PEPPER CROPS (CAPSICUM SP.) IN THE PARQUE NACIONAL SERRA DE ITABAIANA (PARNASI) AND ITS SURROUNDINGS Felipe Mendes Fontes1; Alice Tâmara de Carvalho Lopes1; Katia Peres Gramacho1; Favízia Freitas de Oliveira2; Frederico Machado Teixeira1*. ¹*Universidade Tiradentes, Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa, Laboratório de Estudos Biológicos e Produtos Naturais (LBPN), Av. Murilo Dantas, 300, 49032-490, Aracaju, Brasil. 2 Universidade Federal da Bahia, Laboratório de Bionomia, Biogeografia e Sistemática de Insetos (BIOSIS), Av. Ademar de Barros , 500 , 40170-110, Salvador, Bahia. teixeira_fm@yahoo.com.br The class Insecta occupies a prominent place in the animal-plant interaction, especially with regard to the pollination process. This study aimed to verify and identify the community of bees and wasps in the crops of Capsicum sp., the specimens collected performed the first reference collection for pepper crops pollinator in the region. The study was conducted on three properties with different size and degree of environmental degradation, located around the Parque Nacional da Serra de Itabaiana (PARNASI). Sampling was performed every 15 days during flowering pepper between January and May 2014 in the period from 8 AM and 4 PM. The collection method used was direct search with insect net, lasting 50 minutes each hour. The Hymenoptera collected were euthanized and properly labeled with date, time and place of collection and brought to LBPN (Laboratory for Biological Studies and Natural Products) - ITP/UNIT for subsequent identification and frequency analysis. Were collected 299 individuals, totaling 44 morphospecies, 18 species of bees of the family Apidae and 26 aculeate wasps belonging to the families Crabronidae, Mutillidae, Pompilidae, Scoliidae, Sphecidae and Vespidae. The community of bees and wasps found presented dissimilarity among the three properties (J1= 0.8737 [urban], J2=0.7995 [rural with natural vegetation], J3= 0.8654 [urban]) probably due to the location of these properties, and also related to habitat quality. The analyzes indicated the existence of dominance of some species as Exomalopsis (Exomalopsis) analis Spinola, 1853 (n=12, 71%) and Augochloropsis sp6 and sp7 (n=10, 37%); indicating that these species are possible pollinators for peppers crops. Keywords: floral visitors; agriculture; Apidae; Aculeata wasps.

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EFFECTS OF WARMING AND ELEVATED CO2 ON FLORAL VISITORS OF THE LEGUMINOUS STYLOSANTHES CAPITATA VOGEL Juliana Stephanie Galaschi-Teixeira1*; Fernando Bonifácio-Anacleto2; Carlos Alberto Garófalo1; Ana Lilia Alzate-Marin2; Carlos Alberto Martinez1. Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Biologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. 2Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Genética, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. 1

*julianagalaschi@gmail.com Approximately 90% of angiosperms are pollinator-dependent for reproducing. Insects, mainly bees, are responsible for pollinating agricultural crops and the maintenance of terrestrial ecosystems. However, interactions between pollinators and plants can be affected by global climate change. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of warming and elevated CO2 on the pollinators and in the number of floral visitors of leguminous species Stylosanthes capitata Vogel. We used a climate change simulation system named Trop-T-FACE (Temperature Free-Air Controlled Enhancement [T-FACE] and FreeAir Carbon Dioxide Enrichment [FACE] system) installed at the USP, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. The plants were exposed to four treatments: increased temperature at + 2 ° C [eT] above the ambient, increased atmospheric CO2 concentration to 600 ppm [eC], the combination [eC+ eT] and control [C] with ambient temperature and CO2. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments, and four replicates. The data were collected during 20 days, in five-time intervals (9:009:59h, 10:00-10:59h, 11:00-11:59h, 12:00-12:59h and 13:00-13:59h). We observed the presence of pollinators and floral visitors in each plot for 10 minutes, every hour. The ANOVA associated with post hoc Tukey HSD test indicated a significant difference in the number of visits at different times and different treatments. The hours with the most visitations were 10:00-10:59h and 11:00-11:59h. The treatments with the most visitations were eC+eT, averaging 11.9 visits, and eT, averaging 9.5 visits, but with no significant difference between them. Treatment eC+ eTwas statistically different from the other treatments. Under the warmed treatments, the floral aperture occurred 1 hour early that the non-warmed treatments. Apis mellifera corresponded to the highest number of visits (n=1683), followed by Paratrigona lineata, Tetragonisca angustula and Exomalopsis sp. However, only A. mellifera, Exomalopsis sp. and Augochlorini bees triggered the complex keel-wings when visiting the flowers, being considered effective pollinators of S. capitata. Keywords: Stylosanthes capitata; pollinators; climate changes; insect-plant interaction; bees. Financial support: CNPq (PDS 150737/2014-9); FAPESP (2013/23416-8) and FAPESP (2008/58075-8).

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TEMPORAL ASPECTS OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN BEES AND CONVOLVULACEAE FLOWERS IN BRAZIL

Autores: Miriam Gimenes *; Eliane da Silva Anunciação. 1

Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana; Departamento de Ciências Biológicas; Campus Universitário; Feira de Santana; Brasil.

1

mgimenes@uefs.br The Convolvulaceae flowers are known to be large, colorful, tubular and especially visited by bees (melittophily), but generally considered ephemeral. If the flowers are ephemeral, the visitors should exploit the maximum of the resources in the short period of their duration. This study aims to understand the temporal processes of Convolvulaceae flowers, the opening and closing time of petals and the foraging time of floral visitors. There will be the synchronization of times of flowers and bees? It was conducted a literature review of articles about Convolvulaceae pollination in Brazil, focusing on the opening time of the flowers and the activities of visitors. It was considered in this study 13 species of three genera of Convolvulaceae (Ipomoea, Jacquemontia and Merremia). Overall, the flowers opened early in the morning, between 4:30 and 6:00 h, coinciding with the sunrise and usually closed between 12:00 and 16:00 h, lasting less than 12 hours. The flowers that opened earlier also closed early. Ipomoea flowers had the highest number of visitors, most bees. Among the visitors, the bees Ancyloscelis, Augochlora, Melitoma, Melitomela and Apis mellifera, were the most common in the three genera of plants of this study. The visits of these bees in the flowers was initiated between 5:00 and 8:00 h, synchronized with the opening of the flower, resulting in efficient pollination associated with the temporal adaptation of both organisms. Keywords: Ipomoea; Merremia; Jacquemontia; Pollination - Synchroniza­tion; Apoidea. Financial Support: UEFS - PPGZoo.

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OILSEED YIELD IS SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECTED BY BEE DIVERSITY Rosana Halinski1*; Charles Fernando dos Santos1; Tatiana Guterres Kaehler1, Daniel Dornelles Guidi1, Betina Blochtein1. Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Faculdade de Biociências, Departamento de Biodiversidade e Zoologia, Porto Alegre, Brasil. 1*

ro.halinski@gmail.com The pollination service is fundamental to the maintenance of biodiversity, human feeding and biofuel production. This service is threatened by the need of increasing grain production, which enlarge seeding areas causing the degradation of vegetation and biodiversity loss. Studies point out that there is a decline of pollinators with the increase of the distance to forest fragments, promoting a decrease in productivity. Brassica napus, commonly known as canola, is the third oleagenous more produced in the world. The present work aimed to analyze to what extent the bee diversity contributes for productivity in oilseed crops. The study was conducted in four agricultural areas of Brassica napus (Hyola 420) in southern Brazil. The diversity of bees was sampled using pan traps (yellow, blue and white) in the blooming canola field at 25 m, 175 m and 325 m from forest’s edge. In order to evaluate the production of grains by free visitation of insects 11 to 18 plants were harvested in the canola fields. After it, we carried out a generalized linear model (Gaussian family) with log link function in order to evaluate whether grain weight (canola yield) could be explained by bee diversity (Shannon’s index). We identified 11 native bee species (solitary and social) beyond honeybees whose were more abundant. Nevertheless, our findings demonstrated that canola productivity (in grams) was highly and positively influenced by bee diversity within these crops (GLM, p < 0.001). Therefore, native bee species altogether (not only honeybees) can greatly contribute for canola productivity in southern Brazil. Thereby, it is rather important to preserve forest areas near canola crops in order to shelter a high abundance and richness of bees. These friendly practices may provide, hence, a significant pollination in these subtropical areas. Keywords: biodiversity; bee; canola; pollination. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq.

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POLLEN COMPOSITION OF MELIPONA MONDURY (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINI) AT A FRAGMENT OF THE ATLANTIC FOREST IN THE STATE OF BAHIA, BRAZIL Rebeca Q. Panta de Jesus1*; Adriele Santos Vieira1; Zaline Santos Lopes1; Marizete Santos Alves¹; Lorena Andrade Nunes 2,1; Ana Maria Waldschmidt1*. Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia- UESB; 2,1Programa de Formação de Recursos Humanos – PRH PB 211 Contato: Avenida José Moreira Sobrinho s/n, Jequiezinho, 45.206-190, Jequié-BA, Brasil.

1

rebeca.queiroz14@hotmail.com Stingless bees higliht as important visitors of many plant species due to its diet habits and foraging behavior favoring the biodiversity conservation. The knowledge of the bees’ food source can be acquire throw pollen analysis and food allowing to identify the visited plants and use it as partition resources. Therefore, the aim of this study was identify the main types of pollen found on samples of Melipona mondury pollen at a fragment of the Atlantic forest in the State of Bahia. The samples were collected monthly between September and November 2014. After, the samples were submitted to acetolysis method. The identification of pollen morphotypes was made through photomicrography and consulting pollen catalogs. Were found about 20 pollen morphotypes. The most representative families were Melastomataceae (20%) and Myrtaceae (15%). The dominant types of pollens belong to Fabaceae-Caesalpinoideae (69,03%) and Oxalidaceae (83,02%) and secondary pollen Myrtaceae (33,33%). Some families such as Arecaceae, Fabaceae-Mimosoideae, Euphorbiaceae, Bignoniaceae were also considered important source of isolated pollen. The results can contribute to the knowladge of the meliponicola local flora and as results the conservation of plant species of the Atlantic Forest in the state of Bahia. Keywords: bees; plant resources; palynology; conservation. Financial support: FAPESB; UESB; CNPq; PRH-PB211.

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A META-ANALYSIS OF CROP POLLINATION SERVICES BY APIS AND NON-APIS BEES Camila Nonato Junqueira1,2*; Laíce Souza Rabelo¹; Ana Luisa de Sousa e Castro-Melo1; Marcela Yamamoto3; Douglas Queiroz Santos2; Solange Cristina Augusto1. Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Instituto de Biologia, Uberlândia – MG, Brasil; 1Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Escola Técnica de Saúde, Uberlândia – MG, Brasil; 3Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Campus Quirinópolis. 1

camilajunqueira@ufu.br Pollination services, mostly provided by bees, can be considered one of the foremost components in agriculture production. These services are performed by European honey bees (Apis bees) and other groups (non-Apis bees). These species are undergoing population declines caused by some interconnected factors, such as global warming, pesticide use, habitat loss and parasites. The discussion on the validity and range of Apis and non-Apis bee population declines is still underway. However, the ongoing global pollinator declines call for a better understanding of the agricultural pollination system and how to maintain sustainable ecosystem services relying on both Apis and nonApis bees. In this paper, we used a meta-analysis technique to review and synthesize the published literature regarding agricultural pollination. Our primary question is whether Apis bee pollination services are as effective as non-Apis bee services. We calculated 35 effect sizes from 22 studies. These works comprised observations on 15 crops with different levels of pollination dependence, which indicates crop reduction in the absence of animal pollination. Meta-analyses suggest that Apis and non-Apis bees present equivalent crop pollination services. This assay supports that the pollination service provided by A. mellifera compared to those delivered by social native and solitary bees are also equivalent. Therefore, our study contributes to understanding the ecological role of Apis and non-Apis bees in crop pollination and support the equivalency of pollination service effectiveness of both groups. Keywords: Wild bees; Apis mellifera; ecosystem service; conservation. Financial support: FAPEMIG; CAPES; CNPq; ESTES/UFU.

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POLLEN SOURCES USED BY XYLOCOPA FRONTALIS (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) IN CROP AREAS OF YELLOW PASSION FRUIT (PASSIFLORA EDULIS F. FLAVICARPA DEG.) Camila Nonato Junqueira1,2*; Laíce Souza Rabelo¹; Marcela Yamamoto³; Douglas Queiroz Santos²; Esther Margarida Alves Ferreira Bastos4, Solange Cristina Augusto1. ¹Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Instituto de Biologia, Uberlândia – MG, Brasil; ²Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Escola Técnica de Saúde, Uberlândia – MG, Brasil; ³Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Câmpus Quirinópolis, 4Fundação Ezequiel Dias, Diretoria de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Laboratório de Recursos Vegetais e Opoterápicos, Belo Horizonte, Brasil. camilajunqueira@ufu.br Xylocopa frontalis is one of the main pollinators of the yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) and the management of nests is considered an important tool both for increasing agricultural production and for conservation of these species. According to foraging behavior passion fruit represents only a nectar source for X. frontalis and identify pollen sources used by this species is essential in designing sustainable management. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the pollen types used by X. frontalis in three crop areas of yellow passion fruit located in Minas Gerais. We analyzed nine samples of larval food collected from trap-nests made from bamboo canes between January and March 2012. The pollen material was acetolyzed and identified in accordance with the literature, with database of pollen image and by comparison with reference material of the study area. We identified 18 pollen types belonging to 10 botanical families in the larval food of X. frontalis. The average number of pollen types in each sample was 3.78 ± 1.20. Comparing the frequency of occurrence of pollen types, the most common ones in the samples were of the families Solanaceae (100%), Poaceae (40%) and Bignoniaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae (50%). Although species of the genus Xylocopa are considered generalist, according to our results, it was observed that X. frontalis used few native plant species as pollen resources. Therefore, the preservation of plant species surrounding crop areas is necessary for pollinators maintenance. Keywords: Solitary bee; pollen analysis; nest management; conservation. Financial support: FAPEMIG; CAPES; CNPq; ESTES/UFU.

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POLLEN RESOURCES USED BY THREE SPECIES OF MEGACHILE

Ana Carolina Pereira Machado; André Rodrigo Rech; Anete Pedro Lourenço.

Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri; Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde; Departamento de Ciências Biológicas; Diamantina; Brasil. carolpereirabio2014@outlook.com Megachile Latreille, 1802 is a very diverse comprising important pollinators of many economic important plants. Some species are oligolectic and play an important role on the reproduction and maintenance of plant species diversity.The objective of this study was to analyze the pollen types used by three Megachile species (sp.1, sp.2 and sp.3)whenprovisioning their larvae and to verify the level of diet specialization of these bees. We have analyzed the pollen content fromtwo nests of each bee species. The nests were collected in two distinct areas, one is a high altitude grassland area under recovery usingexotic plants (RA) and the other one is atypical high altitude grassland area (campo rupestre – CR). Both areas are about 1380m altitude and separated by 1 km distance. The pollinic material was removed from the nest and, then, acetolyzed and the microscope slides prepared following standard procedures. We observed that Megachile sp.1 (registered only in AR) used mainly Asteraceae pollen type 1, but pollen grains of Myrtaceae, Convolvulaceae and Melastomataceae were also found (less than 1%). Nests of Megachile sp.2 (registered only in CR) contained mainly Fabaceae pollen (three different types, totaling 94%), and also some pollen of Loranthaceae (4%) and Arecaceae (type 1; 2%). In the nests of Megachile sp.3(registered only in CR) we found three pollen types and Asteraceae was the most frequent (types 2 and 3, 80%), followed by Arecaceae (type 2, 15%) and Fabaceae (type 1, 5%). It is important to point out that during the samplingperiod, there was a diversesupply of accessible floral resource, but the bees collected only a small fraction of them. Low familial pollen types diversity and the similarity of the types collected by the bees reinforce a possible oligolecty for the bees studied here. Keywords: leafcutter bees; pollen; oligolecty. Financial support:FAPEMIG.

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VISITORS FLORAL AND POLLINATORS IN GHERKIN CROP (CUCUMIS ANGURIA L.) Heloisa Aparecida dos Santos Maia1; Darclet Teresinha Malerbo-Souza2*; Luana Gomes de Sousa1; Jaqueline Aparecida Moraes1. Centro Universitário da Fundação Educacional de Barretos (UNIFEB); Barretos; Brasil; 2Centro Universitário da Fundação Educacional de Barretos (UNIFEB); Departamento de Ciências Agrárias; Barretos; Brasil. 1

dtmalerbo@gmail.com

*

The gherkin is a plant of Cucurbitaceae family that has separate male and female flowers, are needed pollinator carrying the male flower pollen to the stigma of the female flower for fruit production. This experiment was conducted in experimental area of the University Center Moura Lacerda, campus in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, with the objective of identifying the floral visitors and pollinators of gherkin crop (Cucumis anguria L.) and assess the foraging behavior of those visitors. The attractiveness of the male flowers with respect to female was evaluated during the observation frequency of visitations, observing what percentage of insects present in male and female flowers throughout the day. The culture was gherkin visited by different species of bees. Besides bees, flies were observed visiting the flowers. However, while collecting nectar and pollen, bees visited both female and male flowers. The visits took place between the periods from 8:00 am to 3:00 pm, with this important data to the producer for the application of pesticides in gherkin cultivation without affecting pollination. There was a higher number of visits in male flowers because they produce more attractive to insects such as pollen and nectar, unlike the female flowers that produce only nectar. The Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera visited gherkin flowers from 8:00 am to 3:00 pm, reducing their frequency during the day. These bees preferred visiting the male flowers (84.62%) compared to female flowers (15.38%) of the gherkin. To collect nectar and pollen in male flowers, Africanized honeybees visited from 8:00 am to 3:00 pm, reducing their frequency during the day. To collect néctar in the female flowers, the Africanized honeybees visited the flowers from 8:00 am to 2:00 pm, reducing their frequency during the day. So the bees are essential for fruit production within the gherkin cultivation. Keyword: Pollination, Cucumis anguria L.; beekeeping; Apis mellifera. Financial support: Centro Universitário Moura Lacerda.

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POLLINATION BIOLOGY OF CIPURA SPECIES OF CERRADO BY OIL-COLLECTING BEES Ivan Konstantinov Malinov1; Aline Cristina Martins1; Antonio José Camillo Aguiar1*. Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Brasília - UnB Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, Brasilia – DF, Brasil.

1

ajcaguiar@gmail.com* The reproductive behavior in plants is a key factor in the geographic distribution. Ruderal plants have the ability to colonize new areas and persist, even in the lack of specialized animal pollinators. The neotropical plant genus Cipura (Iridaceae: Tigridae) presents approximately nine described species, being C. paludosa and C. xanthomellas the most common ones, and C. formosa and C. paradisiaca rare species restricted to high altitudinal areas. The present work goal is describing and comparing the reproductive strategies of the four species, especially on the pollination by oilcollecting bees, in urban areas of Brasilia (DF), Cerrado areas in Flores (GO), Serra do Salitre (MG), and Chapada dos Veadeiros (GO). We performed on floral morphology, anthesis, reproductive tests, visitor’s composition and behavior and spatial distribution. All species produce the same rewards to pollinators, the floral oil and pollen, and similar floral behavior and specialized visitors. C. paludosa presented lower richness and abundance of insect visitors. The main pollinators of all four species of Cipura are oil-collecting bees from the genus Arhysoceble (Tapinotaspidini), but other specialized oil collecting bees like Centris species (Centridini) bees can visit the flowers. Cipura xanthomellas had a high number of species visiting its flowers, including one species of Caenonomada, four species of Arhysoceble, and numerous other species of stingless bees and sweat bees. Cipura formosa was highly visited by Arhysoceble bees, however it was mainly pollinated by oil collecting bees of the genera Tapinotaspoides and Centris. Flower-flies (Syrphidae), leaf beetles (Chrysomellidae) and even cockroaches (Pseudomops) were observed visiting flowers to eat pollen. The low visitation rate in C. paludosa associated to the high self-pollination rate characterizes this species as potentially ruderal. In the other hand, C. xanthomellas is incapable of self-pollination, which suggests its inability of persisting in habitats with low diversity or abundance of their pollinators. Keywords: reproductive biology; Tapinotaspidini; Arhysoceble; ruderal plants. Financial support: FAPDF, PRONEX/CNPq.

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RICHNESS AND BEHAVIOR OF FLORAL VISITORS IN PASSIFLORA EDULIS F. FLAVICARPA (PASSIFLORACEAE) IN AN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE Natalia Seneda Martarello1*; Thalita Cristina Silva dos Santos1; Kayna Agostini1. ¹*Universidade Federal de São Carlos - UFSCar; Centro de Ciências Agrárias – CCA; Departamento de Ciências da Natureza, Matemática e Educação (DCNME); Araras; Brasil. natalia_seneda@hotmail.com Pollination is an efficient ecosystem service for improvement and increase in production of fruits and seeds. Due to the self-incompatibility of some species of agricultural interest, cross-pollination is necessary and pollinator deficiency can affect the productivity of some crops. The yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.), as a self-incompatible species, is dependent on crosspollination to produce fruits and seeds. Thus, the identification of floral visitors and their frequency of visits in the flowers during anthesis, become important for the maintenance, conservation and even the management in agricultural environments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the richness, frequency of visits and behavior of floral visitors in P. edulis in an agriculture area without inputs in Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil. We observed the floral visitors from February to April 2015, totaling 54 hours. We registered 10 species of bees from eight genera (Apis, Bombus, Centris, Epicharis, Eulaema, Oxaea, Trigona and Xylocopa). Apis mellifera was considered a very common species with 66.01% of visits, Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) frontalis was frequent with 26.90% and the other species were uncommon. We observed that some visitors are robbers (Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes, Centris bicolor and Oxaea spp.) others are eventual (Bombus spp. and Eulaema spp.) and others are effective pollinators (Xylocopa spp., Centris (Ptilotopus) scopipes and Epicharis (Epicharana) flava), but we verified that Xylocopa frontalis is sometimes a pollinator and other times it is a robber, especially before anthesis. The richness and the frequency of floral visitors, as well as their behavior were extremely important to verify what species of bees are important for the reproduction of this passion fruit species in this agriculture without inputs. Keywords: Pollination; robbers; wealth; passion fruit. Financial support: CAPES.

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THE INITIAL STUDIES ABOUT POLLINATION: CHRISTIAN SPRENGEL AND CHARLES DARWIN’S CONTRIBUTIONS Giselle Alves Martins1; Fernanda da Rocha Brando2 Master’s degree student at Compared Biology Postgraduate Program, School of Philosophy, Science and Letters of Ribeirão Preto – University of Sao Paulo/Brazil. 2Professor at Department of Biology, School of Philosophy, Science and Letters of Ribeirão Preto – University of Sao Paulo/Brazil. 1

gisellealvesmartins@gmail.com The objective of this study is make a theoretical contextualization about the first studies of pollination. The transfer of pollens between two or more different flowers is called Pollination. Insects, like bees, can realize this process. Studies about this phenomenon have been done from the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. However, from Aristotle’s book about ‘History of animals’ were already described bees habits. During long years, many naturalists and scientists have observed and doing research about the relation plants-bees. According to Proctor (1996) Christian Sprengel (1750-1816) was the first botanic to study systematically the behavior of this interaction. On his book called “The Secret of Nature in the Form and Fertilization of Flowers Discovered” (1793), Sprengel said, “the arrangements (of the flowers) are first and directly related to insects (because) the final purpose of the flowers are to be fertilized by insects”. Another important contribution to the study of flower pollination came from Charles Darwin (1809-1882). On this book called ‘The effects of cross and self-fertilization in the vegetable kingdom (1876), Darwin shows the results of his experiments and observations about the mechanism of pollination drawing the conclusion that “nature tells us in the most emphatic manner that she abhors self-fertilization”. Furthermore, Darwin said, “flowers may also be adapted to certain kinds of insects, by secreting nectar particularly attractive to them, and unattractive to other kinds”. After this research was analyzed that studies of pollination were described from observations of nature and that both Sprengel and Darwin agreed on some aspects of the dependence of flowers in relation to insects and affirmed the need for future studies. Key-Word: Fertilization of flowers; bees pollination, plant-bees interactions, Philosophy of Biology. Financial support: Capes; University of Sao Paulo.

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POLLEN ANALYSIS OF MEGACHILIDAE BEES THROUGH FOOD WEBS IN ATLANTIC FOREST AREAS, RJ Bruno Nunes da Silva Mello¹*, Maria Cristina Gaglianone². ¹*Laboratório de Ecologia e Evolução de Abelhas e Vespas - LEEAV, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto – USP; ²Laboratório de Ciências Ambientais - LCA, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense - UENF. brunomellouenf@gmail.com The analysis of mutualistic networks can help explain the variations in the patterns of specialization in communities and can also reveal patterns of the structure of interactions among elements of the community. Also, it can infer or even predict the consequences of species extinction. Megachilidae is a family of bees whose most distinctive feature is the use of leaves or petals in the construction of nests. The objective of this study was to analyze the interactions between Megachilidae and plants sources of floral resources through ecological networks in an area of Atlantic Rainforest. The study was conducted in the Reserva Biológica (Rebio) União, RJ, by using trap nests from Mar/2008 to Oct/2010, and from Oct/2012 to Oct/2013. Qualitative and quantitative ecological networks were built from pollen analyzes of the provisioning material of nests, attributes as nesting and robustness were calculated. Five most abundant bee species in the area (Carloticola paraguayensis (Schrottky), Megachile (Chrysosarus) pseudanthidioides Moure, M. (Chrysosarus) sp1, M. (Pseudocentron) nudiventris Smith and M. (Ptilosarus) sp1) utilized in the provisioning mass in the cells 54 pollen types, belonging to at least 18 plant families. The network presented a total of 90 connections, M. (C.) pseudanthidioides had the greatest number of connections (30) and M. (P.) sp1 the lowest one (6). Asteraceae and Fabaceae presented the greatest richness of pollen types among the families used. Pollen of Mimosa ceratonia Linnaeus and Baccharis Type1 were utilized for all bee species analysed. The network was considered statistically robust (R = 0.61), and was significantly nested. The results of network (high robustness and nesting) reflected the good condition of preservation of the forest in Rebio União. . The results also confirmed the importance of Asteraceae and Fabaceae in the larval food of Megachilidae bees and pointed out other plant families not previously recorded. Keywords: mutualism; pollination; ecological networks. Financing: CAPES/Procad (158/07); FAPERJ; CAPES; CNPq.

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NECTAR PRODUCTION AND VISITATION RATE OF THIEVES IN YELLOW PASSION FRUIT (PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS F. FLAVICARPA DEGENER) Lílian Rodrigues Ferreira de Melo1; Thayane Nogueira Araújo1; Camila Nonato Junqueira1,2; Solange Cristina Augusto1. ¹Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Instituto de Biologia, Uberlândia – MG, Brasil; ²Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Escola Técnica de Saúde, Uberlândia – MG, Brasil. lilianrferreiramelo@gmail.com Yellow passion fruit is a self-incompatible and protandrous species which presents hermaphrodite large and colourfulflowers with abundant nectar production. In general, the passion fruit has a continuous nectar production throughout the day while the concentration decreases.This behaviour may be associated with the maintenance of multiple visits to ensure fruit production. The most common thievesof yellow passion fruit are Apis mellifera and Meliponini species. The present work proposes to assess the effect of thievesvisitation in nectar production of yellow passion fruit, considering volume and concentration of nectar. The work was conducted in a commercial crop area of yellow passion fruit with 1 hectare located in Araguari-MG, in which pollinators have not been previously sighted. Yellow passion fruit anthesis occurs at approximately 12:30, at which time 30 flowers were already bagged and another 30 marked. The data collection occurred in three hours in the afternoon (14h, 15h and 16h). The average nectar volume was 20.37 ± 15.6 µL (n = 30) and the average concentration of the nectar was 40.17 ± 16.15% (n = 30). The volume (r = 0.59; df = 30; p <0.05) and the concentration of nectar (rs = 0.58, df = 30, p <0.05) was significantly and positively correlated with visitation rate of thieves These results suggest the occurrence of an adjustment in nectar production in relation to consumption rates, and that even with visitation of thieves, the nectar supply continues to grow in order to attract pollinators. Keywords: nectar; yellow passion fruit; pollinators; thieves. Financial support: FAPEMIG; CNPq; ESTES/UFU.

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THEORETICAL PREDICTIONS OF PLANT-POLLINATOR INTERACTIONS IN SYMPATRIC SPECIES OF PSYCHOTRIA (RUBIACEAE) IN CERRADO OF BRAZIL José Neiva Mesquita-Neto1,2; Carlos de Melo e Silva Neto1; Edivani Villaron Franceschinelli3. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Laboratório de Biologia Reprodutiva de Plantas, Goiânia, GO, Brasil; 2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Grupo Plebeia-Ecologia de Abelhas e da Polinização, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil; 3Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Laboratório de Biologia Reprodutiva de Plantas, Goiânia, GO, Brasil. 1

jneiva.bio@gmail.com In highly seasonal habitats, sympatric species are often constrained to flower simultaneously. Many sympatric species of Psychotria have similar floral traits, are pollinated by bees, moths, butterflies and flies and flower at the same time of year. This genus provides an opportunity to analyse the relationships between sympatric congeneric plants and pollinators. Interactions between potentially sympatric Psychotria species and their pollinators were surveyed to assess the occurrence of sharing, specialisation, or generalisation of pollinators and plants in the system.A dataset compiled from studies of pollination biology of this genus was used to investigate aspects of interactions with shared pollinators and flowering overlap. These data were used to draw a bipartite graph and analyse the interaction network and degree of niche overlap.In total, the dataset included eight species of potentially co-occurring Psychotria species, which interacted with 24 species of pollinators. The most generalised plant in the network was Psychotria trichophoroides. The pollinators with the highest number of links, and therefore the most important for the network, belonged to orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Pollinators were shared among Psychotria species, thus pollination niches did overlap (θ=0.20, Prandom≥observed=0.04), and plants of this genus depended on pollinators that were generalists among them. The peak of overlap in flowering phenology, when all of the species may potentially co-flower, coincided with the Cerrado rainy season. Since all Psychotria species occurred in sympatry, overlapped in flowering phenology, and had asymmetric interactions with floral visitors, it is possible that pollination facilitation is present in this system. Key-words:Brazilian savannah, floral phenology, network biology, niche overlap, sympatry. Financial support:CNPq; CAPES.

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FLORAL SCENTS IN CATASETUM (ORCHIDACEAE): DO SCENT PATTERNS PREDICT POLLINATING EUGLOSSINE BEE GENERA? Paulo Milet-Pinheiro1*; Daniela M.A.F. Navarro1; Roman Kaiser; Stefan Dötterl2; Günter Gerlach3. Federal University of Pernambuco, Department of Chemistry, Recife, Brazil; 2University of Salzburg, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Plant Ecology, Salzburg, Austria; 3 Botanical Garden of Munich, Munich, Germany.

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miletpinheiro@hotmail.com The orchid genus Catasetum comprises about 170 perfume-producing species pollinated exclusively by euglossine male bees. The floral scent bouquets vary considerably among species and seem to play a pivotal role in pollinator shifts and speciation. Here, we used literature and own data on the scent chemistry of 34 Catasetum species to test whether scent patterns predict pollinating euglossine genera. The species emit in total 264 compounds, mainly monoterpenes (96 compounds), aromatics (68), and sesquiterpenes (25). The bouquet of a single species consists normally of a few dominant compounds (responding to ≥ 50% of the total scent discharge) and several minor ones. Comparative and multivariate analyses of relative scent patterns showed that the Catasetum species group according to pollinator genera, i.e. Eulaema, Euglossa or Eufriesea, and that scent pattern differed significantly between groups. The perfume bouquet of species pollinated by Eulaema and Euglossa showed a high dissimilarity (88%) and five compounds responded for about 70% of this dissimilarity. (E)-carvone epoxide and benzyl acetate were dominant compounds in the scent bouquet of species pollinated by Eulaema, while eucalyptol, myrcene, and ipsdienol were dominant in the species pollinated by Euglossa. The median relative amount of these compounds differed significantly between species pollinated by Eulaema and Euglossa. We avoided comparisons with the group of species pollinated by Eufriesea, since this group consisted of only two species that did not show a clear scent pattern. We conclude that the pattern of floral scents predict the genus of euglossine pollinator, suggesting that the different bee genera have different olfactory preferences for volatiles and that the plants adapt to the preferences of one of the bees. Our data also suggest that plants pollinated by euglossines do not emit one specific type of scent but that different scent patterns are subsumed under the euglossine bee-perfume orchid pollination syndrome. Keywords: Orchid bees; perfume-producing plants; pollination. Financial support: FACEPE.

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FLORAL VISITORS IN AREAS OF TOMATO CROP AND THEIR ROLE IN POLLINATION OF THE CROP Paula Netto1*; Larissa Freitas Ferreira2; Lucio Antonio de Oliveira Campos3. Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Doutorado em Entomologia, UFV; 2Graduação em Ciências Biológicas, UFV; 3Departamento de Biologia Geral, UFV Viçosa, Brasil.

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netto.paula@yahoo.com.br In agricultural areas, the action of pollinators is known and regarded as a key element in the production and environmental conservation. The study was conducted in tomato plantation, using Sophia® and Aguamiel® cultivars, during the years of 2012 and 2013, respectively. The aims of this study were to know the community of bees present in areas of tomato crops in open field; determine the potencial of this crop pollinators; evaluate the effect of pollination in quality of fruits produced. The bees were collected in tomato flowers during flowering and in ruderal flowers in periods without crops in the field. The effect of pollination on fruit quality was evaluated using open pollination treatments, spontaneous self-pollination with pollen supplementation and pollination at first visitation. The number of seeds, the mass and the size of formed fruits were evaluated. 1.564 bees were collected, being 1.190 individuals of 40 species, in tomato flowers and 374 individuals of 23 species were collected in ruderal flowers. 43% of the species present in the tomato flowers are present in ruderal flowers in the periods between harvests, being Apis mellifera the most abundant in both periods. Flowers visited by Bombus produced tomatoes 16% heavier than the ones produced by flowers visited by A. mellifera and 54% heavier than the fruits formed by self-pollinated flowers. Flowers visited by A. mellifera produced tomatoes 52% heavier than the fruits formed by self-pollinated flowers. This study showed the importance of the presence of bees in tomato plantations in the open field, emphasizing the importance of these pollinators in the formation of fruits of better quality. A. mellifera was efficient in pollinating the tomato plantations in Coimbra. The ruderal vegetation may have been important for the persistence of pollinating species of bees in the tomato cultivation area in the period with no flowering of crops. Keywords: buzz pollination; pollinators; crops. Financial support: FAO; GEF; PNUMA; FUMBIO; CNPq; Capes; FAPEMIG.

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THE USE OF PAN TRAPS TO MONITOR BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA) IN CROP TOMATO AREAS Paula Netto1*; Larissa Freitas Ferreira2; Lucio Antonio de Oliveira Campos3. Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Doutorado em Entomologia, UFV; 2Graduação em Ciências Biológicas, UFV; 3Departamento de Biologia Geral, UFV, Viçosa, Brasil.

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netto.paula@yahoo.com.br The recent interest in sampling of pollinators in agricultural areas, motivated by concern for their population decline has pointed out for the need for standardization of a collection method that will allow future comparisons among these studies. This will aid the understanding of the dynamics of pollinators in these environments. The present study aimed to

sample the bee fauna (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in areas of cultivation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, Solanaceae) in the city of Coimbra, Minas Gerais; compare the communities of bees occurring in the areas of tomato crops during the harvest period and dry season and assess the efficiency of pan traps in sampling bees in general and pollinators of tomato crops particularly, in this ecosystem. The study was conducted in areas of tomato plantations, using Sophia® and Aguamiel® cultivars, in the years 2012 and 2013, respectively. Pan traps were used in blue, yellow, white and white with varnish, painted with bright varnish (Colorgin®). A total of 868 individuals, 85% females and 15% males, belonging to 62 species was collected. The most abundant family was Apidae with 55% of the collected individuals. Dialictus was the most diverse genus with 11 species and Apis mellifera, the most abundant species, encompassing about 15% of the collected individuals. Painted blue traps were more attractive to bees, collecting greater diversity and abundance of individuals, followed by yellow, white and white with varnish. The results show the importance of using different collection methods in sampling bee fauna of a region, and the importance of the association of different colors of pan traps. The pan traps were effective in sampling potential bee pollinators of tomato crops in the region of Coimbra. Keywords: Buzz pollination; Solanum lycopersicum; sampling techniques. Financial support: FAO; GEF; PNUMA; FUMBIO; CNPq; Capes; FAPEMIG.

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RELATION BETWEEN THE DIVERSITY OF ANTHOPHILOUS INSECTS AND THE POLLINATION AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF ‘FUJI’ APPLE Patrícia Nunes-Silva1*; Sidia Witter2; Lívia Machado Schlemmer1, Rosana Halinski1, Jenifer Dias Ramos1, Marcos Botton3, Betina Blochtein1. Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Faculdade de Biociências, Departamento de Biodiversidade e Zoologia, Porto Alegre, Brasil. 2Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária(FEPAGRO),Taquari, Brasil. 3Empresa Brasileira de PesquisaAgropecuária(EMBRAPA), Bento Gonçalves, Brasil.

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patricia.silva@pucrs.br Apple is highly dependent on cross-pollination andinsect diversity is important for this service. We investigated the relationship between the diversity of insects and ‘Fuji’ apple characteristics. All flower visitors were collected at 10:00, 12:00 14:00, three days in each of the four orchards (1: S29°07’58.7”, W051°24’31.3”; 2: S29°12’17.1”, W050°58’11.0”; 3: S29°10’37.4”, W050°53’59.8”; 4: S28°53’38.5”, W051°22’56.6”; Rio Grande do Sul) in 2013 and 2014, with exception of orchard 1 and 4 with no apple samples for 2013 and 2014, respectively. The survey was done at two apple rows, 15 minutes per row, covering a 50 m transect. Simpson, Shannon and equitability Jdiversity indexes were calculated. We analyzed 884 apples in relation to weight, seed number and distribution in the carpels, and symmetry indexes (=minimum/maximum; SI) A (diameter) and B (height). Correlations were calculated using the Spearman correlation test. Fruit weight andseed number were not correlated (P>0.05). SIA was positively correlated with fruit weight(r=0.17, P<0.05) and seed number (r=0.15, P<0.05). No correlations between insect diversity indexes and fruit characteristicswere found (P>0.05, n=7), except for seed number that was negatively correlated with Simpson (r=-0.90, P<0.05, n=6), Shannon (r=-0.81, P<0.05, n=6) and equitability J (r=-0.84, P<0.05, n=6) indexes. Honey bees were the most abundant insects on flowers (78.2%±27.5%, n=7) and their abundance was positively correlated with fruit weight (r=0.83, P<0.05, n=6). Even though we found low insect diversity in apple orchards, apples had almost all the seeds (7.4 ± 0.3) possible (10) andmostfruits had seeds in all carpels (70.4% ± 9.1%, n=6), indicating thathoney beesare the main pollinator of ‘Fuji’ apples and may compensate the lack of other pollinators. Therefore the current management of honey bee hives becomes essential and the conservation of other pollinators should be promoted for improving and securing the pollination services. Keywords: diversity, bee, apple, pollination. Financial support: FAPERGS; CAPES.

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RELATION BETWEEN THE DIVERSITY OF ANTHOPHILOUS INSECTS AND THE POLLINATION AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF ‘GALA’ APPLE Patrícia Nunes-Silva1*; Sidia Witter2; Lívia Machado Schlemmer1, Rosana Halinski1, Jenifer Dias Ramos1, Marcos Botton3, Betina Blochtein1. Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Faculdade de Biociências, Departamento de Biodiversidade e Zoologia, Porto Alegre, Brasil. 2Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária (FEPAGRO),Taquari, Brasil. 3Empresa Brasileira de PesquisaAgropecuária(EMBRAPA), Bento Gonçalves, Brasil.

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patricia.silva@pucrs.br Insect diversity is important for maintaining the stability of pollination services and contributes to crop yield amount and quality. The aim of this study was to verify whether there is a relationship between the diversity of anthophilous insects and ‘Gala’ apple characteristics. All flower visitors were collected at 10:00, 12:00 14:00, three days in each of the four orchards (1: S29°07’58.7”, W051°24’31.3”; 2: S29°12’17.1”, W050°58’11.0”; 3: S29°10’37.4”, W050°53’59.8”; 4: S28°53’38.5”, W051°22’56.6”; Rio Grande do Sul) in 2013 and 2014, with exception of orchard 4 with no apple samples for 2013. The survey was done at two apple rows, during 15 minutes per row, covering a 50 m transect. Simpson, Shannon and equitability J diversity indexes were calculated. We analyzed ‘Gala’ apples in relation to weight, seed number and distribution in the carpels, and symmetry indexes (=minimum/maximum; SI) A (diameter) and B (height). Correlations between variables were calculated using the Spearman correlation test. There was a positive correlation between fruit weight and seed number(r=0.26, P<0.05, n=1019), fruit weight and SIB (r=0.20, P<0.05, n=1020), and seed number and SIB (r=0.19, P<0.05, n=1019). There was no correlation between insect diversity indexes and any of the fruit characteristics (P>0.05, n=7). Even though we found no relation between insect diversity and fruit characteristics, apple is highly dependent on cross-pollination. Considering that (a) all apples analyzed on these orchards had half of the potential seeds (4.8 ± 2.2, n=1019) possible (10); (b) seed number influences fruit weight; (c) few apples had seeds in all carpels (24.4% ± 6.3%, n=7) and (d) we found low insect diversity in apple orchards, where honey bees were the most abundant insects on flowers (78.2% ± 27.5%, n=7). Therefore we conclude that, regarding ‘Gala’, orchards from southern Brazil present a pollination deficit that could be overcome by improving insect pollination. Keywords: diversity, bee, apple, pollination. Financial support: FAPERGS; CAPES.

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A HIGHLY SPECIALIZED BEE-PLANT RELATIONSHIP OF NARROWLY ENDEMIC PARTNERS IN THE SERRA DA MANTIQUEIRA, BRAZIL Samuel S. Oliveira¹; Reisla Oliveira2; Clemens Schlindwein1,3. ¹Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-UFMG, Grupo Plebeia – Ecologia de Abelhas e da Polinização, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil; 2Departamento de Biodiversidade, Evolução e Meio Ambiente,Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Brasil; 3Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-UFMG, Departamento de Botânica, Grupo Plebeia – Ecologia de Abelhas e da Polinização, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil. ssosamuel@yahoo.com.br The close relationship between the bee Actenosigynesmantiqueirensis (Colletidae) and an undescribed species of Blumenbachia (Loasaceae), both endemic to the Mantiqueira mountain range, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was investigated emphasizing thigmonastic pollen presentation and its influence on the foraging behavior of female bees.We described individual flower development, characteristics of stamen movements and theforaging behavior of individually marked females. Actenosigynes bees were the unique effective pollinators of Blumenbachia sp. and visited flowers in the staminate and pistilate phase with the same high frequency. The females showed a uniform behavioral sequence on a flower visit: they clinchedwith their claws to the apical collar of the nectar scales to press their head between nectar scale and staminodes, thereby stimulating the movement of a stamen. This arrives in the center of the flower around 3 min after the stimulus. Their foraging behavior is designed to return to individual flowers in these short intervals with high frequency to collect the presented pollen. To do so, they established foraging routes averaging63 flowers in their defined flower patches, which were maintained stable for days. Moreover, females also harvested pollen from non-movedstamens by pulling them before the movement. Experimentalstimulation of nectar scales, whichsimulatethe females’ behavior, increased stamen movements. The staminate phase wasshortened by 25% in stimulated flowers. The study reveals an extreme case ofpant-pollinator interaction with reciprocal specialization. Oligolectic A. mantiqueirensisshows complete dependence on the flowers of Blumenbachia. Females evolved two types of pollen collection probably shaped by varying pollen availability in the flowers of Blumenbachia. Keywords: Loasaceae; Neopasiphaeinae;oligoletic bee; foraging behavior. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq-Universal 481605-2011-8 and 312831/2013-7.

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FLOWER VISITORS AND BREEDING SYSTEM IN TWO HETERANTHERIC SPECIES OF SENNA (FABACEAE) Bruna Pinheiro-Costa¹; José Neiva Mesquita-Neto¹; Matheus Pacheco Rabelo2; Juliana Ordones Rego³; Clemens Schlindwein4. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Grupo Plebeia-Ecologia de Abelhas e da Polinização, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil. ²Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Botânica, Grupo Plebeia-Ecologia de Abelhas e da Polinização, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil. ³Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Manejo de Vida Silvestre, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Grupo Plebeia-Ecologia de Abelhas e da Polinização, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil. 4Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Grupo Plebeia-Ecologia de Abelhas e da Polinização, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil. ¹

bruna-kcp@ufmg.br Flowers of Senna havestamens with poricidal anthers of three different sizes,shapes and position. Still there is controversy about the function of such heterantheric flowers. In the Parque Serra do Curral, Belo Horizonte, we determined the breeding system of Senna pendula and Senna reniformis, their effective pollinators, the pollen amount of the different anthers, fruitset after self-pollination and natural pollination, and analyzed if cross-pollen flow from the three anther types to the stigmas result in different number of fruits and seeds.Both species were self-incompatible. InS. pendula and S. reniformis, individual large anthers contained more pollen grains in relation to medium and small anthers, but both large anthers of a flower and the four small anthers together stored similar pollen amounts, much higher than that of the medium sized anther.Pollen flow from large and small anthers in both species resulted in higher fruit set when compared to pollen flow from the medium anther. This revealed that pollen from the medium anthers is less fertile than that from the other levels and plays a subordinate role in pollination in the studies species. The species of Senna shared the same effective pollinators: nine large buzz-pollinating species of Bombus, Centris, Epicharis, Eulaema and Xylocopa. Small to medium sized bees of the genera Pseudaugochlora, Melipona, as well as nonvibrating Paratrigona were non-effective pollinators in S. pendula and S. reniformis. Key-words: buzz-pollination, Senna, heteromorphic anthers, pollen flow, breeding system. Financial support: CAPES, FAPEMIG, CNPq.

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FLORAL VISITORS DIFFERENTIATE NEW FROM POSTCOLOR CHANGE FLOWERS IN KIELMEYERA RUBRIFLORA (CALLOPHYLLACEAE)? Bruna Pinheiro-Costa¹; Clemens Schlindwein². ¹Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Grupo Plebeia-Ecologia de Abelhas e da Polinização, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil. ²Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Botânica, Grupo Plebeia-Ecologia de Abelhas e da Polinização, Belo Horizonte, Brasil. bruna-kcp@ufmg.br Color changes in corolla and anthers during anthesis, associated with the maintenance of old flowers, arethought to influence pollinator attraction.Kielmeyera rubriflorais a large Cerrado-shrub with pink nectarless flowersthat persist for several days.From the second day onward, anthers and filaments change from yellow for red and the base of the petalsfrom white to pink.We tested the hypothesis that flower visitors differentiate new from post-colorchange flowers, and, moreoverprefer and take longer to handlethe new pollen-rich unchanged flowers over post-colorchange ones. The study was conducted in theParque Estadual do Rio Preto, São Gonçalo do Rio Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil. We used three treatment groups of individuals of K. rubriflora:a) individuals exclusively with new pre– colorchange flowers; old open flowers were removed, b) individuals exclusively with post-colorchange flowers c) Individuals with pre- and post-colorchangeflowers.For each treatment, we determined the rate of flower rejection, flower approach and visits.We considered “flower rejection”when a bee “approximated to a flower up to 20 cm distance without hovering; in “approaches”bees hovered at a distance of about 5 cm to the flower, but did not touch floral parts and in a “visit” the bee alighted on the petals.There were clear rejections to post-colorchange flowers compared to the new flowers in treatments b and c. Only flowers before the color-changes, were visited, and post-colorchange flowers were only rejected. In the mixed group, bees rejected, approached or visited flowers. Thus, the bees were able to distinguish color changes flowers in the flowers of K. rubriflora. Old post-color change, pollenless flowers, maintained on the plants contribute to long-distance bee attraction. The white and yellow visual signals of new flowers, yet, need to be present to induce the flower visit. Key-words:Plant-pollinator interactions; visual signalling; flower color change; Kielmeyera. Financial support: CAPES, FAPEMIG, CNPq.

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SMALL ANTHERS HAVE THE FUNCTION TO FEED BEES IN SENNA RENIFORMIS (FABACEAE)? Matheus Pacheco Rabelo1; José Neiva Mesquita-Neto2; Bruna Karen Pinheiro-Costa2; Clemens Schlindwein3. Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Botânica, Grupo Plebeia-Ecologia de Abelhas e da Polinização, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil; 2Programa de PósGraduação em Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Grupo Plebeia-Ecologia de Abelhas e da Polinização, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil; 3Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Grupo Plebeia-Ecologia de Abelhas e da Polinização, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil. 1

matheus.rabelo@hotmail.com Heterantheric flowers have stamens, which differ in size, color, shape and, possibly, also function. Since Darwin, studies havehypnotized whether this phenomenon reflects a “division of labor” between stamens: a group of anthers satisfy the pollinators’feeding demand, and the other, fertile pollen, for pollination. The aim of thepresent study is to know if the short level stamens with small anthers in Senna reniformis (Fabaceae) have as main function to attract and feed buzz pollinating bee pollinators. The study was performed at Serra do Curralpark, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The androecium of S. reniformisis composed of four stamens types: two large, one medium and four smallstamens, besides of three tiny-leaf shaped staminodes. To test the visual attraction of the different sets of stamens on the flower visiting bees, groups of at least 30 flowers were handled as follows: a) large anthers removed; b) medium anther removed; c) small anthers removed; d) small anthers and staminodes removed ande) intact control flowers. As response of the treatments, we calculated the rejection rate by large effective bee pollinators and small flower visitngbee, which are pollen gleaners, little effective buzz-pollinators or destructive flower visitors. Large bees (Bombus, Centris, Eulaema) vibrate all stamens simultaneously in a flower visit and small bees (Pseudaugochlora, Trigona, Plebeia) visit the stamens individually. Large bees rejectedclearly more flowerswith small anthers removed (treatments c and d) compared to all other treatments, while the smallbees showed no differences in the rejection rates among the treatments (ANOVA one way; Holm-Sidak). Therefore, for the effective pollinators, only small anthers are visual signals that indicate the presence of pollen resources in the flowers, because theyinfluence the bees’ decision to visit a flower or not. This supports the feeding/pollination division in heterantheric flowers of Senna. Key-words: division of labor; heteranthery; buzz pollination. Financial support: CNPq; CAPES; FAPEMIG.

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COMPARISON OF TWO APPLE PLANTING SYSTEMS REGARDING HONEY BEE POLLINATION Jenifer Dias Ramos1*, Patrícia Nunes-Silva1, Sidia Witter2; Marcos Botton3, Betina Blochtein1. Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Faculdade de Biociências, Departamento de Biodiversidade e Zoologia, Porto Alegre, Brasil. 2Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária(FEPAGRO), Taquari, Brasil. 3Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA), Bento Gonçalves, Brasil.

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jenifer.ramos@acad.pucrs.br Apple cultivars are typically self-incompatible anddependent on cross-pollination.In Brazil, the planting system consists of alternating rows of the commercial cultivar with rows of the “pollinizer”cultivar. It is common the use of Apis mellifera colonies for increasing the production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of this planting system in relation to honey bee pollination and verify whether honey bees cross rows or not. The study was done in one ‘Gala’ apple orchard (S29°12’17.1” W050°58’11.0) of 16 hectare, which presented two planting systems: 1. three rows of ‘Gala’alternated with two rows of ‘Fuji Suprema’ (pollinizer); 2.the middle row of ‘Gala’ had ‘crab-apples’ every 6 m. In 2015, we collected all fruits from the ‘Gala’ trees adjacent to three ‘crab-apple’ trees in 1 m distance in each side and all fruits of three Gala trees from lines without ‘crab-apples’ in the same way. We analyzed weight, seed numberand their distribution among carpels. We followed the bees during foraging flight for as long as we could and found that 85% of the honey bees (n=118) did not cross rows. There was a positive correlation between the fruit weight and number of seeds (Spearman correlation test P<0.05;r=0.23). The number of fruits/tree and the individual weight of these fruits fromthe two systems did not differ (Mann-Whitney test; P>0.05). The fruits of system 2 had more seeds (5.8±2.0) than the fruits of system 1 (4.9±2.1; Mann-Whitney test;P<0.05). Furthermore, 40% of them had seeds in all carpels, while only 27% from the rows without ‘crab-apple’ trees presented this pattern. These results show that the planting system with ‘crab-apples’ is better considering the foraging behavior of honey bees, the number of seeds/fruit and their distribution among carpels (important for symmetry). Keywords: honey bee, apple, pollination, planting system. Financial support: CAPES.

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IS APIS MELLIFERA AN EFFICIENT POLLINATOR OF APPLE ORCHARDS? Jenifer Dias Ramos1*, Patrícia Nunes-Silva1, Sidia Witter2; Marcos Botton3, Betina Blochtein1 Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Faculdade de Biociências, Departamento de Biodiversidade e Ecologia, Porto Alegre, Brasil. 2Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária(FEPAGRO), Taquari, Brasil. 3Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA), Bento Gonçalves, Brasil.

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jenifer.ramos@acad.pucrs.br Apple cultivars are typically self-incompatible, requiring pollen transfer from another “pollinizer” cultivar to set fruit in marketable quantities. Insects are required to guarantee cross-pollination and it is common the use of Apis mellifera colonies for increasing the production.The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of Apis mellifera while visiting apple flowers, in order to assess its efficiency as pollinator. The study was done in one ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ apple orchard (S29°12’17.1” W050°58’11.0 –Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) of 16 hectare, in 2014. We followed 121 bees during foraging flight for as long as we could and (1) observed whether they crossed the rows of the orchard and (2) touched the stigmas, and (3) whichtype of floral resource(nectar or pollen) they collected. The results show that 86.4% of the bees did not cross between rows.18.2% did not touch the stigmas, 45.4% touched few (1-2), 22.3% touched most (3-4) and 14.9% touched all stigmas (5) of the flower. Regarding the floral resource, 94.2% of the honey bees collected nectar and 5.8% collected pollen. Considering these results, it is possible to assume that Apis mellifera by this environmental condition it was not an efficient pollinator of apple orchards, because it did not cross the rows of the orchard, which is essential for cross-pollination between cultivars. Generally nectar collecting bees are able to get this resource from a lateral position on the flowers, not touching their reproductive parts. In this study it was possible to verify this fact, honey beesmainly collect nectar on its foraging trips and the majority did not touched the stigmas or touched few. Considering that and the fact thathoney bees collected few pollen amount on flowers, the pollination service provided by honey beesin apple orchards is not efficient.

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FLOWER DESTRUCTION BY WORKER BEES OF TRIGONA FULVIVENTRIS (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) DECREASES THE REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF ENDANGERED ERIOCNEMA FULVA (MELASTOMATACEAE) Juliana Ordones Rego*1; Clemens Schlindwein2*. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação do Meio Ambiente, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG; Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil. 2*Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG; Departamento de Botânica, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil. 1*

juordones@hotmail.com Eriocnema fulva is a perennial herb with white flowers, poricidal anthers and pollen is the only resource for visitors. The species is self-compatible but does not produce fruits in the absence of flower visitors. It is an endangered species occurring the Iron Quadrangle region of Minas Gerais with only four known populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the reproductive success of this endangered species is restricted by pollinator limitation. The study was conducted in an area close to the bank of the Rio das Velhas, in Rio Acima, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The frequency and the behavior of flower visitors were studied during 50 hours, in ten non-consecutive days. Only 36 bee specimens were recorded visiting the flowers of E. fulva: Trigona fulviventris (Apidae, Meliponini, 28 specimens), three species of Augochloropsis (Halictidae, Augochlorini, 5) and Ceratina (Ceratinula) sp. (Apidae, Ceratinini, 3). The non-buzz pollinating worker bees of T. fulviventris showed fatal destructive behavior during flower visits. In their long lasting visits, they cut anthers, filaments and styles. The flowers of E. fulva showed a very high percentage of damages at the end of anthesis (95.7%); in 86% of the flowers, anthers and stigmas were cutted, and in further 9.7% only the anthers. Only 1.3% of the anthers and stigmas cut flowers formed fruit. Thus, fruit set is directly related to flower damages applied by Trigona fulviventris. We conclude that the reproductive success of the studied population of E. fulva was dramatically reduced due to the high degree of destructive flower visits, by the workers of this stingless bee species. Keywords: endangered species; reproductive success; Trigona; destructive flower visits. Financial support: FAPEMIG, CNPq.

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POLLINATION BIOLOGY OF ACHIOTE PLANTS CULTIVATED IN DRACENA, SÃO PAULO STATE Alessandra Lima Santos¹*; Daniel Nicodemo1; Favízia Freitas de Oliveira2; Denise de Araujo Alves3; Thais Regina Ramos Alves1; Thais Monique de Oliveira Cardoso1. *UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Câmpus de Dracena, Dracena, Brasil; 2UFBA, Instituto de Biologia, Salvador, Brasil; 3USP, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, Brasil Contato: Rod. Comte. João Ribeiro de Barros, km 651, 17900-000, Dracena, Brasil. 1

alessandralimas94@gmail.com Achiote plants (Bixa orellana L .: Bixaceae) commonly occurs in the northern region of South America, however, crops are found in other tropical regions. The “Nova Alta Paulista” region has stood out in Brazil by contributing about 70% of the annatto production of São Paulo State. Considering the ecological variations between the achiote crop region of origin and other places where this crop is grown, the aim of this work was to investigate the floral characteristics of achiote plants and identify the flowers insect visitors of this crop in the region studied. The data of floral characteristics and behavior of insect visitors were collected in a achiote orchard located in Dracena, São Paulo State, during May 2015. Analyzing the visitation fidelity by pollen identification of pollen loads present in honeybees corbiculae, we used the acetolysis technique. The inflorescences studied presented an average of 6.3 ± 2.9 flowers. The flower opening occurred around 7:30 am ± 15 minutes, lasting anthesis for 10.9 hours ± 22 minutes and the stigmas remained receptive until 4:24 pm ± 18 minutes. The visits on achiote flowers started from the beginning of anthesis and lasted until 6 pm. Apis mellifera bees were the most common visitors (53.6%) followed by Trigona spinipes bees (15.9%). Pollen was the collected resource on 78.9% of flower bees visits (n = 500). The honeybees were responsible for more than a half of this collection, with peak visitation to collect pollen occurring between 9 am and 11 am. It was observed that pollen loads present in honeybee corbiculae had great numbers of achiote pollen grains, indicating its potential as pollinating agent of achiote plants despite poricidal anthers of this crop flowers. Keywords: Bixa orellana; crop pollination; honeybees; pollen; stigma. Financial support: FAPESP - 2014/25493-2.

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POLLEN SOURCES USED BY CELETRIGONA LONGICORNIS FRIESE, 1903 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINI) AT THE CAMPUS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SÃO PAULO, RIBEIRÃO PRETO, SP, BRAZIL Luene Pessoa Vicente1*; Maria Juliana Ferreira-Caliman1; Carlos Alberto Garófalo1. Universidade de São Paulo; Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto; Departamento de Biologia; Ribeirão Preto; Brasil.

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luenevpessoa@gmail.com To understand the relationship between the bees and the environment it’s very important to know how floral resources have been used. The Meliponini bees were considered generalist species but several studies have been showed that the foragers exhibit a floral constancy. The visitor’s decision to maintain the floral constancy is based on many factors such as the skill and handling of the flower, visual detection of resource and the anthesis. The aim of this study was to identify the floral sources of pollen used by C. longicornis at the campus of the University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP. Samples from 45 pollen pots were collected in June 2015 with the aid of 100µl capillaries to obtain a stratified sample. The material was exposed to the process of acetolysis for identification of pollen. We identified the plant species by comparison with pollen grains deposited on Palinoteca of FFCLRPUSP. The samples were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. For the quantitative analysis, we counted the first 400 pollen grains found on each microscope slide. The pollen analysis showed that the samples collected presented 36 pollen types, with 8 identified families at the moment. In general, the most representative botanical families were Lythraceae, Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. Lagerstroemia indica was present in 100% of samples and was the predominant pollen in 35 slides (>45% of the pollen grains counted). Eucalyptus citriodora and Antigonon leptopus were present in 68.88% and 33.33% of samples analyzed, respectively. Some pollen grains cannot be identified, but most of them constituted minor pollen (< 15% of pollen grains counted). Based on results, we conclude that Celetrigona longicornis exhibited a preference for flowers of Lagerstroemia indica. Even collecting other pollen types, the foragers collected preferentially pollen of one botanical species. The reasons for this floral constancy have been investigated to clarify this aspect of biology C. longicornis. Keywords: Stingless bee; Floral resource; Palynology. Financial Support: CAPES, BIOCOMP.

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POLLEN ANALISYS OF MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA ANTHIDIOIDES LEPELETIER (APIDAE: MELIPONINI) IN AN URBAN AREA IN THE STATE OF BAHIA – BRAZIL Adriele Santos Vieira¹*; Zaline Santos Lopes1; Lorena Andrade Nunes²,¹; Ana Maria Waldschmidt1. Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia- UESB; ², 1Programa de Formação de Recursos Humanos – PRH PB 211 Contato: Avenida José Moreira Sobrinho s/n, Jequiezinho, 45.206-190, Jequié-BA, Brasil. 1

adriele23@hotmail.com In Brazil, there are a big variety of stinglessbees responsible for polinization of many plant species. Among bee species, we highlight the Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (mandaçaia) that presents construction habits on their nests in tree trunks. Due to the ecologic and socioeconomic relevance of the M. q. anthidioides, the aim of this study was to identify the main pollen types. In samples of pollen collected in Jequié – BA. Sample were collected on a monthly bases directly from five hives INPA models in a Meliponarylocatted in the Caatinga from September to November 2014. After acetolisis slides were made with pollen sediments afterwards the quantitative and qualitative analysis. Pollen was identifyby comparing specialized literature. Fourteen pollen morphotypes were identify distributed among different classes of frequencies. The botanic families most highlighted were Myrtaceae (29%), Fabaceae-Mimosoideae (22%), and Solanaceae (14%). The dominant pollen types belong to the families Myrtaceae and Fabaceae-Mimosoideae, and were represented by Mimosa tenuiflora (88,49%) and Type 1Myrtaceae (73,06%). The secundaries types were Psidiumguajava (31,69%) and Solanum I (25,99%). Other morphotypessuch as Mimosa sp. and Vernonia sp. common in antropized areas appeared as isolated pollen. The analyzed pollen exhibited characteristicsof different taxahabits from Caatinga considered important to colonies maintance and local flora. Key words: Meliponíneos; Caatinga; Meliponiculture; Conservation. Financial support: FAPESB; CNPq; UESB; PRH-PB211.

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APITOXIN HARVESTING IMPAIRS HYPOPHARINGEAL GLANDS IN APIS MELLIFERA L. BEES Thaís de Souza Bovi1; Paula Onari1; Adriana Fava Negrão1; Melina Stoian Modanesi1; Sergio Alexandre Alcantara dos Santos2; Luis Antonio Justulin Junior2; Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi1. UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista – FMVZ; Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia – Departamento de Produção Animal - Campus de Botucatu, Brasil;2UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista – IBB; Instituto de Biociências – Departamento de Morfologia- Campus de Botucatu, Brasil. 1

thaisbovi@yahoo.com.br The bee venom harvesting is a stressful handling for the Apis mellifera L, due to the alarm pheromones release, which can alter the communication and behaviour of bees, modifying their activities, such as labor division, brood nutrition and consequently interfere in the hypopharingeal glands development. These glands are responsible for the synthesis of royal jelly protein phase, being its integrity important for the swarms development. The study aims were to investigate whether bee venom harvesting can influence the hypopharingeal glands development (area and number of acini) in Apis mellifera L. bees, with six days old. The apitoxin was collected from five experimental hives, in the morning period (9:00 a.m. – lasting one hour), through electric collector, for three months. Five hives were kept as control. For the assessment of hypopharingeal glands development, 10 bees were monthly collected from hives without harvest (T1) and 10 from the hives with apitoxin harvest (T2), which were euthanized and their heads removed for morphometric analysis in resin, colored with hematoxylin-eosin. Using a digital camera attached to the microscope and software of image analysis the hypopharingeal glands area of acini was determined. The results were compared by ANOVA followed by Tukey test to verify differences between the means. Throughout the experiment, the T1 and T2 presented 3749.5 ± 1447.5 and 2958.2 ± 739.77 acini, respectively, being this difference significant. The apitoxin harvesting also reduced the acini area in 48.1%, compared to the control treatment. This work shows that bee venom harvesting reduced the number and size of hypopharingeal gland acini in bees with six days old. Keywords: beekeeping; apitoxin; royal jelly. Financial support: FAPESP.

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VARIATION IN THE INTERNAL TEMPERATURE OF HIVES OF AFRICANIZED HONEY BEES EXPOSED TO SOLAR RADIATION Domingos, H. G. T.1*; Santos, R. G .2; Sombra, D. S.3; Lima, N. L.4; Gonçalves, L. S.5. UFERSA/CETAPIS – Departamento de Ciências Animais – Mossoró-RN; 4CETAPIS – Mossoró-RN.

1,2,3,5*

herica_tertulino@hotmail.com The Africanized honey bees can control the internal temperature of nests between 33 to 36 °C. This temperature range can receive influence of environmental factors such as temperature and solar radiation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of direct solar radiation on the internal temperature of managed hives in the semiarid Northeast.The study was conducted in the “Centro Tecnológico de Apicultura e Meliponicultura do Rio Grande do Norte – CETAPISRN”, from October 2014 to July 2015. The data collection took place every 15 days using three colonies of Africanized honey bees housed in Langstroth hives. The hives were totally exposed to direct solar radiation, had uniform population and similar brood area and were exchanged with approximately every 3 months using the same selection criterion. To measure the internal temperature, thermocouple sensors coupled to a Thermo-Hygro-Anemometer Luxmeter were placed inside the hive. Data were collected three times a day, at 8 o’clock in the morning, at noon (12 o’clock) and 3pm. The average values of each collecting time were compared by Tuckey test with 5% probability.The obtained average internal temperature was 36,1oC. However the average values of the internal temperatures on three distinct periods were 33.9°C, 37.6°C and 36.8°C at 8 o’clock, noon (12 o’clock ) and 3pm , respectively, and they were different statistically. It was observed that at noon and 3pm the bees were not effective in maintaining the temperature within the optimum range for colony maintenance. The higher thermal load received owing the hives are unprotected from direct solar radiation. This negatively reflected the temperature inside the hives. Thus, the success of beekeeping also depends on a management of the colonies. In order to avoid an interference in the homeostasis of the colonies it is recommended to install the colonies in an apiary under shade conditions (natural or artificial).  Keywords: Ambience; Solar radiation; Thermal comfort; Africanized honey bees.

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VARIATION IN THE INTERNAL TEMPERATURE OF HIVES WITH AFRICANIZED HONEY BEES UNDER SHADE CONDITIONS Domingos, H. G. T.1*; Sombra, D. S.2; Santos, R. G.3; Lima, N. L.4; Gonçalves, L. S.5. UFERSA/CETAPIS – Departamento de Ciências Animais – Mossoró-RN; 4CETAPIS – Mossoró-RN.

1,2,3,5*

herica_tertulino@hotmail.com Africanized honey bees have great ability to adapt to different environments, but they are directly affected by the high temperatures and intense solar radiation that could affect control of the internal temperature. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of shading on the internal temperature of managed hives in the semiarid Northeast. The study was conducted in the “Centro Tecnológico de Apicultura e Meliponicultura do Rio Grande do Norte – CETAPIS-RN”, from October 2014 to July 2015. The data collection took place every 15 days using three colonies of Africanized bees housed in Langstroth hives. The hives were protected from direct solar radiation by a structure built with “Brasilit” tile, had uniform population and similar brood area and were exchanged approximately every 3 months using the same selection criterion. To measure the internal temperature of the hive, thermocouple sensors coupled to a Thermo-Hygro-Anemometer Luxmeter were placed inside the hive. Data were collected three times a day, at 8 o’clock in the morning, at noon (12 o’clock) and 3pm. The average values of the internal temperatures on three distinct periods were 31,6°C, 35,8°C and 34,9°C at 8am, 12 o’clock and 3pm, respectively. The average values of each collecting time were compared by Tuckey test with 5% probability and they were different statistically. Although it was observed an increase in the internal temperature at noon and at 3 pm, these temperatures were maintained within a thermal comfort range for bees, showing that the hives had adequate protection against adverse climatic conditions. This prevents the foraging bees being moved from the nectar and pollen collection service to perform a thermoregulatory survival. Keywords: Thermal comfort; Africanized honey bees; Shading; Hive internal temperature; Semiarid.

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EVALUATION OF THE METHODS FOR REARING OF AFRICANIZED APIS MELLIFERA LARVAE Adna Suelen Dorigo1*; Daiana Antônia Tavares2; Osmar Malaspina2; Hellen Maria Soares2; Roberta C.F. Nocelli1. Universidade Federal de São Carlos – UFSCar - Departamento de Ciências da Natureza, Matemática e Educação. Contato: Rodovia Anhanguera, Km174, Araras, Brazil;Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” – UNESP – Instituto de Biociências; Departamento de Biologia; Centro de estudos de Insetos Sociais (CEIS). Contato: Bela Vista, 13500-900, Rio Claro, Brazil. adnadorigoo@gmail.com Bees are holometabolous insects and so during the life cycle, go through different stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult. In the literature there are methods, which describe the in vitro rearing of European bees Apis mellifera (Aupinel et al, 2005; Aupinel et al, 2007), which resulted in the larval protocol for toxicological studies (OECD, 2013). Considering that Africanized A. mellifera, hybrid found in Brazil, has one day less in development cycle compared to European subspecies, Cruz et al. (2010) and Silva-Zacarin et al. (2011) proposed changes in larval food that better represent the life cycle of Africanized bees. The objective of this study was to compare the development of larvae of Africanized A. mellifera fed according to three different methods. The results showed that for in vitro rearing of Africanized A. mellifera the method described by Cruz et al. (2010) was not so efficient due to high mortality rate, reaching 88%, and low emergency, not reaching 2%, when compared to other methods. This probably occurred due to low amount of food offered in the early days when compared to other methods. During the experiments, the mortality and emergency rates in OECD (2013) and Silva-Zacarin et al. (2010) methods were similar showing that both could be applied to the specie in question with some adjustments. In the method of Zacarin-Silva et al. (2011) the amounts of food in the first two days are high and some larvae die immersed in food excess. In OECD (2013) method the initial amounts of food are adequate, but the feeding on the sixth day shows up unnecessary, because in this day the individuals begin the pre-pupae period and stop feeding. Thus, the OECD method (2013) is the most viable for in vitro rearing of Africanized A. mellifera dispensing the last day of food supply. Keywords: mortality; pupation; emergence. Financial support: CNPq (119383/2014-4); FAPESP (2012/50197-2).

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PROTEIC DIET FOR HONEYBEES Isabella Rodrigues Francatti¹*; Weyder Cristiano Santana¹. ¹*Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Departamento de Entomologia; Apiário Central; Viçosa; Brasil. isabella.francatti@gmail.com The beekeeping is taking great importance in recent years due mainly to the increase in the production and export of bee products. In 2014, only honey’s exports reached US$ 98,576 million, which is the best year of export of Brazilian honey history. Researches envision a potential growth of the beekeeping market in the short term to a US$ 1 billion annually. Therefore, it is of great importance the professionalization of beekeeping in the country to respond to the productive levels. The supplementary feeding during periods of food scarcity, suited to the Africanized bees is an important tool to achieve these goals. For that reason, a balanced protein diet to substitute pollen for Apis mellifera L. africanized was developed, which was determined by standard ration calculation and evaluated in the field based on the reproductive performance of the queen by quantifying cells housing the brood. Eight colonies of africanized honeybees in standard beehive Langstroth were kept in the central Apiary of the Department of Entomology at the Federal University of Viçosa. All colonies were fed with a water and sugar syrup 30% and four of them received an experimental diet (soybean meal, soy extract, corn meal, brewer’s yeast, sugar and canola oil). The others received only the syrup. A “t“ test was used to compare means and it was obtained p=0.523, indicating no significant difference between treatments. This can be explained by the fact that bees were collecting sufficient pollen in the field, since it will always be preferred over an artificial diet. As a result, in this conditions, the diet has not been proven effective. Keywords: Apis mellifera; beekeeping; africanized honeybees; artificial diet. Financial support: CNPq; FAPEMIG.

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LONGEVITY OF AFRICANIZED HONEY BEE QUEENS (APIS MELLIFERA L.) IN CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF RECIFE-PE, BRAZIL Renata Valéria Regis de Sousa Gomes1,4*; Lidiany Barros Rocha1; Ednilson Nogueira Lima Filho1; Maria Elaine Miranda Alves1; Escarião da Nóbrega Gomes2; Kátia Peres Gramacho3; Lionel Segui Gonçalves4. Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco – UFRPE; Departamento de Zootecnia, Recife, PE, Brasil;2Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE, Recife, PE, Brasil; 3UNIT/ITP, Aracaju, SE, Brasil. 4CETAPIS/UFERSA, Mossoró, RN, Brasil. *1

renatav_sousa@hotmail.com The lifetime of individuals in a colony of bees Apis mellifera L., depends especially on the region, weather conditions and availability of bee pasture. The objective of this study is to verify the longevity of queens of Africanized bees under, the climatic conditions of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. 30 hives were installed in the experimental apiary of the UFRPE, from January 2014 to July 2015. 52 queens open mated were observed every two weeks since its introduction until death. The queens began to be naturally replaced from April 2014. The queens presented an average longevity of 5.2 ± 2.6 months. The longer lifetime was one queen who lived 12 months, and the shortest longevity was one queen with one month. The months that occurred the highest percentage of death queens were in February 17%, April 17%, October 23% and December 15%. It was observed the presence of 259 queen cell, of which 81% were produced between the months of September to April, and 19% in the months from May to August. The estimated queen longevity under the climatic conditions of Recife-PE is around five months, what is corroborated by the climatic conditions of the region. In Pernambuco there is only the rainy and dry seasons, without climate VARIATION throughout the year. The queen oviposition intensity is according to the availability of food in the nature. Keywords: Queens; Africanized queens; Longevity. Financial support: CAPES.

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EVALUATION OF THE POLLEN PRODUCTION BY HYGIENIC AND NON-HYGIENIC AFRICANIZED HONEY BEES (APIS MELLIFERA L.) Camila dos Santos Rezende¹; Edgar Rodrigues de Araujo Neto¹; Felipe Mendes Fontes¹; Frederico Machado Texeira¹; Jonatan Mikhail del Solar Velarde²; Kátia Peres Gramacho¹*. ¹Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa (ITP) - Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Av. Murilo Dantas 300, 49032-490 Aracaju, Brasil; ²Programa de Pós graduação em Zootecnia – Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, Bahia. katholausa@hotmail.com The production of bee pollen in the state of Sergipe (4th of Brazil) focuses on the Brejo Grande city town, which has 28% of its population in extreme poverty. This activity has generated jobs and economical income for about 18 families of small farmers in the region. Given the socioeconomic importance of the activity, it becomes necessary to know the factors affecting the pollen production. This study aimed to evaluate the pollen production in colonies of Africanized bees and hygienic behavior (H.B.) focusing on the genetic selection of hygienic and non-hygienic lines, high productivity and relate to climatic factors. The study was conducted in a commercial apiary in the Brejão dos Negros region, in the city town of Brejo Grande-SE. The production of pollen per colony (n = 32) was assessed by weighing for eight months (2014-2015). To evaluated the H.B. was applied the pin-killing method (n = 5) on each colonies, the classification of the colony was the average of the five tests. Climate variables such as temperature, humidity, wind speed and rain were measured during the pollen weighing. Was applied an analysis of variance (GLM) and Tukey test using the SAS software. The greatest productivity of pollen per colony was in May 2015 (13.785g), and the most productive colonies were C13, C41, C17. Eight colonies were selected as hygienic (H.C.) and three non-hygienic (N.H.C.). The pollen production of the H.C. (2.300 kg) was higher (p=0.0173) compared to the N.H.C. (1.600 kg). Only the rain variable climate have a significant correlation (p=0.0173) but was not conclusive at all, because the non-occurrence of constant rainy periods during the experiment. Selecting hygienic queens to the beekeepers pollen production of 437gr/pollen/ beehive / month, generating an income or around R$ 20.00 more per hive /month, demonstrating the viability of selecting the colonies on the H.B. to produce bee pollen. Keywords: genetic selection; hygienic behavior; Africanized honeybees; bee pollen production.

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HYGIENIC BEHAVIOR OF AFRICANIZED HONEYBEE APIS MELLIFERA AND VARROA DESTRUCTOR REPRODUCTION IN COLONIES FROM DIFFERENT ORIGINS Tânia Patrícia Schafaschek¹; Carlos Lopes de Oliveira²; Eduardo Rodrigues Hickel¹; Heber Luiz Pereira²; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo²*. ¹Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina - EPAGRI; ²Universidade Estadual de Maringá - Av. Colombo, 5.790, 87020-900 Maringá, Brasil. abelha.vagner@gmail.com The hygienic behavior of the honeybees is a natural mechanism of resistance to diseases and parasites, characterised by uncapping and remove dead, sick or damaged brood from the alveoli. The selection of Africanized honeybees for this feature reduces the reproduction rate of Varroa destructor mite and, consequently, the infestation rate on adult worker honeybees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic behavior and variables related to the varroa mite in Apis mellifera colonies with queens from different origins from October 2013 to June 2014. It was evaluated queens from the selection program at Universidade Estadual de Maringá (Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil), and from a queen breeder of Santa Terezinha, state of Santa Catarina, and non-selected queens randomly chosen in the experimental apiary of Irineópolis, state of Santa Catarina. The colonies from Maringa presented higher invasion rate of Varroa in pupae alveoli and total reproduction of varroa than queens from Santa Terezinha, and unselected queens and a reduction of hygienic behavior – 84%. This group presented reduction of effective reproduction of Varroa, averaging 2.3 fertile offspring. The colonies with queens from Santa Terezinha, although less pronounced, presented higher invasion rate of Varroa in pupae alveoli from the reduction of hygienic behavior, which remained stable, averaging 92.0%. For this group the total reproduction of Varroa was 1.7 and the effective reproduction was 0.9. The colonies from Irineópolis had the lowest hygienic behavior (78.0%) and the highest total reproduction (12.6) and effective reproduction of Varroa (5.3). The use of selected queens in wild and normal colonies reduced the varroa population dynamics and reduced invasion rates of Varroa in pupae alveoli and total and effective mite reproduction. Key words: honeybee selection; parasite resistance; honey production.

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GENE EXPRESSION ANALYSES OF BIVOLTINE BEHAVIOR IN THE SOLITARY BEE TETRAPEDIA DIVERSIPES AND ITS IMPLICATION IN EUSOCIALITY Natália de Souza Araujo1*; Maria Cristina Arias1. Universidade de São Paulo - Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva. Brazil.

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na.araujo@usp.br The number of generations that a species produces in one year determines its voltine pattern. In bees the voltine behavior is considered to be the result of evolutionary adaptations to environmental conditions such as temperatures, humidity, latitude and food resources. However this behavior may have profound consequences in the population structure and social organization. For example, bivoltinism with diapause in one of the generations allows the overlapping of individuals from the same female, which is a necessary characteristic for social evolution. In some Halictinae bees, where sociality has evolved recently, it has been observed that the same species may present bivoltine or univoltine behaviors closely related to social and solitary behavior, respectively. Thus the study of ecological and molecular mechanisms involved in voltinism is crucial to the understanding of bee social evolution. In order to address this question we have used the RNA-Seq technique to perform a comparative transcriptome analysis of foundress from both generations of the solitary bee Tetrapedia diversipes. This is a bivoltine species native from South America that enters diapause during the last larvae developmental stage in its second generation (February – April). We have detected 34 transcripts up expressed in females of the first generation (G1) and two up expressed in the second generation (G2). Only four transcripts from G1 and one from G2 have been annotated. All differentially expressed genes annotated in G1 are involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, which indicates a high-energy demand in G1 foundresses. Furthermore it is important to notice that most of the differentially expressed transcripts are new and their function and structure are unknown. These results provide evidences for the importance of studies in non-model species and also call attention for the role of unknown genes in the evolution of complex traits such as bivoltine and social behaviors. Keywords: Tetrapedia diversipes; bivoltine behavior; RNA-Seq; transcriptome. Financial support: FAPESP.

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PRESENCE OF HEPTADECANONE, A DUFOUR’S GLAND COMPOUND, IN NEST PLUG OF CENTRIS (HETEROCENTRIS) ANALIS (FABRICIUS, 1804) (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: CENTRIDINI) Maria Juliana Ferreira-Caliman1*; Diego Moure Oliveira1; Tiago Falcon2; Carlos Alberto Garófalo1. Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto – USP. Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP. 2Departamento de Genética da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto - USP.

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jucaliman@pg.ffclrp.usp.br Volatile secretions of the Dufour’s gland have been investigated for a large number of social and solitary bees. Functions of these compounds range from serving as a component of material used in nest building, larval food, and various communicative functions like host marking, nest recognition, nestmate recognition, kin recognition, fertility signaling, as a trail or sexual pheromone. This study aimed identify if the secretion of Dufour’s gland can be used for Centris analis females in nest plug. We collected six nests in two different areas (distant 800m between them) and three bees at the campus of Universidade de São Paulo to compare the nest plug and gland chemical profiles. We extracted the volatiles compounds of glands and plug nests using a polydimethylsiloxane fiber by headspace gas chromatography method. The fiber was desorbed in a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system. The results showed that heptadecanone was the majority compound found both in plug nests and the glands of females. Due to conspicuous behavior exhibited by females of C. analis during the nest closure, in which the bee uses the tip of abdomen to shape the entrance plug, our hypothesis is that the glandular secretion can be deposit together with the oil of Malpighiaceae flowers. Although most studies have been focused on the analysis of lipids, ketones have frequently been found in the Dufour’s gland secretion of solitary bees. In halictid bees, the functions of this secretion are to provide chemicals to form a layer of wax that cover the brood cells, and coating the nest entrance turret. More studies have been conducted to verify if the Centris analis females deposit the Dufour’s gland secretion in other nest parts. Keywords: Solitary bees; Oil-collecting bee; Chemical analyzes. Financial support: Capes; BioComp; FAPESP (2012/24284-5).

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TROPHIC NICHE-OVERLAP BETWEEN CENTRIS BEES (C. ANALIS, C. TARSATA) IN TWO PHYTOPHYSIOGNOMIES OF THE BRAZILIAN SEMIARID REGION Paloma Fernandes de Oliveira*, Airton Torres Carvalho, Eva Sara Santiago Pereira, Aline Oliveira de Souza, Vinicio Heidy da Silva Teixeira de Souza, Camila Maia-Silva. Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido/UFERSA, Departamento de Ciências Animais, Av. Francisco Mota, 572, 59625-900, Mossoró/RN, Brasil. *sjpaloma@hotmail.com Centris analis (Ca) and C. tarsata (Ct) occur sympatrically in the semiarid region in north-eastern Brazil, both in Tropical Dry-Forest habitats (Caatinga vegetation) and in the moist forest enclaves found at elevated altitudes. These moist forest enclaves are characterised through elevated speciesrichness and diversity of floral resources as well as through lower ambient temperatures and higher precipitation compared to the surrounding lowland areas of Tropical Dry-Forest. The aim of the present study was to compare the trophic niche-overlap of C. analis and C. tarsata between a moist forest enclave and an area of native Caatinga vegetation. In 06/2013, 02/2014, 04/2014, and between 02/2015 and 06/2015, we collected pollen samples from Centris nests established at trap-nesting sites in Martins/RN (moist forest enclave) and Mossoró/RN (Caatinga vegetation). In total, we sampled 88 nests of C. analis (nENCLAVE=48; nCAATINGA=40) and 12 nests of C. tarsata (nENCLAVE=8; nCAATINGA=4). The pollen samples were acetolysed for quantitative analysis and identification of the botanical origin of the pollen grains. Niche-overlap between the two studied Centris bees was higher at the Caatinga site compared to the moist forest enclave site (Morisita-Horn Index: MHENCLAVE=0.41; MHCAATINGA= 0.92). Conversely, species-richness and diversity of the pollen types collected by both bee species were higher in the moist forest enclave than in the Tropical Dry-Forest (Species-richness: CaENCLAVE=24; CtENCLAVE=9; CaCAATINGA=7; CtCAATINGA=3; Shannon’s Diversity Index: CaENCLAVE=0.72; CtENCLAVE=1.10; CaCAATINGA=0.65; CtCAATINGA=0.23). This elevated species richness and diversity of floral resources together with the reduced trophic niche-overlap areas suggest a reduced competition between Centris species in moist forest enclaves compared to lowland Caatinga. Hence, our results underline the potential of the moist forest enclaves of the Tropical Dry-Forest as important refuge habitats for the conservation of Centris bees in the semiarid region of north-eastern Brazil. Keywords: solitary bees, pollen analysis, Tropical Dry-Forest, moist forest enclaves. Financial support: CNPq, CAPES - 3168/2013, CAPES/PNPD.

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DOES PREDATION RISK AFFECT MATING BEHAVIOR? AN EXPERIMENTAL TEST IN PTILOTHRIX FRUCTIFERA (APIDAE) Reisla Oliveira1*; Christiane R. Pereira2; Ana Laura A.F.D. Pimentel3; Clemens Schlindwein4. *1,2,3Departamento de Biodiversidade e Evolução, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Brazil; 4Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. reislaxoliveira@gmail.com Males of the solitary bee Ptilothrix fructifera (Apidae) employ alternative mating tactics and can be territorial or not for larval food plants. Territorial males face a trade-off between survival and reproduction. They adopt a mating tactic that gives them greater reproductive success while increases their predation risk. In this study, we sought to verify the effect of predation risk on territorial behavior in P. fructifera. By manipulating predator models in the field, we tested whether (1) males avoid perchflowers containing predator models (a model of a spider or a stuffed bird) and (2) alternate between mating tactics when their territory presents a predation risk. The results show that territorial males of P. fructifera alter their territorial behavior when perceive predation risk. They do not abandon their territory or change to a non-territorial mating tactic, but instead change the use of their territory, and avoid flowers containing predator models or adopt other perch-flowers when the previous flower presented a potential predation risk. In short, in the face of predation risk, males alter their behaviors at the cost of less efficient mates searching tactics. Keywords: territoriality; predation risk; solitary bees. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq; UFOP.

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POLLEN TYPES COLLECTED BY CENTRIS BEES (C. ANALIS, C. TARSATA) IN TWO PHYTOPHYSIOGNOMIES OF THE BRAZILIAN SEMIARID REGION Eva Sara Santiago Pereira*, Airton Torres Carvalho, Paloma Fernandes de Oliveira, Aline Oliveira de Souza, Vinicio Heidy da Silva Teixeira de Souza, Camila Maia-Silva. Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido/UFERSA, Departamento de Ciências Animais, Av. Francisco Mota, 572, 59625-900, Mossoró/RN, Brasil. *evasarasantiago@hotmail.com Moist forest enclaves of the semiarid region in north-eastern Brazil are exception-areas concerning their faunistic and floristic composition, differing considerably from the surrounding lowland habitats characterized by Tropical Dry-Forest vegetation, known as Caatinga. However, many bee species occur in both phytophysiognomies, as is the case with two species of Centris: Centris analis (Ca) and C. tarsata (Ct). In the present study, we identified the floral origin of the resources collected for nest provisioning by these two solitary bee species in both a moist forest enclave and an area of Caatinga vegetation. In 06/2013, 02/2014, 04/2014, and between 02/2015 and 06/2015, we collected pollen samples from Centris nests established at trap-nesting sites in Martins/RN (moist forest enclave) and Mossoró/RN (Caatinga vegetation). In total, we sampled 88 nests of C. analis (nENCLAVE=48; nCAATINGA=40) and 12 nests of C. tarsata (nENCLAVE=8; nCAATINGA=4). The pollen samples were acetolysed for quantitative analysis and identification of the botanical origin of the pollen grains. At the moist forest enclave site, we identified 24 pollen types from nests of C. analis (10 dominant types), and 9 from nests of C. tarsata (5 dominant types). At the Caatinga site, Ca nests contained 7 pollen types (2 dominant types) and Ct nests 3 pollen types (1 dominant type). In addition to the oil producing plants of the family Malpighiaceae (Malpighia emarginata: Ca, Ct, Banisteriopsis sp.: Ca), the principal pollen types collected by the bees were from Poincianella spp. (Ca, Ct), Canavalia brasiliensis (Ca), Dalechampia sp. (Ca) as well as from species with poricidal anthers of the genera Solanum (Ca), Senna (Ca, Ct), and Chamaecrista (Ca, Ct). Our study demonstrates the importance of preserving a variety of different floral resources to guarantee the survival of Centris species in the semiarid region of the Brazilian Northeast. Keywords: solidary bees, floral resources, conservation. Financial support: CNPq, CAPES - 3168/2013, CAPES/PNPD.

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ORCHIDOPHILIC BEES IN ECOTONE BETWEEN ATLANTIC FOREST AND CAATINGA IN PARQUE NACIONAL SERRA DE ITABAIANA (PARNASI), ATTRACTED BY EUCALYPITOL (1-8 CINEOL) André Luiz Alves do Santos¹; Roberta Mirella Barbosa Santos1; Katia Peres Gramacho1; Frederico Machado Teixeira1*. ¹*Universidade Tiradentes, Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa, Laboratório de Estudos Biológicos e Produtos Naturais, Aracaju, Brasil. teixeira_fm@yahoo.com.br The Parque Nacional Serra de Itabaiana (PARNASI) is a conservation area situated in the geographical coordinates 10º25’15 “S and 37º25’15’’W, located in the ecotone between Atlantic forest and Caatinga on state of Sergipe, has an area of approximately 7,966 hectares taking into your zone boundary the municipalities of Areia Branca, Itabaiana, Laranjeiras, Itaporanga D’Ajuda and Campo do Brito. Shelter several species of fauna and flora and some of these are endemic species. This study aimed to map and characterizes the fauna of Euglossini bees (Apidae: Apinae) that pollinate orchids in different vegetation types in PARNASI and its surrounding areas using eucalyptol as odoriferous bait. For capturing the specimens was used a passive catching method. Aromatic traps (smell bait), made from two-liter PET bottles having three inputs coated sand cones, to facilitate entry of the bees. The specimens collected were assembled, identified by experts and incorporated to UNIT collection. A total of 543 bees was collected from three genera and five species, being the most abundant genus Euglossa with 484 individuals. Among the species of the genus Euglossa stood out the Euglossa (Glossura) carolina Nemésio, 2009 (n = 478) and Euglossa (Euglossa) nanomelanotricha Nemésio, 2009 (n = 6). The genus Eulaema was the second on importance with 58 individuals, among them Eulaema (Apeulaema) nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 (n = 39) and Eulaema (Eulaema) atleticana Nemésio, 2009 (n = 19). It was also collected a parasitic species Exaerete fontalis (Guérin-Méneville, 1845), with only one individual. The results of this work are essential for future work, contributing to conservation and management decisions of the areas studied. Keywords: Hymenoptera; native bee; Euglossini; smell bait.

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EFFECT OF SUNFLOWER SEED TREATMENT WITH PESTICIDES ON THE BEHAVIOR FORAGE POLLINATORS Ailton Egídio dos Anjos Silva1; Darclet Teresinha Malerbo-Souza2*. Graduando em Engenharia Agronômica, Centro Universitário da Fundação Educacional de Barretos, Barretos, SP, Brasil. 2 Professora doutora do Departamento de Ciências Agrárias, do Centro Universitário da Fundação Educacional de Barretos, Av. Prof. Roberto Frade Monte, 389, Bairro Aeroporto, 14783-226, Barretos, SP, Brasil. 1

dtmalerbo@gmail.com This experiment was conducted in Barretos, Brazil, in 2015, to evaluate the effect of sunflower seed treatment (Hellinathus annuus) with different pesticides of the neonicotinoid class on the foraging behavior of pollinators, especially of Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera. Three treatments were used: T1: Sunflower seeds treated with Imidacloprid and thiodicarb (Cropstar® Bayer CropScience); T2: Sunflower seeds treated with Thiamethoxam (Cruiser® Syngenta) and T3: Sunflower seeds untreated with pesticides (control). These seeds were mixed with products in the dosage recommended by the manufacturer in plastic cups in the laboratory of the institution. Then, the treated and untreated seeds were planted in PVC tubes with steps 300 cm in diameter and 500 cm tall, containing a mixture of hardened earth and manure. The frequency of visiting insects in sunflower chapters were assessed by counting five minutes each time, from 7:00 am until sunset, and each treatment in three different days (three replicates). The insects were photographed, identified and the foraging behavior of each species was visually evaluated throughout the trial period. To assess the production of sunflower seeds with and without the presence of pollinating two sections of each treatment were bagged and maintained so until the end of flowering. Then, the bags were removed and the seeds were counted in different treatments. Few Africanized bees were observed, few native stinglessbees, few butterflies, but many beetles Astylus variegatus and Diabrotica speciosa. There were no significant differences in the frequency of Africanized bees in different treatments, showing that these bees do not differentiate flowers of plants grown from seeds treated with or without the tested pesticides. The frequency of honeybees in the flowers fluctuated throughout the day, with visitation peaks at 8.00 and 16.00. There was also no difference in the number of seeds obtained from the chapters in different treatments. Keywords: sunflower, Africanized honeybees, pesticides, forage behavior, seeds.

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SCENT OF ATTRACTION: FORMATION OF DRONE AGGREGATIONS AT ORPHAN COLONIES OF THE BRAZILIAN STINGLESS BEE SCAPTOTRIGONA DEPILIS Lea Böttinger¹*; Stefan Jarau²; Till Tolasch³; Fabio Nascimento4; Lucas van Zuben4; Wolf Engels¹. ¹University of Tuebingen, Institute of Evolution and Ecology, Evolutionary Biology of Invertebrates, Tuebingen, Germany; ²University of Ulm, Institute of Neurobiology, Ulm, Germany; ³University of Hohenheim, Institute of Zoology, Animal Ecology, Stuttgart, Deutschland; 4Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Biologia, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Lea.Boettinger@gmx.de During mating season, aggregations of competing males are a phenomenon that occurs throughout the animal kingdom. In many insect species, however, males gather in mating swarms without showing agonistic interactions. Drone aggregations as well as sex pheromones involved in mating behavior have been extensively studied in the western honey bee Apis mellifera L. By contrast, the reproductive biology and its underlying mechanisms in the largest group of eusocial bees, the stingless bees, are far from being understood. In Scaptotrigona species it is generally assumed that sex pheromones emitted by virgin queens within colonies trigger the arrival of large numbers of drones, which remain for several days or even weeks in close vicinity to these colonies. We studied how males of the Neotropical stingless bee species Scaptotrigona depilis are attracted to orphan colonies. In particular, we examined whether male aggregations are induced by chemical compounds originating from the nest atmosphere and whether virgin queen sex pheromones are responsible for drone attraction. We analyzed (head-space samples, GC-MS) the nest odors from colonies that differed in their attractiveness to males, as well as in having a physogastric queen or being orphan for a known period of time at the University of São Paulo in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Changes in nest odor composition after the removal of the physogastric queen and during the establishment of new virgin queens in a colony and the cooccurring arrival of drones point to specific male attracting components in the nest odor of orphan colonies. However, final proof for the actual function of individual compounds as drone attractants has to be provided by bioassays. A comparison of the changes in nest odors with the pheromones emitted by virgin queens will shed light on the origin of male attracting substances in S. depilis. Keywords: Stingless bees; nest odor; virgin queen pheromones; drone attraction; drone aggregations.

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HYGIENIC BEHAVOR IN PLEBEIA LUCII (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Mayla Gava¹*; Riudo de Paiva Ferreira²; Lucio Antônio de Oliveira Campos². ¹*Departamento de Entomologia – UFV; ²Departamento de Biologia Geral – UFV Contato: Campus Viçosa, Av.PH Rolfs, s/n, 36570-900 - Viçosa, MG – Brasil. mayla.gava@gmail.com Hygienic behavior has been extensively studied in Apis mellifera to be considered a behavioral engine disease resistance. In this species the brood cells are arranged in vertical and hexagonal honeycomb. The stingless bees nests have arranged in horizontal, spiral or in clusters combs. In contrast to A. mellifera, the brood cells are destroyed after the emergence of adult. Our objective in this study was to describe the hygienic behavior in Plebeia lucii, based on the ability of workers to detect, uncap and remove dead brood. The experiment was conducted at Central Apiary of the Federal University of Viçosa. Six colonies Plebeia lucii were used. In each nest were inserted 20 cells of live larvae and 20 dead larvae. The larvae were killed by freezing. The colonies were observed every 24 hours during 240h. Of the six colonies observed, 50% detected dead brood in the first 48 hours. The peak cleaning of all cases occurred at 96h experiment except for a nest. After 144h all colonies had already begun the process of cleaning the cells. After 240h, five of the six colonies were observed in 90% or more complete cleaning. Only one nest showed complete cleaning of cells. Only one of the nests showed the removal rate lower dead creates 50%. In Plebeia remota removal of dead brood after 24 hours it was higher than in P. lucii (69.6%), and 48h, bees removed an average of 96.4%. This difference may be due to the difference of architecture of the nests of these bees, since P.remota nest build comb and P. lucii nest cluster brood cells. The findings showed the presence of an effective hygienic behavior in colonies of P. lucii, confirming the existence of such behavior in stingless bees. Keywords: Meliponini; stingless bees; freeze-killed; removed dead brood; Financial support: CAPES; CNPq; FAPEMIG.

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SEXUAL SELECTION IN STINGLESS BEES: DO COMPETITIVE MALES HAVE BETTER SPERM? Sheina Koffler1, Hiara Marques Meneses2, Astrid de Matos Peixoto Kleinert1 & Rodolfo Jaffé3. Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Ecologia, São Paulo – SP, Brasil; 2Universidade Federal do Ceará, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Departamento de Zootecnia, Fortaleza - CE, Brasil; 3Instituto Tecnológico Vale - Desenvolvimento Sustentável, Belém - PA, Brasil.

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sheina.koffler@usp.br Social insect queens mate during a short time window and store the sperm for life, never re-mating again. As queens are long-lived, male semen quality is expected to be under selection, since ejaculates with greater quality will provide higher fitness for both queens and males. Males, on the other hand, face great competition for mating opportunities, especially in species with a male biased sex ratio and queen monogamy. In such species, theory thus predicts an association between male competitive ability and fertilization success. We tested this hypothesis in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona aff. depilis, where males gather in aggregations of hundreds of individuals and queens mate only once. Residence time at the aggregation was used as proxy variable for competitive ability, and sperm viability and sperm count were employed as proxy variables for fertilization ability. We also assessed if different morphological traits were related to competitive ability. We found that males that persisted at the aggregations for two days presented higher sperm viability than new-coming males. However, males that persisted for four days showed decreased sperm viability, presumably due to aging. Also, sperm counts were higher for males that remained longer at the aggregations. Residence time was affected by head size, as males with smaller heads persisted for more days, but it was not affected by eye area or antennae length. Sperm viability, sperm count and head size were not correlated, suggesting trade-offs in the investment on these traits. Our results suggest that male aggregations in stingless bees can select more competitive males with higher quality sperm. Palavras-chave: male aggregation; sexual selection; sperm. Suporte financeiro: CAPES; FAPESP.

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ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE INFLUENCES THE COLLECTION OF WATER BY STINGLESS BEES (MELIPONA SUBNITIDA) IN THE BRAZILIAN SEMIARID REGION Amanda Aparecida de Castro Limão1*; Vera Lúcia Imperatriz-Fonseca1,2; Camila Maia-Silva1. Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido – UFERSA; 2Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo – USP. Contato: Avenida Francisco Mota 572, 59625-900 Mossoró, Brasil. 1

amandacastro_@hotmail.com Water collection by social bees is considered an important thermoregulatory mechanism to avoid colony overheating through evaporative cooling. Here, we investigated the influence of climatic factors on the collection of water by colonies of the stingless bee Melipona subnitida (Apidae, Meliponini) in the semiarid region in north-eastern Brazil. The study was conducted between 07/2013 and 08/2014 in an area with natural Tropical-Dry-Forest vegetation near Mossoró/RN. Monthly, on two consecutive days, we captured foragers returning to the colonies (N=4) with dilated abdomen but without visible pollen loads (hourly collection of a maximum of 3 foragers between 05:00 and 17:00). Along with the bee collection, we registered ambient temperature (Tmean=27.4oC; Tmin=17.8oC; Tmax=34.9oC) and relative humidity (RHmean=68.1%). The foragers’ crop content was extracted through lightly squeezing the bees’ abdomen, and collected in microcapillary tubes. Subsequently, we measured the volume and sugar concentration of the regurgitated solution. Crop loads containing less than 5% sugar (weight/ weight) were considered as water. In the course of our study, we captured a total of 90 water foragers and 690 nectar foragers. The colonies collected water predominantly at ambient temperatures between 20.5°C and 36.8°C (maximum water collection activity: 33.4°C). Water collection was most intense in month with elevated ambient temperatures (08/2013-02/2014; Tmin=18.1-23.4oC) and during the hottest hours of the day (11:00-16:00; Tmin = 23.2-25.0oC). Both the number of water foragres and the volume of water collected by the individuals increased with increasing environmental temperature (Canonical Correlation Analysis: Rc2=0.39%; p < 0.001; Tmin: rs2=47.2%; Tmean: rs2=23.1%). Our results show that colonies of M. subnitida intensify water collection at elevated ambient temperatures. This finding suggests an adaptive strategy of evaporative nest-cooling during hot periods, which enables these bees to cope with the climatic conditions of the Brazilian semiarid region. Keywords: stingless bees; water foraging; thermoregulation; Caatinga. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq.

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A STRANGER IN THE NEST: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A TERMITOPHILOUS STINGLESS BEE (PARTAMONA SERIDOENSIS) AND TERMITES IN THE BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY-FOREST Thiago Felipe Fonseca Nunes de Oliveira*; Michael Hrncir. Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido; Departamento de Ciências Animais; Mossoró/RN; Brasil. thiagoffno@gmail.com The nests of eusocial insects provide many resources,such as food, building material, and protection, and, consequently, are attractive to often unintended tenants. Termites, in particular, build elaborated nests that provide perfect thermal insulationfor their life in hot regions like the Tropical-Dry-Forest in north-eastern Brazil. This ecoregion is characterized through elevated ambient temperatures yearround. Therefore, thermally insulated termite nests provide and ideal climate protection for various animals in the region. In the present study, we analysed thetermitophilous interactions between the stingless bee Partamona seridoensis (Apidae, Meliponini) and three termite species, Microcerotermes indistinctus, Constrictotermes cyphergaster, and Nasutitermes corniger, all native to the TropicalDry-Forest. In particular, we were interested in whether and to which extentthe investigated termitespeciesdiffer in aggressive behaviour towards the beesin order to better understand the choice pattern of certain termite nests by P. seridoensis.For this, we confronted individual bees in small glass-arenas with each of the termite species, and registered the number of aggressive behaviours towards the bee, the occurrence of the individual’s death, and the survival time. As control, we left the bees in the glass arena without termites. Of the three studied termite species, N. corniger showed the highest levels of aggression towards the bees, and killed P. seridoensis individuals within a few minutes. By contrast, confrontations with C. cyphergaster did not lead to the bees’ death despite aggressive actions of the termites towards P. seridoensis. M. Indistinctus hardly exhibited aggressive behaviour. Our results explain the observed occupation-pattern of termite nests by P. seridoensis, who predominantly inhabits nests of C. cyphergaster and M. indistinctus, yet rarely those of N. corniger. This relationship between P. seridoensis and the termites,supposedly, is beneficial only to the bees, generating costs to the termite colonies, and can, therefore, be considered as social parasitism. Key words: stingless bees;termites;social parasitism; Caatinga. Financial support: CNPq - 309914/2013-2, CAPES - 3168/2013.

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SUCHLIKE: ROYAL CELL PRODUCTION IN PLEBEIA LUCII QUEEN-RIGHT AND QUEENLESS COLONIES Jaqueline Amorim Pereira1*; Talitta Guimarães Simões2; Lucio Antonio de Oliveira Campos1. Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Departamento de Biologia Geral; Viçosa; Brasil; 2Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Departamento de Entomologia; Viçosa, Brasil. 1*

jaqueline.pereira@ufv.br Stingless bee Plebeia lucii builds clustered brood cells. Royal cells are formed from a worker’s cell in which larvae consume its own food and pierce a neighboring cell to consume additional food. This second cell could be a worker’s cell or an auxiliary cell that contains only food and seems to be made with the exact aim of forming a royal cell. Physogastric queen’s presence interferes with the workers’ behaviour, so it is expected that queenless colonies will produce higher amounts of virgin queens. The aim of this study was to describe the process of royal cell’s production in queen-right colonies (QRC) and queenless colonies (QLC) of Plebeia lucci. Three colonies under the same conditions were selected and each one was split into two new boxes with same quantities of food, workers and brood cells. Each physogastric queen was kept in one box (QRC), leaving the other orphan (QLC). Boxes were placed in an acclimatized room (28±2°C) and covered with a glass lid (to make observations) and a wood lid (to keep the inside dark). Direct and indirect (photos and videos) observations were made for 30 days. In QLC only auxiliary cells were built and 26.6% resulted in royal cells. In QRC few auxiliary cells were constructed (minimum of 0 and maximum of 2 auxiliary cells per colony), and none resulted in royal cells. Workers did not lay eggs, neither in QLC nor in QRC. No differences were found in the pattern of auxiliary cell’s construction between QLC and QRC. Our results suggest that queens produced in orphan colonies (such as emergency queens) must be identical to those produced under natural conditions. Keywords: queen; bees; production; Plebeia lucii. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq; Fapemig.

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HEAT PRODUCTION IN THE STINGLESS BEES MELIPONA SCUTELLARIS (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, MELIPONINI): EVIDENCES OF ACTIVE THERMOREGULATION Yara Sbrolin Roldão-Sbordoni1*; Guilherme Gomes2; Sidnei Mateus1; Fábio Santos Nascimento1. Universidade de São Paulo; Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto; Departamento de Biologia. Contato: Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, Brasil. 2 Universidade de São Paulo; Instituto de Física – São Carlos, Brasil. 1*

yarasr@pg.ffclrp.usp.br Despite wide variation of environmental temperature, honeybees are capable of maintaining the temperature of their nests within narrow boundaries. Active thermoregulatory mechanisms underlying such colony endothermy are considered key to the ecological success of these animals, which can be found in many terrestrial environments ranging from cold temperate climates to hot desert-like habitats. The stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini), on the contrary, inhabit predominantly tropical and subtropical habitats, which might be due to their ability to thermoregulation known as passive. In this present study, we tested whether in stingless bees Melipona scutellaris the heat production by nurse bees working on the brood combs. We recorded the body surface temperature of the adult individuals with an infrared camera. For this, the nest was submitted to temperature 27.5ºC. Bees were also collected and had their ovaries analyzed. Thus, the images of the infrared camera confirmed the production of heat by workers; these bees present the thorax temperature up to 36ºC. Our results indicate that in nests of M. scutellaris, a heat generation is produced through metabolic and behavioral processes. Therefore, this pioneering study in stingless bees suggests an active mechanism that maintains a stable temperature and the incubation effectiveness in the brood area. Keywords: Melipona scutellaris; stingless bees; thermoregulation. Financial support: CAPES.

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COMPARATIVE MORPHOMETRY IN THE EGGS OF QUEEN AND WORKERS OF SCAPTOTRIGONA XANTHOTRICHA Raissa Santana Serra¹*; José Eduardo Serrão². ¹*Universidade Federal de Viçosa –UFV, Departamento de Entomologia; ²Universidade Federal de Viçosa– UFV, Departamento de Biologia Celular. Contact: Avenida Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n,Viçosa, Brasil. raissa.serra@ufv.br The competition between queen and workers of stingless bee involving the male production evolve some unclear patterns. The oviposition by worker bees may results in obligatory larvophagy when functional eggs are laid together queen eggs in the same brood cell. The knowledge of features such as the size, ploidy and development time of the eggs is important to the comprehension of the mechanisms of male production in a bee colony. This study evaluated the size of eggs laid by queens and workers of Scaptotrigona xanthotricha. Workers and queens eggs in three colonies of S. xanthotricha (A, B and C) keep in the Apiário Central of Universidade Federal de Viçosa were measured. The results showed differences (F = 29.66, P <0.0001) in the length of queen eggs among colonies with 1.26 ± 0.20 mm (n = 25) in the colony A; 1.21 ± 0.15 mm (n = 38) in B; and 1.27 ± 0.15 mm (n = 32) in C. The mean length of the worker eggs was also different between the colonies (t = -3.32 p <0.002) with 1.39 mm ± 0.38 (n = 18) in A and 1.48 mm ± 0.38 (n = 13) in B, whereas the colony C had not workers eggs. In both colonies, the eggs of workers were greater than those of queens (colony A, t = -6.55, p <0.0001, colony B, t = -12.65, P <0.0001). Our findings corroborate the occurrence of eggs with different sizes in queens and workers of Meliponini. The ploidy and development time of eggs laid by workers and queens in the same brood cell will be further studied in order to a better understanding of male’s production process in S. xanthotricha. Keywords: Scaptotrigona xanthotricha; worker oviposition; stingless bees. Financial support: CNPq; CAPES; Fapemig.

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TOUCH ME: ROYAL CELLS PRODUCTION IN PLEBEIA LUCII (HYMENOPTERA; APIDAE) Crislayne Maria de Souza¹; Lucio Antonio de Oliveira Campos². ¹*Departamento de Entomologia – UFV; ²Departamento de Biologia Geral – UFV Contato: Campus Viçosa, Av.PH Rolfs, s/n, 36570-900 - Viçosa, MG - Brasil. crislayne.maria.souza@gmail.com In Meliponini, the queen’s role on royal cell production control is not yet established.Our objective was to investigate the queen’s influence in royal cell production in Plebeia lucii. The royal cells construction was observed in experimental colonies, divided in four different treatments: i) isolated; ii) opened screen; iii) closed screen; iv) two closed screens. For every treatment, we put the queen at one side, leaving the other side queenless. Queens produced in these different situations were compared with natural queens. In general, a greater number of royal cells were constructed in queenless sides. For treatments were bees from the queen-right side did not have contact with bees from the queenless side (i and iv) we saw the biggest differences in royal cells constructed between sides.Thus, even when volatiles could pass from one side to another, the results were similar to those where none could pass. The size of queens emerged from all treatments did not differ from queens produced in natural conditions. Our results suggest that contact pheromones, and not volatile pheromones, are important in the control of royal cells production in bees. Keywords: Stingless bees; royal cell; emergency queens. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq; FAPEMIG.

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ARE THERE DWARF QUEENS IN PLEBEIA LUCII? Geisyane Franco da Luz Teixeira*1; Crislayne Maria de Souza1; Weyder Cristiano Santana1,2; Lúcio Antonio de Oliveira Campos2; José Eduardo Serrão2. *Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Departamento de Entomologia; Viçosa; Brasil; 2Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Departamento de Biologia Geral; Viçosa; Brasil. 1

geisy.franco@gmail.com The stingless bees have variable mechanisms of queen production. In Melipona they are genetically determined and have the small size of workers. In others genera queens are produced in cells that receive extra amounts of food which generally results in queens greater than workers. The production of queens in Plebeia lucii result of the fusion of neighboring brood cells (auxiliary cell) with larva fed on the provision of both cells. In other species although queens are normally reared from royal cells, females may to develop as miniature or dwarf queens when reared in worker cells. This study reports behavioral and morphometric features of four queens of the P. lucii emerged from brood cells with similar size to that of workers (absence of auxiliary cell). Brood cells with pupae were collected from one colony of P. lucii of the Apiary Central of the University of Viçosa. Three queens emerged successively in the next three days and other one at 11th days. The royal court behavior of workers, and absence of corbicula confirmed the queen phenotype. The queens were placed in small artificial colonies with free access to the external environment with nurse workers and food. After 30 days inside the colonies, the queens were killed in Zamboni’s fixative solution. The intertegular distance of these queens was 0,78 ± 0.014 mm and the distance between compound eyes was 0,77 ± 0.021 mm. The average of the same measures of other queens from 32 colonies were, 0,97 ± 0.038 mm and 0,86 ± 0.025 mm, respectively. The occurrence of dwarf queens is already observed in other species of Plebeia. Further studies will be carried out to understand whether dwarf queens are also a natural way of queens production in P. lucii and what determines. Keywords: dwarf queens; stingless bees; Plebeia lucii; body size. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq; FAPEMIG.

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OVIPOSITION BEHAVIOR OF THE PLEBEIA LUCII Geisyane Franco da Luz Teixeira1*; Lúcio Antonio Oliveira Campos2; José Eduardo Serrão2. *Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Departamento de Entomologia; Viçosa; Brasil; 2Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Departamento de Biologia Geral; Viçosa; Brasil. 1

geisy.franco@gmail.com The Provisioning and Oviposition Process (POP) in Meliponini is characterized by long periods of cell construction and short periods of massive food provisioning, food intake by queen and egg laid and cell closure by workers. This process is a complex event where queens and workers have peculiar behaviors that vary between species generating data for comparative studies. In order to answer questions about this behavioral process in Plebeia lucii this study is evaluated the POPs of the six colonies at the Central Apiary of the Federal University of Viçosa. The observations are being done directly and through shooting mode. Preliminary analyzes show that the brood cell building is slow and without worker excitement, whereas the other four sub-processes (queen fixing, provisioning, oviposition and operculation) occurs successively in a short time in a highly excited atmosphere. After the quiescent period (absence of work related to the production of new brood), the cell construction is successive and during about 86 minutes (n=4). The number of workers at the construction is directly proportional to the advance of the construction phases (n=6). The preprovisioning phase ranged from 6 seconds to 3 minutes (n=6). The provisioning occurs in 12 seconds (n=6) and the number of workers depositing food ranged from 3-5 (n=6). Immediately after the regurgitation, the queen eat the food of the brood cell (median duration= 0.177 seconds; n=6) and laying an egg (average duration= 12 seconds; n=6). The operculation onsets after about 7 seconds and usually by only one worker. By the end of operculation about 5-7 workers are actively working on it. No oviposition of workers was detected during the monitored POPs. More POPs will be analyzed for general characterization of this behavior in P. lucii and comparison with other production brood processes (queen cell production and oviposition for workers) and taxa. Keywords: Behavior Process; Brood Production; Stingless Bees; Plebeia lucii. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq; FAPEMIG.

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REPRODUCTIVE QUALITY OF MELIPONA FLAVOLINEATA VIRGIN QUEENS (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) AND THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL CONTEXT Jamille Costa Veiga1*; Kamila Leão Leão2; Ana Carolina Martins de Queiroz2; Cristiano Menezes2; Felipe Andrés León Contrera1. Laboratório de Biologia e Ecologia de Abelhas, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, PA, Brazil. 2Laboratório de Botânica, Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Belém, PA, Brazil. 1*

jal.cveiga@gmail.com In stingless bees, a tribe of eusocial bees, reproductive strategies of individuals seems to be extremely variable. These strategies depend on the balance of the internal and external factors. Our aim was to describe the development of sexual attractiveness of Melipona flavolineata gynes and test their reproductive quality in different social contexts. A total of 124 gynes were distributed in two experimental groups. In the first, gynes were placed in 64 minicolonies, where they were kept until they reach the age categories of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 days. In the other group, gynes were subjected to six different social contexts, kept for six days. The contexts varied in the number of workers and other gynes present, thus providing isolated contexts up to complex contexts, such as minicolonies and competition with other gynes. When they reached the stipulated age (for both experiments), sexual attractiveness was tested by means of their individual presentation to 10 sexually mature males. Gynes became sexually attractive from the third day of age, keeping their status until 18 days. Isolated queens did not become attractive, differing greatly from queens who had experienced complex social settings, such as minicolonies. We show that sexual attractiveness (number of males attempts) and sexual receptivity (effective matings) develop early during adulthood in this species. The level of attractiveness is constant during this phase and may change as a result of experienced social context. We obtained behavioral evidence about a possible reproductive strategy in Melipona: queens must be always ready to mate, by maintaining constant its attractiveness and sexual receptivity for as long as possible. Moreover, we demonstrated the social context is a restrictive external factor on the development of sexual traits. Keywords: sexual attractiveness; social isolation; interactions; minicolony; reproductive strategy. Financial support: CNPq (479710/2011-2); FAPESPA (ICAAF 30/2011).

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SEXUAL MATURITY AND THE ONSET OF FLIGHT BEHAVIOR IN MELIPONA FLAVOLINEATA FRIESE MALES (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) Jamille Costa Veiga1*; Kamila Leão Leão2; Cristiano Menezes2; Felipe Andrés León Contrera1. Laboratório de Biologia e Ecologia de Abelhas, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, PA, Brazil. 2Laboratório de Botânica, Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Belém, PA, Brazil. 1*

jal.cveiga@gmail.com In the societies of eusocial bees, the males have the sole function to fertilize reproductive females. Therefore, they need to outline a reproductive strategy that increases their chances of mating. Since this strategy should start when they are still in the safety of the nest, we aimed to test the effects of age and the experienced social context on the reproductive capacity of Melipona flavolineata males, a stingless bee. In confined conditions, 82 males were divided in two experimental groups. The first experiment tested the effects of age on the individual’s sexual capability (n = 55). Males were accompanied during adulthood until certain age categories: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days. The other experiment tested the effects of social context; males (n = 27) were divided in three categories of social interactions in which the number of workers differed, during 15 days. The onset of flight behavior and sperm numbers in seminal vesicles were used to assess the reproductive capacity of males. After the flight ability of males was tested they were sacrificed, and their number of spermatozoa was estimated. The migration of sperm to seminal vesicles started at the age of five days. The sexual maturity was reached at 10 days, and flight ability, at 15 days. Inadequate social contexts, i.e. lack of social contact with workers, had no effect on maturity, but affected the flight behavior, causing a delay on its onset. Whereas males of this species remain in the nest for up to five days after becoming able for copulation, mature and capable of flying, we suggest Melipona males awaits in the nest until they reach their maximum reproductive performance, which may favor their survival and competition for females at the nuptial flights. Keywords: age; social context; sperm numbers; reproductive capacity. Financial support: CNPq (479710/2011-2); FAPESPA (ICAAF 30/2011).

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THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD SOURCES IN THE AGONISTIC BEHAVIORS DISPLAYED BY THE STINGLESS BEE MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA (APIDAE: MELIPONINI) Bruno Gusmão Vieira1*; Weyder Cristiano Santana1; José Henrique Schoereder2. Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Departamento de Entomologia; Apiário Central; Viçosa; Brasil; Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Departamento de Biologia Geral; Viçosa; Brasil.

1* 2

vieira.bg@gmail.com Bees have many communication mechanisms to indicate food location. Since food sources are a limited resource, it is necessary to use foraging and competition strategies to obtain an optimal amount of food. This study was conducted in order to analyze the foraging strategies of the species Melipona quadrifasciata, focusing on the intraspecific competition. To do so, we verified if there was difference in the behavior showed by the foragers on two different kinds of artificial feeders with distinct sugar concentration (high and low concentration). One of the feeders had abundant resources and the other one was limited in this matter. Ten colonies were tested to examine if there were influence of the quality and/or quantity of food in the showing of agonistic behavior between the workers and the count of said behaviors. We used the method described by Johnson and Hubbel in 1974. The agonistic behaviors showed by the foragers were recorded, counted and analyzed. We used ANOVA to test if said influence existed. Significant differences had been found (p<0,001) in the numbers of agonistic behaviors displayed by the bees defending the different food sources and with distinct sugar concentration. At sources with low sugar concentration, the workers displayed far less behaviors than at the rich ones, because otherwise there would be energetic loss for the colony. Regarding the availability of the resource, more behaviors happened at the scarce sources, because a greater number of foragers can collect food at the same time at the abundant ones, eliminating the necessity of confront. These results show us that the cost-benefit plays an important factor in the worker’s decision of devoting more force on the defense of more profitable and/or limited food sources. Key words: Competition; foraging; bee; Melipona quadrifasciata. Financial support: CAPES; FAPEMIG.

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MONITORING OIL-BEES RICHNESS AND ABUNDANCE IN A SAVANNA AREA (CERRADO): BRAZILIAN LONG TERM ECOLOGICAL PROGRAM (PELD) Cândida Maria Lima Aguiar1; Shantala Lua2; Maise Silva3; Juliana Caramés Duarte2; Juliana Nascimento dos Santos4; Edson Braz Santana2; Gilberto Marcos de Mendonça Santos1. Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana. Departamento de Ciências Biologicas. Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. 2Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia. Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. 3Faculdade de Ciência e Tecnologia. Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. 4 Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Agrárias. Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil. 1

candida.aguiar@gmail.com We have monitored the richness and the abundance of oil-bee species in four consecutive years in a savanna (cerrado) area, in the surroundings of the Chapada Diamantina National Park (12°25 ‘S, 41° 29’ W), Lençóis, Bahia, Brazil. We captured bees with insect nets while they were visiting flowers. We selected two species of Byrsonima (B. sericea and B. cydoniifolia, Malpighiaceae) as target plants in 2011 and 2012. Additionally, we also collected bees in other 13 plant species in 2013 and 2014. We selected three sampling sites, and in each site, we established three transects. We randomly selected one transect per site in each sampling. The guild of oil-collecting bees was composed of 24 species. Centridini showed higher richness (16 species) and abundance. The guild of oil-collecting bees of this savanna was diverse, with many rare and a few dominant species. Centris aenea was the most abundant species. The savannas in the Chapada Diamantina seem to harbor much richer bee faunas than sandstone outcrop vegetation, which are contiguous to the savannas in many sites of this region. Thus, the areas of savanna play an important role for in situ conservation of native bees. Keywords: Centridini; Oil-collecting bees; monitoring; Long term studies. Financial support: CNPq (Editais PELD and Universal); CAPES; FAPESB.

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STINGLESS BEES FROM MIRADOR STATE PARK, MA, BRAZIL Ana Carolina Alves Malheiros Araújo¹*; Patrícia Maia Correia de Albuquerque¹. ¹Universidade Federal do Maranhão – UFMA; Laboratório de Estudos sobre Abelhas; São Luís-MA; Brasil. Contato: Av. dos Portugueses, 1966, Cidade Universitária, 65080-805 São Luís – MA, Brasil. carolina.malheiros@hotmail.com Mirador State Park (MSP) is a priority area of high biological importance for biodiversity conservation in the state of Maranhão, and it also houses the headwaters of important rivers, such as the Alpercatas and the Itapecuru. The MSP may house a high number of bee species because of its conservation status and the Cerrado area location. This study aimed to survey the species of stingless bees in two areas of cerrado in the Mirador State Park, in the municipality of Formosa da Serra Negra-MA (6°37’56,29’’S e 45°53’4,25’’W). Monthly collections with insect net were performed between January 2012 and December 2012 in two 100 m x 100 m plots located approximately 2 km apart and randomly walked by two collectors on two consecutive days from 06:00 to 18:00 for a total sampling time of 576 hours (2 collectors x 12 hours x 2 plots x 12 months). A total of 2495 bee specimens from 64 species were collected. The stingless bees stands out among the Apidae for exhibiting the highest species richness (30 species) and abundance (77 % of the individuals, 1921 ind.). The genera with the highest abundance were Trigona (50.58%), Paratrigona (14.64%), Melipona (8.36%), Oxytrigona (7.35%) and Tetragona (6.27%). The most species-rich genera were Trigona (with 5 species); Friseomelitta and Trigonisca (with 4 species each) and Melipona and Tetragona (3 species each. The most visited plant familes were Rubiaceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae - Caesalpinodae, Salicaceae, Asteraceae, Malpighiaceae, Fabaceae – Mimosoidae and Caryocaceae. The data obtained in this study recorded the highest diversity of Meliponini collected in surveys of bee fauna using insect nets. Keywords: Meliponini; Cerrado; Diversity. Financial support: FAPEMA; CAPES; CNPq/BIONORTE; FAPEMIG.

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STINGLESS BEES DO NOT AVOID NEEM-CONTAMINATED AREAS Rodrigo Cupertino Bernardes¹; Wagner Faria Barbosa²; Hudson Vaner Ventura Tomé²; Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes²; Maria Augusta Pereira Lima¹. ¹Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Departamento de Biologia Animal; 36570900 Viçosa; Brasil; ²Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Departamento de Entomologia; 36570900 Viçosa; Brasil. rodrigocbernardes@hotmail.com Neem is considered a selective biopesticide for non-target insects such as pollinators. This information, however, is based only in studies with honeybees, neglecting possible harmful effects on native pollinators, including stingless bees. Here we studied the risk of exposure of the stingless bees Melipona quadrifasciata and Partamona helleri to a neem-based pesticide. We developed free-choice tests with bees kept in arenas divided in two different areas: treated (azadirachtin concentration of 30 mg a.i./L or 60 mg a.i./L) and untreated (control). Pesticide solution or water (solvent, control) were sprayed on the arenas where the bees were maintained for three hours. The walking activity of the bees was measured using a digital video-tracking system to test if neem causes repellence on bees. Bees did not avoid treated areas, except for M. quadrifasciata exposed to the higher azadirachtin concentration. The higher concentration tested, however, is not recommend for pulverization. These results show that, under field conditions, stingless bees will probably have contact with neem-contaminated crops. This behavior will increase the risk of foragers’ contamination with this pesticide. Keywords: Biopesticide; Stingless bees; Neem; Pollinators. Financial support: Fapemig.

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AZADIRACHTIN REDUCES FOOD INTAKE IN TWO STINGLESS BEES Rodrigo Cupertino Bernardes¹; Hudson Vaner Ventura Tomé²; Wagner Faria Barbosa²; Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes²; Maria Augusta Pereira Lima¹. ¹Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Departamento de Biologia Animal; 36570900 Viçosa; Brasil; ²Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Departamento de Entomologia; 36570900 Viçosa; Brasil. rodrigocbernardes@hotmail.com Stingless bees are important pollinators of wild and cultivated plants, which have been receiving little attention in ecotoxicological studies. Here, we tested if azadirachtin, a pesticide from the neem tree, cause anti-feeding behavior in the stingless bees Melipona quadrifasciata and Partamona helleri. This effect can be gustatory, when the feeding behavior is interrupted, or physiological, when the food intake and digestibility are reduced after azadirachtin ingestion. We tested the gustatory antifeedant effect using a free-choice test where the bees were kept in glass tubes with two different treatments: pure syrup (control) and contaminated syrup (with azadirachtin concentrations of 30 mg a.i./L and 60 mg a.i./L). We tested the physiological effect using cages with just one feeder containing pure syrup (control) or contaminated syrup (with the concentrations described above). Bees were kept inside the cages during three hours, when feeders were replaced by feeders with pure syrup. After this period, the mass of feeders was measured to determinate the food intake of bees. Azadirachtin caused gustatory antifeedant effect in P. helleri treated with the higher azadirachtin concentration, but did not affect M. quadrifasciata. Physiological antifeedant effect, however, was detected for both species, particularly after the treatment with the higher azadirachtin concentration. The results show that stingless bees are not repelled by food contaminated with azadirachtin, but the ingestion of azadirachtin compromises the food intake of stingless bees. Keywords: Stingless bees; Pesticide; Azadirachtin; Antifeedant. Financial support: Fapemig.

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IMPLICATIONS OF RESCUING NESTS IN THE BIODIVERSITY OF MELIPONINA BEES AT A REGION OF CERRADO IN NORTHEAST MARANHÃO Murilo Sérgio Drummond; Claudivã Maia; Gisele Garcia Azevedo Departamento de Biologia; Universidade Federal do Maranhão; Av. dos Portugueses, 1966, Bacanga, 65080-805, São Luís, MA, Brasil. murilo.drummond@ufma.br The rescue of Meliponina bees has always been a strategy of valuable conservation, adopted in areas of deforestation and floods. However, there had been no effective, in­depth study of its implications in the host ecosystem. This work reports the experience of such study in an area of cerrado in Northeast Maranhão, compiling data from 2001 to 2014. A total of 500 nests of 11 species were transferred from areas of cerrado sensu stricto to open areas in a natural reserve of 70 hectares, composed mainly of closed semi­deciduous and ciliary vegetation. As parameters of analysis, we utilized the abundance of nests, the wealth of species, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index, considering the Total Area, Closed Area and the Open Area (where the rescued nests were placed). The results have shown that the Diversity Index of Total Area was not considerably affected by the introduction of the nests, although there was a decrease in the diversity of Closed Areas, due to the reduction in the wealth of species. This is explained by the increase in the Evenness Index of the Open Area, due to the higher mortality of the most abundant species introduced. The fact the abundance of nests remained constant in the Closed Area, following the introduction of new nests in the Open Area, suggests that the limiting factor is the unavailability of cavities for nesting. The results support the assumptions of the Neutral Theory of Biodiversity, and raise the hypothesis that the intraspecific competition due to densification of nests is more worrying than the interspecific one due to introduction of species. Keywords: Meliponina; nest rescue; Neutral Theory of Biodiversity; Conservation. Financial Support: Suzano Papel e Celulose S/A; CNPq.

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EFFICACY ANALYSIS OF A METHODOLOGY FOR INVENTORY AND RESCUE OF BEE NESTS IN AREAS OF OPEN FOREST, UNDER THE POINT OF VIEW OF TIME, COST AND SAMPLE QUALITY Murilo Sérgio Drummond; Rafael Cabral Borges; David Barros Muniz; Geizyane Franco da Luz; Raissa Santana Serra; Cristiane Marques Santos; Gisele Garcia Azevedo. Departamento de Biologia; Universidade Federal do Maranhão; Av. dos Portugueses, 1966, Baganga, 65080-805, São Luís, MA, Brasil. murilo.drummond@ufma.br The inventory and rescue of bee nests is affected by three factors which hamper their quality as a strategy of conservation: the time necessary for such a task (taking in consideration the fact these activities are connected to economic projects of great environmental impact), the quality of this activity from the point of view of being a local fauna representation, and the cost. A comprehensive sweeping was performed in a deforestation project in Northeast Maranhão, covering an area of 14.000 hectares. This sweeping consisted of performing searches in zigzag, utilizing routes previously traced on GPS. For these, two independent teams were utilized, one for inventory, the other for rescues. Each team counted with a Navigator and 3 local foresters. Based on previous experiences, teams focused on 3 to 5 tree species larger than 20cm in diameter, in which were usually found more than 80% of nests. This sweeping technique was tested in a fine scale, with distance of 50 meters between the traced routes, and a average scale of 100 meters, utilizing as indicator the Combined Index of Success (ICS), which is the product of number of nests per hectare per kilometer covered. We also tested the representativity of the rescued nests in relation to the inventory, based in the diversity and evenness of the sample. The results showed that with the average scale sweeping the ICS was of 1.73, and with the fine scale sweeping, of 1.47. It is also worth pointing the former takes half the time of the latter. The sweeps covered na area of 13.194 hectares, inventorying 2.343 nests of 13 species, and rescuing 729 nests of 11 species. The rescued samples proved representative of the inventoried samples in relation to diversity and evenness. Keywords: Meliponina; nest rescue; Conservation. Financial Support: Suzano Papel e Celulose S/A; CNPq.

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COMBINING PHYLOGEOGRAPHY AND ESTIMATES OF FUTURE CLIMATES TO INFORM CONSERVATION OF BOMBUS MORIO AND BOMBUS PAULOENSIS (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Elaine Françoso1*; Alexandre Rizzo Zuntini2; Ana Carolina Carnaval3; and Maria Cristina Arias1. Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, São Paulo, Brazil;2 Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Botânica, São Paulo, Brazil;3 City University of New York, City College of New York, Department of Biology, New York, USA. 1

*francoso@usp.br While declines of bee species have been reported worldwide, several populations are presently maintaining or expanding their ranges. We argue that reports of species-wide range expansions should be made carefully, especially given the potential for lineage-specific responses to environmental change. Here, we i) combine phylogeographic information and paleoclimatic simulations to model the historical demography of two sympatric species of bumblebees and verify whether population sizes have been declining parallel to climatic shifts, ii) ask whether molecular and paleoclimatic data provide evidence of distinct responses to past climate change across the species, iii) assess if those lineages, if exist, may respond differently to future climate change, iv) identify continuously suitable areas (which may hold high genetic diversity) in the face of future climates. While B. morio is morphological and genetically homogeneous, B. pauloensis showed three clades differing in mitochondrial haplotypes, morphology, and geographic distribution. Paleodistribution models for both species predict that warm conditions of the Last Interglacial contributed to population contraction, while expansion likely happened during the Last Glacial Maximum. These demographic dynamics are consistent with observed genetic patterns. We identified an area, in the eastern portion of the state of São Paulo, highly suitable for both species occurrence under LIG and LGM conditions. Distribution models using future conditions predict a reduction in suitable area for both species, but the area predicted to be lost is much smaller when the species is model as a single entity relative to combined lineage-based models of B. pauloensis. The eastern portion of the state of São Paulo is predicted to remain suitable for species occurrence, continuing to function as a climatic refuge. Preservation of the Atlantic Forest in this region will help not only to conserve local richness and endemism, but also the processes that generate and maintain diversity - for bees and other species. Keywords: comparative phylogeography; conservation; bumblebee; Brazil. Financial support: FAPESP (Proc. 10/50597-5 PhD and scholarship to EF 2009/07124-1, 2010/205482 and 2013/03961-1).

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GENETIC DIVERSITY OF MELIPONA MANDACAIA SMITH, 1863 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) IN THE MIDDLE SÃO FRANCISCO RIVER IN THE STATE OF BAHIA - BRAZIL: PRELIMINARY DATA Leydiane da Conceição Lazarino¹; Sâmela Silva Mendes¹; Elder Assis Miranda²; Rogério Marcos de Oliveira Alves³; Ana Maria Waldschmidt¹. Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia – Departamento de Ciências Biológicas – Jequié-BA, Brasil; ²*Universidade Federal de São Carlos – Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde- São CarlosSP, Brasil; ³*Universidade Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Baiano –Catu-BA,Brasil. 1*

leydilazarino@biouesb.com Melipona mandacaia is an endemic species from Caatinga, being associated with the São Francisco River and its tributaries. Human actions are reducing the population size and in consequence, its genetic variability. The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity of M. mandacaia in the middle of the São Francisco River in the state of Bahia. The genomic DNA was extracted from 40 workers bees from four locations of the state (Uibaí, São Gabriel, João Dourado e Hidrolândia) and we used six microsatellites loci for amplification and statistical analysis. The average polymorphism was 62.5% and the average number of alleles/locus was equal to six. The average observed heterozygosity (Ho) was equal to 0.507, higher than expected (He = 0.389), and the Uibaí location presented the highest Ho value (0.533) and João Dourado the lowest Ho value (0.433). About the HWE, only Mquad6 and Mquad7 loci showed significant deviations (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). The greatest genetic variation was found within populations (95%) confirming the FST values (0.106) and the FIS values (-0.248), which indicated a low structuring and inbreeding. The largest genetic distance was found between São Gabriel and Uibaí locations (0,127), while São Gabriel and Hidrolândia locations presented the lower genetic distance (0,014), corroborating with the cluster analysis by UPGMA, which revealed the grouping between São Gabriel and Hidrolândia, and a separation between João Dourado and Uibaí. These results identified the existence of genetic diversity among M. mandacaia populations, suggesting the occurrence of gene flow between these populations. However, more detailed studies with a larger loci number and increased sampling will be carried out to consolidate these results. Keywords: Caatinga; Meliponina; genetic variability; SSR. Financial support: CNPq; FAPESB; UESB.

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BEES DIVERSITY (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) PRELIMINARY SURVEY AT THE UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DO SUDOESTE DA BAHIA, CAMPUS DE JEQUIÉ Leydiane da Conceição Lazarino¹; Rebeca Queiroz Panta de Jesus¹; Jonathan Barros Silva¹; Elias Luan Santos Souza¹; Lorena Andrade Nunes¹; Ana Maria Waldschmidt¹. ¹ Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia – Departamento de Ciências Biológicas– Jequié –BA,Brasil. leydilazarino@biouesb.com Bees have a big and fundamental services in pollination. Therefore, these bugs have a great ecological and economic role in the preservation of the ecosystem. The aim of this study was to make the faunistic survey and to analyse the abundance and diversity of bees at Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), campus de Jequié. Samples were collected using entomological nets during the period from 6:00 to 18:00 hours from September 2014 to July 2015. The bees were sacrificed, then screened, and afterwards mounted and identify using entomological collection at UESB.Samples were from 587 individuals distributed into the species Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes, Tetragonisca angustula, Xylocopa sp., Epanthidium tigrinum, Centris sp., Megachile sp. and individuals belonging to family Halictidae and Anthophoridae.The species T. spineps and Apis mellifera, the most abundant and frequent with Shannon-Weaner index H=1.6036, confidence intervals <0.1%. These results were expected by the population number of these individuals in natural environment.These species are generalist in foraging and are well adapted in urban areas. Despite UESB localization, at an urban area and antropized environment, we can find a big diversity of bees highlighting their importance in the conservation of flora specially the native ones, though in urban areas. Keywords: Floral visitors; conservation; pollination; urban area. Financial support: FAPESB; UESB; CNPq; PRH-PB211.

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THE EFFECT OF NESTS DENSIFICATION ON THE PARTITION OF RESOURCES IN MELIPONINA BEES Isla Rafanny Portela Lopes; Anna Vanniezy Marinho de Brito; Tainá Constância de França Pinto; Pedro Henrique Alves Pereira; Cintia de Cássia Melonio Pacheco; Monique Hellen Martins Ribeiro; Murilo Sérgio Drummond. Departamento de Biologia; Universidade Federal do Maranhão; Av. dos Portugueses, 1966, Baganga, 65080­805, São Luís, MA, Brasil. murilo.drummond@ufma.br The rescue of Meliponina bees has always been a strategy of valuable conservation, adopted in regions of deforestations and floods. However, no effective, in­depth study has ever been conducted on its implications over the host ecosystems. This work reports on the first experimental studies on the impact of nests densification over the partition of resources by these bees in a private reservation, in a region of cerrado in Northeast Maranhão. Three hundred and three nests of bees from 9 species were kept in control in relation to the access to local floral resources. This control was performed by establishing 2­day periods in which the colonies were kept open or closed, in chronological sequence, according to the following: all 303 nests open, following 73 nests of Scaptotrigona sp. closed, following all nests closed, following only nests of Scaptotrigona sp open. During this period 3 colonies of Frieseomelitta varia and 3 colonies of Melipona flavolineata were kept open, of which we removed, at each 2­day period, all polen stock accumulated in the nests, causing the trapping of the remaining nests. The pollen was prepared, analysed on slides and counted in the usual fashion. The results were as follow: For F. varia, with trapping of nests, there was an increase in frequency of pollen of some types and decrease in frequency of others, suggesting that pollinic preferences might be affected by the densification. For M. flavolineata, besides alterations in pollinic frequency, similar to that observed in F. varia, there was also alterations in the amplitude of the pollinic spectre, suggesting its narrowing as a result of the densification. Overall, the studies suggest that the densification of nests has implications on the pollinic spectre of these species, possibly increasing intraspecific competitions due to the narrowing of the pollinic spectre. Keywords: Meliponina; densification of nests; conservation; pollinic spectre, competition. Financial Support: Suzano Papel e Celulose S/A; CNPq.

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ACUTE TOXICITY OF DIMETHOATE TO SCAPTOTRIGONA POSTICA Raquel Chaves Macedo1*; Lorrayne Jacinto Pacheco1; Stephan Malfitano Carvalho1. Universidade Federal de Uberlândia; Instituto de Ciências Agrárias; Avenida Amazonas s/n, Bloco 2E, Campus Umuarama, Caixa Postal 593, 38.400-902 Uberlândia, MG, Brasil. 1*

raquelmacedo12@gmail.com Insect pollinator has a great economic and ecological importance. Among them, we can stand out the bees as being the main pollinators and the responsible to promote the pollination of more than 70% of cultivated crops and several native species. However, due the increasing number of reports about the bee decline worldwide, studies on domains of deforestation, climatic changes, urban/industrial pollutions, pathogens and in special pesticides (risk and hazard), must be developed. In this way, the first step on toxicological study is the establishment of the acute dose. Therefore, the goal of this study was determine the acute lethal dose 50 (LD50) of dimethoate (99.6%) to the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807 (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Individuals were obtained at the entrance of natural nests located at UFU-Umuarama campus, being in the laboratory kept in plastic cages in number of ten at 28±2oC, 65±5% RH, darkness and fed with a solid diet (honey + 3% gelatin) and water. The pesticide solutions were prepared using as solvent the acetone and taking a range of various concentrations of dimethoate. Every concentration was assessed in triplicate (control treatment received only acetone) and the bees received (on thorax) the administration of 0.5µL of one respective solution. Assessments were carried out 24, 48 and 72 hours after the administration of dimethoate. The values obtained of LD50 of dimethoate to S.postica were of 10.15 ng a.i./bee (24 hours, DF= 18; χ2= 6.8155 and CL95%= 6.49-13.80 ng a.i./bee), 2.5 ng a.i./bee (48 hours, DF= 18; χ2= 16.576 and CL95%= 1.41-3.59 ng a.i./bee) and 0.625 ng a.i./bee (72 hours, DF= 16; χ2= 22.541 and CL95%= 0.41-0.84 ng a.i./bee). Ours results obtained at this moment showing that this stingless bee is so susceptible to dimethoate as was already observed to Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae), and thus, as was done for this aloctone specie, this pesticide may be used as positive control on toxicological studies. Keywords: Stingless bee; Meliponini; LD50; Organophosphate. Financial support: CAPES; Universidade Federal de Uberlândia.

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SAMPLING OF FAUNA EUGLOSSINI (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE) IN TWO ECOLOGICAL PARKS OF SÃO PAULO STATE: PARQUE ESTADUAL MORRO DO DIABO AND PARQUE ESTADUAL TURÍSTICO DO ALTO RIBEIRA Clycie Aparecida da Silva Machado1; Tiago Mauricio Francoy2. Universidade de São Paulo; Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto; Departamento de Biologia; Ribeirão Preto – SP; Brasil;2Universidade de São Paulo; Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades; São Paulo – SP; Brasil. 1

1

clycie@usp.br; 2 tfrancoy@usp.br

The Neotropical region has a rich fauna of bees, however, still poorly assessed, mainly due to lack of accurate information on taxonomic revision and unsampled regions. Bees of the tribe Euglossini are of great ecological importance for being pollinators of a large number of plant families. So, in order to contribute to the knowledge of Euglossini fauna, monthly collections were made in the period between May/2014 to May/2015 in two ecological parks of São Paulo: Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira – PETAR, located south of the state (24° 27’ 36” S and 48° 36› 0» W) and the Parque Estadual Morro do Diabo - PEMD, located in the extreme west of the state (22° 27’ 0” S and 52° 10’ 0” W). The bees were attracted for five aromatic compounds used as scent baits and were collected with entomological nets and plastic bottle traps. 749 individuals were collected, being 720 in the PEMD, represented by four genera (Euglossa, Eulaema, Eufriesea and Exaerete) and 29 in PETAR, represented by three genera (Euglossa, Eulaema and Eufriesea). The most abundant genus was Euglossa in PEMD and Eulaema in PETAR. The small number of individuals sampled in PETAR, probably was influenced by low temperatures, which may adversely affect the collection activities of aromatic substances by males Euglossini, so that no specimen was sampled in the first five months of sampling, between May to September. The average monthly temperature of this period was between 14.4°C to 17.6°C. In the same period in PEMD, the average monthly temperature ranged from 19.3°C to 24.2°C. Besides temperature, studies describe the negative interference of environmental characteristics, such as precipitation and cloudiness in the collection activities aromatics Euglossini of males which were commonly found in PETAR during the months were not represented by any individuals. Keywords: Euglossini bees; Ecological Parks; Scent baits. Financial Support: Processo FAPESP 2011/07857-9.

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RECOVER FORESTS IN LANDSCAPES WITH LOW PERCENTAGE OF NATIVE VEGETATION AND WITH A HISTORY OF LAND USE BY INTENSIVE AGRICULTURAL CONTRIBUTES TO THE REESTABLISHMENT OF BEE DIVERSITY? Osmar Malaspina¹*; Roberta Cornélio Ferreira Nocelli²; Rafael Alexandre Costa Ferreira¹; Tiago Egydio Barreto3*. ¹ Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Instituto de Biociências de Rio Claro.; ²Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Centro de Ciências Agrárias., 3Fundação Espaço Eco, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo Brasil. Contato: AV. 24-A , 1515, Bela Vista. *tiago.egydio@basf.com Despite advances on studies of ecological indicators that evaluate the success of ecological restoration, most of the monly evaluate parameters related to vegetation structure and little has been explored about the bee diversity, that is so important to the processes associated the floral and reproductive biology. Progress knowledge on this subject is increasingly strategic, due the amount of areas that need to be restored and that are inserted in landscapes with low percentage of native vegetation and with a history of land use featured by intensive agriculture, moreover, this knowledge can contribute to the debate about the coexistence of agriculture and biodiversity conservation. We evaluate the species richness of bees throughout the four seasons, from December 2013 to November 2014 in three farms located in Araraquara, Bebedouro and Nuporanga (São Paulo State) that had areas restored for at least five years. We collected data through four methods (active search, focal point, transect walks and colored traps) and we considering how richness the total number of species found in each farm. In total, there were recorded50 species of bees and among these 33 were present in Araraquara, 40in Bebedouro and 43 in Nuporanga. Spring was the season with highest record of species while in winter and summer are seasons with fewer. Apis melifera was the only non-native species found and was the most abundant in all areas assessed. The bee diversity found was significant considering the landscape features. The fluctuations observed in results considering the seasons occurred by flowering in spring and high temperatures and low rainfall in summer and winter. We believe that ecological restoration can be a good way to assist in the reestablishment of bee populations. We recommend that restoration projects should contemplate an array of species that provide resource for the bees throughout the year. Keywords: Ecological restoration; bees; agriculture; biodiversity conservation.

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EUGLOSSINI BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) IN TWO CERRADO VEGETATION TYPES IN THE MIRADOR STATE PARK, MARANHÃO, BRAZIL Denilson Costa Martins1*; Gracy Chrisley Alencar Carvalho1; Ana Carolina Alves Malheiros Araújo1; Roberth Ricard Diniz Pereira2; Francinaldo Soares Silva3; Patrícia Maia Correia de Albuquerque2. Universidade Federal do Maranhão – UFMA; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade e Conservação; São Luís-MA; Brasil.; 2Universidade Federal do Maranhão – UFMA, Laboratório de Estudos sobre Abelhas; São Luís-MA; Brasil; 3Universidade Federal do Maranhão – UFMA; Centro de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais; Chapadinha-MA; Brasil. Contato: Av. dos Portugueses 1966, Cidade Universitária, 65080-805 São Luís, Brasil. 1

martinsdc.bio@gmail.com The intensification of human activities in the areas of Cerrado, like the growing of monocultures and cattle, has been causing serious environmental problems such as habitat fragmentation, invasive exotic species, soil erosion, etc. Added to these negative pressures on the area, there is still a huge gap in knowledge of the diversity of Euglossini bees in this biome. With the aim of knowing the Euglossini bee fauna, orchid-bees males were collected from January 2012 to December 2013, in two Cerrado physiognomies at the Mirador State Park (MA), using bait traps made from PET bottles. A total of 766 Euglossini males were collected, 503 individuals of 20 species from gallery forest, and 263 individuals of 16 species from cerrado stricto sensu. Eulaema bombiformis (27.4% from the total) was the most common species, followed by Eulaema nigrita (19.7%), Euglossa melanotricha (12.8%), Eulaema cingulata (8.2%), Eulaema meriana (7%) and Euglossa cordata (6.3%). The other species represented less than 5% each. The species were more abundant during the rainy station, and the period of greatest activity was observed in the morning. Thus, this study contribute with the first record of Euglossa platymera to the Brazilian Cerrado besides three new records of Euglossini bee for the state of Maranhão: Aglae caerulea, Eufriesea cf. vidua, Eulaema bombiformis and Euglossa platymera, as well as, the first record of Eufriesea auriceps, Euglossa bidentata and Euglossa platymera from Cerrado biome of Maranhão. Our results show the importance of keeping both cerrado vegetation types for the diversity of the group. We emphasize the relevance of gallery forests as important refuges and ecological corridors for orchid bees in the Cerrado biome, with the capture of typically Amazonian species such as Aglae caerulea and Euglossa platymera. Keywords: Orchid bees; savannah; phytophysiognomies; bait traps. Financial support: FAPEMA; CNPq/BIONORTE.

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SAZONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ORCHID BEE (APIDAE, APINI, EUGLOSSINA) COMMUNITY OF URBAN WETLAND FOREST FRAGMENTS IN MATO GROSSO DO SUL Edivan dos Santos Mendes1*, Priscila Vicente de Moraes1, Rodrigo Pires Dallacqua1, Aline Mackert2. Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (CCBS/ UFMS). 2Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campus do Pantanal (CPAN/UFMS).

1

*edivan.s.mendes@hotmail.com The orchid bee diversity of the Brazil Central-Western region is almost unknown, especially in Pantanal wetlands of Mato Grosso do Sul state. Therefore, we surveyed the sazonal distribution of male euglossine bee species between 2011 and 2013 in three urban forest fragments of Corumbá (UFMS campus and Codrasa) and Ladário (rural settlement) cities. Collections were made monthly using 07 chemical baits to attract bees to plastic bottle traps: eucalyptol, eugenol, vanillin, betaionone, methyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, skatole. 1516 males belonging to 10 species and four genera were identified. Ecological indexes such as species richness, diversity and similarity among populations were calculated. Samples were high stable in species richness and abundance along the period of sampling collection, although higher frequencies have been observed during wet seasons. The dominant species considering all areas were: Eulaema nigrita (53,56%), Euglossa carolina (12,40%) e Eufrisea auriceps (10,88%). Interestingly, the cleptoparasitic bee Exaerete smaragdina was dominant only in Ladário rural settlement, where it represents 10,32% of the sampled males. Two species were rare, with exclusive occurrence in UFMS campus and in the Codrasa (Eulaema marcii and Eulaema mocsaryi, respectively – one individual per area). Cluster analysis grouped Codrasa and Ladário populations, reflecting their geographical proximity. It has been confirmed by Bray-Curtis similarity index, which considers species composition and its relative abundance, clearly separated UFMS as a distinct population. Shannon diversity index (H’) indicate high diversity in the studied areas, with values ranging from 1,099 (E. leucotricha) to 3,168 (E.nigrita). Taken together, our sampling effort has allowed us to compare male euglossine populations in three areas with distinct anthropogenic disturbances, showing its high similarity concerning species richness and abundance. Keywords: Euglossine bees, Pantanal; chemical bait traps. Financial support: CAPES and FUNDECT (Proc. n° 23/200.465/2014) and FUNDECT/CNPq (T.O.: 0137/12).

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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUITION OF SCAURA SCHWARZ, 1938 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINI) David Silva Nogueira1; Marcio Luiz de Oliveira1. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Coordenação de Biodiversidade, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil.

1

davidsn@zootecnista.com.br Scaura Schwarz, 1938 is a genus of stingless bees characterized by dark color, small size, usually 4 mm long, hind basitarsus inflated, as wide or wider as hind tibia and malar area smaller than the flagellum diameter. They nests in small hollow of trees, human constructions or live termite nests. The aim of this study was to establish the geographical distribution of Scaura species. Specimens from various collections have been loaned and the labels data were tabulated. Other published studies as Silveira et al. (2002) and Camargo and Pedro (2013) were used for additional information. Scaura is distributed only in the Neotropics, occurring from southern Mexico to southern Brazil. Six species are now known: S. atlantica Melo, 2004; S. argyrea (Cockerell, 1912); S. latitarsis (Friese, 1900); S. longula (Lepeletier, 1836) and two new species being described. S. argyrea occurs in the Caribbean region and from Veracruz, Mexico, to Valle del Pisa, Colombia. S. latitarsis is endemic in the Amazon region, occurring from Meta, Colombia, to Mato Grosso, Brazil. Endemic to the Atlantic forest, there are S. atlantica, occurring in the states of São Paulo, Bahia and Espírito Santo. S. longula has occurrence records from Cundinamarca, Colombia, to São Paulo in Southeastern Brazil. Scaura sp. nov. 1 has records only for the mountains of Ceará state, and Scaura sp. nov. 2 has occurrence records from Táchira, Venezuela, to Paraná, Brazil. We observed that the genus has a wide distribution with some overlap, but there is need of studies of more material deposited in other collections, and to sample in places little or not known in order to establish the real geographical distribution. Keywords: Endemism; Occurrence records; Stingless bees. Financial support: CAPES; INPA.

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CORRELATION BETWEEN BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA) AND PLANTS IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST AREA IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL David Silva Nogueira1*; Karine Schoeninger1; Alexandre Somavilla1; Andreas Köhler2. Coordenação de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Avenida André Araújo, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. 2Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul, Avenida Independência, Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

1

davidsn@zootecnista.com.br Richness bees are connected to the diversity of flowering plants, which express a high relation, once plants have attractiveness to ensure the visit and subsequent pollination. Further Apis mellifera, the wild bees in Brazil are essential in the pollination process. The objective of this study was to correlate the genera of bees and species of plants collected an urban area of the Atlantic Forest in Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, between 2001 and 2008. During the study period, were collected through entomological nets, 2.872 bees determined in five families, 57 genera and 88 species. Apidae was the most represented family (21 genera; 2.045 individuals), followed by Halictidae (13 genera, 452 individuals), Megachilidae (12 genera, 188 individuals), Andrenidae (four genera, 63 individuals) and Colletidae (seven genera, 22 individuals). The bees were collected from 43 species of plants classified in 19 botanical families; the most representative was Asteraceae with 12 species, Fabaceae and Apiaceae with five species each. According to the analysis, 34% of bee genera are correlated to the species of visited plants (p = 0.02). Overall, among the main species of dominant bees, there widespread use of resources; Apis mellifera was the highest number of records, 43% of the total, being the only eudominante and visited 30 plant species, being the most visited Citrus sinensis (759 specimens of A. mellifera of 845 collected). Other species considered dominant were Tetragonisca angustula, who visited 11 plant species, Augochloropsis (29 species), Augochlora (21 species) and Melissoptila (15 species). Although the study is conducted in a small area, this represents a considerable wealth of bees, showing that this area is important for maintaining bees’s biodiversity site. Keywords: Apis mellifera; Bees diversity; Flower visitors; Pollination. Financial support: CNPq, CAPES, UNISC.

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MELIPONICULTURE AND RESCUE OF STINGLESS BEES: PROMISING SPECIES OF MELIPONA (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) FOUND AT THE MARGINS OF THE XINGU RIVER, BRAZIL Francisco Plácido Magalhães Oliveira1*; Gercy Soares Pinto2, Nara Neiva Ferreira dos Santos2; Jessé Buccioli Novaes2; Gilliana Almeida da Rosa2; Luciano Costa3. Universidade Federal do Pará, Campus de Altamira Contato: Rua Coronel Jose Porfírio 2515, 68372040 Altamira, Pará, Brasil, 2BIOTA Consultoria Ambiental Ltda; 3Arcadis Logos, Divisão de Meio ambiente, São Paulo, Brazil. 1

placidomagalhaes@yahoo.com.br The rescue of stingless bees nests is a way of mitigating environmental damage caused by deforestation in infrastructure projects, such as power plant construction. Furthermore, the rescue of Meliponini can be a source of colonies appropriate for meliponiculture, an important activity in sustainable land use and environmental education. Here, we present data on species o MeliponaIlliger, 1806, found during the rescue of stingless bees performed at the margins of the Xingu River (Pará, Brazil), during the construction of the “Belo Monte” power plant. A total of seven species were registered in the area: Melipona (Michmelia) flavolineata, Melipona (Michmelia) seminigrapernigra, Melipona (Michmelia) nebulosa, Melipona (Michmelia) fuliginosa, Melipona (Michmelia) sp., Melipona (Melikerria) fasciculata andMelipona (Eomelipona) puncticolis. Colonies from these species (except M. fuliginosa) were transferred to beehives in order to observe their development and potential for use in meliponiculture. Among them, the most promising species were M. seminigrapernigra, M. flavolineata, M. fasciculata plus and one species of the subgenus Michmelia that awaits identification. At the amazon region these species,as wellas related species are traditionally used for meliponiculture because they are harmless, easy to handle and produce good quality honey. The four promising species of Melipona,rescued at the Xingu River margins, can be used for generation of income for small farmers and traditional population of the Xingu region. Additionally, the beekeeping with these bees help in the conservation of the Xingu fauna and flora trough the pollination services provided. Keywords: Amazon; income generation; conservation;honey; pollination. Financial support: NORTE ENERGIA S.A./Superint. Meio Biótico.

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ASSESSMENT OF ACUTE TOXICITY OF THIAMETHOXAM TO SCAPTOTRIGONA POSTICA LATREILLE, 1807 Lorrayne Jacinto Pacheco1*; Raquel Chaves Macedo1; Stephan Malfitano Carvalho1. Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias, Avenida Amazonas s/n, Bloco 2E, Campus Umuarama, Caixa Postal 593, 38.400-902 Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. 1*

lorrayne0312@gmail.com Depending of ecosystem, the bees of Meliponini’s tribe are responsible for up to 90% of native species pollination and also 33% of crops exploited by human. For this reason and regarding the importance of bee protection, is mandatory the development of toxicological studies of pesticides on pollinators. Thus, the goal of this work was establish the lethal dose 50 (LD50) through acute toxicity tests using the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807 (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Bee individuals were obtained directly at nests kept at natural conditions on UFU-campus Umuarama. At laboratory, they were kept on plastic cages in number of ten, fed with water and diet prepared with honey and gelatin (3%) and temperature of 28±2oC, RH of 65±5% and darkness. The administration of thiamethoxam (98.6%) was done by the application of 0.5µL of one respective solution on the thorax of bees and that were prepared taking as reference several concentrations of this insecticide. To ensure the correct handling of bees before pesticide application, they were anesthetized for 15 seconds using CO2. Each concentration was assessed in triplicate and dead bees were unregistered 24 hours after administration. With this procedure, we establish that the LD50 of thiamethoxam for S. postica was of 0.125 ng a.i./bee (DF= 13; χ2= 17.325 and CL95%= 0.05-0.20 ng a.i./bee), showing that this neonicotinoid is extremely toxic to S. postica. However, to determine the risk of this insecticide against this specie of stingless, news studies must be done taking the sublethal doses and approaches as the survival analysis, impairment of cognition abilities, physiological changes, nest fitness etc. Keywords: Meliponini; neonicotinoid; toxicity. Financial support: CAPES and Universidade Federal de Uberlândia.

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EUGLOSSINA (APINAE, APINI) DIVERSITY AND FLIGHT ACTIVITY IN AMAZONIAN FOREST FRAGMENT AT BAIXADA MARANHENSE, MARANHÃO, BRAZIL José de Ribamar Miranda da Silva Pereira¹; Gisele Garcia Azevedo1. ¹Universidade Federal do Maranhão – UFMA; São Luís; Brasil. gisabelha@gmail.com Euglossina represents one of the four subtribes of corbiculate bees. They are widely distributed in the Neotropical region, occurring from central Argentina to the south of the United States. This work aimed to characterize the diversity and flight activity of Euglossina bees in an Amazonian forest fragment. This study was performed in the Parque Agroecológico de Buritirana at the municipality of Peri-Mirim, MA (02º34’40’’S44º51’14’’O) localized in the Baixada Maranhense, characterized for remarkable seasonality between dry and rainy periods. Collects were made during two consecutive days starting at 06:00h and to 18:00h, during April/2013 to October/2014. Eight aromatic baits were used: beta-ionone, eucalyptol, eugenol, dimethoxybenzene, methylindole, vanilla, benzyl acetate and methyl salicylate. The specimens collected were classified by morphospecies and deposited in the entomological collection belonging to LESPP/DEBIO/UFMA. The 939 specimens collected were distributed into four genera and 21 morphospecies. As stated by other authors, the Euglossina species were more active during morning, reaching a peak between 9:00 to 12:00h. The genus Euglossa Latreille, (1802) was the most abundant (n=493), with 11 morphospecies, and Euglossa sp.2 the most abundant, accounting for 43% of the collected specimens, with an activity peak between 09:00 to 10:00h. The second most abundant genus was Eulaema Lepeletier, (1841) (n=432) with four morphospecies; followed by the genus Eufriesea Cockerell (1909) (n=28) with activity peak between 10-11h and Exaerete smaradigna Guérrin (1844) (n=6), with activity peak between 1014h. Frequency of visiting was bigger in the rainy period, being beta-ionone the most visited bait. Individuals of Eufriesea and Eulaema showed flight activity after 12h. The present study regarding flight activity is pioneer at the Baixada Maranhense and opens perspective for a better understanding of the diversity and foraging behavior of this group at oriental Amazonia. Keywords: foraging; orchid bees; aromatic baits. Financial support: FAPEMA; UFMA.

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EUGLOSSA ANALIS AND EULAEMA NIGRITA ARE ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY INDICATOR? Raimunda Gomes S. Soares1; Luciano Elsinor Lopes1. Departamento de Ciências Ambientais – DCAm; Universidade Federal de São Carlos - UFSCar.

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raisoaresgomes@gmail.com Biological indicators enable the identification of complex ecosystem processes in a simple, fast, reliable and early way. The bees Euglossa analis and Eulaema nigrita are among the species most frequently cited bioindicators of Euglossini tribe. In order to seek evidence justifying that statement, this study compared, through literature review, the characteristics of these species with a set of criteria to select bioindicators. We found 42 articles citing some species or group of species in Euglossini tribe as environmental quality indicators. Among these papers 14 were related to 1 of these two species. Euglossa analis was highlighted in four papers as bioindicator for good quality areas and in 1 paper there was no definitive conclusion. We found no reference questioning the status of this species as bioindicator. Eulaema nigrita was highlighted as indicator of disturbed areas in 5 of these 14 papers. However, 5 studies recorded its high abundance in disturbed and preserved areas, indistinctly. The hypothesis that the whole Euglossini tribe could be considered as bioindicators was tested in only one study, showing positive results only in the rainy season. Only one study compares the bee characteristics with criteria for good indicators. We consider that, among the criteria to select bioindicators, functional relevance, ease quantification and collection are fulfilled by the two species. E. nigrita is widely distributed, however only E. analis is sensitive to environmental quality and its reaction to stress is predictable. Evidence reject the role of E. nigrita as bioindicator of degraded areas and feature E. analis with a strong potential for use in indicating preserved environments in its natural occurrence distribution. However, it is important to sample its abundance in preserved reference areas nearby the study region to cope with particularities of different ecosystems. Keywords: Bees, bioindicators, environmental quality.

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AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: SOURCE OF FLORAL RESOURCES FOR WILD BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA) Valdânia da Conceição de Souza1; Andréia Perpetua da Silva2; Kátia Sampaio MalagodiBraga3*; Ricardo Costa Rodrigues de Camargo3; João Carlos Canuto3; Joel Leandro de Queiroga3; Waldemore Moriconi3. Universidade Paulista – Campus Swift Campinas; 2Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas, Campinas-SP; 3*Embrapa Meio Ambiente, Rodovia SP-340, Km 127,5, 13820-000, Jaguariúna-SP, Brasil. 1

katia.braga@embrapa.br The agroforestry systems (AFS) are productive systems with high diversity with a view to sustainability.

This study, conducted in Jaguariúna-SP, evaluated the potential of some native tree species, used to increase the diversity or as a source of income on AFS as a source of floral resources for wild bees. Direct observations, diversity

and abundance of bees and resources exploited by them during simultaneous flowering of three tree native species were made: Aroeira Pimenteira (Schinus terebinthifolius), Escova de Macaco (Apeiba tibourbou) and Urucum (Bixa orellana). The observations took place from March to June 2015 and were carried out during the flowering period, except for Aroeira, in the final flowering stage. 359 bees were sampled in 309 observations. The Urucum flowers had higher abundance and diversity of visitors and the Escova de Macaco the opposite happened. The flowers of Urucum, whose anthers are poricidal were visited by bees that perform vibration to collect pollen - Bombus sp, Epicharis sp and sp Oxaea - as by others that do not exhibit this behavior, Apis mellifera and Tetragonisca angustula. These bees were observed gathering pollen in more than 70% of the samples. Oxaea and T. angustula were also observed collecting pollen from anthers poricidal Escova de Macaco, the first being the most abundant and frequent floral visitors, collecting pollen in 100% of samples. In Aroeira Pimenteira were observed only smaller bees: T. angustula, Nannotrigona testaceicornis, A. mellifera and Plebeia sp, being the first species the most abundant and frequent. In half of the bee visits in Aroeira no pollen was collected, indicating an attractive supply of nectar in these flowers. It concludes that tree species used for biomass production in AFS, can be important sources of resources for the recovery of diversity and local abundance of bees, improving the ecosystem service of pollination. Keywords: foraging; pollen; Schinus terebinthifolius; Apeiba tibourbou; Bixa orellana. Financial support: Embrapa, MP6, n. 06.10.06.005.0005.

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EUGLOSSINE BEES IN SEASONAL SEMIDECIDUOUS AND GALLERY FORESTS: EFFECTS OF SEASONALITY AND PHYTOPHYSIOGNOMIES IN BEE DIVERSITY Thiago Henrique Azevedo Tosta1*; Laice Souza Rabelo1; Solange Cristina Augusto1. Instituto de Biologia – UFU Contato: Rua Ceará s/n, 38400-902 Uberlândia, Brasil.

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thenriquebio@gmail.com The Brazillian savanna is characterized by a set of different phytophysiognomies, including forested habitat as seasonal semideciduous (SSF) and gallery (GF) forests. These forests were influenced by Amazon and Atlantic Forests, but their floristic compositions differ due to differences in humidity, fertility and soil physical conditions presented by these phytophysiognomies. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the abundance and the richness of euglossine bees in SSF and GF remnants, between cold/dry and hot/wet seasons. The males were collected monthly, using aromatic baits, from October 2012 to September 2013. The samplings were made simultaneously in the fragments, separated from each other by 100 meters of grassland: one characterized as SSF and other as GF. We collected 155 individuals and 12 species in SSF and 98 individuals and nine species in GF. The bees were more abundant at SSF during the hot/wet season (F1,20 = 4.492; p <0.05). Considering both forested habitats, we also observed a higher richness in the hot/wet season (F1,20 = 6.142; p = 0.022). The difference in the humidity between the phytophysiognomies seems affects the abundance of males during the the hot/wet season. Two possible explication could be pointed out: (i) the higher available of resources (food and fragrance) in SSF, due the differences in floristic composition presented by the phytophysignomies; (ii) the higher humidity presented by GF can acts negatively the nesting by females, considering that the two most abundant species, Eulaema nigrita and Euglossa imperialis construct their nest on the ground. Keywords: Euglossini; Cerrado; Nesting. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq; Fapemig.

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COMPARING THE STRUCTURE OF THE EUGLOSSINE BEE COMMUNITY IN AGROFORESTRY AND ATLANTIC FOREST FRAGMENTS Willian Moura de Aguiar¹*; Isaura Gabriela Mendonça Borges¹; Renata Lee dos Santos Medeiros¹. ¹Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Modelagem em Ciências da Terra e do Ambiente-PPGM/UEFS, Av. Transnordestina, s/n, Novo Horizonte, 44036-900, Feira de Santana-BA, Brasil. wmag26@yahoo.com.br The landscape matrix is a barrier to dispersal of several species of animals. It can change the functional connectivity among areas, causing negative effects on ecosystem services, interpopulation gene flow. This study aimed to check for differences in the parameters of the Euglossine bee community among forest and matrices of agroforestry. For this, were selected three sampling points in agroforestry system: cocoa-“cabruca”, cocoa-rubber and rubber-banana, additionally were selected six sampling sites in forest areas in the region. Four sampling expeditions were carried out from October/2013 to April/2014, using seven baits traps (benzyl acetate, β-ionone, methyl cinnamate, eucalyptol, eugenol, methyl salicylate and vanillin). This study was developed in the central corridor of the Atlantic Forest-Apa do Pratigi, Southern Bahia. As a result, were collected 4.232 males of Euglossina distributed in three genera and 22 species. Euglossa cordata, Eulaema cingulata e Eulaema nigrita were the most representative species in all of sampled areas. The parameters of abundance (KruskalWallis Hc=44.36, p=0.000), richness (Anova F=6.39, p=0.0001), diversity (Anova, F=3.04, p=0.02) e dominance (Anova F=3.01, p=0.02) differed among areas of forest and agroforestry systems. While the parameters of abundance, richness and diversity decreasing in the agroforestry, the dominance increasing in the areas. This work demonstrates how important it is to understand as the matrices influence in the structure of community of Euglossine bee, making it possible to understand how the matrix elements interfere and/or contribute to the structure of Euglossine beecommunity, so it can establish conservation measures for these areas. Keywords: Funcional connectivity, orchid bees, pollination, biodiversity, fragmentation. Financial support: CAPES, Organização para Conservação de Terras do Baixo Sul da Bahia-OCT.

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ATTRACTIVENESS OF BEES IN TOMATO FIELDS UNDER DIFFERENT FLORAL DENSITY Carolina Rabelo de Almeida1*; Gabriel Augusto Rodrigues de Melo2; Maria Cristina Gaglianone1. Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro – UENF; Campos dos Goytacazes; Brasil; 2Universidade Federal do Paraná Curitiba; Brasil.

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*carolinarabelo.bio@gmail.com High floral density can influence the frequency of visits and richness of pollinators attracted to flowers. Despite the high efficiency of net sampling of pollinators on flowers, this procedure is sensitive to sampling effort and ability of collector. Therefore, passive methodologies have been employed successfully in sampling pollinators in cultivated areas. One such method is the use of pantraps. The aim of this work was to analyze the abundance and richness of tomato visiting bees during periods of high and low density of flowers. Data was conducted with pantraps in white, yellow and blue. Pantraps were placed for 24 hours in seven planting, during four sampling days, two of them in periods of high density (> 30 flowers/plant) and two days in low density of flowers (< 10 flowers/ plant). During 20 sampling days we collected 279 of 38 species of bees. The frequency (bees/24h) was significantly higher in the high density of flowers (12.8 ±7.8) than at low (7.0 ±6.7; t=2,2, p<0.05). Similar pattern was found for the species richness, higher in the high flowering (6.7 ±2.6) and lowest in low bloom (3.0 ±2.5; t=3.2 p<0.05). These results may be related to the fact that greater abundance of flowers can point greater availability of resources, attracting greater abundance of these insects. Species composition differed between the periods (62% similarity of Bray-Curtis and 59% Dice), which reflects the differences in the responses of different species to high or low floral density. Species richness of vibrating bees pollinating tomato flowers was the same in both periods (S = 15) with little difference in composition, showing that even in periods of low abundance floral richness of pollinating bees remains constant. Temporal differences were found in the community, showing the relationship between the attractiveness of the flowers and the bees captured through pantraps. Keywords: Pantraps; pollinators; floral density; tomato. Financial support: FUNBIO; FAPERJ.

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IMPACTS OF ANTHROPOGENICS ACTIONS IN RICHNESS AND ABUNDANCE OF BEES IN AN URBAN AREA Sônia Guimarães Alves¹; João Manoel Silva¹; Mariana Monteiro¹; Maria Cristina Gaglianone¹. ¹*Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense – UENF. Contato: Avenida Alberto Lamego , 2000, 28013-600 Campos dos Goytacazes, Brasil. mcrisgag@uenf.br The bees are the main pollinators and the conservation of their species depends directly on resources for food and nesting. In urban environments the bee communities can respond to anthropogenic impacts with changes in composition, diversity and abundance. Consequently, the quality of environmental pollination services can be affected. The monitoring of local melissofauna in anthropogenic áreas allows to evaluate composition and diversity of species and infer about the impact of human activities in the bee community. The campus of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF) and its surroundings, has been undergoing constant changes in recent years to build laboratories, access and parking areas. This study aimed to evaluate changes in the bee community structure in the UENF campus area. With this proposal we compared inventories results made with net sampling for 12 months in 2007 and 2014. Results show a decline in richness (from 54 to 15 species), diversity (H ‘= 2.45 in 2007 and H ‘= 1.54 in 2014), and abundance (832 and 697, respectively). The three species with higher relative abundance in both inventories were Trigona spinipes (19.9% in ​​ 2007 and 50.9% in 2014), Apis mellifera (22.7% and 22.5%) and Exomalopsis auropilosa (24.1% and 8.6%). Some species have increased relative abundance in the second year, as Augochloropsis cockerelli (0.96% to 3.4%) and Centris analis (0.12% to 5.1%). The highest abundance of individuals in 2007 occurred in the rainy season (n = 447) and in 2014 in the dry season (n = 393), whereas the highest species richness occurred in the rainy season during the two years of study. The results show a decrease in the diversity and abundance of the bee community in the campus in recent years, probably because of the reduced supply of floral resources as well as places for nesting caused by human actions. Keywords:  pollinators;urban environments;diversity;bee communities. Financial support: CNPQ; FAPERJ.

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THE EFFICIENCY OF PAN TRAPS IN BEE’S MONITORING ON CASHEW CROPS IN HORIZONTE, CEARÁ, BRAZIL Patrícia Barreto de Andrade1*, Alípio José de Souza Pacheco Filho2, Breno Magalhães Freitas2, Antônio Diego de Melo Bezerra2. * Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará – IFCE, Campus Crato, Rodovia CE 292, KM 15, Gisélia Pinheiro - CEP 63115-500 - Crato - Ceará; 2 Universidade Federal do Ceará, Departamento de Zootecnia – CCA, Setor de Abelhas, Bloco 814, Campus Universitário do Pici, 60.356-000, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.

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patricia-ba@hotmail.com Bees use the colors of flowers for their guidance in collecting resources. In this way, the colorful traps as pan traps are effectivelly used in monitoring bees in crops fields. This work has aimed determinating the species richness and bees abundance collected by pan traps with three colors distinguished (blue, yellow and white) for two years in county Horizonte, Ceará. Bees were collected in five areas using the colorful traps with water and detergent to attract bees to pan traps. The most abundance genus were Ceratina (23.8%), Melitoma (17.9%) e Trigona (10.7%). The species most abundance solitary bees were, Melitoma segmentaria (16.7%) and the socials bees were Trigona spinipes (10.4%). Regardless of the area in which the pan traps were installed, the blue trap stood out as most representative (70.6%), greatest richness of species and higher dominance index (D’), with two dominance genus (Ceratina and Melitoma), followed by yellow (17.5%) and white (9.2%). However the social bees, most were captured in the yellow and white traps. The diversity and richness of species collected by white traps were higher followed by blue and yellow traps. Pielou’s evenness index (J’) was higher in yellow trap (0.79) than in blue trap (0.71). In the cashew’s blooming, bees were collected in largest numbers in the first two months. Thus, Trigona spinipes was more frequent at the beginning and end of cashew blooming, however Apis mellifera (4.6%) was more frequente in the middle of blooming period. We study showed that richness species collected by blue trap was higher and this color attracting and monitoring more bees, especially non-Apis bees. For the conditions in the areas, the results of bees collect by “pan traps” showed the efficacy of this method for capturing Apidae, as so rare statistically species. Keywords: colorful traps; forest fragment; non-Apis bees; pan traps; social bees.

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BEE SURVEY IN THREE DIFFERENT FRAGMENTS IN SOROCABASP, BRAZIL Josimere Conceição de Assis¹; Monique Souza Silva¹; Larissa Thans Carneiro¹; Lilian Oliveira Ferreira²; Roger Hartung Toppa¹; Elaine Cristina Mathias da Silva Zacarin¹*. ¹*Universidade Federal de São Carlos – UFSCar; Campus de Sorocaba; Sorocaba; Brasil; ²Universidade Paulista – UNIP; Sorocaba; Brasil. elaine@ufscar.br The decline in the bee population is a serious threat to the stability of their communities. This decline is due to multiple factors, including the fragmentation and degradation of habitats that reduces areas for nesting, foraging and feeding. We performed a survey of bee community composition in three fragments: orange crop, green park in an urban area, and an anthropic field (universitary campus of UFSCar), located in Sorocaba-SP, Brazil. Sampling was carried out with the use of pantraps and insect net. Six collections were conducted once a month during the months of September and October 2014; and January, February, April and May 2015. 186 bees were identified in taxonomic level of genus and 63 were categorized by species/morphospecies. Bees taxonomically identified were distributed to the families Andrenidae, Halictidae and Apidae. These specimens correspond to genders: Augochlora (27%), Melitoma (24%), Ptilothrix (13%), Augochloropsis (12%), Dialictus (6%), Ceratina (2%), Pseudaugochlora (2%), Neocorynura (2%), Oxaea (2%), Bombus (1%), Centris (1%), Euglossa (1%), Xylocopa (1%), Anthrenoides (1%), Augochlorella (1%), Tygater (1%) and Paroxystoglossa (1%). The genres Augochlora and Melitoma were sampled in three study areas in every month of collection. The fragment in the crop area (São Pedro Farm) was where most individuals were sampled (N=78), followed by the fragment in the UFSCar area (N= 75). The Municipal Park Biquinha was the area where fewer specimens were sampled (N=33). The month in which most individuals were sampled was January 2015 and the month in which fewer bees were sampled was September 2014. This survey is pioneer in Sorocaba region and the obtained data are important to the knowledge of the bee communities in this region of São Paulo State. Keywords: Atlantic forest; bees; cerrado; community; pollinators. Financial support: FAPESP (2013/09419-4); CAPES; CNPq (490379/2011-7).

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COMMUNITY OF EUGLOSSINA BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) IN A FRAGMENT OF THE ATLANTIC FOREST IN WESTERN REGION OF RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRAZIL Michelle de Oliveira Guimarães Brasil1*; Natalia Cristina Gama Raulino1, Leticia Belarmino Diniz1, Emanuela Gama Silva1, Victória Thaís de Freitas Fernandes1; Thiago Mahlmann2. Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN) – Campus Pau dos Ferros; Pau dos Ferros-RN; Brasil; 2 Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus – AM; Brasil - Contato: BR 405, KM 154, Bairro Chico Cajá, Pau dos Ferros/RN, CEP 59900-000. 1*

michelle.guimaraes@ifrn.edu.br The bees of Euglossina subtribe, also known as orchid bees, are widely distributed in the Neotropical Region with greater diversity of species found in warm and humid equatorial region. In Rio Grande do Norte state there is a great lack of studies about the ecology and diversity of fauna of these bees. Thus, the purpose of this study was to survey the species of Euglossina in a Atlantic Forest fragment located in the city of Portalegre in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. This is the first year in which the work is being performed and the data submitted relate to the period from February to June 2015. The data collections were carried out monthly, from 8:00 to 16:00. To survey the species the essences were used: eucalyptol, eugenol and vanillin. The males attracted by the essences were captured in baits traps made with PET plastic bottles of two liters. In the total were sampled 104 males of Euglossina belonging to three genera and five species. The number of males sampled by species was very variable, Eufriesea sp. the most abundant species with 52 (50%) individuals sampled, followed by Euglossa (Euglossa) melanotricha with 23 (22%) individuals, Eulaema (Apeulaema) nigrita with 17 (16%), Euglossa (Euglossa) cordata with 11 (11% ) and Euglossa (Euglossa) fimbriata with only 1 (1%) captured individual. The three aromatic baits used in this study were effective in attracting Euglossina males, being the essence Eucalyptol the most efficient in terms of abundance and richness of males attracted with 47% of individuals captured and 4 collected species. More studies on the community of Euglossina bees in this region must be conducted with a view to know more about their diversity and distribution patterns, and reinforce the importance of conservation of this biome. Keywords: orchid bees, survey, diversity, essences, abundance.

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SURVEY OF SOLITARY BEES THAT NEST IN PRE-EXISTING CAVITIES IN THE ALTO OESTE POTIGUAR, RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRAZIL Michelle de Oliveira Guimarães Brasil1*; Victória Thaís de Freitas Fernandes1; Maria Antonia Marcia Fernandes1; Daniel de Freitas Brasil2; Thiago Mahlmann3. Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN) – Campus Pau dos Ferros; Pau dos Ferros-RN; Brasil; 2Universidade Federal do Ceará – Fortaleza-CE, Brasil; 3 Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus – AM; Brasil - Contato: BR 405, KM 154, Bairro Chico Cajá, Pau dos Ferros/RN, CEP 59900-000. 1*

michelle.guimaraes@ifrn.edu.br Solitary bees are essential components in terrestrial ecosystems, however few surveys were conducted in northeastern of Brazil for these species. This study seeks to check the occupation and emergency of bees which nest in pre-existing cavities in two fragments of Atlantic Forest in the region of Alto Oeste Potiguar, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The survey was conducted from February to June 2015 using trap nests, which consisted in cardstock tubes inserted into holes made on wooden blocks. In each area, were made available a monthly basis 126 nesting holes (diameters 5, 6, 9 and 10 mm and length 8 cm). In two areas of humid mountainous forest studied, 14 artificial nests were occupied. Of these, 8 (57%) nests were registered emergence of individuals belonging to three species of bees, which were, Centris (Heterocentris) terminata, Centris (Hemisiella) tarsata and Tetrapedia sp. In the remainder of the nests (43%) occurred mortality of the immatures by unknown causes, where was not possible the identification of species.The bees began to nesting immediately in the first month after the installation of the traps and the period of highest concentration of the foundation of nests occurred in April and May. Of the total of nests registered with emergence were obtained 23 bees. Centris terminata was the most abundant specie with 15 (65%) emerged individuals, followed by Tetrapedia sp. and Centris tarsata with 6 (26%) and 2 (9%) emerged individuals respectively. Were not observed natural enemies associated with the nests during the study period. Spite of the low number of species found so far, the collected individuals in this study may be important to assist in future studies of the maintenance and conservation of this biome, and may also be useful for pollination services of native and agricultural plants in the region of Alto Oeste Potiguar. KEYWORDS: trap nests; emergence of bees; nesting.

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COLONIZATION AT OCCURRENCE SITES BY FEMALES OF PARTAMONA AILYAE CAMARGO, 1980 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINI) Pedro Filipe Menezes Cardoso1; Marco Antonio Del Lama1. Universidade Federal de São Carlos; Departamento de Genética e Evolução, São Carlos, SP, Brasil.

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cardosopfm@gmail.com Genetic variability supports the evolution of populations in a heterogeneous environment and the genetic health of a population can be ascertained estimating the level of gene variation. Partamona ailyae occurs since the rainforests of the Amazon southwestern to xeric regions of Piauí and Brazilian midwest. This work aims to investigate the colonization process at the occurrence sites of this species and to investigate the expected difference between populations of different biomes. Our hypothesis establishes that the colonization at a site occurs by one or a few maternal lineages. To test this hypothesis, an adult female of each nest (n = 48) had its DNA extracted and analyzed for mitochondrial genes in order to estimate the number of maternal lineages that gave rise to the resident population in each area studied. The samples were sequenced for the genes 12S, 16S, CytB, and COI. The 12S and 16S regions were shown to be quite conserved for P. ailyae, showing a single haplotype each gene. All samples analyzed for 12S (n = 27) showed an insertion of five nucleotides at position 25 of the sequence, a result restricted to this species when compared to other Partamona species. CytB and COI sequences were concatenated (1.114 bp) and the results showed a low value of nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00190 ± 0.00021), a result of the high similarity among the haplotypes found. It was verified also the occurrence of unique and exclusive haplotypes, resulting in high level of haplotype diversity (hd = 0.726 ± 0.053), few haplotypes per site and high population genetic structuring (ΦST = 0.9184; p = 0.000), supporting our hypothesis. Data from our laboratory using other species of Partamona point to a similar result, suggesting that specific sites are colonized by one or by few maternal lineages. Keywords: genetic structure; interpopulation differentiation; colonization; mitochondrial markers; stingless bee. Financial support: FAPESP.

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NATURAL HISTORY OF PARTAMONA AILYAE CAMARGO, 1980 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINI) Pedro Filipe Menezes Cardoso1; Marco Antonio Del Lama1. Universidade Federal de São Carlos; Departamento de Genética e Evolução, São Carlos, SP, Brasil.

1

cardosopfm@gmail.com Despite the ecological relevance of stingless bees, there are few studies about the biology of these insects. Partamona ailyae is a native bee that occurs from rainforests of the southwestern Amazonia to xeric regions of Piauí and midwest of Brazil. The species nests in a diversity of substrates, changing according to the area of its occurrence. In order to know more about the natural history of P. ailyae, six collecting expeditions were realized through eight states between May and October 2014, totaling 34 places visited. In only nine of these places, nests were located and samples from 48 colonies were collected. The average elevation of the sampling sites was 458m (± 221.40), with maximum and minimum altitudes ranging between 690m and 271m, respectively. Information derived from collections and museums indicate that P. ailyae occurs in super-humid, humid, semi-humid and semi-arid areas; however, we found nests of the species only in humid and semi-humid areas. In the midwest region, in the dry forest environments, P. ailyae nests preferably near water courses and shady areas. Although Camargo and Pedro (2003) reported P. ailyae nests in different termite nests (epigean type “mound”, in rotten or live trees, or subterranean termite nests), we also found nests in ravine (n = 2), into the ground (n = 5) and anthill (n = 3). The nest entrance ornamentation is similar to an equilateral triangle (Camargo and Pedro, 2003); however, when P. ailyae nests in epigean termite nests like “mound”, the entrance ornamentation is usually simpler, similar to the nests of P. cupira. As distribution of P. ailyae and P. cupira are partially overlapped, when similar nests concerning the ornamentation are found, what differed one from the other is the more defensive behavior of P. ailyae workers. Keywords: Stingless bee; rainforests; dry forests; substrates of nesting; entrance ornamentation. Financial support: FAPESP.

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MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF EUGLOSSINA BEES IN THE PRATIGI APA-SOUTHERN BAHIA Lázaro da Silva Carneiro¹; Mariléa Gonçalves Ribeiro²; Willian Moura de Aguiar²*. ¹ Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana; Departamento de Ciências Biológicas; Feira de Santana; Brasil; ² Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Modelagem em Ciências da Terra e do Ambiente; Departamento de Ciências Exatas; Feira de Santana; Brasil. wmag26@yahoo.com.br Euglossine bees (orchid bees) are important pollinators in the neotropical region, in another hand, variations in local abiotic factors can cause morphometric variation in these individuals, Therefore, the morphometry is a widely used technique to understand how organisms are related to the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the morphological distances intertegular, width and length of torax of the Euglossa cordata, Euglossa ignita and Eulaema atleticana, collected in four sites along an altitudinal gradient (70m -700m a.s.l.) in Environmental Protection Area Pratigi- Southern Bahia, Brazil. These bees were collected along 2012 and 2014 with bait -traps. For measurements of the morphological characters, it used a digital paquimeter DIGIMESS. Data were analyzed using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) for possible morphological differences and subsequent Tukey test. Were measured, 218 259 and 179 males ofEuglossa cordata, Euglossa ignita and Eulaema atleticana, respectively. To Euglossa cordata, ANOVA indicated no significant morphological variations (f=0,9007 p=0,5068; f=1,8663 p=0,0772; f=1,8663 p=0,0772) while in Euglossa ignita showed differences in all analyzed characteristics (f=3,3644 p=0,0009172; f=3,003 p=0,004808; f=4,64 p=0,00006 ) and Eulaema atleticana only for the distance intertegular (f=1,656 p=0,1229) and not to other characteristics (f=0,5855 p=0,7671; f=0,5958 p=0,7588). The Tukey test showed that the changes were the highest to the lowest altitudes. The phytophysionomic differences in the region, as well as the fragmentation process that occurs along the altitudes may account for these variations. The techniques used have proved promising, while allowed to observe how different populations of Euglossina respond to changes in altitude, demonstrating that the need for conservation of a wide range of natural environments for biodiversity maintenance of this important group of native pollinators. Keywords: Orchid bees; pollination; conservation; Phytophysiognomies. Financial support: CNPq; Fapesb; OCT.

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EUGLOSSINI MALES IN SEASONAL SEMIDECIDUOUS FORESTS IN THE BRAZILIAN SAVANNA: BODY SIZE AND WING WEAR Ana Caroline Fagundes de Castro¹*; Thiago Henrique Azevedo Tosta¹; Laíce Souza Rabelo1; Solange Cristina Augusto¹. ¹*Instituto de Biologia - Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Uberlândia, Brasil. acfagundesbio@gmail.com The Euglossine bees are typical of humid tropical forests. In the Brazilian Savanna, most of the species are associated with forested habitats, such as Euglossa pleosticta, Euglossa amazonica, Euglossa imperialis and Euglossa viridis. In the present study, we evaluated possible differences in body size and the age structure of Euglossa imperialis males among remnants of seasonal semideciduous forests (SSF). The study was conducted in four SFF, two of them located around the urban area of ​​Uberlândia, Minas Gerais (Gloria Experimental Farm- GEF and São José Farm- SJF) and present 30 ha (GEF) and 20 ha (SJF), while two others are located approximately 30 km from this city (Ecological Station of Panga- ESP and Mata da Água Fria Farm- MAFF) and present 403.85 ha (ESP) and 200 ha (MAFF). Males were collected with aromatic baits available from 9 am to 1 pm for five consecutive days in each remnants. The samplings occurred from October 2014 to March 2015. The body size was estimated by the width of the head, using a digital caliper and the wing wear were analyzed according the classes proposed by Rebêlo and Garófalo (1991). Regardless of the size of the fragment, there was no significant difference in the width of the head of Eg. imperialis males (H0.05,4,5,5,15= 7.368; p>0.05). This result can be associated with the similarity to the quality of the areas in terms of ecological resources, besides their differences in size. Additionally, there was a higher frequency of younger individuals (x2= 18.03; p>0.05), considering that the most of male did not present wing wear (class 1). Keywords: head width; age; environmental quality. Financial support: FAPEMIG; CAPES; CNPq.

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BEE DIVERSITY (HYMENOPTERA: MEGACHILIDAE) IN DRY TROPICAL FOREST ENCLAVE SECO TATACOA HUILA-COLOMBIA Carlos Alberto Poveda Coronel¹*; Diego Riaño Jiménez1; José Ricardo Cure Hakim¹. ¹* Universidad Militar Nueva Granada - Facultad de Ciencias Básicas. Km 2,5 Variante Cajicá-Zipaquira-Colombia. carlosalbertopoveda@gmail.com The dry tropical forest is one of the most degraded and threatened ecosystems worldwide, we can be found in the Neotropics from northwestern Mexico to northern Argentina and southeastern Brazil. The biodiversity in this ecosystem is unique due the organisms that inhabit it have developed adaptations to water stress, so high levels of endemism are presented. Pollination in the tropical dry forest is done by insects, primarily bees. In Colombia the knowledge about bees is scarce due to the lack of systematic studies, what is known is the product of some inventories and field of academic character. The objective was to determine the diversity of bee species belonging to the family Megachilidae. Bee surveys were conducted at “Desierto de la Tatacoa Huila-Colombia” área between November 2014 and June 2015, three days a month between 07:00 and 17:00. We use entomological networks (4 researches: 960 sampling effort hours) and Malaise traps. A total of 131 bees was captured belonging to 12 morphospecies of Anthidiini tribes (3 species) and Megachilini (9 species). These results constitute the first report of Megachilidae family bees in the ecosystem of tropical dry forest in Colombia through a systematic survey. Keywords: Survey, native bees, Megachilidae, Dry forest. Financial support: Vicerrectoria de investigaciones, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada. CIAS 1785-2015.

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NESTEDNESS OF ORCHID BEES ASSEMBLAGES IN FRAGMENTS OF HILEIA BAIANA Judson Albino Coswosk¹; Luiz Roberto Ribeiro Faria²; Vander Calmon Tosta¹. ¹Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade Tropical, São Mateus, ES, Brazil; ²Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, Instituto Latino-Americano de Ciências Da Vida e da Natureza, Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brazil. judsoncoswosk@gmail.com It has been proposed that in fragmented landscapes processes of selective and ordered extinction of most sensitive species and/or restriction to species’ dispersal abilities might generate nestedness. This pattern is found when species assemblages in less rich sites form nonrandom subsets of those at richer sites. Orchid bees appear as an interesting model to study ecological questions like that, since euglossine species present distinct responses to fragmentation and can be easily attracted to scent lures. Fieldwork was carried out in thirteen Atlantic forest fragments in northern Espírito Santo state from November 2014 to February 2015, during the rainy season (when euglossine species are assumed to be more active). The captures were realized with aromatic traps containing seven baits as attractants. Nestedness was analyzed considering the NODF metrics and three different null models. Additionally, we tested if fragment size was a good predictor for species composition in different fragments. For this, a NMDS analysis with Jaccard index was performed, and the scores of the first ordination axis was regarded as a measure of species composition. A total of 2720 males belonging to 20 species was collected, with richness varying from four to sixteen species among fragments. We found significant nestedness of euglossine assemblages under two null models, and fragment size was a good predictor of species composition among fragments. Two details seem to be relevant for the interpretation of the pattern found: (i) even considering the reasonably recent fragmentation history in the region, selective extinction of forest dependent had already took place in small fragments; (ii) forest-dependent species which are present in the larger fragments in the region (two fragments both larger than 20,000 ha) seem not able to reach or develop stable populations at smaller fragments which would also lead to nested patterns. Keywords: Atlantic forest; community structure; Euglossini; Euglossina; Tabuleiro forest. Financial support: CAPES.

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CHANGES IN THE COMMUNITY OF BEE VISITORS OF RICHARDIA GRANDIFLORA FLOWERS ALONG AN URBAN-RURAL GRADIENT Renata Marinho Cruz1,2*; Celso Feitosa Martins2. Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia da Paraíba - IFPB Contato: Alto da Tubiba, 58700-000, Patos, PB, Brasil 2Depto. de Sistemática e Ecologia/CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraíba – UFPB Contato: Cidade Universitária, 58051-900, João Pessoa, PB, Brasil.

1

renata.cruz@ifpb.edu.br Urbanization is identified as one of the main drivers of the loss and fragmentation of habitats, that affects pollinator communities and consequently modifies plant-pollinator interactions. Considering that many studies have shown a decline in the abundance and diversity of bees, it becomes relevant to investigate changes in bee communities at different levels of urbanization. We analyzed the bee visitors of the flowers of Richardia grandiflora (Cham. & Schltdl.) Steud (Rubiaceae) along an urbanrural gradient in six areas of Paraíba state (Brazil): two urban, two peri-urban and two rural areas. Bee visitors were observed monthly since February 2012 until January 2013, and the species composition, richness, frequency of occurrence and number of visits were recorded. The flowers of R. grandiflora were visited by 29 bee species belonging to 16 genus and four subfamilies (Andreninae, Apinae, Halictinae and Megachilinae). Urban areas had the lowest species richness (S=3 and S=7) while the peri-urban areas had the highest values (S=17 and S=20). There was a little change in the richness of eusocial bees (S=3–4) and the number of visits by stingless bees along the urban-rural gradient which may indicate some tolerance to urbanization. Differently, non-eusocial bees demonstrated to be more sensitive to this process due to the lowest richness and frequency in urban areas. In the clusters of species composition (Jaccard index), the urban areas were differentiated from the remaining, but peri-urban and rural areas were not differentiated from each other. The stingless bee Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793) and the Africanized honeybee (Apis mellifera Lepeletier species) were recorded in all six areas. Both species were generalists, and seem not to be sensitive to changes related to urbanization. Moreover, A. mellifera had highest frequency in urban areas, which may be related to its ecological flexibility and competitive power. Keywords: landscape; urbanization; pollinator. Financial support: CNPq.

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A NEW FRAGRANCE TO ATTRACT ORCHID-BEES MALES (APIDAE: EUGLOSSINI) Enderlei Dec¹; Isabel Alves dos Santos². ¹ Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Biologia, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil; ² Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Ecologia, São Paulo, Brasil. enderlei@hotmail.com Males from Euglossini tribe (Hymenoptera, Apidae) are attracted by several synthetic compounds that mimic odors produced by flowers. These fragrances usage started on 1960 decade and, since then, accelerated studies about this taxon. However, compounds used are generally the same and it is known that the males of certain species are not attracted by any of these fragrances. At Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, a new compound was tested during five months (November/2014 March/2015) and showed satisfactory results: menthol (C10H20O). It is sold as crystals solid form, colorless, intense odor and taste of peppermint. Its chemical name is (1α, 2β, 5α) -5-methyl-2(1-Methyl Ethyl)-cyclohexanol. The preparation was made by diluting menthol in absolute alcohol until occur saturation point of the solution. The study took place on an area of Rain ​​ Forest (Atlantic Forest) where the aromatic compound was applied on cotton balls that were exposed on trees’ branches inside the forest during one day each month. On four of the six distinct areas at Joinville and Sao Francisco do Sul cities had Euglossini males attracted. In total, 66 bees from four species were sampled. Eulaema genus was represented by species El. Cingulata (05) and El. Nigrita (01), while Eufriesea was represented by Ef. dentilabris (07) captured for the first time in Santa Catarina and Ef. violacea (53). Euglossa genus was not attracted. The low number of specimes may be related to the latitude where the study was conducted. Menthol can give better results when tested to the north, where Euglossini fauna present more species, maybe contributing to the expansion of new geographic distribution limits or discovery of new species. Keywords: Menthol; Atlantic Rainforest; Joinville; São Francisco do Sul, Southern Brazil. Financial support: CAPES.

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EUGLOSSINI BEES (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE): DIVERSITY IN A VERTICAL EXTRACT OF ATLANTIC FOREST, NORTHERN SANTA CATARINA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL Enderlei Dec¹; Isabel Alves dos Santos². ¹ Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Biologia, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil; ² Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Ecologia, São Paulo, Brasil. enderlei@hotmail.com Orchid bees (Apidae, Euglossini) are found in the Neotropical region, with the highest species richness located near Equator line, presenting a high decline towards the southern Brazil until its southern limit. In order to recognize species present in Atlantic Forest on the northern region of Santa Catarina state, between 2013 and 2015 years were carried out monthly expeditions in six locations at Joinville and Sao Francisco do Sul cities with altitudes above sea level, 200, 400 and 800 meters. In each locality was collected during a day of each month, using cotton balls soaked with the following aromatic compounds: benzyl benzoate, cineole, eugenol and vanillin. 794 bees were recorded to ten valid species and a potentially new from Eufriesea genus. The most abundant genus was Eufriesea (79.52%), followed by Euglossa (27.45%) and Eulaema (3.02%), while the number of species was four, five and two, respectively. All genus were presented along the transect. Between sea level and 200 meters were captured ten species while at both locations of higher altitudes, only six. The cineole attracted the greatest number of individuals (296), followed by vanillin (165), eugenol (203) and benzyl benzoate (65). The cineole was the one that attracted the three found genus; the benzyl benzoate not attracted Eulaema; eugenol did not attract any Eufriesea while vanillin did not attract bees from Euglossa genus. Eufriesea dentilabris distribution record was expanded on this study. Euglossini fauna was better distributed from sea level until close to 200 meters of altitude. The region deserves greater efforts to identify new records and expand the limits of species distribution. Keywords: Orchid bees; Eufriesea dentilabris, Santa Catarina, Joinville, São Francisco do Sul. Financial support: CAPES.

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OIL-COLLECTING BEES ASSOCIATED WITH BYRSONIMA SERICEA DC (MALPIGHIACEAE) IN RESTINGA AND ATLANTIC RAIN FOREST Mariana Scaramussa Deprá*; Giselle Braga Menezes; Maria Cristina Gaglianone. Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro – UENF; Campos dos Goytacazes; RJ; Brasil. *marianadepra@gmail.com Species of the genus Byrsonima (Malpighiaceae) are attractive for the oil-collecting bees in different ecosystems. Thus, it is suggested that plants of this genus can be used as target plants for sampling this guild of bees in different environments. This study compared the species composition of oilcollecting bees associated with Byrsonima sericea DC. (Malpighiaceae) in two vegetation types of the Atlantic Forest biome: Restinga (RPPN Caruara, São João da Barra, RJ) and rain forest (REBIO União, Casimiro de Abreu, RJ). Sampling was conducted between November and December, in the flowering peak periods of this species. Bees were collected between 6 and 16h, on non-consecutive days, in three sessions of 15 minutes hourly, totaling 23 sampling hours in the restinga and 68 in the forest. We sampled four species of bees in the restinga (n=107 individuals, 4.6 individuals/hour) and 25 species in the forest (n=232; 4.7 individuals/h) belonging to Centridini and Tapinotaspidini tribes. In the restinga, richness sampled corresponded to 70% and 58% of the estimates provided by Jackknife-1 and Jackknife-2 estimators, while in the forest corresponded to 74% and 66%. The diversity was higher in the forest (H ‘=2.21) than in the restinga (H’=0.39) (t=16.44, p<0.05). The areas showed only 10% of qualitative similarity (Sorensen). Epicharis nigrita (89%) and Centris (Centris) sp. (8%) were the most abundant species in the restinga and occurred exclusively in this environment. In the forest, Centris varia (36.8%) and Lophopedia minor (10%) were the most abundant species. In the restinga, the species composition reflects the presence of ground-nesting bees while in forest many species nesting in cavities. The low species richness in the restinga was expected, this pattern was also observed for other insect groups. This may be related to unfavorable abiotic conditions in this ecosystem, such as sandy soil, high temperatures and low rainfall. Keywords: oil plants; neotropical atlantic forest; Centris; Epicharis; Centridini; Tapinotaspidini. Financial support: CAPES; FAPERJ; CNPq.

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SPATIAL VARIATION IN THE DIET OF MELIPONA SUBNITIDA IN THE CEARÁ STATE, BRAZIL Jânio Angelo Felix¹*; Cláudia Inês da Silva¹; Francisco Anderson Vieira de Almeida¹; José Elton de Melo Nascimento¹; Breno Magalhães Freitas¹. ¹*Universidade Federal do Ceará, Av. Bloco 808, CEP 60021-970, Fortaleza-CE, Brasil.

Mister

Hull,

2977-Campus

do

Pici

janiozootecnia@yahoo.com.br Melipona subnitida is a stingless bee species endemic to the Brazilian northeast. This bee, among others of the tribe Meliponini, is managed for honey collection and for the use in crop pollination. M. subnitda is widely distributed in the Ceará State, occurring in various vegetation formations of the Caatinga biome. This bee collects and stores abundant food resources during the rainy season for use during this season and during the dry season, when there is a shortage of floral resources. Thus, it is possible to sample pollen in the food pots, which represents the diet of this bee in both seasons. In this study, the goal was to investigate the spatial variation in the diet of M. subnitida in the Ceará State, Brazil. The study was performed from August 2013 to July 2014 by collecting samples of pollen stored in 97 colonies distributed in 65 meliponaries in 27 municipalities in the Ceará State. The material collected was acetolyzed for later qualitative and quantitative analyses. It was found 54 pollen types, and of these, Mimosa tenuiflora showed dominance in the diet of M. subnitida in 59.25% of the municipalities studied, followed by Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (Leg.-Mimosoideae) (25.93%). Other species like Anadenanthera colubrina (Leg.-Mimosoideae), Chamaecrista duckeana (Leg.-Caesalpinioideae), Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) and Solanum paniculatum (Solanaceae) were dominant in the diet of M. subnitida in 14.82% of the municipalities. Our findings demonstrate that despite of the broad pollen spectrum in the diet of M. subnitida, only two plant species wereprominent, both of the botanical family Leg.-Mimosoideae. The affinity of M. subnitida for these species may be related to its life story, given the abundance of these plants in the caatinga. Key words: Pollen; meliponiculture; palinology; meliponini. Financial Support: UFC; CAPES; Embrapa meio Norte.

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RESPONSES OF BEES TO HABITAT LOSS IN FRAGMENTED LANDSCAPES OF BRAZILIAN ATLANTIC RAINFOREST Patrícia A. Ferreira1*; Danilo Boscolo1; Luísa G. Carvalheiro2,3,4; Jacobus C. Biesmeijer4,5; Pedro L. B. Rocha6; Blandina F. Viana6. Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters - University of São Paulo, Biology Department, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil; 2 University of Leeds, School of Biology, Leeds, United Kingdon; 3University of Brasília, Departament of Ecology, Brasília, Brazil; 4Leiden University, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; 5University of Amsterdam, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 6Federal University of Bahia, Biology Institute, Salvador, Brazil. 1*

patybio13@yahoo.com.br Loss of natural habitat can isolate pollinator populations and negatively affect sexual reproduction of animal-pollinated plants. We evaluated how the loss of natural forest affects pollinator diversity in the understory of the Atlantic Rainforest in Northeastern Brazil. We focused on bees, the main group of pollinators for angiosperms. We assessed how changes in forest cover at regional (36 km2) and local (0.36 km2) scales affect bee richness and abundance. We sampled 492 bees from 59 species, of which 58% were above ground nesting species and 73% exhibited some level of sociality. Our results show that the loss of forest had negative effects on understory bee abundance, which was particularly accentuated for species that nest above ground. However, for social bees the effect of changes in forest cover at a local scale depended on regional forest cover, negative effects being only detected when landscapes had at least 35% of forest. For bee richness, the null model was among the best models bringing considerable uncertainty about landscape effects on bee richness. These findings suggest that management strategies and conservation practices must integrate proper actions that consider both local and regional scales. For existing fragmented landscapes, it is important to increase forest availability at the regional scale, while also maintaining high environmental heterogeneity at the local scale. We believe that with proper landscape planning this multiscalar approach can be not only more effective, but also easier to implement. Keywords: Pollinators; Tropical; Landscape Changes; Multiscalar Approach; Brazil. Financial support: INOMEP-PRONEX-CNPQ; FAPESB; CAPES. Paper accepted to publication in Landscape Ecology.

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FLORAL RESOURCE PARTITIONING BY BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA) UNDER DIFFERENT RAINFALL CONDITIONS Emanuella Lopes Franco¹ ²; Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho¹; Gilberto Marcos de Mendonça Santos³. ¹*Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia; ² Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco; ³Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana. Contact: Rua Rui Barbosa, 710, Centro, Cruz das Almas/ BA, CEP 44380-000. emanuella.lopes.franco@gmail.com Studies of amplitude, equitability and overlap of trophic niches are important tools for understanding the interactions between bees, and these standards may be related to the competition for floral resources. But these analyzes should consider the temporal variations as they are directly influenced by the phenology of species and intensity of use of resources. The objective of this investigation was to elucidate if seasonality is an important factor for the standard differentiation of use of floral resources by bees in a Savannah-Amazon transition region in Tocantins, Brazil. The collection of bees in plants was carried out using entomological nets in four cities. Data were separated into wet season (February / 2000 and March / 2000) and dry (July / 2000 and August / 2000), according to the accumulated precipitation data. The use of floral resources by bees more than ten individuals collected were characterized for niche breadth (H’), evenness (J’) and niche overlap to the species pairs (NOih). Despite being evidenced differences in plant community composition between the dry and rainy seasons, the niche breadth, equitability and niche overlap were not statistically different compared between stations. The species of bees that occur in both seasons showed differences in rates, reinforcing the need for temporal analysis in the characterization of trophic niches. According to the observed, the plant species have a high complementarity phenological for the use of bees. Apparently flexibility in the use of floral resources is more characteristic of this community that fidelity to certain species, which may be associated with high presence of social species in the community. In this study, we discuss environmental aspects related to factors that influence the trophic relationships between bees. Key-words: Trophic niche, niche breadth, niche overlap, Savannah-Amazon.

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SEASONALITY EFFECT ON THE CENTRALITY AND SPECIALIZATION OF BEES IN ECOLOGICAL INTERACTION NETWORKS Emanuella Lopes Franco¹ ²; Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho¹; Gilberto Marcos de Mendonça Santos³. ¹* Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia; ² Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco; ³ Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana. Contact: Rua Rui Barbosa, 710, Centro, Cruz das Almas/ BA, CEP 44380-000. emanuella.lopes.franco@gmail.com In the literature is available a number of qualitative and quantitative indices that seek to access the importance of species in ecological networks. This information has an impact on the structure and dynamics of networks, allowing to distinguish the main species responsible for maintaining the structure in networks. The objective of this study was to analyze the seasonal variation correlates with the relative importance of species of bees in the bee-plant interaction networks. The data analyzed in this study were obtained from a survey of bees and plants in a Savannah-Amazon transition region of Tocantins, between the months of February and March 2000 (rainy season) and July and August 2000 (dry season). The bee species were analyzed for the species degree, interaction strength, the specialization of the species (d’) and centrality (Gc index). To analyze the effect of seasonality was performed Student t test. To check for correlation between the abundance and grade and calculated metrics we used the Spearman correlation test. According to the t test, strength values of interaction and specialization not differ between seasons, however, the values of these metrics varied widely for common species to the seasons. The central core of generalist species showed little change in species composition between stations. The interaction strength was positively correlated with the degree and strength, but the specialization was not correlated with these variables. The possible processes related to this pattern, associated with a high frequency of social species in the sample are discussed. Seasonality does not seem to present a direct influence to the centrality and strength of interaction of bee species when taken together, however, the answer to the seasonality varies among species. Keywords: Savannah-Amazon, ecological networks, mutualism, interaction strength.

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MULTIPLES MTDNA LOCI SUGGEST THREE GENETIC LINEAGES OF AN ORCHID BEE IN BRAZILIAN ATLANTIC FOREST Wilson Frantine-Silva¹*; Douglas Caldeira Giangarelli¹; Silvia Helena Sofia¹ ¹Universidade Estadual de Londrina – UEL Contato: Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, Pr 445 Km 380, Campus Universitário Cx. Postal 10.011, CEP 86.057-970, Londrina-PR, Brasil. wilsonfrantine@gmail.com Orchid bees have an intrinsic relation with Atlantic Forest (AF) playing an important role on AF pollination. In particular, for 200 years, they both have been suffering with intense AF deforestation. Thus, know how genetic lineages and their structure are distributed is of paramount importance to delimitate AF management units. Therefore, we analyzed sequences from three mitochondrial loci (16S, COI, and CytB) of 61 Euglossa iopoecila individuals (3 to 10 by locality) widely distributed along 11 sampling sites at low lands of AF (From Paraná to Alagoas states). A total of 2286 bp (16S – 357 bp; CytB 721 bp; COI 1206 bp) were analyzed. Median-Joining haplotypes networks for each individualized loci indicates two main lineages for Euglossa iopoecila with a phylogeographic barrier at south of Rio de Janeiro state. The most common haplotype is distributed along Brazilian south and southeast, from Paraná up to Rio de Janeiro states. We observed hybridization zones in haplotypes networks from COI and CytB genes between São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro borders. Only the 16S gene allowed observing a complete isolation of an additional lineage at Alagoas state, pointing to a second phylogeographic barrier between Alagoas and Bahia states. Analysis from the three concatenated mitochondrial genes reinforced the results observed in 16S gene, increasing mutational steps between lineages. In addition, concatenated analysis showed distinct linages for Superagui Island at Paraná state. Earlier studies about others organism along AF confirmed a similar pattern of phylogeographic distribution, but the position of the theoretical phylogeographic barriers was differently distributed in this study. Our results suggest the presence of three lineages for Euglossa iopoecila along AF, pointing to existence of two main hybridization zones and consequent two phylogeographic barriers for E. iopoecilla. Keywords: Euglossa iopoecila; Conservation; Atlantic Forest; Genetics structure; mtDNA. Financial support: CAPES; CNPQ.

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NESTS AND STINGLESS BEES SPECIES (HYMENOPTERA MELIPONINAE) SURVEY IN CEMETERIES OF TWO CITIES IN THE SOUTH OF BRAZIL Roberto Gaioski Junior¹; Sergio Bazilio². ¹*²Universidade Estadual do Paraná- UNESPAR- Campus de União da Vitória Departamento de Ciências Biológicas 2013. Fone: 42- 98138119. robertogaioski@hotmail.com Cemeteries are known as environmental impact area, and also a pest and disease vectors spreading region, even though pollinators are using masonry vaults to nesting. This study aimed to survey the nests and stingless bees species in urban fragments, precisely in four cemeteries in União da VitóriaPR (A, B, C and D) and two cemeteries in Porto União – SC (E and F), both in 2013. The survey took place by directly search of the nests, and they were georeferenced afterwards. The stingless bees were captured, later identified and kept in 70% alcohol. There were 36 nests of two different species on masonry vaults, as Tetragonisca angustula the most common (89%) and Plebeia emerina the less one (11%). Based on the observations during this work, the survey could show that some stingless bees can suitably use the cemeteries as a nesting area. The abundance of nests in these sites is consistent due to the many proper cavities found over the vaults. Thus, the data have clearly shown that cemeteries can be also considered as urban refugees to these important pollinators. Keywords: Meliponinae; Nidificação; Cemitério.

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BEES AND OTHERS HYMENOPTERA FOUND IN TRAPS OF FORENSIC INTEREST Caroline Tito Garcia¹; Taniele dos Santos Santana¹; Aline Vieira de Carvalho Santana¹; Daniele Santos Lopes¹; Fernanda Maria Pamponet¹; Favízia Freitas de Oliveira¹. ¹Laboratório de Bionomia, Biogeografia e Sistemática de Insetos (BIOSIS), Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Rua Barão de Jeremoabo, s/n, Campus Universitário de Ondina, Salvador, CEP 40170-115, Bahia, Brasil. carol.tito@hotmail.com Entomological literature reports the occurrence of Hymenoptera visiting animal carcasses, acting as predators or using body fluids to complete their nutrition. There are records of bees and wasps collecting resources in carcasses to assist in the architecture of nests, wherein some hymenoptera are obligatory carnivores. The specimens studied were found in studies conducted in Atlantic Forest fragments in Salvador, Bahia, from three projects developed at the time of September / 2008 to December / 2014, using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) (CS) and traps modified (AM) from the model proposed by Ferreira (1978) with attractive lures placed in PS (December to March) and rainy season (PC) (June-October). Hymenoptera were obtained through three methods of collection: Pitfall, entomological network near to CS and AM with attractive lures. It were found 19 hymenoptera, wherein eight especimens of distributed bees in three genres of tribe Meliponini: Melipona scutellaris n=1, Oxytrigona obscura n=3 and Partamona sp. n=4 and 11 especimens of wasps distributed in four families: Crabronidae n=8, Vespidae n=1, Chalcidadae n=1, Sphecidae n=1. With 53% collected in PS, considering 90% wasps and 10% bees and PC 47%, being 22% wasps and 78% bees. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of Hymenoptera mainly in PS, which was observed in the present study regarding the wasps, but the same didn’t occur with bees. Wasps are attracted because they are predators of larvae of flies and beetles, beyond the search for liquids and proteins. To bees is likely that the collection of resources to be used in maintaining the nest, and like wasps, collecting liquids. Although useless for postmortem interval calculation (IPM) Hymenoptera may be indicators of death site in addition to informing if there was removal of the corpse. Keywords: Bees; Forensic Entomology; Attractive lures.

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DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF VISITS TO EIGHT CHEMICAL FRAGRANCES EXHIBITED BY MALE ORCHID BEES (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, EUGLOSSINI) DURING THREE YEARS OF STUDY Douglas Caldeira Giangarelli1; Wilson Frantine-Silva1; Silvia Helena Sofia1. ¹Laboratório de Genética e Ecologia Animal, Depto. de Biologia Geral, CCB, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid (PR 445), km 380, C.P. 10.011, CEP 86.057-970, Londrina, PR, Brasil. dgiangarelli@hotmail.com The males of the Neotropical euglossine bees exhibit the peculiar behavior of collecting chemical fragrances from a variety of floral and non-floral sources. Studies have shown that the choice and collection of fragrances by these males can vary seasonally, among different locations and between habitats. Here, we investigated if the preference of male orchid bees for different fragrances, collected in an area of Atlantic Rainforest, varied among three consecutive years. The study was carried out in the Superagui Island, located in the Guaraqueçaba municipality, Paraná state, southern Brazil. The surveys were performed during the warm-wet season, as follows: Nov/2011-Mar/2012; Nov/2012Mar/2013; Oct-Mar/2014. Males were attracted to eight different fragrances. We performed 15 collections, five per year. During all period, we sampled 378 males from 13 species. In the first year, 112 individuals from 11 species visited five fragrances; in the second, 139 males, belonging to 13 species, visited all fragrances available, while in the third year, 127 males from seven species, visited seven out of eight chemicals. From the total of males sampled, 321 (85%) belonged to four species: Euglossa annectans (29.1%), E. stellfeldi (25.7%), E. iopoecila (16.7%) and E. roderici (13.5%). For each one of these species, the number of males attracted to fragrances showed no significant variation among the three periods of samplings. Among these species E. annectans was the most generalist, visiting all types of fragrances, four of these in the first year and seven both in the other two years; E. stellfeldi and E. roderici visited six chemicals; with number of chemicals explored by these species per year ranging from three to five and from two to five. E. iopoecila visited only four fragrances, ranging from two to four per year. Our findings suggest that the number of fragrances explored by euglossine males can vary among years. Keywords: Orchid bee; Euglossine; chemical baits; fragrance preference. Financial support: CNPq; CAPES; Fundação Araucária.

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WING MORPHOGEOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF EUGLOSSA ANNECTANS (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, EUGLOSSINI) SAMPLED DURING THREE CONSECUTIVE YEARS IN SUPERAGUI ISLAND André Luiz Gobatto1; Thales Lizarelli1; Douglas Caldeira Giangarelli1; Silvia Helena Sofia1. Laboratório de Genética e Ecologia Animal, Depto. Biologia Geral, CCB, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, C.P. 6001, CEP 86057-970, Londrina, PR, Brasil.

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andre_gobatto@hotmail.com The literature have shown, for some species of orchid bees, significant variance in body size between males sampled in different years as well as between populations of males captured in the wet and dry seasons. Climatic events alone or combined with the lack of local food resources, in this latter case, mostly, due to anthropogenic disturbance, have been attributed as probable causes for such variances. In this study, we analyzed males of Euglossa annectans Dressler sampled in the warmwet season, during three consecutive years (Nov/2011-Mar/2012; Nov/2012-Mar/2013; Oct/2013Mar/2014), aiming to investigate the occurrence or not in body size variation among males captured in these years of samplings. It was suggested, recently, that E. annectans is an orchid bee sensitive to human disturbance. Males of this species were sampled at Superagui Island, which belongs to Superagui National Park, an important preserve of Atlantic Forest located in northern coast of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Males were attracted to scent baits and collected with insect net and bait traps. We based our analyses in the morphometric measures of the right forewings of the males. The analyses included 45 males sampled in the first year, and 26 sampled in the second and 29 in the third years, respectively. The wing of each individual was placed and glued on a microscope slide and photographed with a digital camera attached to a stereomicroscope. The geometric morphometric analysis was performed manually by plotting 12 landmarks at wing vein intersections, using the software tpsDig2 version 1.05, and the size of each wing was estimated based on the centroid measure. We detected no significant variation among the groups of males sampled in the three years. Thus, for the studied area, we should expect no variance in body size among males of E. annectans along a short-term. Keywords: Atlantic Forest; Euglossine bees; Orchid bees; Wing morphometrics; Superagui National Park. Financial support: CNPq, Fundação Araucária, CAPES.

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DOES LANDSCAPE CONFIGURATION INFLUENCE BEE DIVERSITY AND THE POLLINATION SERVICE PROVIDED TO COFFEE? Adrian González-Chaves1*, Rodolfo Jaffé1, Jean Paul Metzger1, Astrid de M. P. Kleinert1. Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 321, 05508-090 São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

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adgonzalez86@ib.usp.br As the demands on agricultural lands continue to expand, effective strategies are urgently needed to manage agricultural production in order to guarantee biodiversity conservation. Here we assessed the influence of landscape configuration at a local scale (200 and 400 m radius) over bee diversity and in the pollination service provided to coffee, by maintaining the same forest cover (approx. 20%) at a landscape scale of 2 Km radius. Twenty-four coffee sites were selected and bee diversity of coffee visitors was assessed. Additionally, coffee fruit set was estimated comparing branches where bee visitors were excluded with the control branches that were left open to pollinators. We collected twenty bee species, being Apis mellifera the single most abundant species, while Meliponini tribe was the most rich with 16 species collected that together accounted for 77% (130 bees) of the bee coffee visitors. We found that abundance and richness are negatively affected by the distance of the coffee site to the forest fragments; nonetheless, bee diversity (Shannon index) was higher for the highest forest covers at a local scale (200 m). The main bee groups negatively affected by the distance from the forest fragments were small bees and bees that nest inside tree cavities. Overall, our results reinforce the importance of forest fragments to enhance bee diversity within crops. The effects of the bee diversity on fruit set are yet to be analysed. Keywords: Atlantic forest; Coffea arabica L.; Catuaí; Isolation; Meliponini. Financial support: CAPES; FAPESP 2013/23457-6.

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BEES IN COFFEE AGROFOREST Clara Soares de Freitas Guimarães*; Kevin Tanure Santos Correia; Weyder Cristiano Santana. Universidade Federal de Viçosa; campus Universitário; Viçosa; Brasil. clarasoaresfg@gmail.com In conservationist scope is agreed that the insects, a group that covers the most efficient pollinators, are not immune to this crisis of biodiversity that occurs on the planet and that is related to the environmental impact of human occupation, fragmentation effects, deforestation and expansion of the agricultural activity. This work conducted a survey of bee species found in Agroflorestal System (AGS) in the city of Araponga, Minas Gerais, with Coffea arabica crop. Nine species of bees were observed (Apis mellifera (47), Trigona spinipes (19), Schwarziana quadripunctata (16), Melipona quadrifasciata (1), Tetragonisca angustula (1), Tetragona elongata (1), Megalopta sp (1), Dialictus sp (1), Exomalopsis sp (1)) visiting the coffee flowers, only six of these species were also found in other plant species in the AGF and three species (Oxaea sp (1), Euglossa sp (1) and Eufrisea sp (1 )) were not observed in coffee flowers. The sample period occurred between August/2014 and December/2014. The diversity of plant species in AGS helps to maintain and increase the diversity of bees who visit the coffee flower, contributing to pollination and allowing the conservation of these bees. Apis mellifera was the most abundant species, which can be used to increase income through beekeeping in AGS. The plants considered invasive or harmful in conventional cropping systems present in AGS are considered weeds that perform different functions. It emphasizes the role of these plants to attract pollinators and to maintain the system, being able to contribute to crop productivity. Keywords: Pollination; Melissofauna; Agroecosystems; Honeybee; Apoidea. Financial support: CNPq; CAPES; FAPEMIG.

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DIVERSITY OF POLLEN RESOURCES USED BY BOMBUS MORIO IN TOMATO PLANTATION AREAS Anna Pazini Hautequestt¹; Maria Cristina Gaglianone¹. ¹Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Laboratório de Ciências Ambientais Contato: Avenida Alberto Lamego, 2000, 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Brasil. anna.hautequestt@gmail.com Flowers of Solanaceae have anthers forming a cone and need the vibration by bees to release the pollen. Bombus morio (Sw.) is an effective pollinator of these plants due to its vibratory capacity. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the diversity of pollen resources used by B. morio in tomato growing areas (Solanum lycopersicum L.) inserted next to forest fragments. The study was conducted in the municipality of São José de Ubá, northwest of the state of Rio de Janeiro, where crops were selected in two different landscapes. One of them has a large forest fragment (Prosperity, 730ha) and the other one (Cambiocó), where there are few and small forest fragments confined to hilltops.  Bees sampling was performed with insect net from 8 am to 14 pm on the tomato flowers at pre-anthesis, during the period of greatest flowering (May to September) in 2011. The pollen material from corbicula of these bees was removed, acetolyzed, analyzed in light microscope and the pollen grains counted. We identified 57 pollen types in samples of both areas. The Prosperity area presented 26 pollen types (10 exclusive) and the Cambiocó 47 types (31 exclusive). As expected, the type more abundant found in the samples was T01, from tomato. The area of Cambiocó had the highest richness and diversity of pollen types, but the dominance was lower, indicating that this area bees collected less pollen in a greater number of plants. Unlike Prosperity, which was collected more pollen in specific plants. The results indicate that further studies are necessary  in the  surrounding areas of these plantations, in order to identify the specific composition and understand the interaction between plants and these pollinators. Keywords: Pollen analysis; bumble bees; native bees; buzzing behavior. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq; FAPERJ.

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THE STINGLESS BEES (APIDAE: MELIPONINI) AND THE TREES OF AN URBANIZED ENVIRONMENT OF VIÇOSA – MG Ana Dária Leite Viana¹*; Weyder Cristiano Santana¹; Santos Henrique Brant Dias¹. ¹*Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Departamento de Entomologia, Viçosa- MG; Brazil. ana.leite@ufv.br The urban areas have great importance as an alternative nesting site and food foraging for the stingless bees. Therefore, diagnosing the current population status of stingless bees in urban areas is essential in order to establish their management and conservation. This study aimed to locate and identify the species of stingless bees within the campus of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV), checking the richness, abundance and diversity of stingless bees in the area and their relationship with the substrates used for nesting. Between October 2013 and January 2014 a survey was made on all urbanized area of the campus that could contain nests of stingless bees. The nests that were found, has their nesting substrate and location recorded on a map of UFV and the species were identified by the architecture of the nest entrance and the bee morphology by an identifying key. For evaluating ecological factors we used the indices Shannon (H`) for calculation of diversity and Pielou’s uniformity index (J’). One hundred and nine nests of stingless bees have been located, the richness was eleven species belonging to nine genera. The most frequent bee species was Tetragonisca angustula (26%). In the diversity analysis, the Shannon index (H) was 2.03, and the Pielou index (J) was 0.85, indicating a homogeneous distribution of the species. The density, considering only the campus’ urbanized area, was 2.04 bees per hectare, similar to the variation found in natural ecosystems. There were no reports of species nesting exclusively on artificial substrates, as lamp posts, however, there are rare species of stingless bees, as Cephalotrigona capitata, which occurred exclusively in trees. The richness and abundance of Meliponini species on the urban area of UFV evidence thus the importance of the presence of urban forests as a fundamental resource for maintaining the stingless bee population. Keywords: Stingless bee; Meliponini; Urban Areas; Urban forest. Finacial suport: CAPES; CNPq; FAPEMIG.

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SURVEY OF BEE DIVERSITY IN LOWLAND RAIN FOREST IN THE DISTRICT OF PIRABEIRABA, JOINVILLE, SANTA CATARINA, BRAZIL Johny Soares de Lima¹*; Andressa Karine Golinski dos Santos¹; Manuel Warkentin¹; Denise Monique Dubet da Silva Mouga¹. ¹* Departamento de Ciências Biológicas - Universidade da Região de Joinville. Contato: Rua Paulo Malschitzki 10, 89219-710 Joinville-SC, Brasil. johnydelima@gmail.com Aiming to verify the floral preferences of bees to cultivated and wild plants, a survey was conducted in Joinville, SC, from August/ 2014 to June/ 2015, in bi-monthly samples, using insect nets and pan traps, in a farm with forested areas and acreages (2/3 : 1/3). Bees and plants were collected, prepared, numbered and identified. 236 hours of sampling effort were carried out and 1196 bees were sampled, of 44 species, 30 genera and 5 subfamilies [Andreninae (1 species), Apinae (27), Colletinae (1), Halictinae (9) and Megachilinae (6)], Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793) having the highest abundance (335 individuals) (28.01% of the total sample). Two sampled genera of bees (Mesoplia and Hylaeus) were not recorded for SC. There were collected 29 botanical families and 62 plant species (29 cultivated). The bees that visited the most the cultivated plants were Apis mellifera L., 1758, T. spinipes (Fabricius, 1793) and Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811). The plants that had more actual interactions were Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski (202/19%), Averrhoa carambola L. (89 / 8.37%), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (61 / 5.73%) and Allium fistulosum L. (58 / 5.45%). The botanical families with the highest number of actual interactions were Asteraceae, Rutaceae. and Rosaceae (328, 166, 131 / 30.85; 15.61; 12.32% respectively). The species accumulation curve of plants is still ascending and that of the bees in plateau. The richness estimators Jackknife 1 and 2 show a potential richness of 58 and 64 bee species, respectively (with A. mellifera). The ecological indexes resulted in Shannon diversity (2.43), Pielou evenness (0.64) and Simpson dominance (0.84 1- D). It was sampled a larger number of actual interactions with cultivated plants (610) than wild ones (446). It was observed a higher interaction of bees with wild plants in spring and autumn and with grown plants in summer. Keywords: cultivated plants; floral resources; native bees; pollination. Financial support: Funding of Rectory of Research and Post-Graduation of UNIVILLE.

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TRAP-NESTING BEES (HYMENOPTERA, APOIDEA) IN URBAN AREAS OF SALVADOR, BAHIA Reinanda Lima da Cruz1; Caroline Tito Garcia2; Josafá Jesus dos Santos3; Taniele dos Santos Santana4; Favízia Freitas de Oliveira5 & Carlos Alberto Garófalo6. Departamento de Biologia, FFCLRP-USP, Ribeirão Preto; SP; Brasil. 2,3,4,5 Laboratório de Bionomia, Biogeografia e Sistemática de Insetos (BIOSIS), Instituto de Biologia da UFBA-Salvador-BA; Brasil. 1,6

reinandalima@gmail.com Approximately 85% of all known bee species have solitary habits. Most of these species build their nests in soil or wood, and about 5% of them use pre-existing cavities. The goal of this study was to sample the fauna of solitary bees in two areas of Forest Atlantic in Salvador, Bahia: Parque Zoobotânico Getúlio Vargas (PZBGV) and Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA). Sampling was made from April 2014 to April 2015, utilizing trap-nests. The traps consisted of tubes made of black cardboard, bamboo canes and drilled wood blocks with variable length and internal diameter. Fifty-three nests collected at UFBA and 90 nests collected at PZBGV were made by three species: Centris (Heterocentris) analis (Fabricius, 1804), Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith 1874 and Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier, 1789). Centris analis was the most abundant species constructing 130 nests and producing 331 individuals, followed by C. terminata with 12 nests and 35 individuals produced, and X. frontalis with one nest and one individual produced. The nests were founded from May 2014 to March 2015, with the highest frequencies of nesting by C. analis and C. terminata occurring from May to October 2014 and January to March 2015, respectively.The trap most utilized by C. analis was cardboard tubes and by C. terminata was bamboo canes and wood blocks. We find two species of natural enemies associated to two nests of C. analis, Mesocheira bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae) and one individual not identified of Coleoptera. The information obtained in this study and those from similar studies are important to support management plans aiming the pollination processes in urban environments. Keywords: Trap-nests; Solitary bees; Atlantic Forest; Urban bees. Financial support: CAPES.

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DIVERSITY OF POLLEN COLLECTED BY EULAEMA NIGRITA LEPELETIER, 1841 (APIDAE, EUGLOSSINI) IN URBAN AREA Irailde do Nascimento Lima1; Marco Antônio Del Lama2; Cíntia Akemi Oi3; Margarita María López-Uribe4; Breno Magalhães Freitas1 & Cláudia Inês da Silva1*. ¹*Universidade Federal do Ceará, Departamento de Zootecnia, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil; 2 Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Genética e Evolução, São Carlos, Brasil. 3 Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Laboratory of Socioecology and Social Evolution, Leuven, Belgium. 4North Carolina State University, Department of Entomology, Raleigh NC, USA. claudia.silva@ufc.br The euglossine bee Eulaema nigrita has a wide Neotropical distribution and is commonly found in disturbed habitats including urban areas. Due to its important role as a pollinator of native species of economic importance, it is essential to know its diet for a successful management. In this study, we aimed to identify the species of plants visited by El. nigrita females for collection of food for immature individuals. The study was conducted in four sites in the city of São Paulo, from November 2005 to January 2007. During this period, we collected El. nigrita females visiting flowers of Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae), an exotic plant, exclusive source of nectar and widely used in landscaping. From each female sampled, pollen loads were taken of the corbiculae and the pollen material was exposed to acetolysis. Afterwards, pollen was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. We analyzed 42 samples of pollen loads and identified 13 pollen types. In general, nectariferous species were always the most representative in number of species. Six out of the 13 pollen types identified corresponded to sources of nectar, five of them belonging to the family Bignoniaceae and one to the family Commelinaceae. However, the most frequent pollen types were Solanum sp. (Solanaceae) and Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), which were found in 93 and 71% of samples, respectively. These two pollen types were also dominant, representing 54 and 36% of the pollen in the samples, respectively. Pollen loads were collected in different sites and periods, but most samples showed a similarity above 80%, forming two large groups, one represented by Solanum sp. and another by P. guajava. These two plant species are considered polliniferous and commonly represented in the diet of bees of the tribe Euglossini, and therefore we recommended them for urban landscaping. Keywords: Bee; Diet; Palynoecology; Pollen; Trophic niche. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq; UFC; UFSCar.

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METHODOLOGIES EFFECTIVENESS TO SAMPLE BEES IN A CROP SYSTEM AT THE AMAZON FOREST Thiago Mahlmann1; Juliana Hipólito2,3; Karine Schoeninger1; Cristiane Krug4; Marcio Oliveira1. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus, Brasil; 2Universidade Federal da Bahia, Departamento de zoología, Salvador, Brasil; 3Universidad Nacional de Río Negro, San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina; 4Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental, Manaus, Brasil.

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cristiane.krug@embrapa.br Amazon forest shelters 10% of all known worldwide biodiversity although remain poorly known to many groups, such as bees, especially due the difficulty of sampling in forested areas as flowers are basically on the high canopy. Crop systems close to natural areas generate open and mosaic areas at landscape that could facilitate bee sampling during the crop blooming period. Here we use complementary sampling methods to collected bees in Amazon at different distance points in guarana crops. Six sampling points were established, two in the interior of guarana crops, two in their edges and two in the adjacent forest, each point had one Malaise and four pantraps. Samplings were held for four entire days, from September 2012 to February 2013, every fifteen days. A total of 2040 bees belonging to 120 species in 05 families were collected. More than 98% (119 species) were collected with malaise and less than 10% (24 species) with pantraps. Apidae was the most abundant family (75 species), followed by Halictidae (36 species), Megachilidae (6), Colletidae (2) and Andrenidae (1). Most abundant genera were Aparatrigona, Exomalopsis and Augochloropsis. This sampling effort collected approximately 23% from the bee diversity present at INPA bee collection, and thus seems an interesting method to sample biodiversity and improve crop research. Traps close to adjacent forest result in a lower abundance (6% in total). Although malaise traps were more efficient and generated a higher sampling effort, as already reported in other studies, we observed different patterns when analyzing distance related to each trap. Bee diversity in Malaise traps was higher close to field edges (45%) and in pantraps the same for crop and adjacent forest (37% each). Concomitant use of traps thus should evidence different ecological patterns and in this manner should be used for bees’ inventories in region. Keywords: survey; biodiversity; Apidae; traps. Financial support: EMBRAPA; INPA and CAPES.

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FLORISTIC COMPOSITION AND VEGETATION STRUCTURE: INDICATORS OF HABITAT QUALITY FOR STINGLESS BEES (MELIPONA SUBNITIDA) Camila Maia-Silva*; Vera Lucia Imperatriz-Fonseca; Michael Hrncir. Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido/UFERSA, Departamento de Ciências Animais, Av. Francisco Mota, 572, 59625-900, Mossoró/RN, Brasil. maiasilvac@gmail.com For bees, habitat quality includes two principal parameters: floral resources and suitable nesting sites within the flight range of a species. However, both the loss and modification of natural vegetation have largely reduced the quality of many habitats. For the identification of suitable environments for bees, landscape approaches based on satellite images are only of limited use because they cannot discriminate between plant species. Consequently these methods are not able to identify whether a certain area contains food sources or nesting-substrates for a particular bee species. Here, we present an alternative approach, using floristic composition and vegetation structure to assess the quality of a habitat for bees. The study was performed in an area containing two different successional stages of native Tropical-Dry-Forest vegetation in the Brazilian Northeast, a late stage habitat (preserved area, PA) and an early stage habitat (regeneration area, RA). We asked whether and to which extent these two habitats, despite similar vegetation cover, differ in quality for the stingless bee species Melipona subnitida (Apidae, Meliponini). Using phytological data from 33 pots (10×10m²) distributed in the study area (25ha), we estimated the habitat quality for both PA and RA based on the average plant diversity, number of potential food plants, number of food plants blooming in the dry season, tree diameter, and number of potential nesting trees. Apart from an elevated number of potential food sources for M. subnitida due to the high abundance of Mimosa tenuiflora, RA showed a low general habitat quality because both vegetation composition and vegetation structure were not suitable for nest building. Our results indicate that early successional stages of Tropical-Dry-Forest may represent valuable foraging areas for M. subnitida. However, preserved habitats, owing to both higher plant diversity and abundance of nesting trees, are crucial to guarantee the preservation of this bee species. Keywords: floral resources; nesting; landscape; semiarid region. Financial support: CNPq - 481256/2010-5; 309914/2013-2; 404156/2013-4; CAPES - 3168/2013; CAPES/PNPD.

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DYNAMIC OF PLANT-BEE INTERACTIONS NETWORKS AT CERRADO VEGETATION IN THE JATAI ECOLOGICAL STATION, SP- BRAZIL Sidnei Mateus¹*, Patrícia Alves Ferreira¹; Danilo Boscolo1; Luciano Elsinor Lopes². ¹*Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto – USP; Depto. de Biologia; Contato: Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil; ²Depto. de Ciências Ambientais – UFSCar, São Carlos SP, Brasil. sidneim@ffclrp.usp.br Biodiversity is more than a collection of species. Biotic interactions involve many partners, being inherently complex and dynamic, with key roles on the organization and persistence of biodiversity. To understand these complex interactions ecological network came as a powerful analysis tool. The study of interaction network’s structure and dynamics allows for a better assessment of biodiversity and may provide guidance to conservation of natural environments. In this study we investigate the structure and dynamic of plant-bee interaction networks in the largest remaining area of Cerrado vegetation in São Paulo State (Brazil), the Jatai Ecological Station. We collected information on plant-bee interactions from September 1991 to August 1993. Bees were observed and captured as they visited flowers through a 1 hectare transect. Data was analyzed using package bipartite in R software, with network from each year analyzed separately. Networks changed over time, however those changes were not related with networks structure. We saw difference in the role of species within the network from one year to the next. There was a substitution of species, as already showed in other studies. This result may reflect the increased diversity of interactions in the following years. Detecting such trends may be of key importance when determining management and conservation strategies in threatened natural environments, such as the Cerrado. Keywords: Bees; Cerrado vegetation; Ecological Networks; Pollination. Financial support: FFCLRP-USP, Depto. Biologia; CNPq; FAPESP.

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NEW OCURRENCE RECORD OF CENTRIS (TRACHINA) MACHADOI AZEVEDO & SILVEIRA 2005 (HYMENOPTERA: ANTHOPHILA: CENTRIDINI) FOR NORTHEAST REGION, BRAZIL Tércio Alves de Lima Matos¹; Eduardo Freitas Moreira²; Rafaela Lorena da Silva²; Aline Vieira de Carvalho Santana¹; Caroline Tito Garcia¹; Taniele dos Santos Santana¹; Favízia Freitas de Oliveira¹. ¹Laboratório de Bionomia, Biogeografia e Sistemática de Insetos (BIOSIS), Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Rua Barão de Jeremoabo, s/n, Campus Universitário de Ondina, Salvador, CEP 40170-115, Bahia, Brasil. ²Laboratório de Biologia e Ecologia de Abelhas (LABEA), Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Rua Barão de Jeremoabo, s/n, Campus Universitário de Ondina, Salvador, CEP 40170-115, Bahia, Brasil. tercioamatos@gmail.com The genus Centris Fabricius, 1804, Cockerell Centridini & Cockerell, 1901 is the most diverse group among floral oil-collecting bees. Eight subgenres occur in Brazil, being Trachina Klug, 1807 the fifth most diverse with 17 described species, nine of these occurring in Brazil. The subgenres is characterized by the presence of a longitudinal yellow stripe on clypeus and the morphology of basitibial plate, distinguishable by being composed and presenting a distinct secondary plate, but with the distal margin only slightly projected over the main plate. Among the species of Trachina, C. machadoi Azevedo & Silveira, 2005 was described based on specimens from Bocaiúva, Brasilândia de Minas, Itacambira, São Gonçalo do Rio Preto and Januária, all municipalities of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and all the specimens collected in Cerrado Ecosystem, most of them during the dry season (July - October), and those from Bocaiúva collected when visiting flowers of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth. (Fabaceae – “sucupira-preta”). Until the present paper C. machadoi was recorded only for the Federal District and the Brazilian States of Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais and São Paulo. In the present study, the specimens were collected in the Agropolo Mucugê-Ibicoara, located in the central region of Bahia State, Brazil, in the Chapada Diamantina, region presenting a characteristic savanna vegetation. The specimens were captured in August and September 2011 (end of the dry season), through two different collection methods: using blue and white Colored Trap with Water (ARCAs or PANTRAPs) and entomological nets. All collected specimens were deposited at the Natural History Museum (Zoology) of the Federal University of Bahia (MHNBA-MZUFBA). As geographical data are important to understand the relationship between species and their environments as well as the conservation strategies and sustainable use of natural resources, this paper aims to contribute to the knowledge of the Centridini bee species from Brazil. keywords: Centris machadoi; Nordeste; Trachina. Others options: Bees; Geographic distribution; Pollinators.

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ABUNDANCE AND RICHNESS OF EUGLOSSINE BEE (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) OF ‘APA DO PRATIGI’, ATLANTIC FOREST OF EASTERN BRAZIL Renata Lee Medeiros¹; Willian Moura de Aguiar²; Cândida Maria Lima Aguiar. ¹Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana. E-mail: lee_medeiros@hotmail.com; 2Professor visitante no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Modelagem em Ciências da Terra e do Ambiente, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Laboratório de Estudos Ambientais. E-mail: wmag26@yahoo.com.br; 3Professora titular da Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia, Laboratório de Entomologia. candida.aguiar@gmail.com The abiotic factors as the temperature, humidity, precipitation and altitude may influence in the parameters of the community Euglossine bees. The objectives of this study were 1 – To identify the Euglossine bees species occurring in a restricted area from dense Ombrophilous Forest in the Environmental Protection Area ‘Apa do Pratigi’, Southern Bahia; 2 – To characterize the monthly fluctuations in the abundance of these species, 3 – To analyze the influence of abiotic factors (temperature, precipitation, humidity and altitude) in the composition, richness and abundance this bees. The community Euglossine bee was sampled with chemical bait of the June/2012 to May/2013) in four sites with different altitudes (70m, 250m, 450m and 700m .a.s.l.). A total of 1947 males distributed among 3 genera and 20 species were collected, being 15 species of the genus Euglossa, four Eulaema and one Exaerete. The most abundant species were Euglossa cordata (30% of individuals) and Euglossa ignita (16% of individuals). Two peaks of abundance were observed, being the highest peak in the period of lower rainfall.There wasn’t significant influence of abiotic variables (temperature, humidity, precipitation and altitude) on species richness p>0,05. The abundance was influenced by temperature (r=0,35; p=0,03) and humidity (r=-0,40; p=0,02). The Diversity (H’) and Dominance were influenced by altitude(r=0,36; p=0,03; e r=-0,37; p =0,03, respectively). The study reveal the importance of preserving Euglossine bees species in different phytophysiognomies within the same biome, once different phytophysiognomies can alter the pattern of richness and abundance of Euglossine bees species in the environment. Keywords: Atlantic Forest, Euglossina, Euglossine bees. Financial support: Fapesb; OCT; AGIR.

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BEE FAUNA ASSOCIATED WITH TOMATO CROPS IN GUAPIARA, SÃO PAULO STATE Paula Carolina Montagnana1*; Gleiciani Burger Patrício2; Bruno Barufatti Grisolia2; Felipe Gonçalves Brocanelli2; Daniela da Costa Matsuda2; Zhu Xingfang2; Maria José de Oliveira Campos2. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto-USP, Departamento de Biologia, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil; 2Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, Departamento de Ecologia, Rio Claro, Brasil. 1*

paula-eco@hotmail.com About one third of human food comes from crops pollinated by bees. Such dependence goes beyond for fruit and seed set, since the nutritional quality of such fruits and seeds is better when they come from bee pollinated flowers. This study described the bee community associated with tomato crops in Guapiara, southern São Paulo state. Field work was carried out in three tomato farms, once a month, from June 2012 to May 2013. Bees were collected with entomological netting in tomato and weeds flowers. Some ecological characteristics were evaluated to better know the bee community concerning nesting site (above and below ground), degree of sociability (solitary, parasocial and eusocial), total body size (small [≤7,5mm], medium [>7,5mm e ≤11,5mm] and large [>11,5mm]) and food habit (polilectic, oligolectic and monolectic). Sixty four species were identified; Apidae was the richest and the most abundant family (31 species and 565 specimens), followed by Halictidae (18 and 61, respectively), Andrenidae (8 and 28), Megachilidae (6 and 11) and Colletidae (1 and 1). With respect to the bee fauna ecological characteristics most of the bee species were polilectic (90%), solitary and parasocial (41,2% each), medium sized (49,2%) and ground nesting (76,2%). Forty nine species were identified visiting weeds flowers while sixteen species visited tomato flowers, mainly during wet and hot season when 502 specimens were collected (75,6% of all specimens collected). This study was the second in sampling bees in the administrative region of Itapeva, southern São Paulo state. That region proved to be very rich and diverse in bee species and the informations about the ecological characteristic of these speciescan be used to guide management actions to conserve bee fauna in agroecosystems. Keywords: Wild bees; Tomato; Pollination; Community ecology. Financial support: FUNBIO, MMA, CNPq.

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BEE-PLANT INTERACTIONS IN A SEASONAL SEMIDECIDUAL FOREST EDGE Paula Maria Montoya-Pfeiffer; Isabel Alves dos Santos. Laboratorio de Abelhas, Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biociências – USP. pmmontoyap@usp.br Forest edges constitute community units different from either the forest interior or open field, with specific biotic and environmental conditions. The aim of this wok was to analyze the feeding response of bee communities to the edge habitat of seasonal semidecidual forest fragments in a sugar cane farm (Usina São João, Araras, SP). Sampling was carried out in December 4-5th, 2014, on twelve sampling points with the help of soil pantraps, bait traps for euglossines and entomological nets. Pollen grains attached to bee bodies were prepared and identified to analyze bee diets. A total of 373 bee specimens distributed in four families, 25 genera and 35 species was obtained, corresponding mainly to solitary or semisocial small bees from the families Halictidae (298 specimens, 12 species) and Apidae (71 specimens, 16 species). Bees were related with at least 59 plant species, distributed in 29 families, being the most frequent species Schinus therebinthifolius, Croton urucurana, Melastomataceae Type and Ipomoea cairica, and the mayor families Asteraceae (8spp.), Bignoniaceae (5) and Fabaceae (5). From the identified species (38), 15 were herbs, 11 trees, 9 shrubs and 3 climbers. A great proportion corresponds to exotic plants commonly found at forest borders and clearings during initial successional states. Only a few species were associated to late successional classes and were visited by euglossine bees (i.e. Euglossa spp.). In conclusion we found that the specimens sampled here constitute a community well adapted to disturbed and early successional areas, that forage on relative small areas probably around their nests and feed mainly on herbs and shrubs commonly found at forest edges, therefore presumably being distinct from the bee community of the forest interior. Keywords: Secundary forest; pollen; palynology; anthoecology; foraging ecology. Financial support: COLCIENCIAS-Colômbia, PROAP-CAPES.

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IS THE BROOD CELL VOLUME CORRELATED WITH THE OFFSPRING BODY SIZE IN SOLITARY BEES? A STUDY CASE WITH THE OIL-COLLECTING BEE CENTRIS (HETEROCENTRIS) ANALIS (FABRICIUS, 1804) (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, CENTRIDINI) Diego Moure-Oliveira1; Carlos Alberto Garófalo1. Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Biologia, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil.

1

moure@usp.br The body size can be considered the most evident and best studied life history trait of many animals and for several bee species this trait has often been related to fitness. While the heritability of this trait appears to be low, a correlation between the amount of larval food and the adult body size is reported for many species. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between brood cell volume and body size in the oil-collecting bee Centris (Heterocentris) analis. Nests and adult bees were obtained from trap-nests installed at Parque Estadual de Vassununga (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP) and inspected from August 2014 to March 2015. To calculate the volume of brood cell (BCV), we measured the length and diameter of each of them, and to estimate the body size (BS), we measured the head width (HW) and intertegular width (IW) of the emerged adults. We analyzed 87 brood cells (female=32; male=55) and 148 individuals (female=59; male=89). The female BCV was larger than the male (tBCV=4.4, P<0.05) as well for the HW (tHW=11.32, P<0.05). This indicates an asymmetry in the sex allocation, where female is the most costly sex. We didn’t find statistical differences in IW between sexes (tIW=0.71,P>0.05); probably an indication of distinct reproductive behaviors: males expend energy in reproduction searching for potential sexual partners, and strong muscles for flight may help. We didn’t find correlation between BCV and female BS (rBCVxHL=0.39, P>0.05; rBCVxIW=0.32; P>0.05; n=22); for males, we find a moderate correlation only with IW (rBCVxHL=0.38, P>0.05, rBCVxIW=0.46; P<0.05; n=23).These results indicate that the BCV should not be considered a relevant parameter to respond the variation observed in BS. Other factors, like larval food weight, must be investigated to elucidate parameters correlated with the BS in this species. Keywords: Sex allocation; Mass-provisioning bee; Trap-nest methodology; Life history trait. Financial support: CNPq (process number 140159/2014-2).

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POLLEN RESIDUES FOUND IN NEST OF CENTRIS TARSATA IN A COASTAL SAND DUNES VEGETATION IN NORTH OF BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL Patricia Oliveira-Rebouças; Marcos da Costa Dórea; Vinina Silva Ferreira; Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho; Cândida Maria Lima Aguiar. Pollen residue left by larvae of solitary bees in trap-nests can reveal the sources of floral resources available in the environment and immature food preferences. The aim of the study was to identify the plant species used by Centris tarsata in provisions of trap-nests that was available in a sand dunes area vegetation on the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil (12º27’20,4 “S and 37º56’05,0” W). We used ten nests of C. tarsata, obtained from trap-nests collected from Dec 2006 to May 2007. For pollen analysis of the content of nests, we used the protocol developed from the analysis of sediment and acetolysis procedure that is usual in palinology. Microscopic analyzes were performed under optical microscope. 10 pollen types were identified, as being related to six plant families, in wich 80% classified as rare pollen, 10% pollen of low frequency and 10% pollen of highest frequency. The pollen types Chamaecrista ramosa (69.8%), and Byrsonima (14.5%) were considered important because they have often frequency above 10%. Leguminosae had the highest number of pollen grains, followed by Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae and Lythraceae. December (6 types - H ‘= 0.97) and May (7 types - H’ = 0.91) were the months with the greatest diversity of pollen types, however the uniformity of distribution of these pollen types were low, 54% and 47% respectively. The C. tarsata diet is low diverse, with significant contributions of pollen types of Leguminosae, Malpighiaceae and Lytraceae as sources used in the conservation of the populations bees in coastal environments. Others studies in natural areas and in orchards indicated Leguminosae and Malpighiaceae as the main sources of founds for these bees. Keywords: Chamaecrista ramosa; entomopalynology; trap-nest; solitary bee; palynology. Financial support: UEFS, FAPESB, UNEB.

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THE IMPORTANCE OF FOREST COVERAGE TO BEE COMMUNITIES: COMPARISON BETWEEN REGIONS OF HIGH AND LOW AGRICULTURAL LAND CAPABILITY Gleiciani Bürger Patrício-Roberto1*; Paula Carolina Montagnana2; Bruno Defane Borges1; Matheus Mantuanelli Roberto1; Maria José de Oliveira Campos1. UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Ecologia, Rio Claro, Brasil; 2USP – Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil.

1

gleipatricio@gmail.com Almost one quarter of worldwide food production is dependent on bee for pollination and, in the past decades, many species disappeared from crop fields, causing the Pollination Crisis. Several studies point the lost of natural vegetation as one of the main cause of the pollinator’s decrease. Since 40’s, agricultural intensification caused major environmental changes, with forest areas being replaced by crops, impacting directly the pollinator’s community. According the development, the agricultural handling also suffered modifications, as the use of heavy machinery. Regions with irregular relief have low suitability for agriculture, where the use of this machinery is more difficult and crop expansion is lower than in regular relief’s region, with high suitability for agriculture. The aim of this study was to compare the communities of bees in two regions of São Paulo State, Brazil: Corumbataí (high agricultural suitability region – sugarcane predominance) and Guapiara (low agricultural suitability region – family farming). The sampling of bees was performed by active collection using an sweep net in weeds of three properties of each region, during the hot and wet season (20102011 for Corumbataí; 2012-2013 for Guapiara). The dissimilarity index of Bray-Curtis was used to compare the communities of bees. Each property was mapped on land coverage, in a radius of 5 km, and then the forest coverage was calculated. The dissimilarity index showed a difference of 60% on bees community, between the two regions. The richness of bee species of Guapiara region was about 50% higher than Corumbataí, as well as the percentage of forest coverage. Guapiara also presented a mean of 35% of forest coverage, while Corumbataí showed 15% of coverage. These results reinforce the literature data, which affirm that the forest coverage is an important landscape class for bees, since this group usually nests in this environment and forage around it. Keywords: bee community, agricultural suitability, forest coverage. Financial support: CAPES.

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WHICH ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCE THE POLLEN COLLECTION BY MELIPONA SUBNITIDA (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE IN THE BRAZILIAN SEMIARID REGION? Jaciara da Silva Pereira1*; Antonio Gustavo Medeiros da Silva1; Geovan Figueirêdo de SáFilho1; Michael Hrncir1; Camila Maia-Silva1. Departamento de Ciências Animais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido; Contato: Av. Francisco Mota, 572, 59625-900, Mossoró/RN, Brasil. 1*

jaciarap.s@outlook.com In natural habitats in the semiarid region of north-eastern Brazil, Melipona subnitida (Apidae, Meliponini) shows intense foraging activity during short periods of the year with elevated resource availability. However, anthropogenic environmental changes, such as the introduction of species, the reduction of native species, irrigation, and habitat fragmentation potentially affect the collection of floral resources by the bees. Here, we investigated the influence of abiotic and biotic environmental factors on pollen foraging of M. subnitidain an urban landscape in the Brazilian Northeast. Monthly (08/12-06/13, 06/14-08/14), we registered the pollen foraging activity (05:00-17:00, 5 minutes observation/hour) of three colonies installed at the campus of the Federal University (UFERSA) at Mossoró-RN, and collected the pollen-loads from returning foragers. Additionally, we assessed the number of plant species in bloom in the study area. We evaluated the influence of climatic parameters (temperature, T; relative humidity, RH; precipitation) on the number of flowering plants (P-FLO), and the influence of environmental factors (T, RH, precipitation, P-FLO) on the colonies’ foraging activity (evaluated parameters: maximum foraging force, FMAX; foraging onset, peak, and end, HON, HPEAK, HEND; collected pollen types, P-COL). P-FLO slightly yet significantly increased with increasing RH and decreasing T (Multiple Linear Regression: R²=0.47, P<0.001). However, the colonies’ foraging activity (FMAX, HON, HPEAK, HEND) did not vary along the study period and, consequently, showed no significant correlation with climatic factors. This was probably due to the relative constant availability of floral resources year-round, particularly owing to the presence of irrigated gardens in the surroundings, Only P-COL significantly increased with increasing P-FLO and decreasing T (Multiple Linear Regression: R²=0.86, P<0.001). This positive effect of plant speciesrichness on the number of visited resources underlines the importance of restoring native vegetation and increasing plant diversityin urban environmentsin order to guarantee the survival of M. subnitida. Key-words: stingless bees; pollen foraging; resource availability; urban environment. Financial support: CNPq - 481256/2010-5, 309914/2013-2, 404156/2013-4, CAPES - 3168/2013.

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PROGRESSIVE SAMPLING OF PLANT-POLLINATOR NETWORKS IN A CERRADO FRAGMENT: HOW MUCH IS ENOUGH? Gabriel Guariglia Perez, 1Raimunda Albuquerque Gomes da Silva, 1,2Patrícia Alves Ferreira, 2 Sidnei Mateus, 1Luciano Elsinor Lopes. 1

Departamento de Ciências Ambientais, Universidade de São Carlos, campus São Carlos; Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto – USP; Contato: Rod. Washington Luís, Km. 235,Cx. Postal. 676, 13565-905, São Carlos, SP.

1 2

gerez.18@gmail.com Recently, studies have described the relationship between plants and pollinators as complex networks. This approach considers not only the characteristics of the species involved, but also their interactions. In order to estimate adequate sample sizes and spatial distribution in cerrado areas, this study evaluated the network of plant-pollinator interactions in a recovering cerrado fragment in city of São Carlos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted samples of plants and floral visitors in the winter of 2014 in 4 plots (transects) of 1200m² (10m x 120m), each divided into 12 plots of 100m² (10m x 10m). The interaction networks based on different sample areas and their metrics were obtained by the cumulative sum of the data collected in 100m² plots. The sum followed four methods, representing different ways of establishing plots in a fragment. The network metrics used in the study were Nestedness, Connectance, Interactions per Species, H2’, Animal Diversity and Plant Diversity. We considered appropriate the sampling that enable the stabilization of the network metrics values. The methods that stabilized more metrics with smaller sampled area for each transect individually were those who included spatial heterogeneity quickly. The metrics that best stabilized were Plant Richness and Number of Interactions per Species (stabilizing in 50% and 75% of the cases, respectively). The stabilization did not occur in most analyzes. When it happened, it took samples of 680m² to 830m² in average, for the most efficient methods in the analysis for individual transects. This shows that the spatial variation inside the fagment appears to have an effect on its interaction network. Therefore, we recommend distributing the plots considering the effects of spatial variation. We also recommend plots with a minimum of 800m² for plant-pollinator networks in recovering cerrado areas. Possibly, in more complex systems the required sampling area would be larger. Keywords: Complex Networks, Floral Visitors, Pollination, Sampling, Spatial Heterogeneity.

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FLUCTUATING ASYMMETRY IN SPECIES OF ORCHID BEES WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FOREST DEPENDENCE Lara Helena Pires-Vieira¹; Katherine Bombi Haedo¹; Elaine Della Giustina Soares¹; Luiz Roberto Ribeiro Faria¹. ¹Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana (UNILA); Instituto Latino-Americano de Ciências da Vida e da Natureza; Foz do Iguaçu; Brasil. larahelenapvieira@gmail.com Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is traditionally defined as small random departures from perfect symmetry in bilateral symmetric traits and has been regarded as a measure of developmental noise. A basic assumption on the use of FA as an indicator measure of population quality is that developmental instabilities affect adult morphology. Certain orchid bees are regarded as bioindicators of environmental quality, mainly in fragmented areas, since some species present distinct responses to fragmentation despite being easily attracted to scent lures. To test the hypothesis that the levels of FA vary in euglossine species according to their tolerance to forest fragmentation, we evaluated the following prediction: FA levels are higher in species less tolerant to forest fragmentation. Three wing segments were measured in four species of orchid bees, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus), Euglossa iopoecila Dressler, Euglossa marianae Nemésio and Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, (25 individuals per species). Individuals were collected with bait traps, from December 2012 to July 2013, in Reserva Natural Vale, a large remnant of Tabuleiro Forest (ca. 22,000 ha) in northern Espírito Santo state, Brazil. We found significant evidence for fluctuating asymmetry in the three measured wing segments of all the studied species, but FA levels in the wings of E. marianae and E. iopoecila, the most forest dependent species, was not higher than in the wings of E. nigrita and E. cordata (the most environmentally plastic species). Our data suggest that developmental instability is widespread in the species of orchid bees found in the studied region, and even if E. marianae is trapped in large forest remnants, this does not seem to bring so far an additional trigger for developmental stability. In conclusion, despite significant FA found in all species, the prediction that FA would be higher in forest dependent species was not confirmed. Keywords: biomonitoring; developmental noise; environmental stress; Euglossina; Euglossini. Financial support: PIBIC-UNILA; Vale S.A.

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SIMILARITY OF THE FOOD-NICHE BETWEEN TWO SYMPATRIC OIL-COLLECTING BEES: EPICHARIS (EPICHARITIDES) COCKERELLI AND EPICHARIS (EPICHARITIDES) IHERINGI (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Laíce Souza Rabelo1*; Amanda da Costa1, Esther Margarida Alves Ferreira Bastos2; Solange Cristina Augusto1. Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Instituto de Biologia, Uberlândia, Brazil; Fundação Ezequiel Dias, Diretoria de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Laboratório de Recursos Vegetais e Opoterápicos, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

1* 2

laicesr@gmail.com Epicharis (Epicharitides) cockerelli (EC) and Epicharis (Epicharitides) iheringi (EI) are two sympatric oil-collecting bee species that are morphologically very similar. Considering these similarities the study aimed to determine the food-niche breadth of these species and their similarity in the use of pollen sources in Cerrado areas. The study was conducted at the Ecological Station of Panga (ESP), Uberlândia - MG, and the State Park of Serra de Caldas Novas (SPSCN), Caldas Novas -GO. The females were collected during their visits to flowers of two bait plants belonged to Malpighiaceae (ESP: Byrsonima intermedia and SPSCN: Byrsonima pachyphylla). We realized three samplings of three days, from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m., during warmer/wet seasons. We acetolysed and analyzed 8 pollen loads from each bee species. Considering the two areas together E. cockerelli used four pollen types as pollen sources, while E. iheringi used five pollen types. Byrsonima was the main pollen source for both species (EC= 93.75% and EI= 90.38%). The similarity in the food niche between the species, regardless the areas, was 94.34%, but excluding Byrsonima, the similarity was smaller (59.20%). Considering each area separately, there was no difference in the food-niche breadth between the two species in ESP (H’EC= 0.34 and H’EI= 0.37), but there was difference in SPSCN (H’EC= 0.16 and H’EI= 0.35). Considering each bee species separately, EC presented a higher food-niche breadth at ESP (H’= 0.34), but there was no difference in the food-niche breadth of EI between areas (H’ESP= 0.88 and H’SPSCN= 0.87). These results indicate that Byrsonima contributes significantly for the larval provision of E. iheringi and E. cockerelli, as observed for other species of Epicharis, and the use of this source promotes a high food-niche overlapping between these two sympatric oil-collecting bees. Keywords: pollen sources; pollen analyses; Malpighiaceae. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq; FAPEMIG.

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FOOD-NICHE BREADTH OF EXOMALOPSIS (EXOMALOPSIS) FULVOFASCIATA SMITH (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) IN TWO CERRADO AREAS Laíce Souza Rabelo1*; Esther Margarida Alves Ferreira Bastos2; Solange Cristina Augusto1. Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Instituto de Biologia, Uberlândia, Brazil; Fundação Ezequiel Dias, Diretoria de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Laboratório de Recursos Vegetais e Opoterápicos, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

1* 2

laicesr@gmail.com Exomalopsis (Exomalopsis) fulvofasciata is a ground-nesting species and its food sources are little known. The knowledge of the sources of food resources is crucial to strategies of conservation and management of bees. The aim of this study was to determine the food niche breadth of E. fulvofasciata in two Cerrado areas based on analyses of pollen loads. The study was conducted at the Ecological Station of Panga (ESP), Uberlândia - MG, and the State Park of Serra de Caldas Novas (SPSCN), Caldas Novas - GO. There were performed three samplings, for three days, from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m., during warmer and wet seasons. The females were collected during their visits to flowers of two Malpighiaceae used as bait plants (Byrsonima intermedia in ESP and Byrsonima pachyphylla in SPSCN). We collected 44 females of E. fulvofasciata, but only 28 presented pollen loads (ESP= 14 samples and SPSCN= 14 samples) that were removed and acetolysed. Sixteen females exhibited pollen grains from the flowers of Byrsonima only on the surface of the ventral region of their bodies (ESP = 9 and SPSCN = 7). Five pollen types belonging to the families Malpighiaceae, Solanaeae, Leguminosae, Myrtaceae and Lythraceae were quantitatively important for this species, and Byrsonima plants were the most important pollen sources. Exomalopsis fulvofasciata collected pollen in the bait plants by vibrating the anthers, behavior similar to that carried out by Centridini bees, the most important pollinator of this botanical genus. The food-niche breadth in ESP (H’= 0.59) was significantly higher than in SPSCN (H’ = 0.35) (t = 25.61, df = 31,767.00; p <0.001). These results indicate that E. fulvofasciata is probably a polylectic species, but Byrsonima type contributes significantly for its larval provision. Additionally, E. fulvofasciata was considered an efficient pollinator of the bait plants due its vibrating behavior. Keywords: pollen sources; pollen analyses; Malpighiaceae. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq; FAPEMIG.

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ORCHID BEES IN RESTINGAS OF THE PARQUE ESTADUAL DE ITAÚNAS, NORTHERN ESPÍRITO SANTO STATE, BRAZIL Ana Luiza Morati Receputi¹*; Vander Calmon Tosta¹; Luiz Roberto Ribeiro Faria Junior². ¹Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo – Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e Biológicas, São Mateus, Brasil; ²Instituto Latino-Americano de Ciências da Vida e da Natureza, Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, Foz do Iguaçu, Brasil. alm.receputi@gmail.com The subtribe Euglossina comprises a primarily Neotropical group of insects. Despite the significant number of assessments of orchid bees carried out along this region, most surveys were performed in forested environments, where its species richness and diversity are the highest found. To date, few studies have been carried out in coastal areas with characteristic vegetation as restingas and coastal dunes. We aimed at evaluating the species richness and diversity of orchid bees in areas of restinga in the Parque Estadual de Itaúnas (PEI), municipality of Conceição da Barra, northern Espírito Santo state, Brazil. Euglossine males were monthly assessed with bait traps, from November 2013 to August 2014, in two distinct physiognomies, an herbaceous/shrubby restinga and a forested restinga. A total of 1,662 males belonging to 17 species was collected in the two areas. Species richness was higher in the forested restinga (17 species in the latter area and 12 in the more open restinga), the same manner as species diversity. Assemblages were mainly composed by environmentally plastic species, and organisms known to be associated with open areas, were among the most abundant species (Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus) was the most common species, followed by Eulaema atleticana Nemésio, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier and Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius)). The number of species collected at the restingas of PEI is remarkably high when compared to other studies carried out in coastal environments, which may be explained by the geographical position of PEI, on the outskirts of the exuberant Hileia Baiana, where the higher species richness of orchid bees in the Atlantic Forest is found. Keywords: Euglossina; assemblages; species richness; herbaceous/shrubby restinga; forested restinga. Financial support: CAPES.

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CHARACTERIZATION OF THE NATIVE BEES COMMUNITY OF NORTHERN CHILE (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA) Luisa Ruz1; Yanet Sepúlveda1; Dennis Navea1; Sharon Rodríguez1, 2. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 2950. Valparaíso, Chile; Agricultura Fraunhofer Chile Research, Santiago, Chile. 1

1,2

División

luisa.ruz.e@gmail.con This study characterizes the bee community from the PUCV Collection, which contains a great number of individuals. It is based upon IABIN Project which permitted databasing of all information in specimens in the PUCV Bee Collection. The aim of this work was to identify and compare the structural patterns of the native bee communities in northern Chile. The results are described in terms of families, genera and species abundance. Bee spatial and temporary distributions are also considered. A total of 12.715 specimens from regions XV, I, II and III were analyzed. The species under study belong to all 5 families known from Chile: Andrenidae, Apidae, Colletidae, Halictidae and Megachilidae. Apidae registered the greatest number of individuals and share with Colletidae the largest number of genera. The most abundant species were Centris mixta (Apidae) with 1.525 individuals and Penapis penai (Halictidae) with 728 individuals. Apoidea’s occurrence during the year in the area is wide from January to November for Apidae and Colletidae. However, the temporal distribution of the families is concentrated between September and October, with species of Apidae, Megachilidae and Colletidae also found in April and May. The families are distributed principally in the Mountain chain of the Coast, though the Megachilidae of I region have only an Andean distribution. Altitude and variation of ranges of temperature and rainfall play an important role in predicting the presence or absence of these bees, although there is also a bias in the distribution records do to the times, sites and units of effort of collection. This information provides baseline data for future investigations on: bee conservation strategies, pollination of cultivated and native plants and bee diversity. Keywords: native bees; Hymenoptera; Apoidea; pollination; Chile. Financial support: OEA Project # 269015.

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TRADE-OFF IN NECTAR COLLECTION BETWEEN CONCENTRATED AND DILUTED NECTAR BY STINGLESS BEES IN THE BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY-FOREST Antonio Gustavo Medeiros da Silva1*; Camila Maia-Silva; Geovan Figueirêdo de Sá-Filho; Jaciara da Silva Pereira; Viviane Siqueira de Moura; Michael Hrncir. Departamento de Ciências Animais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido; Contato: Av. Francisco Mota, 572, 59625-900, Mossoró/RN, Brasil. 1*

gustavomedeiros@outlook.com In stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini), in general, nectar collection is directed towards the most lucrative food sources both in terms of resource abundance and nectar concentration. Here, the sugar concentration of the harvested nectar is of particular importance because increasing sugar concentrations imply increasing energetic gains for the colonies. Conversely, at high ambient temperatures, the collection of more diluted nectar (low sugar concentration) could be of advantage for colonies, given that the elevated water content of the collected nectar facilitates evaporative cooling of the nest. This differential importance of concentrated or diluted nectar for stingless bee colonies in mind, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the sugar concentration of the nectar collected by Melipona subnitida during the year. This meliponine species is native to the Tropical Dry-Forest in the Brazilian Northeast, characterized through elevated ambient temperatures yearround. Two days per month (08/2012-06/2013, 06/2014-08/2014), we collected nectar foragers of 6 colonies of M. subnitida between 05:00 and 17:00 during 5 minutes each hour, and registered the ambient temperature (Ta). The average sugar concentration of the captured foragers’ crop-load decreased with increasing Ta (Linear Regression: R² Adj=0.56, P=0.001, n=190). By contrast, the amplitude concerning the collected sugar concentrations (SCA) increased with increasing Ta (SCAlow=53.6-78.5%; SCAhigh-Ta=14.3-82.7%; Person Correlation: r=0.78, P=0.03; n=190). Thus, at high Ta Ta, M. subnitida foragers collected both low and high sugar concentrations, suggesting a trade-off in nectar foraging of this meliponine species at elevated ambient temperatures common for the semiarid regions of Northeastern Brazil. On the one hand, the bees collect high concentrated nectar to maximize the energetic gains of the colony. On the other hand, the collect extremely diluted nectar that supposedly facilitates colony thermoregulation through enhanced evaporative cooling. Keywords: stingless bees; Melipona subnitida; nectar foraging; trade-off; Caatinga. Financial support: CNPq - 481256/2010-5, 309914/2013-2, 404156/2013-4; CAPES - 3168/2013.

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THE THERMAL FORAGING WINDOW OF STINGLESS BEES (MELIPONA SUBNITIDA) IN MOIST FOREST ENCLAVES OF THE BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY-FOREST Geovan Figueirêdo de Sá-Filho¹*; Camila Maia-Silva¹; Antonio Gustavo Medeiros da Silva¹; Jaciara da Silva Pereira¹; Airton Torres Carvalho¹; Michael Hrncir¹. ¹*Departamento de Ciências Animais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido; Contato: Av. Francisco Mota, 572, 59625-900, Mossoró/RN, Brasil. geovan.sa@hotmail.com The foraging activity of bees is restrained to “thermal windows” associated with the thermophysiological limits of a species. In the present study, we investigated the thermal foraging window of Melipona subnitida (Apidae, Meliponini), a stingless bee species highly adapted to the hot and semi-arid climate of the Tropical Dry-Forest, the Caatinga, in the Brazilian Northeast. We asked whether and to which extent this bee adjusts its thermal foraging window to the climatic conditions of the moist forest enclaves at elevated altitudes within the Caatinga, characterized through reduced ambient temperatures and elevated precipitation compared to lowland regions. For this, we studied the pollen and nectar collection activity of four colonies of M. subnitida in Martins-RN, at an elevation of approximately 750 m, between March and July of 2015. On three consecutive days in each month, we counted the number of returning foragers for 5 min every half hour (05:00-08:00) or every hour (09:00-17:30) and registered the ambient temperature. The thermal window of pollen foraging (range of ambient temperatures within which 90% of the foragers returned to the colony) was between 20 and 31 °C (amplitude = 11 °C), and that of nectar foraging between 20 and 30 °C (amplitude = 10 °C). The difference between pollen and nectar foragers concerning the average return temperatures was statistically significant (TAVERAGE-Pollen = 24 °C; TAVERAGE-Nectar = 25 °C; Mann-Whitney Rank-SumTest: P = 0.005). Our results indicate that M. subnitida is capable of adjusting its foraging activity to the climatic conditions of the moist forest enclaves particularly by attuning its lower temperature threshold to the low morning temperatures of the habitat, which are significantly lower than those of lowland Caatinga regions. This finding highlights the moist forest enclaves as possible refuge habitat for M. subnitida in view of global warming predicted for the coming decades. Keywords: stingless bees; thermal window; lower temperature threshold; acclimatisation; Caatinga. Financial support: CNPq - 481256/2010-5, 309914/2013-2, 404156/2013-4, CAPES - 3168/2013.

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BEE VISITORS OF TURNERA SUBULATA SM. (TURNERACEAE) IN AN URBAN AREA Natália Uemura1; Eliza Cristina Tanaka1; Silvia Helena Sofia1. Laboratório de Genética e Ecologia Animal, Depto. Biologia Geral, CCB, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, C.P. 6001, CEP 86057-970, Londrina, PR, Brasil.

1

natalia_uemura_@hotmail.com Turnera subulata Sm. is a heterostylous subshrub Turneraceae with yellow to white petals arranged as an open landing deck for pollinators. It is an allogamous native species from neotropics, that depends upon insect visitors to the pollination occur. Their flowers are highly melittophilous, attracting a wide range of visitors, especially bees. This Turneraceae is commonly found in urban environments as parks, gardens and sidewalks. Some studies show that T. subulata is visited by oligoletic bees. This work aimed to study the visiting bee fauna as well as to identify the bee species playing a pollinator in flowers of T. subulata, in an urban area, located in Londrina city, state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Behavior of visiting bees was observed in shrubs of from April to September 2014, during 10 minutes in each hour of observation, from 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. The sampling effort during the period of study totaled 85 hours. Immediately following each period of 10 minutes of behavior record, bees were captured with a small entomological net. In the laboratory, bees were identified, under stereomicroscope, until the species/morphospecies level. In the total, 964 individuals, distributed in 23 species/morphospecies belonging to two families of bees (Apidae and Halictidae). Bees from Apidae family were the most frequent visitors of T. subulata, comprising 88.6% of total individuals sampled. Apidae also corresponded to 15 out of 23 species/morphospecies sampled. According to visiting behavior, Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes and different Exomalopsis morphospecies were considered effective pollinators of T. subulata. Tetragona clavipes, Tetragonisca angustula and Scaura latitarsis were considered pillaging species. Other species, several Halicitidae bees, were occasional pollinators, including among them. The high bee abundance and the elevated number of species found in flowers of T. subulata suggest that this species constitutes an important food source for bees in urban areas. Keywords: Apoidea; melittophily; pollinator. Financial support: CNPq; CAPES; Fundação Araucária.

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ORCHID BEES (APIDAE: EUGLOSSINA) OF PARQUE ESTADUAL DO RIO PRETO: COMPARISON OF SAMPLING METHODS Thaís Andrade Viana; Francisco Medeiros Martins; Anete Pedro Lourenço. Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri; Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde; Departamento de Ciências Biológicas; Diamantina; Brazil. thaistablito@yahoo.com.br Males of orchid bees are attracted to aromatic compounds, and this feature is exploited to collect them. Here we compare different sampling methods used to collect orchid bees at Parque Estadual do Rio Preto (PERP), southeastern Brazil. The first survey of orchid bees of PERP was in 2004. The researchers used entomological net to collect males attracted to one of the nine scents (eugenol, 1,8-cineole, vanillin, methyl trans-cinnamate, methyl salicylate, beta-ionone, benzyl acetate, skatole, p-cresol acetate). The collections were done in 5 different sites, and each site was surveyed in only one day, during non-consecutive 5 days between September 13 and 24. We, then, surveyed the orchid bees in October 2011, October 2013 and March 2014. All collections were done using traps made with plastic bottles with one of seven scents (the same used in 2004, except skatole and p-cresol acetate). The sampling methods were different in 2011 and 2013/2014. The first survey (2011) was done in 5 sites (about 1 Km apart) and all seven scent was offered in each site during 5 consecutive days (October 10-14). The captured bees were removed daily and the scents were replaced. In 2013 and 2014, we sampled the bees concomitantly in 5 sites apart 50 m in a 250 m trail. The seven scents were available in each site. Each of the five trails, about 1 Km apart, was sampled in only one day during 5 consecutive days. Higher abundance and richness were observed using traps (n=246 to 400 individuals and 10 to 11 species) when compared to nets (n=222 individuals and 8 species). The rapid surveys (all methods were in 5 days) were enough to capture the species found in PERP and traps were more efficient (according to species richness estimators, nest: 74-96%; trap: 84-100%). Keywords: euglossine, traps, Cerrado. Financial support: FAPEMIG; Rede ComCerrado.

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SEASONALITY IN THE OCCURRENCE OF MALES OF EULAEMA (APEULAEMA) NIGRITA LEPELETIER, 1841 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: EUGLOSSINI) IN RONDÔNIA, WESTERN AMAZON, BRAZIL Patricia dos Santos Vilhena¹; Nicolle Veiga Sydney²; Rodrigo Barbosa Gonçalves² Carlos Alberto Garófalo¹. ¹ Universidade de São Paulo; Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto; Departamento de Biologia; Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. ² Universidade Federal do Paraná; Departamento de Zoologia; Brazil. vilhena.p.s@gmail.com Eulaema nigrita is a mostly black orchid bee widely distributed in the Neotropical Region. It is considered to be a typical species of open and disturbed areas. In regions with marked climatic seasonality, individuals of this species are not found during the cold season. On the other hand, in regions with a less pronounced climatic seasonality the individuals can be found during all months of the year. The goal of this study is to evaluate the seasonal pattern found to E. nigrita males in one of the last areas of continuous Amazon Forest in the State of Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil. Samplings were carried out during five years, from February 2010 to September 2014, with four samplings per year, two in the rainy season (January-June) and two in the dry season (July-December). Six aromatic compounds were used to attract the males: eugenol, methyl cynnamate, mehtyl salicylate, vanillin, benzyl acetate, 1-8 cineole. Samplings were conducted at three sites, two of them located in the locality of Mutum-Paraná and one site in the locality of Abunã. Forty-eight males were collected. There was a notable pattern of seasonality observed during five years: no male was caught in the rainy season and they were especially abundant at the dry season. There was a significant Pearson correlation between number of males caught and rainfall (r=-0.649; p=0.004) and with air humidity (r=-0.724; p<0,001) reinforcing that E. nigrita preferred dry conditions. No correlation was found with temperature (r=0,381; p=0.129). This was the first record of seasonality to males of E. nigrita in the Brazilian Amazon. Keywords: Orchid bees; Brazilian Amazon; Euglossina.

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MITOCHONDRIAL VARIABILITY OF MELIPONA SUBNITIDA (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) POPULATIONS IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL Vanessa Bonatti1*; Zilá Luz Paulino Simões2; Fernando de Faria Franco3; Tiago Mauricio Francoy4. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Genética – USP; 2Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Biologia – USP; 3Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias para a Sustentabilidade, Departamento de Biologia – UFSCAR; 4Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades – USP. Contato: Av. Bandeirantes, 3900 - 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto-SP (Brasil). 1*

vanessa_bonatti@usp.br Bees are one of the most important and specialized groups of insect pollinators and are responsible for the maintenance of ecosystems and also for increasing crop production. However, the decline of these insects has been noted in many parts of the world and it is probably related to the expansion of human activities in natural areas. Melipona subnitida, a tropical stingless bee, is an endemic species of the Brazilian northeast adapted to xerophytic conditions, and exhibits great potential for honey and pollen production in addition to its role as one of the main pollinators of the Caatinga biome. To understand the genetic structure and better assist in the conservation of this species, we characterized the population variability of M. subnitida of 25 localities (162 individuals) in the northern using cytochrome c oxidase I gene fragment sequencing (446 bp). In total 16 haplotypes were identified, among these 12 were exclusive to their respective location. Our results indicated high structuration among sampled populations and that the found variability is related both to the environment in which samples were collected and the geographical distance between the sampling sites, indicating that differentiation among the populations is due the existence of evolutionary lineages. Molecular clock data suggest that this differentiation may have begun in the middle Pleistocene, approximately 396 kya. Whereas arid climates will expand their distribution, becoming of great importance for the future and the growing demand on pollinators that can be used on a large scale, the conservation of all evolutionary lineages is important since they can present differential resistance to environmental changes, as resistance to drought and diseases. Keywords: Stingless bees; Melipona subnitida; conservation; mitochondrial DNA; COI. Financial support: BioComp; CAPES; CNPq; FAPESP – 2013/20358-7.

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PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF PARTAMONA HELLERI FRIESE, 1900 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINI) Tecavita Ananda Rodrigues Cardoso1; Kátia Maria Ferreira1; Elder Assis Miranda1 and Marco Antonio Del Lama1. Universidade Federal de São Carlos; Departamento de Genética e Evolução, São Carlos, SP, Brasil.

1

tecavita.arcardoso@gmail.com Different patterns and processes have modelled the diversification of the species occurring inside the Atlantic Forest; they should be associated to ecological requirements of habitat and resources of the different organisms. Partamona helleri is a stingless bee with distribution along the Atlantic Forest and part of the cerrado (savanna) of Minas Gerais. This species colonizes open and closed areas under different climatic conditions; moreover, it does not appear to require specific nesting sites or trophic resources, and this plasticity probably has allowed it to colonize even urban areas. The aim of this study is to elucidate the phylogeographic pattern of the P. helleri populations. Samples (one worker for each colony) were sequenced for COI (n = 295), CytB (n = 279), and 12S (n = 240) genes. Sequences of 269 individuals were concatenated for the COI and CytB gene (1.096 bp), resulting in 48 haplotypes, 15 out of them are unique and exclusive. The results showed low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00556 ± 0.00027), which reveals high similarity between haplotypes, and a high haplotype diversity (hd = 0.914 ± 0.010). The Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) showed that populations analyzed are highly structured when analyzed for mitochondrial genes (ΦST = 0.91021 P = 0.00), with 91% of the genetic variation resulting from differences among populations. A phylogenetic tree by maximum likelihood method was generated, but we have not got a high bootstrap support to the groups formed. The test of isolation by distance showed a low but significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.2487, P <0.0010). The phylogeographical analysis implemented by the Continuous Phylogeography software indicated a possible center of species dispersal located in the northeast of Minas Gerais; the estimated time for this event was 896 thousand years (HPD 95% = 594,2 – 1,274.2), approximately. Keywords: Atlantic Forest, phylogeography, mitochondrial markers, stingless bees. Financial support: CAPES/FAPESP.

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ALTITUDINAL AND GEOGRAPHIC EFFECTS THE GENETIC VARIABILITY OF ORCHID BEES POPULATIONS (APIDAE, EUGLOSSINI) IN THE NORTHEAST OF SÃO PAULO STATE Claudinéia Pereira Costa1*; Tiago Mauricio Francoy2. ¹*Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto – USP; 2Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades - USP Contact: Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, Brasil. *claudineia@usp.br One of the most serious global problems is the decline in pollinators populations, including, the bees that stand out like the primary responsibility for crop pollination service and maintenance of native ecosystems. However, several factors have contributed to the decrease in its diversity. Faced with this problem, the development and application of tools that allow us to access the intra and inter-specific variability of alternative ways to traditional taxonomy are of great importance. Thus, advances in molecular biology have enabled the development of methodologies in this field, including mitochondrial DNA. In this context, this work aims at applying this technique in populations of bees Euglossini, collected at different locations in the northeastern state of São Paulo, in order to evaluate the variability of population groups, glimpsing the understanding of their evolutionary history, historical patterns and geographical and ecological effects that led to the current distribution of the genetic variability of groups. Monthly collections were carried out between February 2014 and March 2015 in three localities in the state: Campos do Jordão, Pindamonhangaba and Ubatuba. During this period, we were collected 809 bees, divided into four genera of the five described for Euglossini. Only in Campos do Jordão, we don’t collect any individual of that tribe. In the other two locations, we had a major abundance of Euglossa. The first data may indicate that there is a direct correlation geoclimatic aspect of such species in abundance. We observed a possible relationship between precipitation and temperature in the abundance and richness of species group species. We started the first molecular analyzes with the species, Euglossa cordata and Eulaema nigrita, by sequencing two fragments of mitochondrial genes, COI and Cit b. These initial data already show a possible structure of populations. Such analyzes are still preliminary but indicate a prosperous stage for consistency. Keywords: Euglossini; Euglossa cordata; Eulaema nigrita; mitochondrial DNA. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq; FAPESP – 2013/02158-0.

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MODELING OF THE INTRA NEST DYNAMICS OF THE BUMBLEBEE BOMBUS ATRATUS FRANKLIN (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) José Ricardo Cure1,3, Andrew Paul Gutierrez2,3 , Sandy Padilla Báez1, Daniel Rodriguez Caicedo1. Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Faculty of Basic and Applied Science; Applied Biology Program; Biodiversity and Ecology of Wild Bees research group (BEAS); Cajicá, Colombia. 2University of California; College of Natural Resources; Professor of the Graduate School; Berkeley, USA. 3Research Fellow. Center for the Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Systems (CASAS-Global). 1

jose.cure@unimilitar.edu.co Considerable progress has been made in modeling the weather- driven dynamics of plant growth and development and linkages to higher trophic levels. Much of the progress has involved the use of physiologicaly based models (PBDMs) pioneered Gutierrez at the University of California, Berkeley. The underlying idea of PBDMs is that all organisms are consumers and have similar resource acquisition (inputs) and allocation (outputs) priorities with similar shaped functions (Gutierrez, 1996). Based on analogies the dynamics of all species can be captured using the same resource acquisition and birth-death rates sub-models imbedded in an age-mass structured population model. Resource acquisition (i.e. the supply, S) is a search process driven by organism demand (D), while allocation occurs in priority order to egestion, conversion costs, respiration, and reproduction, growth, and reserves (Gutierrez et al. 1984). The ratio 0£S/D<1 is due to imperfect consumer search, and in the PBDM scales maximal growth rates of species in a time-place varying manner. The PBDM simulates the age-mass structured population dynamics of plant subunits and of pest and predator/parasitoid numbers. This approach models the biology of the species that when driven enables the model to predict the dynamics of the interacting species based on observed and climate model weather (see Gutierrez and Ponti 2013). Key words: PBDM modelling, Sexual forms, Captivity breeding, Bumblebees. Financial support: UMNG Proyect CIAS1569 – 2014/2015 and the University of California.

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A HIGH WING VENATION HOMOGENEITY ACROSS TETRAGONISCA ANGUSTULA GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION Nefertiris Curi, Flávio de Oliveira Francisco, Maria Cristina Arias. Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva. São Paulo, Brasil. nefer.curi@gmail.com Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811) has a wide geographical distribution, from Argentina to southern Mexico. Species with wide distribution may constitute a group of cryptic species or different evolutionary lineages. In our study samples that represent the species entire distribution are been analyzed by molecular genetics tools and geometric morphometry of wings. The morphometric analysis is complete for samples collected from 20 nests from Costa Rica, Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. The PCA (Principal Component Analysis) showed a surprising homogeneity among specimens. And more interestingly, the species Tetragonisca weyrauchi (Schwarz, 1943), used as outgroup, did not separate from T. angustula samples. Since informative patterns are been found by the this technique in several species, our results indicate that to assess the diversity of this group traditional morphology or genetic characters are most suitable. T. weyrauchi sampling in the future may reveal whether this species is also part of the complex that includes the subspecies T. angustula fiebrigi e T. angustula angustula. Keywords: Tetragonisca angustula; geometric morphology; species complex, stingless bee. Financial support: CAPES, FAPESP, BIO-COMP/USP.

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HOW STINGLESS BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINI) COLONIZE AN AREA? A STUDY CASE: THE PARTAMONA CUPIRA POPULATIONS (SMITH, 1863) IN CERRADO AREAS Mariana Cristina Dessi1; Elder Assis Miranda1; Marco Antonio Del Lama1. Universidade Federal de São Carlos; Departamento de Genética e Evolução, São Carlos, SP; Brasil.

1

marianadessi@gmail.com Partamona cupira is a stingless bee that occurs in regions of cerrado of the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Goiás. The reproduction of the colony is made by swarming and the new nests are founded near the original nest. As such bees are important pollinators, knowledge on how females colonize an area and about the genetic structure of populations are relevant for their management and conservation. This work aims to test the hypothesis that the colonization of an area is made by a reduced number of females. Samples of 159 colonies from 16 localities from Minas Gerais, Goiás and Distrito Federal were analyzed. DNA was extracted from one adult worker of each colony. It was amplified and sequenced a fragment of 629bp of the mitochondrial gene COI. Eight haplotypes were identified, three of them were single and exclusive. A low value of nucleotide diversity (π=0.00167) and a high haplotypic diversity (Hd=0.672) were observed. A Molecular Variance Analysis (AMOVA) for three hierarchical levels showed high level of differentiation among populations (Fst= 0.8573; P=0.000) and 66.3% (P=0.000) of the variation wase explained by differences between two groups the first formed by São Roque de Minas and the second group formed by the other populations. São Roque de Minas’ sample showed two exclusive haplotypes with two substitutions when compared to the most frequent haplotype. This town is located at the north of Serra da Canastra, at 1,400 meters high, and this could represent a geographical barrier to gene flow with other populations. No correlation was found among geographical and genetic distances (r = -0.0893; P= 0.664), an expected result considering the hypothesis how bee females colonize an area. These results are similiar to those observed for other species of Partamona, supporting our hypothesis. Keywords: stingless bee; colonization; mitochondrial marker; genetic structure. Financial support: FAPESP.

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INTRASPECIFIC DIVERGENCE IN THE STINGLESS BEE SCAPTOTRIGONA XANTHOTRICHA (MOURE, 1950) BASED CYTOCHROME OXIDASE DNA SEQUENCES Olívia Maria Pereira Duarte1*; Marco Antônio Costa2. Universidade Federal do Sul da Bahia-UFSB; 2 Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz-UESC. Contato: Rodovia Porto Seguro - Eunápolis-BA. BR-367 - km 10, 45810-000 Porto Seguro, Brasil.

1*

olivia.duarte@ufsb.edu.br The Scaptotrigona genus occurs exclusively in the Neotropics. The bees are efficient pollinators of native species and many cultivated species and are very important for maintaining the equilibrium of ecosystems promoting the flow of energy among the different levels of the food chain, through pollination. Among the nine Brazilian stingless bees species of this genus S. xanthotricha shows an ample distribution along the Atlantic rain forest, ranging from Bahia to Santa Catarina state. Genetic diversity studies of these groups can provide important information for management and conservation of the species and the biome in which they are inserted. In this study, we performed the genetic characterization of the diversity of S. xanthotricha based on data sequences from the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I. An individual of each sampled nest was analyzed, totaling 15 individuals collected from Bahia to Paraná. We inferred both phylogenetic relationships and the haplotype diversity. The sequences obtained from the COI region of S. xanthotricha showed maximum length of 490pb. The sequence alignments including sequences from S. bipunctata and S. polystica resulted in a data matrix containing 17 taxa with 436 characters. 7.14% of the sites were variable, relative 32 characters, but only 2.6% (12 characters) were considered informative for the maximum parsimony method. The haplotype diversity analysis revealed 11 haplotypes based on 19 variable sites. Two of these were more frequent while others were more rare or unique. The phylogenetic relationship analysis between the samples was performed with Neighbor-Joining distance method and showed consistent result with the haplotype network constructed with Median Joining method. These results are an indicative of a probable recent population expansion process with a restricted number of founders. Keywords: stingless bee; genetic diversity; haplotypes; population. Financial support: CAPES.

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PHYSICAL MICROSATELLITE MAPPING IN FRIESELLA SCHROTTKYI (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Arthur Mayrink Elizeu1; Ríudo de Paiva Ferreira1; Mara Garcia Tavares1. ¹*Universidade Federal de Viçosa – UFV; Viçosa; Brasil. arthur.elizeu@ufv.br The mapping of repetitive DNA sequences has contributed to the understanding of the chromosome organization in various insect orders. This cytogenetic tool, however, has been little employed for the karyotypic study of stingless bees. The genus Friesella, in particular, is monospecific, being represented only by the species F. schrottky. These bees are small (3-5 mm) and occurs in the southeast and in the state of Paraná, in Brazil. This study aimed to use microsatellite probes in order to provide a better chromosomal organization for F. schrottkyi. Twenty cerebral ganglia of larvae were used for preparation of slides. The chromosomal organization was studied using the C-banding method and the physical mapping of repetitive DNA sequences (GA)15. Analysis confirmed that the diploid chromosomal number of this species was 2n = 34 chromosomes. The heterochromatin was located in one of the arms in 16 chromosomal pairs, while in the 17th pair of chromosomes, it was present in the centromeric region. Similarly, it was possible to locate the microsatellite (GA)15 in the euchromatic arm of 16 chromosomal pairs and in the terminal portion of both arms in the par with centromeric chromatin. The association of the microsatellite (GA)15 with euchromatin regions has already been observed in species of stingless bees of genera Melipona, Nannotrigona, Scaptotrigona and Trigona. This labeling pattern, therefore, appears to be well conserved among Meliponini and indicates that the microsatellite (GA)15 may be an important molecular marker for understanding the karyotypic evolution of Meliponini. Keywords: Meliponini; Repetitive DNA; molecular cytogenetics. Financial Support: CAPES, CNPq, FAPEMIG.

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DIPLOID MALE DYNAMICS UNDER DIFFERENT NUMBER OF SEXUAL ALLELES AND MALE DISPERSAL ABILITIES Luiz Roberto Ribeiro Faria¹; Elaine Della Giustina Soares¹; Eduardo do Carmo¹; Paulo Murilo Castro de Oliveira². ¹Instituto Latino-Americano de Ciências da Vida e da Natureza, Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana (UNILA), Foz do Iguaçu, PR Brazil. ²Instituto Mercosul de Estudos Avançados, Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana (UNILA), Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brazil. nunofariajr@gmail.com Under single locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD) system, the sex of a specimen depends on the alleles at a single locus: when diploid, an individual will be a female if heterozygous and male if homozygous. Significant diploid male (DM) production may drive a population to an extinction scenario called “diploid male vortex”. We aimed at studying the dynamics of populations of a sl-CSD organism under several combinations of two parameters: male flight abilities and number of sexual alleles. In these simulations, we evaluated the frequency of DM and a genetic diversity measure over 100 generations. Some relevant characteristics of our model: (i) the number “A” of sexual alleles varied from 10 to 100; (ii) the probability P of raise a diploid offspring was kept constant (0.5); (iii) at each generation, a male offspring might fly to another random site within a radius R that varied from 2 to 10 and replaced the male currently there; (iv) at each generation, a female offspring became established at a neighboring site, replacing the female currently there; (v) when a female mated a DM, no offspring was produced. Simulations suggested that increasing male flight radius is more important to reduce the proportion of DM in the population than increasing the number of sexual alleles. When R=2 and A=100, for instance, the frequency of DM was 31% of population, while when R=10 and A=10, their frequency dropped to 14%. Another important finding relies on the dynamics of genetic diversity over different sublattice sizes. Regarding small sublattices, simulations showed that genetic diversity decreases much faster over the generations when R is small. These results may be particularly relevant when considering the population dynamics of species with increasingly limited dispersal ability (e.g. forest-dependent species of euglossine bees in fragmented landscapes). Keywords: diploid male vortex; haplodiploidy; population dynamics; sl-CSD.

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CHROMOSOMAL MAPPING OF 18S RDNA AND REPETITIVE DNA IN GENUS TRIGONA (HYMENOPTERA: MELIPONINI) Ríudo de Paiva Ferreira1*, Denilce Meneses Lopes1. ¹*Universidade Federal de Viçosa – UFV Contato: Avenida Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n - Campus Universitário, 36570-900, Viçosa - MG, Brasil. riudopaiva@gmail.com Chromosomal banding techniques and repetitive DNA mapping are useful tools in comparative analysis and in the elucidation of genome organization of several groups of eukaryotes. We used C-banding, physical mapping of 18S rDNA and repetitive DNA with the aim to study the chromosomal organization in eight species of the genus Trigona (Trigona pallens, T. williana, T. hypogea, T. truculenta , T. spinipes, T. recursa, T. hyalinata, Trigona sp. group “fuscipennis”). All species had chromosome number 2n = 34 with one of the chromosome arms being heterochromatic in most chromosomes. Euchromatic acrocentric (Ae) chromosomes are found in Trigona pallens, T. williana, T. truculenta, T. spinipes, T. recursa. This morphology was absent in Trigona sp1 group “fuscipennis”, T. hyalinata and T. hypogea. The diploid number and the distribution of heterochromatin were similar to that found for other species of the genus described cytogenetically. The 18S rDNA sites varied among the species being located in one to four chromosome pairs. In all species this region was present in the heterochromatic arm. The repetitive DNA (GA)15 was mapped (i) in the larger arm of the chromosome Ae (ii), in the euchromatic arm of all chromosomes. This indicates that pattern of (GA)15 distribution seems to be a feature shared among Trigona species. On the other hand the positioning of the rDNA gene varied from species constituting a promising marker for understanding the evolution of the karyotype in Trigona and other Meliponini. Keyword: stingless bees; microsatellites; comparative cytogenetic; FISH. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq; FAPEMIG.

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HONEY PRODUCTION SNP’S IDENTIFICATION AND POPULATION STRUCTURE OF AFRICANIZED APIS MELLIFERA HONEYBEES Samir Moura Kadri1, Paulo Eduardo Martins Ribolla2, Amro Zayed3, Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi1. UNESP – Botucatu, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia de Botucatu, Núcleo de Ensino Ciência e Tecnologia em Apicultura Racional (NECTAR), Botucatu, Brazil. 2 UNESP – Botucatu, Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, Instituto de Biotecnologia - IBTEC, Botucatu, Brazil. 3 York University, Department of Biology, Toronto, Canada. 1

Apis mellifera has had an association with humans since this time. In Brazil, European subspecies were brought two centuries ago. These subspecies predominated in Brazil until 1956, when African bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) were introduced for honey production breeding purpose. This subspecies has hybridized with local populations resulting in Africanized honeybee. The aims of this research was identified Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP´s) on Africanized honeybees populations with high and low honey production using ddRADseq (Double Digested RAD Sequencing) technique for genomic DNA sequencing. The experiment was conducted at Lageado Experimental Farm, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Forty Africanized Apis mellifera L. colonies were used, managed for honey production with equal population, brood and food frames. During the blossom period, December 2013 to March 2014, supers were added to beehives as needed.  Honey production was evaluated individually and ten most productive (High Honey Production, HHP), over 10 kg honey production for each beehive (12.21±1.5 kg), and less productive (Low Honey Production, LHP), less than 10 kg honey production for each beehive (4.8±3.9kg), were selected. Genomic sequencing was done with larvae drone DNA from each colony using ddRADseq technique and then sequenced by Illumina technology (DNA-Seq). 139 095 SNPs were detected at 20 samples analyzed and a variant calling (VCF file) was made. With PLINK v.1.07 program 124 SNP´s with P<0.001 was identified as associated with honey production. ADMIXTURE was used with k=3 ancestral populations (A, African; M, Western European and C, Eastern European) and we found differences between HHP and LHP colonies alleles ancestry proportions, showing negative correlation between honey production and African alleles. Thus, it can be concluded that SNP´s can be used as a powerful tool for honeybees breeding programs. Keywords: beekeeping; breeding; traits. Financial support: FAPESP - 2013/01588-1.

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COLONIZATION OF URBAN AREAS BY SOLITARY BEES: A STUDY CASE WITH THE OIL-COLLECTING BEE CENTRIS (HEMISIELLA) TARSATA SMITH, 1874 (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, CENTRIDINI) Danielle Cristina de Luna Lucena1; Kátia Maria Ferreira1; Diego Moure-Oliveira2; Carlos Alberto Garófalo2; Marco Antonio Del Lama1. Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Departamento de Genética e Evolução, São Carlos, SP, Brasil. 2 Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Biologia, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil. 1

dlunalucena@gmail.com The colonization of an area by a species is mainly influenced by intrinsic factors, assigned to biological features of the species, like dispersing capacity, fecundity, food requirements and nesting biology, and environmental factors, like resources availability and climate conditions. The aim of this study was analyze the colonization process by a solitary bee species of urban environments, using as model the oil-collecting bee Centris (Hemisiella) tarsata Smith, 1874, a Neotropical preexisting cavity nesting species. We sampled from 2012 to 2015 a total of 185 individuals (females = 50; males = 135) in sixteen Brazilian cities, located in four states, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Bahia and Paraíba. We sequenced four mitochondrial genes, COI, cytb, 16S and 12S. We found 99 haplotypes for the concatenated genes, twenty haplotypes were shared by at least two localities and two of them were found in eleven and twelve sampling sites. Most of the haplotypes was unique (n = 77). Neutrality tests (Fu’s FS and Tajima’s D) and Mismatch Distribution analyzes (PSSD and Prg > 0,05) indicated a recent population expansion and the FST value showed absence of population structure (Fst = 0,004; P = 0,670). The medium body size, generalization in pollen collecting and other features associated to the nesting biology of the species ─ like preexisting cavities nesting, few offspring per female, in comparison with social species, and the no reuse by females of native cavity for nesting ─ indicates sparse populations. We propose that solitary behavior favors colonization by a large number of females, in contrast to eusocial species. We have found a higher number of maternal lineages, inside and among populations, a great difference when considered the colonization process by social bee species. These differences should be considered when proposing management and conservation plans for these important groups of pollinators. Keywords: Colonization; Mitochondrial markers; Preexisting cavities nesting bees. Financial support: FAPESP, CAPES and CNPq.

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OCCURRENCE, FREQUENCY AND ORIGIN OF B CHROMOSOMES IN PARTAMONA SPECIES (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE) Diana P. Machado1, Elder A. Miranda1, Mariana Dessi1, Camila Sabadini1, Vander C. Tosta e Marco A. Del Lama1. Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Genética Evolutiva, São Carlos – SP.

1

dianapmachado@gmail.com Partamona Schwarz, 1939 is a stingless bee genus which has as an important feature,the presence of B chromosomes in some species. In this study we used a SCAR marker specific for Partamona B chromosomes to test their presence in 690 colonies of nine species (P. helleri, P. aff helleri, P. rustica, P. cupira, P. seridoensis, P. mulata, P. ayliae, P. gregaria and P. nhambiquara). Six of these species showed supernumerary chromosomes. In P. helleri, P. cupira and P. rustica populations, they occurred at high frequencies (0.48, 0.45 and 0.28 respectively) in samples from the whole species distribution area, whereas at low frequency (0.06) in .P. affhelleri colonies. In P. helleri a positive and significant correlation between latitude and the frequency of B chromosomes was observed (r = 0.64; p = 0.003), showing a latitudinal gradient in the frequency, where in the northern distribution it’s higher and decreases through the south. This result suggests that the origin of B chromosomes in P. helleri may have occurred in samples from the north of the current distribution, with subsequent spread to other areas. The sequences obtained with the SCAR primers had high quality and showed a high similarity between species. Two haplotypes were found, one in P. helleri and a second in the other species. It suggests that Partamona B chromosomes did not originated in P. helleri, despite the greater diversity of B chromosomes in this species when compared to other Partamona species. So far, reports of B chromosomes were restricted to cupira group species. Here, we found, for the first time, the presence of B chromosomes in P. gregaria and P. nhambiquara colonies, species of the pearsoni clade. This result suggests that the origin of B chromosomes in Partamona might be older than previously thought. Keywords:Meliponini; marcador SCAR, Partamona. Financial support: CAPES, FAPESP.

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POPULATION GENETICS OF PARTAMONA RUSTICA, AN ENDEMIC STINGLESS BEE FROM CAATINGA AND CERRADO AREAS Elder Assis Miranda, Kátia Maria Ferreira and Marco Antonio Del Lama. Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Laboratório de Genética Evolutiva de Himenópteros, Caixa Postal 369, São Carlos, SP 13600-970, Brazil. mirandaea@ufscar.br The stingless bee Partamona rustica occurs in dry forests of Brazil, such as the Cerrado and Caatinga, ranging from the northern portion of the state of Minas Gerais to the southwestern portion of the state of Bahia, nesting in arboreal termite nests. Partamona rustica seems to play an important role as a pollinator, since, at least 63 species of plants are visited by this bee (Miranda et al. 2015). Nevertheless, basic biological information, especially relating to genetic diversity and population genetic structure of this species are scarce. The aim of this study was to establish the genetic diversity and genetic structure of populations of Partamona rustica. We sampled 145 nests in eleven sites, with an average of 13 nests by locality. The eight SSR loci used showed a total of 57 alleles within an average of 72% of polymorphic loci per population. Private alleles were detected in seven populations. The expected average heterozygosity was 0.311, ranging from 0.206 to 0.478. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected for some populations. No linkage disequilibrium was found, indicating the absence of preferential associations between alleles of different loci. The Mantel test shows isolation by distance between the populations analyzed (r = 0.831, p = 0.0008). Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) grouped P. rustica populations in two groups (east and west of São Francisco River - SFR). A moderate differentiation among P. rustica populations was found (ΦST = 0.253; p < 0.0001) and the AMOVA for three hierarchical levels revealed that 22.2% of the variation (p < 0.0001) is explained by differences between the groups separated by SFR, suggesting that this river should affect the gene flow between populations of P. rustica. Keywords: Dry forest; genetic diversity; genetic structure; SSR; stingless bees; São Francisco River. Financial Support: FAPESP – 2012/23342-1.

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MICROSATELLITE MAPPING IN CHROMOSOMES AUTOSOMES AND SUPERNUMERARY CHROMOSOMES OF TETRAGONISCA FIEBRIGI (HYMENOPTERA: MELIPONINI) Camila Moura Novaes1; Martinha Mapingala Capocco1; Denilce Meneses Lopes1. 1

Universidade Federal de Viรงosa, Departamento de Biologia Geral, Viรงosa, Brasil.

camilamnovaes@yahoo.com.br Techniques of molecular cytogenetics have revealed information about the organization of the genome in different eukaryotes and have been applied in evolutionary studies and differentiation of autosomal and supernumerary chromosomes. The stingless bee Tetragonisca fiebrigi has 2n=34 and have been recorded up to three extra chromosomes. In this study, 18S rDNA probes (labeled with digoxigenin) and repetitive DNA GA(15) and CAA(10) (labeled with Cy3) were used by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to obtain new information about the organization cytogenetic chromosomal T. fiebrigi including the extra chromosomes. The metaphase chromosomes were obtained from the cerebral ganglia of the larvae in defecation stage. After hybridization, chromosomes were counterstained with DAPI Fluoroshield (Sigma) and analyzed in epifluorescence microscope Olympus BX53 (Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Approximately 10 metaphases were analyzed per individual. The diploid number (2n = 34) corroborated the results already described for the species. In the metaphases was recorded 1 or 2 B chromosomes. The probe of 18S rDNA scored five autosomes chromosomes in heterochromatin regions. Both the GA(15) and the CAA(10) probe marked on the euchromatic arms of chromosomes autosomes. However, GA(15) showed a stronger signal, while CAA(10) showed a more diffuse pattern. Previous works have mentioned a similarity between heterochromatin regions in this species also seen by the absence of marking with microsatellite used in all chromosomes. The B chromosome showed no labeling with any of the probes. Extra chromosomes can be interor intra-specific origin. Thus, due to the similarities between the pattern of this chromosome and heterochromatic regions, one possible source of these extra chromosomes would be through breaks in the autosomes. Keywords: stingless bees; cytogenetics; B chromosome; FISH. Financial support: FAPEMIG; Capes.

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PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF EUFRIESEA NIGROHIRTA (FRIESE, 1899) (APIDAE: APINI: EUGLOSSINA) José Eustáquio Santos Júnior1; Davidson Pinheiro Campos1; Fernando do Amaral Silveira2; Fabrício Rodrigues dos Santos1. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Instituto de Ciências Biológicas – Departamento de Biologia Geral, Belo Horizonte – MG – Brasil; 2Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Instituto de Ciências Biológicas – Departamento de zoologia, Belo Horizonte – MG - Brasil.

1

jrsantos140782@yahoo.com.br Eufriesea nigrohirta (Friese, 1899) is an orchid bee (Apidae: Apini: Euglossina) endemic of the so called “campos rupestres”. The distribution range of E. nigrohirta includes almost the entire Espinhaço range, from south-central Minas Gerais state to Bahia state, and other high-elevation areas (above 1,000 m) in Minas Gerais state as Serra da Canastra, southeastern Brazil. The species belonginf to the genus Eufriesea are generally rarer than other orchid bees and are active only during the wet season. The goal of this work was to analyze the genetic diversity of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) of mitochondrial DNA of populations E. nigrohirta to infer the process that shaped this species distribution in the mountain tops of southeastern Brazil. We sequenced 453bp of the COI gene for 102 specimens from 17 localities. Altogether 19 haplotypes were found, 15 of which were singletons. High haplotype diversity (0.582-0.003) and nucleotide diversity (0.0021-0.0016) were detected within samples. The Tajima’s D (-2.253; p < 0.01) and Fu’s FS (-4.487; p < 0.02) neutrality tests, together with a high number of singleton haplotypes and the star-shaped haplotype network indicate a recent population expansion. Keywords: Eufriesea; phylogeography; COI; endemic; orchid bee. Financial support: FAPEMIG, CNPq.

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GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN ISLAND AND CONTINENTAL POPULATIONS OF MELIPONA SUBNITIDA, IN THE NORTHEAST OF BRAZIL: ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA Flaviane Santos de Souza1; Eddy José Francisco de Oliveira2; Márcia de Fátima Ribeiro3; Bruno de Almeida Souza4; Maria Angélica Pereira de Carvalho Costa1; Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho1. Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, Centro de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais; Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana; 3Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa/ Semi-árido); 4Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa/Meio-Norte). Contato: Campus Universitário, Grupo de Pesquisa Insecta, Rua Rui Barbosa 710, 44.380-000, Cruz das almas, Bahia, Brasil.

1 2

flaviane@ufrb.edu.br Melipona subnitida Ducke (1910) (Jandaíra) is a stingless bee species endemic to the Caatinga biome, in northeastern Brazil. This species is well adapted to the hot and dry climate of the region and has traditionally been exploited for honey. In 1983, such species was introduced into the Fernando de Noronha Island (Pernambuco state). In this study, data from mitochondrial DNA for the COI gene (cytochrome oxidase I) of M. subnitida were obtained from 13 Fernando de Noronha (island) colonies and compared to 160 continental colonies from different locations of the northeastern Brazil (Bahia, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Maranhão, Piauí and Ceará states). The haplotype diversity (Hd) ranged from 0.000 in Fernando de Noronha (PE), Cumaru (PE) and Passira (PE) (with only one haplotype) to 0.806 in Parnaíba (PI) (four haplotypes). 14 haplotypes were identified, of these eleven haplotypes (H1 to H11) have been deposited in GenBank by other authors, while three new haplotypes (H12, H13 and H14) were identified in this study, with H12 being the commonest. H4 was the only haplotype found in Fernando de Noronha, although it was also found in four continental populations. There was a low haplotype and nucleotide diversity in the island populations as opposed to a high diversity in the continental populations (Hd= 0.824; n=160). Our findings suggest two hypotheses: (1) only one haplotype has been introduced into Fernando de Noronha; or (2) the island environment selected only one haplotype. The results showed that the haplotypes entering the island, remaining isolated for 31 years, probably suffered the bottleneck effect with fixing only one haplotype (founder effect). Keywords: Meliponini; genetic variability; jandaíra bee; COI; founder effect. Financial support: Macroprojeto da Rede Jandaíra da Embrapa Meio Norte.

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DESCRIPTION CYTOGENETICS OF AUSTROPLEBEIA AUSTRALUS (APIDAE: MELIPONINAE) Natália Martins Travenzoli1; Rute Magalhães Brito2; Benjamim Oldroyd3; Denilce Meneses Lopes1. Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Departamento de Biologia Geral; Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Insetos; Viçosa; Brasil; 2 Universidade Federal de Uberlândia; Campus Umuarama; Instituto de Genética e Bioquímica; Uberlândia; Brasil; 3 The University of Sidney; Behaviour and Genetics of Social Insects Laboratory. 1

natytravenzoli@hotmail.com The genus Austroplebeia Moure 1961, belonging to Trigonini subtribe, is composed of at least nine species distributed in northern Australia and New Guinea. Known as Old World bees, these species are phylogenetically related to bees without sting African lineages. The phylogenetic relationships within the genus remain unresolved, and there are few studies molecular and none cytogenetic. Due to the absence of studies, the aim of this study was to describe and characterize the karyotype, including its diploid number, beyond the standard distribution of heterochromatic regions and microsatellite GA(15) Austroplebeia australis. Mitotic chromosomes were obtained from the cerebral ganglia larvae in the state of defecation and stained with Giemsa. The regions of constitutive heterochromatin were viewed with the C-band technique and microsatellite regions (GA)15 using the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Images of the metaphase were obtained under a microscope Olympus BX53 and cellSens Imaging Software. Austroplebeia australis showed a diploid number 2n= 36, with the presence of pseudo-acrocentric chromosomes and eucromático acrocentric. The distribution of microsatellites (GA)15 marked the subtelomeric region in nearly all chromosome arms, coinciding with euchromatin and absence of markes on some chromosomes. The presence of pseudo-acrocentric chromosomes is a characteristic similar to Meliponini, as well as the standard marking of microsatellites (GA) in euchromatic chromosomes found in Melipona. The distribution of microsatellites heterochromatic standards (GA)15, when associated with fossils, molecular and behavioral morphological studies can contribute to a better understanding of biogeographical and phylogenetic history of the group. Keywords: chromosome evolution; heterochromatic pattern; microsatellite. Financial support: CAPES; FAPEMIG; CNPq.

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CUTICULAR HETEROCHRONY AND CIRCADIAN CLOCK GENES EXPRESSION IN BEES Fabiano Carlos Pinto de Abreu1*; Tiago Falcon1*; Juliana Ramos Martins1; Daniel Guariz Pinheiro2; Carlos Alberto Garófalo3; Zilá Luz Paulino Simões3; Márcia Maria Gentile Bitondi3. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto – USP; 2Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - UNESP ; 3Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto – USP; Contato: Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, Brasil.

1

*fabiano.genetica@usp.br; tiagofalcon@usp.br The cuticle is a multi-layered structure of the insect integument involved in muscles attachment and protection against desiccation. Peripheral oscillators may regulate the deposition of chitin layers and cuticular proteins over the epidermis, and the clock genes seem to have a significant function in determining the rhythm of this process and the number of cuticular layers. It is supposed that adults from eusocial bees do not have a fully developed cuticle. Also, the timing of cuticle maturation may vary between bee species, thus allowing us to investigate such heterochrony in the context of eusociality. We used transmission electron microscopy and RNA-seq to compare the ultrastructure of the integument and the expression of clock genes between pharate adult (Pbm), newly emerged (Ne) and forager (Fg) bees of Apis mellifera and Frieseomelitta varia species, which independently evolved to eusociality. We observed differences in the timing of adult cuticle layers deposition, which were associated with clock gene expression profiles in the integument. In A. mellifera, the genes period (AmPer), clock (AmClk) and cryptochrome (AmCry) showed higher expression in the Pbm bees than in the Ne and Fg ones, and this was tentatively associated with the differentiation of the multi-layered endocuticle in the former. In contrast, in F. varia, Pbm bees did not differ from the Ne and Fg ones in clock genes expression and/or cuticle ultrastructure. We also observed differences in the cuticle ultrastructure of Ne and Fg bees in A. mellifera, which could be explained by the differential expression of AmPer. However, this assumption was not supported by the data obtained from F. varia at these same developmental phases. Along with the results, we suggest that the differential expression of the genes period, clock and cryptochrome are part of an evolutionary process contributing to cuticular maturation heterochrony in both species of bees. Keywords: cuticular heterochrony, RNA-seq, clock genes, Apis mellifera, Frieseomelitta varia. Financial support: Fellowships: FCPA - FAPESP: 2014/14194-4; TF - FAPESP: 2012/24284-5; Grants: ZLPS - FAPESP: 2011/03171-5; MMGB - FAPESP: 2014/13136-0 and 2010/16380-9; CAPES; BioComp: http://www.biocomp.org.br/.

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ALTERATIONS ON SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS AND NEUROLOGINS IN BRAINS OF APIS MELLIFERA (HYMENOPETA, APIDAE) EXPOSED TO IMIDACLOPRID Aline Fernanda Catae1*; Thaisa Cristina Roat1; Marcel Pratavieira1; Anally Ribeiro da Silva Menegasso1; Mario Sergio Palma1; Osmar Malaspina1. Universidade Estadual Paulista “Julio de Mesquita Filho” – UNESP; Instituto de Biociências; Departamento de Biologia; Centro de Estudos de Insetos Sociais (CEIS). Contato: Bela Vista, 13.500900, Rio Claro, Brazil. 1*

aline_catae@hotmail.com The search for the increasing of agricultural production has led to expansion of cultivated areas and a greater dependence on pesticide use. This can affect non-target insects such as bees. Neonicotinoids are the most commonly used pesticides due to their efficacy. As a member of this class, there is imidacloprid, an insecticide widely used in Brazil. Considering the importance of toxicological studies to assess the effects of these products, this study aimed to examine the alterations in the spatial distribution of specific proteins in the brain of bees exposed to imidacloprid, through the use of MALDI Mass Spectrometric Imaging (MALDI-MSI) technique. For this, forager bees were exposed for 8 days to a diet containing a sublethal dose LD50/100 of imidacloprid (0.0146 imidacloprid/ bee). Individuals were collected 1 and 8 days after the beginning of food supply and the brains were sectioned by freezing microtome (criostate). The chemical printer ChIP-1000 (Shimadzu) was used for trypsin and matrix deposition, and the spectra MALDI MS were acquired by MALDI ToF-ToF (Shimadzu). The spectra were converted into images by MSiReader v0.05 software, creating density maps for proteins identified in previous work. It is known that imidacloprid acts as acetylcholine agonist, binding on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in an irreversible way. Our results showed a relative decrease in expression of these receptors on bees exposed to imidacloprid in the first and eighth day, when compared to the control. Considering the neuroligins, proteins related to the mediation of synapses in neurons, it was observed a relative increase in the expression of this family of proteins in individuals exposed to the insecticide as well as a larger distribution over the brain. These results suggest an unbalance in standard of the chemical synapses in the brain and consequently possible physiological damages caused by exposure to imidacloprid, even in low doses. Keywords: insecticide; neonicotinoid; sublethal dose; spectrometry. Financial support: FAPESP (2014/14070-3; 2012/13370-8; 2012/50197-2).

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NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AS REGULATOR DURING THE PROCESS OF CASTE DETERMINATION IN APIS MELLIFERA Mário Sérgio Cervoni1*; Karina Rosa Guidugli Lazzarini1; Daiana Almeida De Souza2; Klaus Hartfelder 1. ¹*Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto – USP - Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular; Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto – USP - Departamento de Genética. Contato: Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, Brasil. cervoni@usp.br Caste development in Apis mellifera represents a unique model for understanding environmentally induced phenotypic plasticity, where the type of diet offered to the larvae serves as the primary trigger. This nutritional stimulus generates transcriptional responses, activating specific regulatory pathways, including insulin (IIS), TOR and hypoxia signaling. Their possible integration was investigated in functional assays using fat body cultured in vitro, indicating that nitric oxide (NO) appears to play a role in this integration. So as to expand our knowledge on the role of NO we its possible role in vivo. First instar larvae were transferred to artificial rearing cups, where they were fed with an artificial diet 6%and maintained in an incubator at 34 °C. Two days after the transfer, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (1 mM), was added to the food of the experimental group (n = 40). Control larvae (n=40) continued to be reared on L-NAME free diet. Larvae were sampled as they finished feeding and entered the spinning stage to analyze the expression of four genes of the TOR, three of the hypoxia and two of the IIS pathway. The remaining larvae were maintained in the incubator until they molted into adults and were then analyzed in terms of caste characters by a geometric morphometry approach. The results showed that the addition of L-NAME to the larval food caused a significant downregulation in the following genes Amtor and AmS6K2 (TOR); hypoxia, Amtango (HIF-β homolog and one of the central genes of hypoxia signaling) and AmPI3, (a key kinase in IIS). The morphometric analysis revealed that 43% of the L-NAME treated larvae developed as intercastes, whereas in the control group, all individuals developed the worker phenotype. Our results suggest that NO plays a role in the integration of these signaling pathways in honey bee caste development. Keywords: NO; Apis mellifera; signaling pathways; phenotype. Financial support: FAEPA; CAPES.

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EFFECT OF SUBLETHAL DOSE OF THIAMETHOXAM IN THE ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN THE BRAIN OF AFRICANIZED APIS MELLIFERA (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Pâmela Decio1*, Thaisa Cristina Roat1, Daiana Antonia Tavares1, Osmar Malaspina1. 1*UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Biociências de Rio Claro, Departamento de Biologia, Centro de Estudos de Insetos Sociais (CEIS). Contato: Bela Vista, 13.500-900, Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil. pameladecio@yahoo.com.br Apis mellifera africanized are considered important pollinators in Brazil. However, the growth of agricultural areas increased the use of insecticides to control pests, which also can affect non-target insects, such the bees. Among most widely used insecticide classes in agricultural crops there are the neonicotinoids, such as thiamethoxam that are neurotoxic. Considering this, the present study investigated the effects of sublethal dose of thiamethoxam in the brain of africanized Apis mellifera, through the evaluation of the activity of acetylcholinesterase. For this, 15 days old forager bees were collected and exposed to a diet containing a sublethal dose LD50/100 of thiamethoxam (0,0227ng/ mL). For the control group was offered the diet without insecticide. Individuals were collected 24h, 60h and 120h after the beginning of food supply and the heads were used for enzyme activity assay. Determination of enzyme activity was performed by the method of Ellman et al. (1961). All The data obtained were analyzed by software R® (2012) and the diferences among the groups were evaluated using Wilcoxon test. The results obtained showed a decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity in the group exposed to thiamethoxam compared to the control group in all time analyzed, but the results were statistically significant for groups exposed for 24h and 120h. The acetylcholinesterase is the enzyme responsible for degrading acetylcholine after binding to their nicotinergic receptors. Thiamethoxam mimics acetylcholine, but acetylcholinesterase does not recognize the insecticide molecule and cannot degradate it. So, in the presence of insecticide occurs the binding of receptors abnormally prolonged, causing hyperexcitability due to the continuous and uncontrolled transmission of nerve impulses. As the nicotinergic receptors are occupied for insecticide molecules, the acetylcholinesterase cannot act and consequently decrease their activity, as observed in our study. These results show that a sublethal dose thiamethoxam can cause imbalance in the brain of Africanized honeybees. Keywords: insecticide, neonicotinoid, enzyme, nervous system, neurotoxic. Financial support: FAPESP (2014/23197-7; 2012/13370-8; 2012/50197-2).

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COOLING FOR SURVIVAL: STRATEGIES OF THE STINGLESS BEE MELIPONA SUBNITIDA TO COPE WITH THE THERMAL CONDITIONS OF THE BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY-FOREST Noeide da Silva Ferreira1*; Vinício Heidy da Silva Teixeira de Souza1; Michael Hrncir1. Departamento de Ciências Animais; Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido; Contato: Av. Francisco Mota, 572, 59625-900, Mossoró/RN, Brasil. noeidebio@gmail.com The climatic conditions of the Brazilian Tropical Dry-Forest, the Caatinga, present a considerable thermal challenge for bees. In this environment, the annual average temperatures vary between 26°C and 34°C. Effective ambient temperatures at food sources, however, easily exceed 45°C. Thus, in order to survive foraging in this environment, bees have to be able to tolerate extremely high temperatures. In the present study, we investigated the strategies of the stingless bee Melipona subnitida (Apidae, Meliponini) to cope with the thermal conditions of the Caatinga. We analysed (1) the relation between the nest temperature (Tn) and ambient temperature (Ta), (2) the relation between the thoracic temperature of workers while foraging at artificial food sources (Ttx) and effective temperature (Te), and (3) the passive heating rate of individuals. (1) Tn, measured at different points of the nests with thermo-sensors coupled to data-loggers, increased with increasing Ta. Despite this correlation between Ta and Tn, the temperature in the brood-area remained stable at 30.3°C ± 0.05. At Ta>40°C, this area was approximately 9°C cooler than the outside environment, suggesting an active colony thermoregulation. Given that temperatures in the honey-pot region always remained 1.2-10.2°C below Ta, the honey storage might play an important role for the nest-cooling. (2) Ttx of foragers was assessed by means of thermographic imaging. Ttx increased with increasing Te, yet was higher than Te at Te<40°C, and remained about 1°C below Te at Te>40°C, indicating an active regulation of Ttx by the workers. (3) Passive heating of bees after being exposed to 8°C in and BOD incubator for 1/2h, occurred at a very low rate of 0.01°C/s. This slow passive heating together with the suggested active cooling by foraging individuals and colonies represent important strategies for bees to cope with the elevated ambient temperatures in the Brazilian Tropical Dry-Forest. Keywords: stingless bees; active thermoregulation; cooling; effective temperature; Caatinga. Financial support: CNPq - 481256/2010-5, 309914/2013-2, 404156/2013-4, CAPES - 3168/2013.

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EFFECTS OF A RELEVANT FIELD CONCENTRATION OF THIAMETHOXAM IN BRAIN OF AFRICANIZED HONEYBEE APIS MELLIFERA (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE) AFTER EXPOSURE DURING THE LARVAL PHASE Priscila Sepúlveda Friol¹*; Daiana Antonia Tavares¹; Aline Fernanda Catae¹; Thaisa Cristina Roat¹; Osmar Malaspina¹. ¹*State University Paulista “Julio de Mesquita Filho”, UNESP, Biosciences Institute, Department of Biology / Center for the Study of Social Insects (CEIS), Rio Claro campus/SP. Contact: Avenida 24A, 1515, 13506-900 Rio Claro, Brazil. priscilamusica@yahoo.com.br The africanized honeybee Apis mellifera has a great importance due the service of pollination of various species of plants, as also due the production of food. The increase of agricultural crops have resulted in wide use of pesticides, making the use of these products more frequent. Among the pesticides most commonly used today are the neonicotinoids that act on the nervous system of the insect. However, the bees, even being insects do not target these products may be contaminated through the floral resources brought by forager bees to the colony. In this way, if there is the presence of some kind of residue, then there will be contact between the contaminated food of the field, and the larvae inside the nest. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze, in laboratory conditions, in newly emerged workers that were exposed to a realistic dose with field concentration of thiamethoxam during the larval stage, the possible effects in the brain, through morphological studies with light microscopy. For this reason, larvae were exposed to concentration of 0.001 ng/ µL of thiamethoxam, using the methodology proposed by AUPINEL et al. , (2005 and 2007) as well as the recommendations of the OECD, (2013). Brains of bees newly emerged bee were collected the for morphological analysis. It was possible to observe the mushroom body of control group without morphological alterations, while the exposed group showed spacing between cells and the presence of Kenyon cells with cytoplasm showing loss of acidophilia. These changes show that doses of thiamethoxam employed in the field, can cause neuronal alterations in newly emerged bees that were exposed to thiamethoxam during the larval phase. Keywords: bee; neonicotinóid; larvae; intoxication. Financial support: FAPESP – (2015/09691-1; 2012/13370-8; 2012/50197-2).

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OCCURRENCE OF NOSEMA SPP. IN APIARIES OF SERGIPE STATE Eleci Adriano Hendges1; Kátia Peres Gramacho2*; Marcelo da Costa Mendonça1,3; Renata Araujo Simões2; Leandro Eugenio Cardamone Diniz1,2. Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros; Aracaju, Brasil; 2*Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT); Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa (ITP); Aracaju; Brasil; 3EMDAGRO, Empresa de Desenvolvimento Agropecuário de Sergipe; Aracaju; Brasil. 1

katholausa@hotmail.com The beekeeping with Africanized honey bees in Sergipe state is a productive and economic activity in development. The state´s is the 9th northeastern honey producer, 23th in the country, and 4th in the national pollen production. Given the importance of beekeeping to the state, we need a proper management to prevent pathogens such as microsporidia Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae that cause losses of colonies and production. The microsporidia Nosema genre are considered important pathogens of honey bees due to the development of the disease known as nosemosis that can affect the health of colonies and generate economic losses in beekeeping. In order to evaluate the occurrence of Nosema spp. in the State, samples of adults honeybees were collected by the colonies in apiaries of eight territories (South, South Centre, Aracaju Great, Central Agreste, Wilderness Middle, Wilderness High, Lower San Francisco and East Sergipe) located in the three productive state mesoregions (Wilderness, East and Sergipe Agreste). Of the samples analyzed 13% were positive for the presence of Nosema spp., and through the molecular characterization of the pathogen, sequences using small subunit ribosomal (SSU rRNA) obtained by PCR using primers specific for Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae was identified microsporídeo Nosema ceranae the samples. Therefore, the confirmation of nosemosis apiaries in Sergipe reinforces the need and the importance of adequate and efficient management for strengthening and development of the activity in the state, contributing to the maintenance of bee health and the increase in the production sector and the economy, as the identified pathogen (N. ceranae) has high potential for dispersal and may contribute to the death and the disappearance of bees. Keywords: Microsporídeo; Nosema; SSU rRNA; Apis mellifera L; Africanized honeybees.

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IDENTIFICATION OF MIR-34 TARGET INTERACTIONS DURING APIS MELLIFERA METAMORPHOSIS Natália Helena Hernandes¹*; Flávia Cristina de Paula Freitas²; Zilá Luz Paulino Simões3. ¹*Departamento de Genética - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto – USP, Brasil; ²Faculty for Health and Medical Sciences – University of Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Departamento de Biologia - Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciência e Letras de Ribeirão Preto – USP, Brasil. Contato: Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, Brasil. natalia.hernandes@usp.br The metamorphosis of holometabolous insects is driven by successive morphological and physiological alterations. Molecular components such as ecdysteroids (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH), transcription factors and microRNAs (miRNAs) are the regulators of this process. Notwithstanding, it is not yet described the interaction between these elements in social insects, such as the honeybees, Apis mellifera. We take the advantage of already published information and our database to achieve the interactions involving miR-34, miR-281, miR-252a and miR-252b (essential regulators of insects metamorphosis) and the genes of JH and 20E pathways: ultraspiracle (usp), fushi tarazu-transcription factor 1 (ftz-f1), ecdysone receptor (ecr), calponin (chd64), insulin receptor (inr), and Krüppel homolog 1(kr-h1). We predicted the miRNA-target interactions in A. mellifera searching for miRNAs binding sites in the 3’UTR of selected genes using RNAhybrid software (free energy ≤ -20 kcal/mol and p-value ≤ 0.05), which allowed us to develop a gene interaction network. This network revealed that ecr, usp and the transcription factor ftz-f1 are potential targets of miRNAs involved in honeybee metamorphosis. Both usp and ftz-f1 presented binding sites for all the four miRNAs tested. Ecr showed sites for miR-34, miR-252a and miR-281. We also observed that all the six protein-coding genes are putative targets of miR-34, which has a role in cellular reprogramming and undergoes expression profile changes during the larval-pupal and pupal-adult transitions. The next step is the validation of the miRNA-target interactions by luciferase assay in HEK293T cells. In this sense, our results add singular aspects of the metamorphosis in A. mellifera using gene dynamics expression and miRNA-target interactions. Keywords: honeybee; metamorphosis; Apis mellifera; microRNA-target. Financial support: FAPESP (2014/18091-5 and 2011/03171-5); Capes, CNPq.

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METHODS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA CHARACTERIZATION WITH POLYACRYLAMIDE GELS IN APIS MELLIFERA Marcia Regina Cavichio Issa1*; Vera Lucia Castelo Figueiredo2; David De Jong1; Zilá Luz Paulino Simões2; Marcela A. Framartino Bezerra-Laure1; Clarice Harumi Sakamoto1. ¹*Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto - USP; 2Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto – USP Contato: Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, Brasil. marciaissa.genetica@gmail.com The honey bee DNA was extracted with a rapid method that use Proteinase K and lyses buffer. The samples had the mitochondrial Cytochrome b region amplified because it has a restriction site for the enzyme Bgl II only to European origin bees. We used the specific primer 5’-TATGTACTACCATGAGGACAAATATC-3’ (forward) and 5´-ATTACACCTCCTAATTTA TTAGGAAT-3’ (reverse). The PCR reaction used 1 μl of extracted DNA in 24.3 μL amplification solution (2.5 μL buffer [200 mM Tris pH 8.5; 500 mM KCl, 20 mM MgCl2], 200 mM dNTP, 1 μMol of each primer, 0.5 U taq polymerase, 15.5 μl bidestiled water. In a thermocycler, was used a program with 1 minute at 940C and 35 cycles (1 minute at 94°C, 2 minutes at 50°C, 3 minutes at 72°C) and a additional step of 5 minutes at 72°C. After amplification, 10 μL of PCR products, were digested with 0.5 μl of Bgl II, 1.8 μl enzyme buffer, 9.6 μl water at 37°C for minimum 3h. After this time, were used 3 μl of 0.25% bromophenol blue, 0.25% xylene cyanol, 40% (w/v) sucrose and the material was heated for 10 minutes at 65°C (Gibco enzyme), then used in gel, or stored in a refrigerator. The digested materials were electrophoresed on non-denaturing 6% polyacrylamide gel (6.2 ml water, 2.0 ml acrylamid/bisacrylamide – 29:1, 700 μl sucrose-70%, 1.0 ml 10X TBE, 7 μl TEMED, 100 μl APS10%). After polymerization, the gel was placed in a tank with electrophoresis buffer (1X TBE). The samples were prepared with 8 μl of incubated DNA and 2-3 μl loading-buffer. The electrophoresis was performed in room temperature, with 2 W for 10 minutes (packaging) and 6-8 W to the end. The staining was performed with silver impregnation. The gels showed two bands for European honey bees and only one to Africanized. Keywords: Cytochrome b; mtDNA; Apis mellifera; Polyacrylamide gel; Bgl II. Financial support: FAPESP; CNPq.

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GENES DIFFERENTLY EXPRESSED DURING OVARY DEVELOPMENT IN HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA) Denyse Cavalcante Lago1*; Fernanda de Carvalho Humann2; Gustavo Jacomini Tibério3; Klaus Hartfelder3 . Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Genética, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil; 2Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, Campus Matão, Matão, SP, Brazil; 3Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular, Ribeirão Preto, SP; Brazil. 1*

denyse_cavalcante@hotmail.com The differential feeding during the development of honey bee (Apis mellifera) triggers endogenous responses in signaling pathways and endocrine system which promote alternative phenotypes of female castes. Queens and workers differ in physiology, morphology, longevity, function in the colony, behavior, and, especially the activation of reproductive system. Concerning the ovaries, previous results based on microarray assays revealed a set of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in queen and worker larvae.This project now aimed to further analyze the expression patterns of DEGs in the ovaries of larval workers and queens. From the microarray assays we selected a set of 18 DEGs for validation by qPCR. These analyses were performed on ovaries dissected from queens and workers of four larval stages representing critical phases of ovary development (L4, L5F1, L5F2, L5F3). Among the 18 DEG candidates, 11 were confirmed as differentially expressed. Four genes that code for enzymes: a short chain dehydrogenase reductase (GB54419), a 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (GB18737), a SCPEP1-like gene (GB11273) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GB50902), exhibited an expression peak at L5F1 in worker ovaries. Among the two genes encoding storage or transport proteins, apolipoprotein III (GB20117) was more expressed in workers and hexamerin 70b (GB10869) was overexpressed in queen ovaries. Among the genes related to mRNA translation and signaling pathways: elongation fator 1α (GB52028), heat shock protein 60 (GB18969), heat shock protein 90 (GB40976) and an mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (GB41845) were significantly overexpressed in queen ovaries. The gene OCLP-1 (GB19297), which has a hypothetical function as an inhibitor cystine knot peptide, was found higher expressed in worker ovaries. The differential expression of these genes encoding enzymes, storage/transport and signaling pathway proteins indicates that they are important in caste-specific ovary development and should be further investigated. Keywords: Apis mellifera; Gene Expression; Larval Ovary; Development; RT-PCR . Financial Support: FAPESP.

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NIEMANN–PICK TYPE C2 (NPC2) GENE EXPRESSION DURING CASTE DETERMINATION IN APIS MELLIFERA Karina Rosa Guidugli-Lazzarini1; Mário Sérgio Cervoni1; Klaus Hartmann Hartfelder1. Universidade de São Paulo; FMRP; Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular e Bioagentes Patogênicos; Ribeirão Preto; Brasil.

1

karina.guidugli@gmail.com Insects must obtain cholesterol directly from dietary intake since they are unable to synthesize sterols. The proper cholesterol levels in the cells are maintained by well-turned homeostatic regulatory systems. In Drosophila melanogaster has been suggested that niemann-pick types C-1 and C-2 proteins (NPC1 and NPC2) play important roles in cholesterol trafficking. Moreover, in Drosophila, npc2 genes are related to control of sterol homeostasis, ecdysteroid biosynthesis and innate immune signaling pathways. Herein we investigated the npc2-like gene expression in Apis mellifera queen and worker larvae by qRT-PCR. The npc2-like levels were significantly higher in worker larvae during feeding phases (L4, L5F1, L5F2 and L5F3) compared to queen larvae. Also in the same larvae instars the juvenile hormone titers are quite lower in worker when compared to respective queen larvae. In order to verify if juvenile hormone could be regulated negatively the npc2-like expression, worker larvae (L5F2) were treated in vitro with methoprene (10-5M), a juvenile hormone analogue. According to previous result, the npc2-like levels significantly decreased in worker larvae treated with methoprene. Taken together our results suggest that npc2-like gene expression is under juvenile hormone control and also can be related to caste determination process. Key words: caste determination; npc2; honeybee; juvenile hormone. Financial Support: CNPq.

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AQUAPORINS IN THE OVARIES OF APIS MELLIFERA QUEENS Luanda Medeiros-Santana1,*, José Eduardo Serrão1,#. Universidade Federal de Viçosa – UFV, Departamento de Biologia Geral, Av. P.H. Rolfs s/n, Campus Universitário, 36570-000, Viçosa – MG, Brazil.

1

luandam@gmail.com, # jeserrao@ufv.br

*

Aquaporins (AQP) are cellular transmembrane proteins that have a specific three-dimensional structure with a pore that provides a pathway for water transport across lipid bilayer of cell membranes. Honeybee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), has six predicted genes for aquaporins. The aim of this work was to identify aquaporins in the ovaries of virgin and mated queens of this species. For that, one day, two days, three days and four days virgin queens and mated queens performing oviposition were dissecated and the ovaries were used to RNA extraction. cDNA was synthesized for analysis of RT-qPCR, using specific primers. Ovaries from mated queens were used to perform microscopy analysis, too. Two specific aquaporins (AQPAn.G transcript variant x5 and AQPCiclike) were expressed in the ovaries of virgin queens and genes transcripts amount was higher in three and four days old queens. Gene AQPCic-like was the only gene expressed in the ovaries of mated queens. To assess the presence of aquaporins protein in different parts of the ovaries of mated queens, we tested an anti-aquaporin antibody (DRIP – Drosophila Aquaporin). All parts of ovarioles of fecundated queens were positive for the aquaporin antibody. The oocytes of honeybee queens receive large amounts of cytoplasmic contents from nurse cells and yolk proteins produced in the fat body and the aquaporins may act in the oocyte hydric balance during vitellogenesis. Egg maturation in honeybee queens only occurs after the mating and the high expression of gene AQPAn.G transcript variant x5 in the ovaries of virgin queens may have a different function not related to egg maturation. Keewords: RT-qPCR; Membrane Integral Proteins; Water transport; Mycroscopy. Financial support: FAPEMIG; CAPES, CNPq.

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MITOCHONDRIAL DYSFUNCTION ON HONEYBEES CAUSED BY A FUNGICIDE USED IN AGRICULTURAL FIELDS Daniel Nicodemo*; Fábio Erminio Mingatto; Marco Aurélio Tavares; Paulo Francisco Veiga Bizerra; Alessandra Lima Santos; Thais Regina Alves; Amanda de Carvalho. *UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Câmpus de Dracena, Dracena, Brasil. Contato: Rod. Comte. João Ribeiro de Barros, km 651, 17900-000, Dracena, Brasil. nicodemo@dracena.unesp.br There are no restriction associated to honeybees for many fungicides used in agriculture. The recommendation is not to apply these products in the presence of strong winds and during the hottest times of the day. Therefore, beekeepers and growers are not informed about the fungicides potential effects on bees, such as larval and pupae mortality related to the modification of microbial composition at beebread and bees intestine. Furthermore, fungicides also can be harmful to bees in result of unknown effects. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the fungicide pyraclostrobin perturbs the honeybee mitochondrial bioenergetics. Approximately 300 bees were caught from hives and anesthetized on a refrigerator at 4oC. After anesthesia, honeybees thoraces were removed and placed into a chilled mortar. Mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation. An aliquot of 0.5 mg protein was added to 0.5 mL of the standard reaction medium in the presence of 4 mM succinate (complex II substrate) plus 50 nM rotenone (complex I inhibitor) and mitochondrial respiration was monitored at 30°C using a Clark-type oxygen electrode. Rates of oxygen consumption were determined and expressed as nmol of oxygen per mg of protein per minute. Mitochondrial membrane potential was determined spectrofluorimetrically using safranin O as a probe. Pyraclostrobin was tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 25 and 50 μM and the experiments were repeated with three different mitochondrial preparations. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to detect differences in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Pyraclostrobin produced inhibition of mitochondrial respiration in a dose dependent manner from the concentration of 15 μM, as a typical inhibitory of oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, pyraclostrobin also promoted a decline in the mitochondrial membrane potential. These results indicate that pyraclostrobin inhibits mitochondrial function and this effect can be involved in the toxicity of the compound for the honeybees. Keywords: Apis mellifera; bioenergetics; colony collapse disorder; mitochondria; strobilurin. Financial support: FAPESP.

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ZELDA GENE EXPRESSION DURING OOGENESIS OF WORKERS AND QUEENS OF APIS MELLIFERA Franciene Rabiço Oliveira¹; Camilla Valente Pires2; Zilá Luz Paulino Simões1. ¹Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto - USP; Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto – USP. franciene.oliveira@usp.br During oogenesis of Apis mellifera, maternal products from the ovarian nurse cells and follicular cells are deposited in the oocyte. These products such as mRNAs, miRNAs, as well as proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, serve to maintain the future embryo at the stage prior to activation of the zygotic genome, when very few transcription is observed, if any. Among these products is the Zelda transcription factor, the main regulator of genome activation and of various stages of embryo development. It is believed that the transfer of Zelda mRNA encoder to the oocyte occurs during oogenesis. The objective of this study is to investigate the transcription profile of zelda in active and inactive ovaries of queens and workers of A. mellifera. The previously obtained results through analysis of different RNAseq libraries (mRNA) of A. mellifera showed that the zelda is expressed differentially in workers with active ovaries, forage workers, and workers with inactive ovaries kept in colony with queen. I addition, to the inactive ovaries in the absence of the queen, mated queen and virgin queen. With the results obtained by the analysis of RNAseq libraries, we can see that zelda expression levels in workers with activated ovaries and virgin queens are higher when compared to other samples, suggesting that zelda is transcribed in the early oogenesis. These preliminary results not only corroborated but also extended the results obtained by (RT-qPCR) and transcription localization by in situ hybridization. Keywords: Apis mellifera; Zelda; oogenesis; RNAseq; RT-Qpcr; in situ hybridization. Financial support: FAPESP – 04823-7/2015.

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ANTENNAL SENSITIVITY TO FLORAL SCENTS OF CAMPANULA (CAMPANULACEAE): A COMPARATIVE ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY OF POLYLECTIC AND OLIGOLECTIC BEES Paulo Milet-Pinheiro1,2*; Katharina Dering1; Wittko Francke3; Stefan Dötterl4; Manfred Ayasse1. University of Ulm, Institute of Experimental Ecology, Ulm, Germany; 2 Federal University of Pernambuco, Department of Chemistry, Recife, Brazil; 3 University of Hamburg, Department of Organic Chemistry, Hamburg, Germany; 4 University of Salzburg, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Plant Ecology, Salzburg, Austria. 1

miletpinheiro@hotmail.com The pollen diet provided by bees to their offspring varies immensely. While some species collect pollen on several plants irrespective to their phylogenetic relatedness (polyleges), others collect pollen only on plants within a genus or family (oligoleges). Floral scents play a central role in any bee-plant interaction. To locate flowers, polylectic bees are assumed to rely on compounds commonly found as floral scent constituents. Oligolectic bees, on the other hand, might rely on unusual compounds to recognize host flowers unambiguously. Campanula flowers are visited by both polylectic and oligolectic species, and their flower scent bouquets consist of common and unusual volatiles (i.e. spiroacetals). In a comparative approach, we performed electroantennographic analyses (EAG) to investigate the antennal responses of polylectic (Andrena bicolor, Apis mellifera, and Bombus terrestris) and oligolectic species (i.e. Chelostoma rapunculi, C. campanularum, and Osmia mitis) to three common volatiles (2-Phenylethanol, Linalool and (E)-ß-Ocimene) and five spiroacetals. We hypothesized that: 1) Oligoleges and polyleges respond similarly to common flower volatiles and 2) Campanula oligoleges are more sensitive to spiroacetals than polyleges. In corroboration, we found that antennal sensitivity to common volatiles was similar irrespective of pollen diet, whereas Campanula oligoleges were much more sensitive to spiroacetals than polyleges. These results indicate that Campanula oligoleges have highly sensitive olfactory receptors for spiroacetals, which are compounds rarely reported as floral scent constituents but quite common among Campanula species. Newly-emerged females of C. rapunculi rely solely on spiroacetals for recognizing hostflowers and our results suggest that this might also be true for other Campanula-oligoleges. The study also shows that polylectic bees, which have a broad pollen diet breadth, have olfactory receptors to common volatiles that might signalize flowers as a whole. Altogether, our results provide interesting insights into the significance of olfactory receptors for the evolution of pollen diet breadth in bees. Keywords: Bees; Electroantennography (EAG); Floral scents; Spiroacetals. Financial support: DFG - AY 12/5-1; DO 1250/6-1.

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THE ROLE OF OXIDATIVE METABOLISM IN CASTE DIFFERENTIATION IN THE HONEY BEE Douglas Elias Santos1*; Luciane Carla Alberici2; Klaus Hartfelder1. Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular; Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo,  Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

1

*douglaselias@usp.br Apis mellifera is a important model to developmental plasticy studies. The two morphologically and anatomically disctinct castes, queens and workers, arise from bipotent larvae that are differentially nourished. From of fouth stage begins diferential feeding (royal jelly) of larvae that will promote changes on insect physiology in order to generate a queen. So far, such differential responses have been evidenced for insect hormones (juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids), as well as for the insulin signaling (IIS)/TOR pathways and Egfr signaling. Recent results also showed differential expression of the hypoxia response core genes, indicating an endogenous hypoxia condition in worker larvae, possibly related to mitochondrial structure and function. The study aim to analyze the structure and mitochondrial biogenesis and their relationship to hypoxia via the differentiation of caste in honeybees, as well the metabolism of larvae. To accomplish this, fourth and fifth stages larvae of worker and queen were collect from differents colonies from apiary of genect departament (FMRPUSP), Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil and submitted differents protocols. The first one, transmission electron micrographies revealed a higher mitochondrial number on queen larvae than worker on perinuclear area, followed by increasing of mitocondrial concetration near to plasmatic membrane during larvae spinning stage. In both castes the mitochondries has high membrane density. Analysis of mitochondrial division genes elected four transcriptor factors (amTFAM, amTFB1, amTFB2 and amERR) as posibles canditates to regulate this diffencial mitochondrial number. The RT-qPCR shown higher expression of TFB1, TFB2 and ERR in especifcs stages of larvae queen. This results are complemented by high diffence of physiological assays obtained from oxigraph method. All this preliminar results provide evidences that support the mitochondrial function has a crucial role in caste differentiation process in honey bees. Keywords: Apis mellifera; development; castes; mitochondria. Financial support: CAPES; FAPESP 2013/24733-7.

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GENE EXPRESSION IN DIAPAUSE LARVAE OF TETRAPEDIA DIVERSIPES (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Priscila Karla Ferreira dos Santos; Maria Cristina Arias Universidade de São Paulo; Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva; Contato: Rua da Matão, 277, sala 320, 05586090 São Paulo; Brasil. pkfsantos@usp.br The diapause is broadly distributed among the arthropods and has had an important contribution for the success of Insecta Class. It is an alternative strategy of life, present in many arthropods, to survive in harsh conditions (food restriction, stress, temperature), it can changes metabolism, behavior and development. Although there is evidence that the diapause process has remained conserved during the evolution of species, it is still lacking information about the metabolic patterns level conservancy. Tetrapedia diversipes is a bivoltine solitary bee, in the first generation the larvae have a faster development, in the second one the development is longer because the larvae enter in diapause during the winter. The objective of this work was to identify the profile of gene expression between non-diapause and diapause larvae of T. diversipes in natural conditions through transcriptome analysis. Larvae samples from first generation (that do not enter in diapause), second generation (that would enter in diapause), and in diapause were obtained. One hundred ninety-six transcripts were differentially expressed between non-diapause (first and second generation) and diapause larvae. From that, it was possible to annotate 74 transcripts, being 23 up-regulated and 51 down-regulated in diapause larvae. Some of these genes have already been described as related to diapause in other organisms, for example Fatty-acid synthase and Actin, but the pattern of expression (up/down) is not conserved. The differentially expressed genes are mainly related to cellular detoxification, lipids and steroids metabolism, cuticle and cytoskeleton. Keywords: Genes; Transcriptome; RNA-Seq; Solitary bees. Financial support: CAPES, FAPESP, BioComp.

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NEXT-GENERATION MRNA SEQUENCING ANALYSIS OF THE METAMORPHOSIS IN

FOR APIS

HIGH-THROUGHPUT MELLIFERA CASTES

Michelle Prioli Miranda Soares1*; Daniel Guariz Pinheiro2; Tiago Fálcon1; Marcela Aparecida Framartino Bezerra Laure1; Zilá Paulino Luz Simões3; Márcia Maria Gentile Bitondi3. * Universidade de São Paulo; FMRP; Departamento de Genética; Ribeirão Preto; Brasil; 2UNESP; FCAV; Departamento de Tecnologia; São Paulo; Brasil; 3Universidade de São Paulo; FFCLRP; Departamento de Biologia; Ribeirão Preto; Brasil. 1

*miprioli@gmail.com In the broadest sense, metamorphosis is a developmental process by which an immature organism is transformed into a sexually mature adult. In insects, this process is characterized by the degeneration, or remodeling, of larval tissues and formation of the adult tissues from nests of precursor cells localized to specific regions of the larval body. For a comprehensive analysis of gene expression variation during metamorphosis, we used the RNA seq (high-throughput RNA sequencing) methodology for sequencing the transcriptome of a precursor tissue existing in the premetamorphic stage, the imaginal wings discs, and their postmetamorphic derivatives, i.e., the thoracic dorsum and wings of queens and workers of honeybees. Among the 13202 genes, 5082 were differentially expressed (q_value < 0,05, log2 fold-change between ≥ 1 and ≤ -1, and RPKM ≥ 5) in workers, and 4955 were differentially expressed in queens. A total of 4145 genes were expressed both in workers and queens; 937 and 810 genes were exclusively expressed in workers and queens, respectively. We obtained 6227 DEGs when we performed all possible comparisons within each caste and between castes. These genes were grouped into classes according to their potential functions. We found genes involved in cuticle, muscle and wings formation. Among genes involved in cuticle formation, we found many genes codifying for structural cuticle proteins. Some of them showed stage-specific expression, and the majority were highly expressed during adult cuticle formation. We also monitored genes codifying for enzymes, hormones and receptors that have relevant roles during metamorphosis. Besides, we investigated the expression of 214 miRNAs in the differentiating imaginal wing discs of workers. Our future steps include searches for common sites in the promoter regions of the genes that could indicate positions for cis-regulatory elements. We hope that this approach reveals the broad panorama of the molecular genetics of metamorphosis. Keywords: metamorphosis; Apis mellifera; next-generation sequencing. Financial support: FAPESP (2012/12941-1; 2012/24284-5; 2014/13136-0).

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EXPRESSION OF THE GENE AQP-4-LIKE IN THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF APIS MELLIFERA WORKERS (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Débora Linhares Lino de Souza*; José Eduardo Serrão. Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Biologia Geral, Programa de Pós Graduação em Biologia Celular e Estrutural, Viçosa, Brasil debora.souza@ufv.br The age polyethism of Apis mellifera workers is related to morphological and physiological changes in many systems, including the digestive system. The aging of bees also leads to diet changes, with younger workers consuming mainly pollen and older bees consuming mainly honey. The aquaporins are transmembrane proteins that have been identified in different organs of the digestive tract of insects and are responsible for water transport through cell membranes. This study evaluated whether there are differences in aqp-4-like expression, a putative gene for aquaporin, in A. mellifera bees between nurses and foragers workers. The bees were marked and kept in an observation hive to identify those performing different tasks. After harvesting the bees their Malpighian tubules (MT), crop, midgut, ileum and rectum were dissected, kept on RNA Later then total RNA was extracted for cDNA synthesis, which was used to perform qPCR. To evaluate the differential expression between workers we applied the Student’s t-test by the Cochran-Cox method, and in order to quantify the aqp4-like gene expression we used the software REST. The results showed that in nurse bees aqp-4-like mRNA was greater expressed in MT and ileum, while in the forager the highest expression occurred in the crop and rectum. The midgut was the only organ that showed no difference in expression between nurses and foragers, but it was the organ with highest expression of aqp-4-like compared to the MT. These data show that aqp-4-like is differentially expressed in various organs of the digestive tract of nurses and foragers workers due to its different diets and physiology. The differential expression of the gene is related to osmoregulation in the MT, ileum and rectum. Also, the dehydration of the food content in the crop and midgut by this aquaporin avoids the digestive enzymes dilution, ensuring the completion of digestion. Keywords: honeybee; aquaporin; real time PCR; digestive system. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq; FAPEMIG.

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HONEY BEE APIS MELLIFERA HAVE THEIR DEVELOPMENT AFFECTED FROM SUBLETHAL INTOXICATION OF THIAMETHOXAM IN THE LARVAL STAGE Daiana Antonia Tavares1*; Claudia Dussaubat2; André Kretzschmar3; Stephan Malfitano Carvalho4; Osmar Malaspina1; Elaine C.M. Silva-Zacarin5; Luc P. Belzunces2. UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Biologia, Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brasil. INRA, UR 406 Abeilles et Environnement, 84914 Avignon Cedex 9, France. 3INRA, UR 546 Biostatistique et Processus Spatiaux, CS 40509, Avignon, France. 4UFU, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. 5UFSCAR, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural e Funcional, Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brasil. 1

2

daianazoo@yahoo.com.br The honey bees Apis mellifera are essential insects for maintenance of natural areas, and agricultural systems, through their pollination services. Also, they have economic importance, since the colony products and sub products are marketed, including honey, propolis, royal jelly, pollen and wax. The honey bee declines called colony collapse disorder (CCD), was firstly identified in the United States. From that, several investigations of the possible causes of this phenomenon, was started. Among the possible causes, are diseases caused by parasites and viruses, fragmentation of habitats, as well as insecticide intoxication, including, neonicotinoids insecticides. Based on the fact that neonicotinoids can not only contaminate the forager bees, but also the larvae are inside the colony, by contaminated diet, this study, aimed to evaluate the survival of A. mellifera throughout the development following oral acute intoxication with sublethal concentrations of the insecticide thiamethoxam, in the larval stage, in laboratorial conditions. For this, first instar larvae were transferred, to a plastic queen-startercell, arranged in cellular culture plate of 48 wells, and the diet larval were supply from day 1 to day 6, following methodology adopted. On day 4 (4-d), three sub-lethal concentrations (0.00001, 0001 and 1.44 ng/µL) were added directly to the larval food, from stock solutions in distilled water, concentrated, and the control group received uncontaminated diet. The larval mortality was checked individually during the development stages. Data of survival were analyzed using statistical software R Development using the Cox proportional hazards regression model, with R functions (coxph) and the survival package. The results obtained showed that, the exposition larval to sublethal concentrations of the thiamethoxam, can affect the survival of the larvae and pupae, strongly on pupae stage with consequence decreases of the newly emerged bees, could also contribute to the decline and maintenance of the colonies. Keywords: Survival; sublethal effects; ecotoxicology; pos-embryonic phases. Financial support: FAPESP - grants 2013/21634-8.

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THERMAL TOLERANCE OF STINGLESS BEES IN THE BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY-FOREST AND ITS RELATION TO BODY SIZE Vinício Heidy da Silva Teixeira de Souza*; Noeide da Silva Ferreira; Michael Hrncir. Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido; Departamento de Ciências Animais; Mossoró/RN; Brasil. vinicioheidyy@gmail.com The thermal tolerance of an animal is associated with its adaptive capacity and reflects the thermal characteristics of the species’ natural habitat. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of body size on the thermal tolerance of bees of the Brazilian Tropical Dry-Forest, the Caatinga, characterized through elevated ambient temperatures year round. We investigated the lethal temperatures for Melipona subnitida (Ms), Scaptotrigona sp. (St), and Plebeia sp. (Pb), three stingless bee species (Apidae, Meliponini) that naturally occur in this environment and differ in body size (inter-tegular distance, ITD: ITDMs=2.79mm, ITDSt=1.76mm, ITDPb=1.10mm). We exposed worker groups to temperatures of between -2°C and 44°C inside BOD incubators (initial temperature: 28°C; daily temperature increase/decrease: 2°C). Prior to each temperature change, we assessed the mortality rate of the bees (proportion of dead individuals at a certain experimental temperature). From these data, we estimated the high and low lethal temperature TL50 (temperature at which ≥ 50% of the animals die) of each species using sigmoidal regression models. The observed ranges of thermal tolerance (temperature range between high and low TL50) were 40.6°C for Ms (high TL50=42.7°C; low TL50=1.5°C), 32.5°C for St (high TL50=40.8°C; low TL50 = 6.3°C), and 32.3°C for Pb (high TL50=39.1°C; low TL50=6.0°C), thus showing a clear association with body size. Our results underline the thermal adaptation of all three studied bee species to the climatic conditions of the Caatinga, where average annual temperatures vary between 26°C and 34°C and minimum temperatures rarely drop below 17°C. However, the temperature increase by 4°C, foreseen for the coming decades in the Brazilian Northeast due to global warming, might have a critical impact on the populations of Scaptotrigona sp. and Plebeia sp., given that the average annual temperatures of the Caatinga will be close to the upper thermal limit of both species. Keywords: stingless bees; thermal tolerance; upper thermal limit; Caatinga; global warming. Financial support: CNPq - 481256/2010-5, 309914/2013-2, 404156/2013-4, CAPES - 3168/2013.

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LNCOV1, THE FIRST LONG NON-CODING RNA IN APIS MELLIFERA, DURING CASTE-SPECIFIC OVARY DEVELOPMENT Gustavo Jacomini Tibério2, Klaus Hartmann Hartfelder2. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

2

gustiberiopro@gmail.com The most notable feature in eusocial insects is the presence of castes with division of labor. In Apis mellifera, workers and queens present morphological and physiological differences related to their roles in the colony, whereby queens are reproductive and workers are sterile females. Ovary size is the main difference between these castes, and represents the anatomical basis of their social organization. Analysis of differential gene expression in ovaries of larvae of queens and workers revealed the overexpression of an unpredicted and functionally uncharacterized gene in the ovaries of worker larvae. Sequencing of the cDNA revealed it as a potential lncRNA of 1367 bp. The gene was named long-non-coding-ovary-1 (lncov1) and mapped within an intron of a gene encoding the predicted protein, LOC726407. lncov1 is the first lncRNA functionally related to an important decision in the ovarian phenotypic definition process for workers of honey bees, and its gene occupies a central position in a QTL mapped to the variation in ovariole number of worker bees. Herein we aimed to further characterize the lncov-1 and LOC726407 genes. Through analysis of their expression patterns during larval development of workers by RT-qPCR, we observed a sharp peak of lncov-1 expression in ovaries during the fifth larval instar, coinciding with the stage of development where intense autophagic cell death was previously detected, corroborating with the hypothesis of its involvement with this process. Interestingly, these two genes showed opposite expression patterns, both in the ovary and head tissue, suggesting that the lncov1 is a negative regulator of LOC726407. Through FISH experiments in ovaries of workers we observed that the lncov1 mRNA signal corresponds to TUNEL-positive marks for programmed cell death. All these results suggest that lncov-1, which is the first characterized lncRNA in Apis mellifera, participates in an important decision in the context of caste differentiation. Keywords: Apis mellifera; ovary; lncRNA; RT-qPCR; FISH. Financial support: FAPESP.

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DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE 3 IS SUBJECT TO REGULATION BY MICRORNA 29B AND INFLUENCES HONEY BEE LIFESPAN THROUGH VITELLOGENIN EXPRESSION Carlos Antônio Mendes Cardoso Júnior; Karina Rosa Guidugli; Klaus Hartfelder. Departamento de Biologia Celular, Molecular e Bioagentes Patogênicos, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Aging is a multifactorial process that culminates in physiological damage to cells over time. One of the molecular machineries associated with aging in mammals is DNA methylation (DM), an epigenetic chemical modification that regulates gene expression. To explore the role of DM in aging we chose the honey bee Apis mellifera as a model system because its DM system is similar to that of mammals, and its genome can give rise to two very different phenotypes, short-lived workers and long-lived queens. We quantified DNA methyltransferase 3 (DNMT3) expression in heads, thoraces and abdomens of workers and queens of different ages by RT-qPCR. Next, we assessed the role of DM in vitro and in vivo through inhibition of DNMTs by pharmacological intervention. Finally, we investigated the possible regulation of DNMT3 by a microRNA, ame-mir-29b, and its effects on downstream gene expression. We could show that DNMT3 is down-regulated in worker and queen heads and up-regulated in their abdomens. DNMT inhibition extended the workers‘ lifespan and upregulated vitellogenin (vg) gene expression. During aging, the expression of ame-mir-29b positively coincides with that of DNMT3 in heads of queens and workers and in worker abdomens. Finally, upregulation of DNMT3 was observed in worker abdomens treated in vitro with an ame-mir-29b mimic, indicating that DNMT3 is a bona fide target for this microRNA. Interestingly the up-regulation of DNMT3 caused by the ame-mir-29b mimic showed the same effect on vg expression as that caused by DNMT inhibition. Since the vg gene is not methylated and its mRNA has no binding site for ame-mir-29b, we hypothesize that the microRNA acts via DNMT3, which then affects other loci regulating vg expression. These results suggest that DM and its regulation by microRNAs is involved in the aging process of honey bees, possibly via trans-acting regulators of the vitellogenin gene. Keywords: microRNAs; DNA methylation; Apis mellifera; DNMT3; lifespan. Financial support: FAPESP 2014/26659-1

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THE MICRORNA 317 IS A POTENTIAL REGULATOR OF DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE 3, WHICH CONTROLS VITELLOGENIN EXPRESSION THROUGH TRANS-ACTING ELEMENTS Carlos Antônio Mendes Cardoso Júnior; Karina Rosa Guidugli; Klaus Hartfelder. Departamento de Biologia Celular, Molecular e Bioagentes Patogênicos, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Transcriptional regulation occurs through a complex network of cis- and trans-acting factors. An additional regulatory level involves epigenetic modification of chromatin by methylation of cytosines in DNA and/or differential acetylation and methylation of histone residues. Our goal was to find potential microRNAs that can target the DNA methyltransferase 3 (DNMT3) gene, a key enzyme in de novo DNA methylation using the honey bee (Apis mellifera) as a biological model. MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs, can bind to the 3’ untranslated (UTR) region of mRNA targets and promote their degradation or block their translation. We conducted an in silico analysis to identify potential microRNAs that could target DNMT3 and qPCR assays to verify the coexpression of microRNAs and their potential target, DNMT3, in adult workers and queens. Finally, we set up functional in vitro assays to test the interaction between microRNAs and DNMT3. In silico prediction indicated that the 3’UTR of DNMT3 mRNA has binding sites for ame-mir-317, and qPCR analysis showed that both RNAs are co-expressed in heads and abdomens of workers and queens. The functional in vitro assay revealed that ame-mir-317 can down-regulate DNMT3 expression in queens, but up-regulate its expression in workers. Furthermore, when analyzing the effects of an ame-mir-317 mimic on vitellogenin (vg) gene expression, we observed that it is up-regulated in samples treated with ame-mir-317. Interestingly, ame-mir-317 does not seem to interact directly with the 3’UTR of vg mRNA, and the vg gene is not methylated. These findings lead us to hypothesize that DNMT3 is necessary to regulate Vg through modifying the methylation pattern of a trans-acting regulator of vg expression. Taken together, these data suggest that ame-mir-317 is bona fide regulator of DNMT3 in a regulatory network of vitellogenin, which is a major life history regulator in honey bees. Keywords: microRNAs; DNA methylation; Apis mellifera; DNMT3; vitellogenin. Financial support: FAPESP 2014/26659-1.

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GENOME-WIDE ANALYSIS OF HEX 110 AND HEX 70A BINDING SITES IN THE FAT BODY OF ADULT HONEY BEE WORKERS Juliana Ramos Martins1*; Daniel Guariz Pinheiro2; Amy Cash Ahmed3; Gene Robinson3,4; Craig Mizzen5; Márcia Maria Gentile Bitondi6. Universidade de São Paulo; Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto; Departamento de Genética; Ribeirão Preto; Brasil; 2Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho; Faculdades de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal; Departamento de Tecnologia; Jaboticabal; Brasil; 3 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Institute for Genomic Biology; Urbana; Illinois; United States of America; 4University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Department of Entomology; Urbana; Illinois; United States of America; 5University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology; Urbana; Illinois; United States of America; 6Universidade de São Paulo; Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto; Departamento de Biologia; Ribeirão Preto; Brasil. 1

martinsjulianaramos@gmail.com Hexamerins are proteins abundantly stored in the larval hemolymph of holometabolous insects where they function as a source of amino acids for pupal and adult development. However, hexamerins are more than storage proteins. Recently, we demonstrated that they are also intranuclear proteins in ovarian and testis cells of developing honeybees, and in the larval fat body, which is the organ involved in multiple metabolic functions, including storage and release of macromolecules and energy. Such findings suggested that hexamerins have structural roles or even regulatory roles as components of nuclear structures. We then used immunofluorescence assays and ChIP-Seq methodology to investigate the intranuclear targets of the HEX 110 and HEX 70a hexamerins, and so their roles as DNA-binding proteins in the fat body of adult worker bees (nurse bees). HEX 70a and HEX 110 hexamerins were colocalized with fibrillarin, a nucleolar protein marker, and Histone H3 in the fat body cells (trophocytes and oenocytes) of bees. Such overlap with fibrillarin, a ribonucleoprotein associated to ribosomal RNA, was not complete and a colocalization with Histone H3 suggested that HEX 70a and HEX 110 could bind rDNA. Antibodies against HEX 110 and HEX 70a were then used to precipitate fat body chromatin. Two biological replicates were prepared for sequencing and three biological replicates were prepared for ChIP-Seq validation through qPCR. Bioinformatics analysis showed targets for these proteins in 3’ and 5’ UTRs, exons, introns, coding and promoter regions of the honeybee genes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis using the promoter regions suggests that HEX 110 participates in the metabolism and degradation of cellular membranes by regulating genes involved in phospholipid metabolic process and lipid catabolic process. GO analysis applied to HEX 70a targets revealed potential roles in oxidation and reduction processes, intracellular transport including protein localization, RNA processing and cell division. Key-words: Apis mellifera; ChIP-seq; Hexamerins; Immunofluorescence. Financial support: FAPESP (12/16040-9; 13/23082-2; 14/13136-0).

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BORN IN A CRADLE OF FLOWERS: NESTING BIOLOGY OF THREE MEGACHILE SPECIES Júlia Colombelli Agostini; Anete Pedro Lourenço. Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri; Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde; Departamento de Ciências Biológicas; Diamantina; Brazil. juliacolombelli@gmail.com Nesting biology of three Megachile species was studied in high altitude grasslands in Minas Gerais, southestern Brazil. Nests were built in traps made of black cardboard and bamboo canes. Three nests of each species were collected. Megachile sp.1 built their nests in traps located in an area under recovery with exotic flora, and nests of M. sp.2 and sp.3 were collected in a typical high altitude grassland (campo rupestre) area. Both areas are about 1380 m altitude and 1 Km apart. Nests of M. sp.1 were constructed on September/2011 and August/2012, whereas nests of M. sp.2 were constructed in June/2014 and February/2015, and the nests of M. sp.3 were constructed in April and May/2015.All three species built their nests in bamboo cane and M. sp.2 alsoused cardboard tubes. The brood cells of M. sp.1 consisted of small pieces of leaves, whereas M. sp.2 and sp.3 used pieces of flower petals. Some clay was deposited between the cells in the flower petals nests. Nests diameters varied from 0.6 to 1.3 mm, but they were not different among the Megachile species. The body lengths of M. sp.3 females were larger than the other species, and their males were larger than the M. sp.2. Keywords: Solitary bees, Trap nests, Campo rupestre. Financial support: FAPEMIG.

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PLANTS USED BY XYLOCOPA (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) BEES FOR NEST BUILDING IN A PLUVIAL FOREST Francisco Anderson Vieira de Almeida¹; Gercy Soares Pinto¹; José Elton de Melo Nascimento¹; Jânio Angelo Félix¹; Breno Magalhães Freitas¹; Cláudia Inês da Silva¹. ¹*Universidade Federal do Ceará, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Departamento de Zootecnia, Av. Mister Hull, 2977-Campus do Pici, Bloco 808, CEP 60021-970, Fortaleza-CE, Brasil. anderson.zootecnista@yahoo.com.br Xylocopa bees build nests in dead wood. The species used for nest building differ according to the vegetation cover. Bees of this genus have been studied for pollination of crops, for example, of the genera Passiflora, Curcubita and Phaseolus. One method for attracting and maintaining these bees in the cultivated areas is the use of natural substrates suitable for construction of their nests. These substrates can also be used in the construction of rational boxes so that these bees are better managed. Therefore, it is essential to know the plant species that Xylocopa spp. use in nature. In this context, this study aimed to survey the plant species with nests occupied by Xylocopa spp. in the pluvial forest of the Serra Meruoca, Ceará State. Random active searches were conducted in the vegetation during 2014 and 2015. The Serra da Meruoca is located in the northern Ceará State and predominantly contains elements of Atlantic Forest, Amazon Forest and fruit and exotic species used in landscaping. It was identified nests of X. frontalis and X. grisescens built in bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris var vittata (Schrad. ex J.C.Wendl.)), cedar (Cedrela fissilis Vell), frei jorge (Cordia trichotoma (vell.) Arrab.), gameleira (Ficus adhatodifolia Schott ex. Spreng), guava tree (Psidium guajava L.), mango tree (Mangifera indica L.), timbaúba (Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong.), torém (Cecropia glaziovii Sneth.) and annatto (Bixa orellana L.). These species are common in the Serra da Meruoca, and it is frequently observed trees or parts thereof fallen, which facilitates their removal and transportation to places nearby to crops. Among these species, timbaúba has the greatest potential for use in rational boxes, because its trunk provides adequate sections to make frames of rational boxes that are used by bees for nest building. Key words: Carpenter bees; pollinator; substrate for nesting. Financial Support: UFC; CAPES.

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TRIGONA BRAUERI FRIESE, 1900 AND PARTAMONA SP (APIDAE: MELIPONINI) NEST IN TERMITERY IN ATLANTIC FOREST, REGION OF SOUTH BAHIA STATE Marcos Aurélio Pereira de Andrade¹; Maise Silva²; Rogério Marcos de Oliveira Alves³. ¹Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciências/FTC; Bahia; Brasil; ²FTC; Bioenergia; 3Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Baiano; IF Baiano; Bahia; Brasil. marcoslabeba@yahoo.com.br The stingless beeTrigona braueri Friese, 1900 occurs in Bahia, Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Paraná. This specie were known to build their nest in old termite, ant nests or hollow trunk of tree roots. Partamona Schwarz, 1939 bee occur exclusively in the Neotropical Region, registred from southern Brazil to Mexico. In Bahia satte researches were recorded four species, three in the Atlantic Forest. Most species of Partamona build nest only in termitery. They are recognized as binding thermophilic.This study aimed to register the first observation of nest T. braueri and Partamona sp in the same epigeal termite colony. The nests were found in the Atlantic Forest fragment in the Southern Bahia, municipality of Presidente Tancredo Neves, Bom Jesus Farm (S 13º26’28.3” e W 039º29’57.3”). The epigeal termite colony was active and showed an external height of 80 cm and 2.10 m in circumference. The epigeal termite colony was active and showed an external height of 80 cm and 2.10 m of circumference. Each nest were located one side of the termite colony (opposite). The nest entrance of T. braueri was 30 cm distant from Partamona nest. The local where the nests were found was an open area where occurre many others termite mounds. The occupation of the same substrate by T. braueri and Partamona sp is another example of behavioral plasticity, corroborating observations in other species of eusocial bees. The occupation of the same substrate for those species may be a behavioral strategy. The occupation of the same substrate in this both species can be a behavioral strategy. Sites were Trigona braueri and Partamona occurs in sympatry but with low local density of appropriate substrate to nesting shall favor the substrate sharing. Financial support: FTC; CNPq.

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CARPENTER BEES MULTIPLICATION IN ESPÍRITO SANTO STATE, BRAZIL: INITIAL DATA TO RAINY PERIOD Adriana Baldi1*; Alex Fabian Rabelo Teixeira2; Diego Alves Zonta1; Henrique Paye2; Marcia Neves Guelber Sales2; Favízia Freitas de Oliveira3. *Faculdade Pitágoras de Linhares, Espírito Santo; 2Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural – INCAPER; Linhares; Brasil; 3Universidade Federal da Bahia; Instituto de Biologia; Laboratório de Bionomia, Biogeografia e Sistemática de Insetos (BIOSIS); Salvador; Brasil. 1

adriana-baldi@hotmail.com Carpenter bees, Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) frontalis (Olivier, 1789), are important pollinators of passionfruit. This study aimed to analyze the use of trap-nests made of bamboo (NA) for multiplication and management of X. (N.) frontalis, in the passionfruit Region, North of the Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The study was conducted at the INCAPER, Linhares (19 ° 25’03 “S, 40 ° 04’50” W), from 11.2014 to 03.2015 (rainy season). In order to obtain spontaneous nests of X. (N.) frontalis were distributed 292 NA. For multiplication of X. (N.) frontalis, occupied nests were transferred to a maintenance room. Each bee being born was transferred to a single nest-trap population (NAP), made of bamboo with the open end coupled to a colorless 50 ml plastic pot with two holes: in the pot bottom (top), used to feed with bee honey and the other on the side of the pot (bottom) for the output of material from the cleaning performed by the bee nest. Bees remained arrested for seven days in NAP. After this period, the NAP were taken to the field and open for observation of acceptance or rejection. 12% of NA distributed were occupied spontaneously (n = 35). A number of 37 newly emerged bees (eight males and 29 females) were used in the multiplication, and of these, 54% accepted NAP offered by remaining the same (n = 15). Initially, the creation of X (N.) frontalis, using NA, the most appropriate measurements are: diameter from 16 to 25mm; thickness between 2.5 to 5 mm; length between 15 to 38cm. The acceptance of newly-emerged bees NAP was approximately five times greater than the spontaneous settlement NA. These results suggest the need to continue the work aimed adjustments multiplying methodology carpenter bees, extremely important procedure, especially for regions where there is decline of their populations. Keywords: Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) frontalis; passion fruit; nest-trap; Atlantic Forest. Financial support: FAPES - 11/2013; Programa Jovens Valores ES; INCAPER.

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SAMPLING SOLITARY BEE DIVERSITY WITH NEST TRAPS AND ODOR BAITS IN A CERRADO URBAN FOREST REMNANT OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL Camila Cristina Czernisz Barbosa1, Edivan dos Santos Mendes1, Aline Mackert2, Rodrigo Pires Dallacqua1. Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (CCBS/ UFMS). 2Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campus do Pantanal (CPAN/UFMS).

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*camila.czernisz@gmail.com Several strategies have been successfully employed for surveying bee fauna in forest remnants in Brazil. However, there are few data concerning bee diversity in Mato Grosso do Sul State, especially in urban areas. As far as we know, the present work is one of the first attempts for sampling solitary bee community in an urban forest fragment at Campo Grande/MS. Two different strategies were used: 1) Trapping bees with cardboard tubes (5 mm of diameter and 10 cm of length) as artificial nests and 2) Attracting euglossine male bees with 04 chemical scents (eucalyptol, eugenol, beta-ionone and benzyl benzoate) to plastic bottle traps. Along November and December of 2014, eight trap nests were collected in the field and maintained in the laboratory until the emergence of the adults. Five of these nests contained bees from Centris genus, with 2-3 bees per nest; the other three nests had non-identified wasps, also with 2-3 individuals per nest. The post embryonic development lasted around 30 days for both bees and wasps. Concerning the odor baits, 52 euglossine males from 3 genus and 5 species were captured. The most attractive scent was beta-ionone (65%), but it only captured two species, being Euglossa carolina the most frequent. Eucalyptol was more efficient considering species richness, capturing Eulaema nigrita, Eufrisea auriceps and Euglossa melanotricha. On the other hand, eugenol was ineffective, since none individual was collected in this odor bait. Although few species have been captured, the proposed methodology was efficient for screening bee fauna. These data will be added to those from active collection in flowers and it represents the initial step for surveying bees in Mato Grosso do Sul. Keywords: bee fauna inventory; euglossine males; Centris sp.

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TRAP-NESTING BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA) IN THE PARQUE ESTADUAL DE PORTO FERREIRA IN PORTO FERREIRA, SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL Marlene Lucía Aguilar Benavides12*; Carlos Alberto Garófalo1. ¹*Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto - USP ,Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil; ²Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogotá, Colombia. maluaguilarb@gmail.com The seasonal abundance of solitary bees nesting in trap-nests, as well as their mortality and natural enemies, was studied over a one-year period (2013–2014) in the Parque Estadual de Porto Ferreira, municipality of Porto Ferreira, SP, Brazil. Nests were obtained from trap-nests placed in four areas within the park with different vegetation types: cerrado (C), dry semi-deciduous forest (DS), gallery forest (GF) and a mosaic of these three types and non-native plants (M). The trap-nests consisted of hollow bamboo canes and tubes of black cardboard, with one end closed with the same material. The traps were inspected once a month during the study period. A total of 135 nests were made by seven species belonging to family Apidae. The M area had the highest number of nests (43), followed by GF (33), then C (31) and DS (28). The most frequent bee species occupying the traps were Tetrapedia diversipes, T. rugulosa and Centris tarsata. In all areas of this study the highest nesting frequencies occurred during the warm and wet season (December to March), and Tetrapedia diversipes was the dominant species in all areas. Of the 135 nests obtained, in 83 of them occurred emergences and in 52 nests all immatures were dead. The main cause of mortality for immatures was the presence of fungi. In addition, one cleptoparasitic bee, Mesocheira bicolor, emerged from 2% of Centris tarsata nests. Other natural enemies associated with the nests were species of Coleoptera and Diptera, as well as phoretic mites. Keywords: Nesting, solitary bees, natural enemies, seasonal abundance. Financial support: PEC-PEG CAPES.

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SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURES IN TRAPNESTING BEES (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE) IN THE MIRADOR STATE PARK, MA, BRAZIL Gracy Chrisley Alencar Carvalho1*; Ana Carolina Alves Malheiros Araújo2; Márcia Maria Corrêa Rêgo1; Patrícia Maia Correia de Albuquerque1. Universidade Federal do Maranhão – UFMA, Laboratório de Estudos sobre Abelhas; 2Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais – UFMG, Doutorado em Zoologia. Contato: Av. dos Portugueses, 1966, Cidade Universitária, 65080-805 São Luís – MA, Brasil. 1*

*gracychrisley@gmail.com Few studies already were carried out in the state of Maranhão, which is a privileged area as it includes within its boundaries the two main Brazilian biomes. Given these few reports, the purpose of this work was to study the community of solitary bees by the method of trap-nests for two years in an area of Cerrado and Gallery forest in the Mirador State Park. The study area is located in the Mirador State Park, municipality of Formosa da Serra Negra, Maranhão. Wood trap-nests of 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 mm in diameter were used to capture bees. The trap-nests were distributed from January/2012 to December/2013, in sampling stations with 12 trap-nests each, two nests for each opening diameter. The sampling stations were distributed in two 1 ha areas (300 trap-nests/area). One area was composed of Cerrado strictosensu vegetation, and the other was a gallery forest.A total of 101 nests belonging to 11 species of bees, were collected.Eight species occurred in the gallery forest and six in the Cerrado, the similarity was low among habitats (SJ = 0.27). Two species were dominant in the community, Centris dichrootricha and Centris tarsata. The diversity and evenness of species were higher in the gallery forest than in the cerrado. The peak of the nests was founded in November (2012 and 2013) and August (2013) and there was no correlation with the monthly precipitation (rCE=-0.061;pCE=0.775 and rMG=0.194;pMG=0.365). The rarefaction curve of the species has not reached the asymptote for both habitats. In this study five species of Centris were collected, all of them represented in the gallery forest. Thus, the study reveals the importance of gallery forests as a refuge for some solitary bee species. This study also contributes to the expansion of the geographical distribution of Centris bicornuta and Centris terminata, species that are poorly studied in Brazil. Keywords: Trap-nests; Cerrado; Gallery forest; Centris. Financial support: CNPq/Bionorte; CAPES; FAPEMA.

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THIN TREE BRANCHES: A REDUCTION OF NESTING SITES FOR A NEOTROPICAL STINGLESS BEE Airton Torres Carvalho1*; Ulysses Madureira Maia2; Dirk Koedam1; Celso Feitosa Martins3; Vera Lucia Imperatriz-Fonseca4. Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido; Departamento de Ciências Animais; Mossoró; Brasil; Universidade de São Paulo; Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto; Ribeirão Preto; Brasil; 3Universidade Federal da Paraíba; Departamento de Sistemática e Ecologia; João Pessoa; Brasil; 4Universidade de São Paulo; Instituto de Biociências; São Paulo; Brasil. 1 2

carvalhoairton@gmail.com Cavities in trees are key resources for the maintenance and the reproduction of most species of Neotropical stingless bees. Melipona subnitida is the most commonly domesticated social bee species in areas of Caatinga, a tropical dry forest in interior northeastern Brazil. Over 50% of the nests of M. subnitida are recovered in tree branches of a single plant species: Commiphora leptophloeos (Burseraceae). Thicker branches are preferred over thinner branches. We compared the mean circumference of branches containing nests of M. subnitida between the years of 1998 (N=65) and 2014 (N=70) (12 sites in the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Paraíba, Brazil). Our data showed an average decrease of 11 cm in the circumference of branches of C. leptophloeos between the two analyzed periods (X1998=51.5; X2014= 40.5, df = 133, t = 4.83, p< 0.001). The results suggest a restriction of nesting site availability, evidenced by the reduction in the size of the branches used by colonies of M. subnitida. Therefore, considering the environmental services provided by stingless bees and their importance to the local economy, policies for the conservation and management of the tree species used for their nesting in dry regions are urgently needed. Keywords: conservation; nest; jandaíra; caatinga. Financial support: CNPq; CAPES.

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NESTING PREFERENCES OF TETRAPEDIA SPP. IN TRAP NESTS Arianne Moreira Cavalcante1*; Cláudia Inês da Silva1; Nayanny de Sousa Fernandes1; Epifânia Emanuela de Macêdo Rocha1; Gercy Soares Pinto1; Breno Magalhães Freitas1. Universidade Federal do Ceará, Departamento de Zootecnia – CCA, Setor de Abelhas, Bloco 814, Campus Universitário do Pici, 60.356-000, Fortaleza - CE, Brasil. 1*

arianne.m@hotmail.com Bees of the genus Tetrapedia are solitary and nest in pre-existing cavities, making possible the use of trap nests (TNs) to attract and breed them. This study aimed to test the preference of Tetrapedia sppfor trap nests (TNs) types.The experiment was carried out in an urban area with Coastal Forest elements, located in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, from January to May, corresponding to the rainy season in 2014. A total of 120 TNs built of transparent ​​ plastic straws and tubes of black cardboard with two diameters 4.8 mm and 6.5 mm and three lengths 8 cm, 10 cm and 12 cm was made available ​​ for the bees. The TNs were closed on one end withApis melliferawax and placed in perforated wooden blocks, installed under a green tile protection at approximately 90 cm high from the ground. Altogether, 15 nests were occupied by Tetrapedia spp. Females preferably nested in TNs made of transparent plastic straws (n=12) with smaller diameter 4.8 mm (n=12) and shorter length 12 cm (n=9).The sex ratio in Tetrapedia spp was 1:1,44 (26F and 18M). The registered mortality was 22.73% (n=10), in which 20.46% occurred in the pupal stage and 2.27% of the mortality was caused by the BombyliidaeparasiteAnthrax sp.. This study presents one more type of efficient TNs, made ​​of transparent plastic straw. These straws are easily found in the market at a low cost, with varying diameters and lengths that can be used according to the species of bee to be studied. Keywords: Solitary Bee;Plastic straws; Trap Nests; Preference.

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TRAP NESTS SELECTION BY FEMALE CENTRIS (HETEROCENTRIS) ANALIS Arianne Moreira Cavalcante1*; Cláudia Inês da Silva1; Epifânia Emanuela de Macêdo Rocha1, Nayanny de Sousa Fernandes1; Breno Magalhães Freitas1. *Universidade Federal do Ceará, Departamento de Zootecnia – CCA, Setor de Abelhas, Bloco 814, Campus Universitário do Pici, 60.356-000, Fortaleza - CE, Brasil.

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arianne.m@hotmail.com Female Centris analis occupy pre-existing cavities and are often found nesting in trap nests (TNs). These bees are important pollinators of plant species from the Malphiaceae family, being recommended for assisted pollination usingTNs.The aim of this study was to test the preference of females Centris analis for nesting substrates. The study was carried out in an urbanized area with Coastal Forest elements, located in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, during the rainy season (February-June) of 2014. Two sampling units (wood perforated blocks A and B) were installed and each block received TNs made ​​of different materials, sizes and lengths, totaling 60 TNs by sampling unit. TNswere made ​​of transparent plastic straws and black cardboard tubes with two diameters of 4.8 mm and 6.5 mm and three lengths 8 cm, 10 cm and 12 cm. In total,C. analis females occupied 27 nests, preferably those made ​​with black cardboard (n=25) and 6.5 mm in diameter (n = 27). The females nested in TNs of all lengths available, but they preferred those with longer length, 12 cm (n =16).Vestibular cells were recorded in all nests, averaging 50.91 ± 21.84 (17-100 mm) in length. The number of cells per nest ranged 2-7, totaling 91 brood. The length of the cells averaged 11.64 ± 3.38 mm. The sex ratio was 1: 1.10 (32F and 29M). Mortality was recorded in 25.3% of brood cells, where 11% was caused by the presence of the parasite Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) and 14.2% died in pupalstage. This study showed that even in Coastal Forest, where moisture can reach over 80%, females preferred the TNs made of ​​ cardboard, showing a relatively low mortality compared to drier regions. Keywords: Solitary bee; Preference; Nesting; Occupation.

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ALTITUDINAL VARIATION IN THE ABUNDANCE OF MEGACHILIDAE BEES (HYMENOPTERA) IN AN INSELBERG IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST Marcelita França Marques1*; Maria Cristina Gaglianone1. *Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense - UENF Contato: Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, 28013-602 Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil.

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marcelita_marques@yahoo.com.br Knowledge about the distribution of bees in altitudinal gradients in the Atlantic Forest can provide information on the variation of their occurrence areas and abundance, and assist in conservation. This study investigated the abundance of nests and adults of Megachilidae species in a gradient of altitude (8 to 420m), in inselberg Morro do Itaoca (300 ha), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Trap nests in bamboo canes and black cardboard tubes (n= 1.215), were disposed from Mar/2009 to Apr/2011, in nine sampling stations located at three altitudes: 50 m, 200 m and 400 m. Data on temperature, relative humidity and forest canopy cover differed among the altitudes. A total of 92 nests were built by seven Megachilidae species: Megachile nigripennis, Megachile pseudanthidioides, Megachile stilbonotaspis, Megachile (Chrysosarus) sp., Megachile (Pseudocentron) sp., Epanthidium tigrinum and Carloticola paraguayensis. The bees occupied trap nests at 50 m (31 nests and 102 individuals emerging bees), 200 m (48 and 161) and at 400 m (13 and 43). Largest number of nests and individuals were at intermediate altitude, although no significant differences occurred among the altitudes. Most species were abundant at 200 m, except E. tigrinum which founded nests at 50 m and 400 m and M. stilbonotaspis founded only one nest at 400 m. Most nests were constructed in the warm-rainy season. The sex ratio of M. pseudanthidioides, M. stilbonotaspis, E. tigrinum e C. paraguayensis was skewed towards females while the other species for males. In the gradient analyzed, despite occurred a greater abundance of nests and emerging bees in the intermediate altitude, the data were not significantly different, therefore, not presenting the pattern described as Unimodal-Parabolic. Key words: Leaf-cutter bees; Trap nests; Bionomy; Altitude. Financial Support: PROCAD; CAPES; FAPERJ; RioRural/GEF/BIRD; LCA/UENF.

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DISCOVERED THE NESTS OF CENTRIS (PARACENTRIS) XANTHOMELAENA MOURE & CASTRO, 2001 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE, CENTRIDINI) Herbeson Ovidio de Jesus Martins¹*; Patricia Luiza de Oliveira Rebouças²; Vinina Silva Ferreira¹. ¹*Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco,Campus de Ciências Agrárias CCA, Laboratório de Apicultura da UNIVASF; ²Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Departamento de Tecnologia e Ciências Sociais - DTCS. heberson.bio@hotmail.com Centris xanthomelaena is a ground-nesting solitary bee species described 14 years ago. Their females use floral oils to waterproof the brood cells and as larval food. These bees represent an important group of pollinators, for both native plants as to culture of great commercial value. For the first time the nests of the C. xanthomelaena were discovered in four aggregations (~5 to 100 individuals each) at the CCA Campus of the Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, Pernambuco. The bees’ activities were observed from March to July/15 and some nests were excavated. The nests of C. xanthomelaenawere built in an average time of four days. C. xanthomelaena nests both on flat ground as well as in bounds. Their nests are shallow with an average of three cells per nest arranged in a vertical nonlinear way, and they form aggregations. The tunnel is directed horizontally ranging from 9 to 11 cm away from the entrance, placed from 5.5 cm deep. The cells resemble pots or barrels, with the outer surface coated with sand adhered to the walls and the inner surface coated with a dark, smooth film. In addition, the cells are an average height of 18 mm and 9 mm in diameter with a hollow lid. The provision comprises of a yellow mass of pollen covered by a transparent liquid layer, in which the cylindrical egg is present. Nests were visited by cleptoparasitic bee,Mesoplia sp. C. xanthomelaena was observed using floral resources of plant species such Poincianellamicrophylla, Rhaphiodon echinus, Zorniabrasiliensis and Sidagalheirensis. The nests of C. xanthomelaena are similar to those of other species such Centris aenea and Centris flavifrons. The conservation of natural fragments of vegetation is necessary for the survival of oil-collecting bee populations that use ground-nesting. Keywords: solitary bee; oil-collecting bees; ground-nesting bee.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF A GUILD OF BEES IN RESTINGA RESTORATION AREAS IN RPPN CARUARA, RIO DE JANEIRO Ulli Barros Oliveira¹*; Maria Cristina Gaglianone¹. ¹Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro – UENF. Av. Alberto Lamego, 2000, 28013-602 Campos dos Goytacazes, Brasil. *ullibarros@hotmail.com Pollination is an essential process in the restoration of forest ecosystems. In the restinga, bees are involved in the pollination of many plant species. The aim of this study is to analyze the guild of bees that nest in pre-existing cavitiesin restinga areas and restoration area of this vegetation in the RPPN (Caruara, São João da Barra-RJ). Trap-nests of bamboo canes and cardboard tubes were installed at 10 sampling points in restoration area and 10 points in remaining restinga. The nests are monitored monthly. Completed nests are taken to the laboratory for the study of their architecture, monitoring of larval development and identification of emerging bees.From210 nests emerged Centris tarsata (n=138 individuals), Centris analis (n=6), Euglossa cordata (n=32), Megachile stilbonotaspis (n=27) and Megachile zaptlana (n= 81). The frequency of nesting and the number of emergents were higher during the rainy season, when higher number of plant species are in bloom. The nesting frequency was positively correlated with the maximum (r=0.61; p<0.05) and minimum (r=0.58; p<0.05) temperatures, while the relative humidity was negatively correlated (r = -0.46; p> 0.05). Centris and Euglossaspecies nested mainly in the remnant restinga area. This is according with the hypothesis of this study, that largest nesting activities occur in preserved areas, also resulting from the increased availability of food and nesting resources in these areas. Unlike this pattern, Megachile had the greatest number of nests in the restoration area. We found three groups regarding the use of resources for building nests: oil-collecting (Centris), resin-collecting (Euglossa) and leaf-cuttering bees (Megachile).Besides the presence of important pollinators as Centris and Megachilein both areas suggests the reestablishment of important interactions for the restoration of this area. Keywords: Pollination;trap-nest;Centris;Megachile;Euglossa; restoration. Financial support:FAPERJ; CNPq.

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FLORAL RESOURCES USED BY MEGACHILE LATREILLE, 1802 SPECIES IN AMAZONIAN FOREST FRAGMENTS AND RESTINGA AT MARANHÃO ISLAND, MARANHÃO, BRAZIL Diego Marinho Pereira1; David Barros Muniz1; Gisele Garcia Azevedo1. Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Departamento de Biologia – Avenida dos Portugueses, 1966, Campus Bacanga, 65080-805, São Luís, Brasil.

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diego.mp89@gmail.com Megachile is a genus of solitary bees occurring from Alaska to South Argentina and Chile, comprising about 516 species (Raw, 2004). Although well represented, little is known about their biology and ecology. Thus, the aim of this work was to determine the plant species used to provision the brood cells of Megachile brasiliensis Dalla Torre, 1986; Megachile sejuncta Cockerel, 1927; Megachile stilbonotaspsis Moure, 1945; and Megachile aff. turpis. This study was performed in an Amazonian forest fragment and Restinga at the municipality of São José de Ribamar (2º38’47.03”S; 44º08’26.25”O), between april/2007-march/2008; march/2009-february/2010; and may/2011april/2013. Trap-nests with four different diameters (8,10,12,14 cm) were used. Pollen content was analysed following Erdtman acetolysis method (1943) modified by Lieux (1980) and three slides were made per nest (n=19 nests). 400 pollen grains were counted for each slide whenever possible. The proportion here is placed considering the total of slides by each species and the classification of the bee habits about the number of species visited is stated following Michener (1979). M. brasiliensis (n=10) and M. sejuncta showed an oligolectic pattern using Orbygnia sp. accounting to 93,07% and 99,08% of pollen grains, respectively. M. aff. turpis used Solanun sp. with 95,35% of pollen grains. M. stilbonotaspis (n=4) showed a narrowly polilectic pattern using Orbygnia sp. (34,05%) and two Asteraceae species, Wulffia sp. (34,05%) and Lepidaploa sp. (31,88%), respectively. The Megachile species here studied showed a remarkable niche overlap (despite M. aff turpis), using mostly Orbygnia sp., a very common palm tree from Maranhão, and abundant at the study area. Garófalo et al (2004) states that Megachile show preference for Asteraceae flowers; here we also observed preference for Arecaceae by those bees, except for M. aff. turpis. These results contribute for a better understanding of the Amazonian bee fauna, still poorly studied. Financial support: PIBIC-UFMA, PET, FAPEMA.

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TREES USED FOR NESTING BY STINGLESS BEES AT THE MARGINS OF THE XINGU RIVER, BRAZIL Gercy Soares Pinto1*; Francisco Plácido Magalhães Oliveira2; Nara Neiva Ferreira dos Santos1; Jessé Buccioli Novaes1; Gilliana Almeida da Rosa1; Luciano Costa3. BIOTA Consultoria Ambiental Ltda 2;Universidade Federal do Pará, Campus de Altamira Contato: Rua Coronel Jose Porfírio 2515, 68372-040 Altamira, Pará, Brasil; 3Arcadis Logos, Divisão de Meio Ambiente, São Paulo, Brasil. 1

*gercy_pinto@zootecnista.com.br The amazon region harbors a high diversity of stingless bees that nest mainly in hollow trunks and branches of living and dead trees. The knowledge of important botanical species used for nesting is crucial for the conservation of tropical bees. Here, in this study, we identified species of trees used for nesting by stingless bees at the margins of the Xingu River (Pará, Brazil). Field campaigns were conducted between October 2011 and May 2014. When a nest was found, we collected samples of worker bees and wood for taxonomical identification. During the survey period we found out 349 nests of Meliponini distributed in 19 genera and 56 species. A total of 73 species of trees of 24 botanical families were used for nesting. Among those trees, Apuleia leiocarpa, Voucapoua americana, Bertholletia excelsa, Alexa grandiflora and Lecythis lurida were the most used for nesting by stingless bees. These were large trees (up to 50m tall) and the nests were distributed at different strata, according to bee species. The bees found at these tree’s not only nesting places but also other resources such as nectar and pollen. The trees identified in this survey are species of ecological and lumber importance for the amazon region. The identification of trees used for nesting by Meliponini is important to guide actions of conservation of the remaining Amazon forests, as well as, to indicate species for reforestation of degraded areas, providing food and nesting places for bees. Keywords: Meliponini; Nesting; Amazon. Financial support: NORTE ENERGIA S.A./Superint. Meio Biótico.

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RELATION BETWEEN HIGH AT NEST ENTRANCE AND DIAMETER OF TREES WHICH SERVE AS NESTING SITES FOR MELIPONA MANDACAIA (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) Márcia de Fátima Ribeiro¹*; Francimária Rodrigues2; Nayanny de Sousa Fernandes3. Embrapa Semiárido, Setor de Entomologia, Petrolina, PE, Brasil; 2Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido – UFERSA, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal, Mossoró, RN, Brasil;3Universidade Federal do Ceará – UFC, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil; *Embrapa Semiárido, BR 428, Km 152, zona rural, C.P. 23, 56.302-970 Petrolina, PE, Brasil.

1*

marcia.ribeiro@embrapa.br Stingless bees usually build their nests in cavities of trees, although there are other possible substrates. In the semiarid region of Petrolina (PE) one of the most abundant stingless bee is Melipona mandacaia (‘mandaçaia’) which prefers to nest in Commiphora leptophloeos (‘umburana-de-cambão’) trees. The aim of this study was to investigate details on natural nesting sites as the high of the nests’ entrance and relation of this and the Diameter at Breast Height (DBH). Seven localities around Petrolina were investigated and georeferenced with a GPS, for nesting sites of M. mandacaia in trees. The tree species, which had a nest, was registered as well the high at nest entrance and the DBH. The relation between these variables was determined by a Spearman Correlation test. The results showed that most of trees (77.7%) that contained M. mandacaia nests were indeed C. leptophloeos. The second tree most used by the bees was Spondias tuberosa (‘umbuzeiro’), with 16.1%, and four other species, as Prosopis juliflora (‘algarobeira’), Schinopsis brasiliensis (‘baraúna’), Hymenae courbaril (‘jatobá’) and Myracrodruon urundeuva (‘aroeira’) represented 6.8%. The entrance of nests were in average at 1.42 ± 0.59m (N= 193 trees) and the DBH was 1.22 ± 0.60m (N= 193 trees). There was a significant negative correlation between the high of nest entrance and the DBH (rho= -0.25, P= 0,004, N= 193 trees). Thus, the entrance of nests is inversely related to DBH because the diameter of the tree is probably related to the size of the cavity inside the tree. C. leptophloeos was the tree that presented wide cavities and a large amount of them, and thus, is preferred by the bees. Therefore, the close relationship between the bee and the nesting tree must be considered in future programs of stingless bees’ conservation as well the conservation of the Caatinga Bioma. Keywords: stingless bees, nesting sites, Melipona mandacaia, diameter of trees. Financial support: EMBRAPA; PROBIO II.

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NESTING ACTIVITY OF CENTRIS (PARACENTRIS) BURGDORFI FRIESE 1900 (APIDAE, CENTRIDINI) William de Oliveira Sabino1*; Cláudia Inês da Silva2; Isabel Alves dos Santos1. Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Ecologia, São Paulo, Brasil; 2 Universidade Federal do Ceará, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Departamento de Zootecnia, Fortaleza, Brasil.

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*sabinobees@usp.br Centris (Paracentris) burgdorfi Friese is a univoltine species, widely distributed in Brazil. C. burgdorfiare found in aggregate nests, in petrified dunes, near to Natal, northeastern Brazil. The aim of this work was to study the nesting biology of the species, evaluating the activity of females and nest construction. The data were collected between April and May 2014. The field visits were made daily from 4:30 am to 5:30 pm, totaling 247 hours of observation. Twelve females were selected and marked for monitoring nest building and foraging throughout the day. Despite being active until sunset, most nesting behavior occurred in the morning. About 10.14 ± 2.38 (n = 50) oil-collecting trips are required to line the cell, 4.92 ± 1.47 (n = 50) pollen-collecting trips and 2.6 ± 0.83 (n = 50) oil-collecting trips for provisioning and closing the cell. The number of trips required to construct cells differ significantly from each other (F0.05;2 = 264.96, p <0.0001). Each cell took about two and a half days to build (2.59 ± 0.48, n = 12) and each female was seen building only one nest. The greatest activity occurred in the morning and this could be related to the high temperatures on site. Additionally, it could also be related to the decline of the availability of resources (pollen, nectar and oil), which usually occurs after this period. The mean time for construction of a cell may be considered high when compared to previous studies; this could be directly related to where the nests are situated and the floral resources required to build them. This work has contributed to the knowledge of the nesting biology of Centris, mainly the Centris (Paracentris) group. However, further research is necessary to understand all aspects of the nesting behavior of this species. Keywords: Centridini; nesting behavior; oil-collecting bees; solitary bees. Financial support: CAPES; FAPESP – 2013/01580-0.

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IINTERNAL ARCHITECTURE OF MELITOMA SEGMENTARIA (FABRICIUS, 1804) (APIDAE, EMPHORINI) NESTS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLLINIC CHARGES Andressa Karine Golinski dos Santos1*; Denise Monique Dubet da Silva Mouga1. ¹* Departamento de Ciências Biológicas - Universidade da Região de Joinville. Contato: Rua Paulo Malschitzki 10, 89219-710 Joinville-SC, Brasil. *santosgolinski@gmail.com . Aiming to know the nesting behavior of solitary bees, Melitoma segmentaria (Fabricius, 1804) was studied at Joinville, SC, in nests located in a sheltered wall of solid clay brick and clay mortar. In March/ 2015, pollen loads of three bees were taken (captured with insect net, sedated with ice), which were stored in glacial acetic acid, attached to colorless unflavored gelatin, deposited on slides, coated with cover slips, heated, sealed with colorless enamel and observed under optical microscope. There was only one pollen type (N=30) as follows (in micrometers): oblate-spheroidal form (P/E = 0.979), large size (average 70), monad, apolar, circular ambitus, radial symmetry, thick exine, pantoporate, spiny (average height 9, average base 3.6), similar to Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet (Convovulaceae). In July/ 2015, three nests were opened, located between the brick and the mortar, in a horizontal position, the entrance channel slightly tilted downwards, the cells partially within the brick and partially within the mortar, the lining of the channels being of compressed earth. Measures are in centimeters. Nests 1 and 2 presented an entrance (1 in diameter), a channel (2 length / 0.9 diameter) and a single unfinished cell at the end of the channel (abandonment or nest occupant death). Nest 3 presented an entrance (1.2 in diameter), a channel (2 long) with a fork, a branch going down (0,5 length) to a cell and the other branch (0.5 length), ending on top of the other, without touching it, to the second cell. The two cells were oval, measuring the part connected to the duct 0.6/ 0.5 in diameter, with the bottom more rounded (0.9 / 0.8 in diameter and 1.3 long). Opening revealed a yellow mass on bottom of the cell (possibly larval faecal mass). No larvae or pupae were found, adults may already have emerged. Keywords: nesting biology; pollinic resource; solitary bee. Financial support: Funding of Rectory of Research and Post-Graduation of UNIVILLE.

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INFLUENCE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS ON FLIGHT ACTIVITY OF MELITOMA SEGMENTARIA (FABRICIUS, 1804) (APIDAE, EMPHORINI) AT JOINVILLE, SANTA CATARINA, BRAZIL Andressa Karine Golinski dos Santos1* ; Manuel Warkentin1; Rogério Nunes Barbosa1; Jeniffer Cristine de Sena1; Denise Monique Dubet da Silva Mouga1. ¹*Universidade da Região de Joinville; Departamento de Ciências Biológicas; Joinville; Brasil *santosgolinski@gmail.com The influence of abiotic factors on the external activity of Melitoma segmentaria, a solitary bee nesting in a sheltered brick wall was studied in the period 2013-2014 by the registration of external movement, from 05:00 to 16:00h, and measurement of temperature, relative humidity, wind and light intensity (mini weather station Model Kestrel 3500). There were observed 43 nests, made 7338 records in 78 days of observations and 858 hours of sampling effort. There were no external activity during the winter. The maximum and minimum thresholds of temperature (in ° C) in summer were 18 and 34, in fall 18.6 and 28 and in spring 18 and 32.1. The maximum and minimum thresholds of relative humidity (in %) in summer were 39 and 90, in autumn 47 and 90 and in spring 30 and 90. The maximum and minimum thresholds of wind (in m / s) in summer were 0.0 and 6.0, in fall 0.0 and 4.3 and in spring 0.0 and 5.0. The maximum and minimum thresholds of luminous intensity (in lux x1000) under the building were in summer 000 and 012, in autumn 000 and 010 and in spring 000 and 015; outside the building, in summer 000 and 1200, in fall 1075 and 000 and 000 and in spring 1122. The start of the activity was at 05: 00 (summer), 7: 00 (autumn) and 7: 00 (spring). The time period of peak activity was in summer from 5:00 to 11: 00, in fall from 7:00 to 8: 45 and in spring from 7:00 to 11: 00. The time period of load return peak was in summer from 5:00 to 9: 00, in fall from 7 to 8: 45 and in spring from 6:00 to 8:40. Melitoma segmentaria showed segmental defined thresholds and sensitivity to seasonality. Keywords: bees; light intensity; relative humidity; temperature; wind. Financial support: Funding of Rectory of Research and Post-Graduation of UNIVILLE.

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NEST ARCHITECTURE OF CAENOHALICTUS INCERTUS (APIDAE, HALICTINI) AT JOINVILLE, SANTA CATARINA, BRAZIL Andressa Karine Golinski dos Santos1*; Manuel Warkentin1; Enderlei Dec¹; Denise Monique Dubet da Silva Mouga1. ¹* Universidade da Região de Joinville; Departamento de Ciências Biológicas; Joinville; Brasil. *santosgolinski@gmail.com Aiming to study Caenohalictus incertus nesting, there were held in July/ 2015 excavations (32 h) in nests in the mud floor of a building (1978), using melted paraffin injected with syringe at the entrance and digging with soft brush and tweezers. The measures are in centimeters (C=length, Ø=diameter). 10 nests were excavated, 2 were of C. incertus, located on a small elevation in the ground-10 tall, dry crumbled soil. The nest 1 (8 height) had two distinct inlets (separated by 1 at the outside): A (right, Ø=0.4) and B (left, Ø=0.5). The two inputs continued in channels (C=1.5, Ø=0.4) that came together in a narrow passage (C=0.2, Ø=0.3) behind which continued two other straight channels (C=2, Ø=0.4), 1.5 distant from each other and ending roundly. At the end of A, it was found a male (glued in paraffin). The second nest had two inputs, A (left, 6 from the base of the elevation) and B (right, 10). The A was prolonged by a duct (8o inside inclination, C=1.2, Ø=0.8), teaming up with duct B (slightly inclined, C=5.2, Ø=0.4). The B stretched first by a duct without cells (C=2.5, Ø=0.4) that after showed lateral branches (along C=2.7) to join with the inlet duct A. After the union of A and B, only one left duct remained (C=6, Ø=0.6) with 3 side branches along C=6 and ending in a blind bifurcation. The 3 branches and B exhibited side micro ramifications (C=0.5, Ø=0.2), blotted with clay and ended with cells (N=10), oval (C=0.8, Ø=0.4 in background, Ø=0.2 in the neck). In a closed cell, a well-developed female was found, folded, ready to emerge (abdomen faced the widest part of the cell, head the micro ramifications). The other cells were found open, with fecal mass at the bottom. Keywords: communal bee; Halictidae; nesting biology. Financial support: Funding of Rectory of Research and Post-Graduation of UNIVILLE.

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NESTING BIOLOGY AND MORTALITY IN CAVITY-NESTING BEES FROM AGRICULTURAL AREAS Claudia Oliveira dos Santos1*; Cândida Maria Lima Aguiar2. Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Ambientais e Biológicas - CCAAB, Grupo de Pesquisa Insecta, Contato: Rua Rui Barbosa, 719, 44380-000, Cruz das Almas, Brasil; 2Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana. Departamento de Ciências Biológicas. Contato: Avenida Transnordestina, Novo Horizonte, 44036-900, Feira de Santana, Brasil. 1*

cauoliver2@yahoo.com.br Studies on bees nesting biology from agricultural areas are scarce in Brazil. This work aimed to identify the nesting frequency of solitary bee species in trap-nests, as well to investigate offspring mortality rate, in two agricultural areas of Feira de Santana, Bahia State, Brazil. Sampling was carried out monthly, during 13 months, from October/2011 to October /2012, using trap-nests (=NA) of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm in length. A total of 155 nests, 790 brood cells, and 665 emerging imagoes were obtained. 11% (area I) and 5% (area II) of the available cavities were occupied by these bees. Centris analis and Tetrapedia diversipes established 135 nests. Other bee species established few nests (C. tarsata e Megachile spp.). The highest number of brood cells were occupied by C. analis (n=502) and T. diversipes (n=204). The number of cells per nest increased with NA length increase. Mortality rate (16.2% and 8.3%, respectively) was higher in smallest nests (5 cm) for both species. The results showed that using different lengths of trap-nests can be important in the populations management of these solitary bees. Keywords: nesting; trap-nests; oil bees; crops pollinators; mortality. Financial support: CNPq; FAPESB; CAPES.

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PREFERRED NESTING SITES OF AFRICANIZED BEES (APIS MELLIFERA L.) IN THE URBAN ZONE OF MOSSORÓ-RN, BRAZIL Ricardo Gonçalves Santos1*; Daison de Castilhos Pereira1; Lionel Segui Gonçalves1,2. Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA); Departamento de Ciência Animal; Centro Tecnológico de Apicultura e Meliponicultura do Rio Grande do Norte (CETAPIS); Mossoró; Brasil; 2 Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto; Departamento de Genética; Ribeirão Preto; Brasil. 1

ricardogoncalvessantos12@gmail.com Africanized bees (Apis mellifera L.) are prolific and occupy different shelters existing in the environment, including in urban areas. The presence of bees in cities generates a great inconvenience to people because it represents a high risk of accidents. Studies on the nesting behavior of bees in urban centers allow better understand the biology of these insects and provide a basis for planning an effective strategy of population control in such an environment. This study aimed to evaluate the preference height and type of nesting sites of swarms from Africanized bees in the urban area of Mossoró-RN, Brazil. Thus, 89 swarms nested in different locations of the city were evaluated between the period May to July 2015. The local occurrence of bee colonies was briefed daily by the Corporation of Firefighters, through a request made by the population to remove the swarms. In each colony was assessed whether the nesting site was open (exposed swarm) or closed (protected swarm), and the height between the intervals of 0-3; >3-6; >6-9; >9-12 and >12 meters. Our results showed that bees nested both in the open sites (47.19%) as in the protected sites (52.81%). The exposed swarms were found mainly in trees, while the swarms of protected sites nested in several areas, such as water tanks, cabinets, tires, hollow tree, etc. For the height, we found out in the open sites, 35.71%; 30.95%; 19.05%; 7.14%; 7.14% of colonies in the intervals of 0-3; >3-6; >6-9; >9-12 and >12 meters, respectively. Regarding the colonies installed in closed sites, 55.32%; 17.02%; 12.77%; 6.38%; 8.51% of the swarms were observed respectively at the same intervals. We found that in Mossoró city, the Africanized bees have a wide variety of nesting, but there seems to be a preference for sites with up to 3 meters high. Keywords: Apis mellifera; Nesting; Swarms in cities; Favorable conditions. Financial support: CETAPIS and Chalé Executivo Hapart-Hotel.

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TIME-PLACE LEARNING IN STINGLESS BEES MELIPONA SUBNITIDA (APIDAE: MELIPONINI)

Albeane Guimarães Silva¹*; Gracy Chrisley Alencar Carvalho¹; Felipe Andrés Leon Contrera²; Márcia Maria Corrêa Rêgo3 .   ¹*UFMA - Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade e Conservação; ²Laboratório de Biologia e Ecologia de Abelhas - Instituto de Ciências Biológicas – UFPA. 3Universidade Federal do Maranhão – UFMA, Laboratório de Estudos sobre Abelhas. Contato: Avenida dos Portugueses 1966, 65080805 São Luís Brasil. albeanequimaraes@hotmail.com Time-place learning (TPL) is an association between space and time on foraging, in which animals are binding significant biological events (eg, finding food sources, predators, partners) with the location and time of occurrence in the environment.This process allows animals to anticipate the events on specific places or avoid based on experience and knowledge of the previous day. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Melipona subnitida has TPL, displaying anticipatory feeding activity and behavior inspection. We used a source of artificial feeding in a restricted opening time, simulating an inflorescence with anthesis from 7h-11h. The study was held in three different colonies with 10 individually marked workersfrom each colony. Melipona subnitida demonstrated the ability to associate time and place with the food, during a training range in order to get a reward. The anticipation was significant in relation to the use of opening hours of the resource (Cochran, Q(109,3)=14.142, p=0.0027) and the discovery of the food resource on the first day of the experiment (Watson-Williams F(134,4)=37.022, p<0.001). This significance may be attributed to the entrainment of the biological clock species imposed by the feeder. The bee visitation was high before and during the power range, but it was rare after closing the feeder, indicating behavioral TPL. Marked foragers recruited other workers in search of artificial feed, however, there is no relationship between the number of recruited workers and the timing of visits to the feeder (r = 0.291; p = 0.000218). To anticipate the search for a source is important for this species, as it increases the opportunity to monopolize the resource prior to any potential competitor, maximizing the collection of resources and minimizing competition with species that might arrive later. Keywords: Food Anticipatory Activity; Inspection; Training; Foraging. Financial support: Embrapa Meio-Norte; CAPES.

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HISTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DIMETHOATE EFFECTS ON TROPHOCYTES AND OENOCYTES IN APIS MELLIFERA AFRICANIZED Grazielly Schimack Devitto1; Roberta Cornélio Ferreira Nocelli²; Carina Aparecida Silva Souza3. Universidade Federal de São Carlos - UFSCar; Brasil; 2UFSCar; Departamento de Ciências da Natureza, Matemática e Educação; Araras; Brasil; 3Universidade de São Paulo; ESALQ; Departamento de Entomologia e Acarologia; Brasil. 1

grazielly.devitto@gmail.com The increased use of pesticides in agricultural crops has generated a worldwide concern about the risks that these products offer for bees. Among the pesticides, dimethoate stands out for being the standard compound for risk assessment of pesticides in Apis mellifera larvae proposed by the Organization for Cooperation and Economic Development (OECD, 2012), besides being widely used in monoculture. In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the histochemical effects of a sublethal dose of dimethoate (200 ng/ai/ bee) on the pre-pupal fat body of africanized A. mellifera, by the techniques PAS and Feulgen. The Feulgen technique showed a lot of irregular nuclei in the exposed group, in abnormal ways compared to control, and a more condensed chromatin, making it difficult to transcription process, necessary for the expression of genes, RNA and protein synthesis. Tests with PAS indicated positive results in trophocytes and oenocytes in the control and exposed group, indicating the presence of glycogen in these cells. In the pre-pupal stage the PAS positive vesicles indicate energy substances required for metamorphosis process. However, in the group exposed to the PAS reaction was strongly positive, presented well-marked vesicles, indicating greater presence of glycoconjugates. This may be due to blocking action of dimethoate on glycogenolysis, thus causing, changes in metabolic pathways that degrade glycogen, and caused the accumulation of the same in the cells of the fat body. Thus, it is concluded that sublethal dose of dimethoate can change the natural process of metabolism of individuals, impacting the successful development of the colony of A. mellifera. Keywords: Apis mellifera; Dimethoate; Fat body; Pesticides. Financial support: FAPESP - 2014 / 11535-5.

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ANALYSIS OF POLLEN GRAINS PRESENT IN THE NESTS OF CENTRIS (HEMISIELLA) TARSATA SMITH (APIDAE: CENTRIDINI): IMPORTANCE OF NATIVE PLANTS FOR THE MAINTENANCE AND CONSERVATION OF THESE BEES Jucélia Iantas1*; Francielli Cristiane Woitowicz - Gruchowski 2; Maria Luisa Tunes Buschini3. Centro Universitário de União da Vitória – UNIUV; União da Vitória; Brasil; 2Universidade Federal da Bahia – UFBA; Brasil; 3Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste – Unicentro; Guarapuava; Brasil.

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juceliais@yahoo.com.br Among the species of solitary bees, Centris tarsata is considered endemic in Brazil and important pollinators of native species since visit flowers to obtain oil, nectar and pollen. In tropical ecosystems bees are the main group of pollinators, however previos studies have indicated declining populations resulting from the destruction of natural habitats. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the supplier plant species pollen for C. tarsata in the municipalities of União da Vitória - PR and Port Union - SC. The pollens were removed from the waste trap nests of C. tarsata and from acetolysis method the pollen grains were identified and quantified. A total of 32 nests of C. tarsata were recorded 12 pollen types. The Solanaceae family was the most abundant. 21 nests analyzed the largest amount of pollen belongs to Solanum ramulosum Sendtn., and 11 nests Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal was the plant species with greater representation of pollen grains. They were also recorded pollen Malpighiaceae sp1 in all nests, but in low amounts. The Solanaceae family is important provider of funds for C. tarsata, the preservation of these plant species can guarantee the necessary resources to pollinators, especially in places that these bees are used as crop pollinators. Keywords: bees; Solanaceae; preservation. Support: CAPES; UNIUV; UNICENTRO.

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POLLINATION BIOLOGY OF CIPURA SPECIES OF CERRADO BY OIL-COLLECTING BEES Ivan Konstantinov Malinov1; Aline Cristina Martins1; Antonio José Camillo Aguiar1*. Universidade de Brasília - UnB; Instituto de Biologia; Departamento de Zoologia; Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro; Asa Norte; Brasilia – DF; Brasil.

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ajcaguiar@gmail.com* The reproductive behavior in plants is a key factor in the geographic distribution. Ruderal plants have the ability to colonize new areas and persist, even in the lack of specialized animal pollinators. The neotropical plant genus Cipura (Iridaceae: Tigridae) presents approximately nine described species, being C. paludosa and C. xanthomellas the most common ones, and C. formosa and C. paradisiaca rare species restricted to high altitudinal areas. The present work goal is describing and comparing the reproductive strategies of the four species, especially on the pollination by oilcollecting bees, in urban areas of Brasilia (DF), Cerrado areas in Flores (GO), Serra do Salitre (MG), and Chapada dos Veadeiros (GO). We performed on floral morphology, anthesis, reproductive tests, visitor’s composition and behavior and spatial distribution. All species produce the same rewards to pollinators, the floral oil and pollen, and similar floral behavior and specialized visitors. C. paludosa presented lower richness and abundance of insect visitors. The main pollinators of all four species of Cipura are oil-collecting bees from the genus Arhysoceble (Tapinotaspidini), but other specialized oil collecting bees like Centris species (Centridini) bees can visit the flowers. Cipura xanthomellas had a high number of species visiting its flowers, including one species of Caenonomada, four species of Arhysoceble, and numerous other species of stingless bees and sweat bees. Cipura formosa was highly visited by Arhysoceble bees, however it was mainly pollinated by oil collecting bees of the genera Tapinotaspoides and Centris. Flower-flies (Syrphidae), leaf beetles (Chrysomellidae) and even cockroaches (Pseudomops) were observed visiting flowers to eat pollen. The low visitation rate in C. paludosa associated to the high self-pollination rate characterizes this species as potentially ruderal. In the other hand, C. xanthomellas is incapable of self-pollination, which suggests its inability of persisting in habitats with low diversity or abundance of their pollinators. Keywords: reproductive biology; Tapinotaspidini; Arhysoceble; ruderal plants. Financial support: FAPDF, PRONEX/CNPq.

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IS REALLY NECESSARY THE VIBRATION OF THE TOMATO PLANT TO PRODUCE FRUITS? Maira Coelho de Moura Moraes 1; Lucio Antônio de Oliveira Campos1. Universidade Federal de Viçosa – UFV, Pós Graduação em Entomologia. Viçosa, MG. Brasil.

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mairademoraes@yahoo.com.br The tomato flowers have poricidal anthers and usually flowers with such anthers need to be vibrated to release the pollen. Although in the cultivated varieties of tomato most of the seeds produced results from self-pollination, the tomatoes grown in greenhouses require some kind of agitation of flowers for a proper production. This agitation can be achieved by mechanical methods or by the introduction of pollinators in greenhouses, being these pollinators, in many regions, bees of the genus Bombus. This study aimed to verify the efficiency of pollination performed by two species of bees that collect pollen in plants with poricidal anthers, using different strategies, Melipona bicolor that vibrates the anthers and Nannotrigona testaceicornis that removes pollen with the help of the tongue (milking) in “cherry” tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicon, Solanaceae) grown in a greenhouse. Two greenhouses, each containing 100 tomato plants were used. The treatments performed were: self-pollination, hand pollination, manual cross-pollination, pollination by bees and single visit pollination. In all the experiments, the fruits originated from flowers pollinated by bees were heavier, with larger seeds, thicker pericarp and larger fruit than fruits resulted from self-pollination. A single visit of M. bicolor and N. testaceicornis was sufficient to pollinate the tomato flowers. The results did not differ significantly from each other, showing that a bee that takes pollen from the anthers by “milking” can pollinate efficiently the tomato flowers.

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SPERM VIABILITY OF DIPLOID AND HAPLOID MALES OF SCAPTOTRIGONA DEPILIS (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) Marino da Motta Nanzer1; Sheina Koffler2; Denise de Araujo Alves3; Hiara Marques Meneses4; Ayrton Vollet-Neto1. Universidade de São Paulo; Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto; Departamento de Biologia; Ribeirão Preto; Brasil; 2 Universidade de São Paulo; Instituto de Biociências; Departamento de Ecologia; São Paulo; Brasil; 3 Universidade de São Paulo; Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”; Departamento de Entomologia e Acarologia; Piracicaba; Brasil; 4 Universidade Federal do Ceará; Cento de Ciências Agrárias; Departamento de Zootecnia; Ceará; Brasil. 1

marinonanzer@hotmail.com Hymenoptera sex determination occurs by a haplodiploid system where unfertilized eggs develop into haploid males and fertilized eggs into diploid females. In most species a genetic system of one or more loci, known as complementary sex determination (csd), controls this process. If the alleles at the csd locus of an individual are in heterozygosis the individual turns into a diploid female, while in hemizygose into a haploid male. However, if the alleles are the same (homozygosis) a fertilized egg develops in a diploid male. Here we aim to compare the sperm viability of diploid and haploid males of a eusocial stingless bee species, Scaptotrigona depilis. We extracted the semen of both haploid and diploid males that had been collected from hives previously known that were producing haploid/ diploid males, respectively. We used the LIVE / DEAD ® Invitrogen Sperm Viability Kit to assess the relative proportion of live to dead sperm cells. Employing a fluorescence microscope and a cell counter, we proceeded to count the first 400 cells found from the center of the cover slip of 36 diploid males from 3 colonies, 26 haploid males from 4 colonies, and 13 males from aggregation areas. The results showed that there is no statistical difference between the sperm viability of diploid (54,86%) and haploid (52,57%) males. Even though previous sampling of males in colonies in which queens were producing diploid males showed that there is a small chance of sampling a haploid male, it is important to note that it is still necessary to confirm the ploidy of the males used in this study by using molecular markers or cytogenetic techniques. Keywords: diploid males; stingless bees; sperm viability. Financial support: Bio-Comp - NAP-USP (Research Center on Biodiversity and Computing of the Universidade de São Paulo, to MN); CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, to SK); FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, 2012/11144-0 to AVN); CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, 470372/2013-3 to DAA), PNPD/CAPES (Programa Nacional de Pós-Doutorado da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, to DAA); CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, to HMN).

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CONSUMPTION OF THE NEONICOTINOID THIAMETHOXAM DURING THE LARVAL STAGE REDUCES THE SURVIVAL OF THE STINGLESS BEE, SCAPTOTRIGONA AFF. DEPILIS Annelise de Souza Rosa1*; Juliana Stephanie Galaschi Teixeira1; Ayrton Vollet-Neto1; Elisa Pereira Queiroz1; Betina Blochtein2; Carmen Sílvia Soares Pires3; Vera Lucia Imperatriz-Fonseca1. Universidade de São Paulo; Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto; Departamento de Entomologia; Ribeirão Preto; Brasil. 2 Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Faculdade de Biociências; Departamento de Biologia; Porto Alegre; Brasil. 3 Embrapa; Departamento de Ecologia e Biossegurança; Brasília; Brasil.

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annesouzar@gmail.com In Brazil, the stingless bee species Scaptotrigona aff. depilis visits a wide range of floral resources from crops on which it is common the use of neonicotinoids. We investigated whether the survival rate of individuals of this species decreases (until the emergence) with increasing thiamethoxam doses, from the intake during the larval stage. The doses of thiamethoxam provided to the larvae were based on the recommended concentrations for use on citrus crops in Brazil (translated to ng of active ingredient/larva): 0.0 (CS, control with solvent); 0.007 (T1= one-tenth of the maximum recommended concentration “MRC”); 0.044 (T2= “MRC”); and 4.375 (T3= ten times more than the “MRC”). The control group was NC (negative control, no solvent). We verified individuals emerging at all doses, however, the survival curves obtained from Kaplan-Meier estimators showed that the T3 had a significant decrease in survival (43.7%), comparing to NC (80.3%), CS (74.6%) and T1 (68.5%). Only the T2 (45.0%) was similar to the T3, and different from everyone else. When comparing T1 and T2 to NC, we can also observe decrease in survival. It means that the larvae exposed to the dose at field-realistic level and to the doses ranging this level had their survival rates significantly impaired. It corroborates earlier findings in this context. Evidently, we need to consider that, as a systemic insecticide, thiamethoxam reaches the pollen and nectar at residual levels. Moreover, they are processed by nurse bees, and are ultimately destined for offspring. Thus, it is difficult to accurately estimate the amount of residue that one larva consumes. Nevertheless, our findings suggest a warning, since the larvae of Scaptotrigona aff. depilis had their survival affected by thiamethoxam when exposed to a dose one-tenth of the “MRC” for use on citrus, crop whose flowers are commonly visited by this bee species. Keywords: bees, larval food, offspring, residual levels of neonicotinoid, systemic insecticide. Financial support: CNPq - 140742/2011-5.

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ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ENZYME ACTIVITY IN STINGLESS BEES MELIPONA SCUTELLARIS EXPOSED TO IMIDACLOPRID INSECTICIDE Jéssica Freitas Araújo1; Roberta Cornélio Ferreira Nocelli1; Osmar Malaspina2; Thaisa Cristina Roat2; Rodrigo Avelaira Barbosa2; Hellen Maria Soares2; Stephan Malfitano Carvalho3. Centro de Ciências Agrárias – UFSCar, Araras, Brasil; 2 Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras – UNESP, Centro de Estudos de Insetos Sociais, Rio Claro, Brasil; 3 Instituto de Ciências Agrárias – UFU, Uberlândia, Brasil. 1

jejeua@hotmail.com Pollinators, particularly bees, are responsible for maintaining 90% of the forests, and increasing productivity and quality of agricultural crops, ecosystem services valued at $ 212 billion annually. Nevertheless, this contribution has been affected by several factors, including pesticides. Imidacloprid insecticide, a neonicotinoid, has negative effects on Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica species, including changes in the activity of different enzymes. However, due to biodiversity of bees in Brazil works with native species are still scarce. The objective of the study was to analyze acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity in Melipona scutellaris exposed to imidacloprid insecticide. Forages bees of the Melipona scutellaris specie were exposed to sublethal concentrations of 1.43 ng/µL and 0.572 ng/ µL for 1, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours by ingestion. After each period the bees were dissected, weighed and submitted to the extraction solution with 400 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), maceration and centrifugation. The determination of total protein by the Bradford method was performed in a spectrophotometer at 595 nm and AChE, using Ellman solution 980, wavelength 412 nm. The results showed significant increase of AChE in the treatments compared to the control group, both in specific activity (p <0.009) and in brain tissue activity (p> 0.003). This increase, caused mainly by the action of the insecticide in the cholinergic synapses, prevents the enzyme’s action in controlling nerve impulses. With this, hyperexcitability of the nervous system occurs, affecting various physiological and behavioral functions, and even death of the individual. These effects directly affect the functioning of the colony because it can compromise the ability of forage bees in collecting food and returning to the colony, affecting the survival of the same long-term. Keywords: Biomarker; Brazilian bee; AChE. Financial support: FAPESP - 2014/05758-1; CAPES/CNPq.

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MORPHOLOGY OF OVARY AND SALIVARY GLANDS IN VIRGIN QUEENS WITH DIFFERENT SIZES IN PLEBEIA LUCII MOURE, 2004 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: MELIPONINI) Camila Folly Baptista1*; Geisyane Franco da Luz Teixeira1; Mayla Gava1; Raíssa Santana Serra1. Departamento de Entomologia – UFV Contato: Campus Viçosa, Av. PH Rolfs, s/n, 36570-900 Viçosa, MG – Brasil.

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folly.camila@gmail.com In Plebeia lucii the production of queens is determined by construction of auxiliary cells beside the combs, yielding queen cells. In Apis, body size variation among individuals of same caste is rare due the uniform progressive feeding of larvae, unlike which occurs in Meliponini, that the massal feeding affects the adult body size, and therefore its reproductive success. In stingless bees, little is known about the body size variation in queens, however, there are evidences that it occurs in Plebeia lucci. The development of the salivary glands of workers is related to division of labor and the products of these glands are used in larvae feeding. Morphological differences can also be found in number and length of the ovarioles and, in some species, the number of ovarioles can vary according to the queens’ size. Our objective in this study was to compare size and development of the ovaries and salivary glands in Plebeia lucii virgin queens. Five colonies were used, which were taken virgin queens from imprisonment cells and others were obtained from brood cells, still in pupa stage, and kept in incubator until the emergence. Bees were fixed, measured based on intertegular distance and separated into two groups with different sizes. We made histological sections of the head and abdomen of bees to observe their ovaries and salivary glands. Morphological differences weren’t found in salivary glands of virgin queens with different sizes. However, significant differences were observed in the activation and maturation of ovarian oocytes of larger queens. In minor queens the ovarian cysts present in germarium were regressed and none development follicle was observed. We suggest that differences in activation of the ovaries of Plebeia lucii virgin queens could influence behavioral features within the colonies as a basis for gynes selection to queens of substitution. Keywords: Development; feeding; gynes; ovarian oocytes; salivary glands. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq; FAPEMIG - 132798/2014.

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IS THE FOOD COLLECTION REGULATED BY THE AVAILABILITY OF EMPTY POTS IN MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA (APIDAE; MELIPONINI)? Fernando Mendes Barbosa¹*; Mayla Gava¹; Lúcio Antônio de Oliveira Campos²; Weyder Cristiano Santana¹. ¹Departamento de Entomologia; ²Departamento de Biologia Geral. Universidade Federal de Viçosa, av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n, campus Universitário, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. fernandosagarana@gmail.com Rearing of stingless bees, meliponiculture, is a common activity in many regions of Brazil. The management of colonies, supplementary feeding is a necessary practice in lack of floral resources period. The aim of this work was to evaluate the consumption of syrup by Melipona quadrifasciata according to the availability of empty pots and different concentrations of sucrose. The experiment was carried out at Central Apiary (Federal University of Viçosa - UFV), with three colonies of M. quadrifasciata from 15 to 21 November, 2014. Thirty and sixty percent sucrose solutions concentrations were used and they were provided internally in the nest, concomitantly, twice a day (30 ml per period) per colony. The food pots were counted and classified by type of food stored  (pollen or honey) and open or closed. The food provided was preferentially stored in empty pots. The total syrup consumption was positively correlated with the amount of empty pots (p <0.05). The collection of 60% sucrose solution was higher than 30% sucrose solution in both periods of the day (t-test, p <0.05). The syrup collected by the bees can be used for immediate subsistence feeding or often be stored in wax pots for feeding later. The lack of this food source and the presence of empty pots are determining factors for foraging. The preference for higher sucrose concentrations by bees can be explained as an evolutionary adaptation of this group and by the Theory of Optimal Foraging in which bee maximizes work efficiency when bringing more energy food to the colony . It concludes that the syrup collection is directly related to the availability of empty pots and there is preference for more concentrated syrup. Keywords: Beekeeping; Meliponiculture; Stingless bee. Financial support: CNPq; CAPES; FAPEMIG; IFNMG.

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MORPHOLOGY OF THE MIDGUT OF FRIESELLA SCHROTTKYI (HYMENOPTERA: MELIPONINI) Marcelo Silva Barcellos¹; Wagner Gonzaga Gonçalves¹; Kenner Morais Fernandes¹; André Henrique de Oliveira¹; Gustavo Ferreira Martins¹; José Eduardo Serrão¹. Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Contato: Avenida Peter Henry Rolfs s/n, 36570-900 Viçosa, Brasil.

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andreoliveira.ufv@gmail.com The stingless bee Friesella schrottkyi, is a endemic specie of the south and southeast Brazil. This bee produces excellent honey, besides being a good pollinator of native plants. Part of the adaptive success of insects, including Hymenoptera is due to the structure and physiology of the digestive tract that allows the use of a wide variety of alimentary resources. In this study, we describe the morphology of the midgut oin forager workers of F. schrottkyi by light microscopy and immunofluorescence. Bees were dissected and the midgut, transferred to Zamboni’s fixative solution and processed for histological analysis and immunostaining for FMRFamide enteroendocrine cells. The midgut of F. schrottkyi has a single layered epithelium followed by two layers of muscles. The midgut epithelium has three cell types: digestive, regenerative and enteroendocrine cells. The digestive cells have oval nucleus, apex with long brush border and granules in the apical cytoplasm, whereas regenerative cells are small, with spherical nucleus, placed in the basal region, forming nests. The FMRFamide enterendocrine cells are found only in the posterior midgut region with an average of 45 these cells, which have similar size and location of the regenerative cells, although they are distinguished by their secretory vesicles in the cytoplasm. This is the first morphological description of the midgut of F. schrottkyi, elucidating some aspects of their biology. Keywords: digestive cells; FMRFamide; regenerative cells; stingless bee. Finanacial support: FAPEMIG, CAPES, CNPq.

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INTRACELLULAR DIGESTION IN THE MIDGUT OF THE BEE MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA (HYMENOPTERA: MELIPONINI) Lenise Silva Carneiro¹*; José Eduardo Serrão¹. ¹*Universidade Federal de Viçosa – UFV Contato: Avenida PH Rolfs, Departamento de Biologia Geral, Viçosa, Brasil. lenise.carneiro@ufv.br In bees the digestive tract is divided into foregut, midgut and hindgut. A short region of flattened cells marks the transition fore-midgut, and in Meliponini this region may be modified as cardia, whereas in the other bees the cardia is incipient. The function of the cardia in stingless bees remains unknown although it may be involved in the production of peritrophic membrane and transport of substances. The objective of this study was to identify the presence of autophagosomes and lysosomes in the cells of the cardia in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Nurses and foragers workers were dissected and the midgut submitted immunolocalization for LC3 (protein present in the membrane of autophagosomes) and lysotracker for the presence of lysosomes. The results showed absence of LC3 in both nurses and foragers. On the other hand the nurses and foragers bees showed a positive reaction to the lysotracker, which were most abundant in foragers. In conclusion, the region of the cardia in M. quadrifasciata, has a high rate of intracellular digestion. Keywords: bee; morphology; digestive tract. Financial support: FAPEMIG; CNPq.

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EFFECTS OF ACETAMIPRID IN THE PROBOSCIS EXTENSION REFLEX OF SCAPTOTRIGONA POSTICA BEES LATREILLE, 1807 (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, MELIPONINI) Sandra Eloisi Denardi1; Eduardo Schneider Bueno de Oliveira2; Antonio Carlos Simões Pião3; Osmar Malaspina1. ¹*Depto de Biologia-Centro de Estudos de Insetos Sociais do IB-UNESP Rio Claro; 2Instituto de Biociências-UNESP Botucatu; 3Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas- UNESP Rio Claro Contato: Avenida 24A, 1515, 13506-9001 Rio Claro-SP, Brasil. sandenardi@hotmail.com Stingless bees are remarkable pollinators of native vegetation and also of important agricultural crops. The indiscriminate use of pesticides has caused the decline in the number of these pollinators. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of acetamiprid insecticide on the behavior of bees Scaptotrigona postica by evaluating the reflection of the proboscis extension (PER). The PER test aims to reproduce in laboratory conditions, the bee-flower interaction in which the bee when stimulated by nectar extends its proboscis and stores the floral odor, allowing the recognition of this food source in the next foraging. Initially the bees were exposed topically to the insecticide at doses of 0.093, 0.93 and 9.3 ng/bee and behavioral analysis were performed after 1, 4 and 24 hours. After this period the bees were placed in eppendorf tubes and sucrose solutions were offered (0.1; 0.3; 1; 3; 10; 30; and 50%). The results of this study showed that the treated bees had behavioral change from the control, and, for some sucrose concentrations, the bees did not respond. Our results showed that the insecticide in question interfere with the ability of stingless bees to extend the proboscis in response to a food source, a fact that could impair the performance of these as pollinators. Keywords: acetamiprid; pollination; stingless bees; neonicotinoid. Finnancial support: CNPq (560205/2010-4; 161936/2013-0; 104639/2015-6) and FAPESP (2012/50197-2).

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IMPACT OF ISOLATED AND COMBINATED PESTICIDES ON LONGEVITY AND IMUNE CELLULAR RESPONSE IN WORKERS OF AFRICANIZED APIS MELLIFERA (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Caio Eduardo da Costa Domingues¹*; Rodrigo Avelaira Barbosa²; Paulo José Balsamo¹; Beatriz Vieira Ramos Pereira¹; Fábio Camargo Abdalla¹; Elaine Cristina Mathias da Silva Zacarin¹. ¹*Universidade Federal de São Carlos – UFSCar; Campus Sorocaba; Sorocaba; Brasil; ²Universidade Estadual Paulista – Unesp; Campus de Rio Claro; Rio Claro; Brasil. cecdomingues@gmail.com Bees represent the majority of pollinating insects, being vital to agriculture as well as to maintain most of natural ecosystems. However, they are exposed to various environmental stressors, such as pathogens and pesticides, due the intensive fragmentation of habitat for agricultural activity. Such a condition is causing the worldwide decline populations of Apis mellifera. This study aimed to analyze the sub-lethal effect of thiamethoxam insecticide and picoxystrobin fungicide, isolated and in combination, in workers of Africanized A. mellifera. Controled toxicology bioassays of continuous oral exposure was done. Newly-emerged workers were divided in control and the exposed groups: thiamethoxam 1 ppb (THI); picoxystrobin 18ppb (PXT) and THI+PXT (1ppb and 18ppb, respectively). Exposure was offered in food, ad libitum during five days. Mortality at five days and survival rates at the end of experiments were performed, and total count of hemocytes from hemolymph were done under Neubauer chamber. After five days of exposure, the results showed higher mortality in PXT group and higher number of hemocytes in THI group, in relationship with the control (ANOVA-one way, Mann-Whitney test). The survival results (Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis: Log-Rank) showed decreased longevity of bees in the groups exposed to PXT and THI+PXT compared to the control group, whereas treatment THI group did not change the longevity of bees. When bees were treated with PXT, longevity was reduced by about 42.6%, whereas THI+PXT group longevity decreased by about 23.4%. The data showed the absence of pesticide additive effect when they were applied in combination according to mortality, longevity and hemocytes count parameters. Morphological studies are carrying out to add information to these results. Keywords: Africanized Apis mellifera; bioassays; interaction; pesticides. Financial support: FAPESP (2013/09419-4 and 2014/04697-9); CAPES; CNPq (490379/2011-7).

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TOXICITY OF IMIDACLOPRID IN COMMERCIAL FORMULATION TO THE STINGLESS BEE SCAPTOTRIGONA SP. NOV. Leonardo dos Santos Gurgel¹*; Roberta Cornélio Ferreira Nocelli²; Jânio Angelo Felix¹; Cláudia Inês da Silva¹; Francisca Natália Brito Rocha¹; Breno Magalhães Freitas¹. ¹*Universidade Federal do Ceará – UFC; ²Universidade Federal de São Carlos – UFSCar – campus Araras; Contato: Av. Mister Hull, 2977-Campus do Pici Bloco 808, CEP 60021-970, Fortaleza-CE, Brasil. leo_agroufc@yahoo.com.br Neonicotinoid insecticides are seen as a major contributor to the decline of bees because of their mode of action and wide use in agricultural crops. This study was carried out in the Bee Laboratory of the Department of Animal Science in the Federal University of the State of Ceará, Brazil, in order to investigate the effect of imidacloprid by different routes of exposure on the stingless bee Scaptotrigona sp. nov.. Therefore, we used the international protocols of OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) to determine the median topical lethal dose (LD50) and the median lethal concentration by ingestion (LC50) for the imidacloprid commercial product (c.p.) available for farmers. Mortality data of bees were recorded after 24 and 48 h exposure of insects to different doses of the insecticide and subjected to analysis of dose response in the software Bioestat® 5.3. The topical LD50 was 16.65 (24 hours) and 8.23 (48 hours) ng c.p./µL/bee and the ingestion LC50 was 8.47 (24 hours) and 2.98 (48 hours) ng c.p./µL diet. Imidacloprid in commercial formulation proved to be more toxic to the studied species than the active ingredient, and it is more harmful when administered orally, based on the lowest dose required to kill 50% of the population tested. Our findings indicate the need for further investigation on the role of adjuvants present in the formulations on the product’s toxicity, especially in systemic products, since oral toxicity is greater than that through contact. Key words: neonicotinoids; OECD; toxicity; LD50; LC50. Financial support: UFC.

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TOXICITY OF ANNONIN-BASED COMMERCIAL BIOINSECTICIDE ON WORKER BEES OF APIS MELLIFERA LINNAEUS (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) Cynthia Renata Oliveira Jacob1, Odimar Zanuzo Zanardi1, Monique Barbara Rosa Oliveira1, Pedro Takao Yamamoto1. University of São Paulo - “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture (ESALQ/USP), Department of Entomology and Acarology, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. 1

re_jacob@yahoo.com.br In the last years, the use of bioinsecticides have been an important alternative for arthropods pest management in the agroecosystems. However, the impact these products on beneficial organisms have been less investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of annoninbased commercial bioinsecticide (Anoson 1.0 EC) on worker bees of Apis mellifera in laboratory conditions. For this, bees were anesthetized with CO2, sprayed with 2 mL of solution, of respective treatment, in a Potter tower, adjusted to a pressure of 0.7 kgf cm-2, resulting in a fresh residues of 1.8 ± 0.1 mg cm-2. The bioinsecticide was evaluated at concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 mg a.i. L-1. After spraying treatments, bees were placed in plastic cages and kept in a climatized room (25 ± 2 °C, relative humidity of 60 ± 10%) content food and water ad libitum. For each treatment, 10 replicates with 10 worker bees were used. The evaluations were performed every 2 h for a period of 36 h. Based on mortality data, the mean lethal concentration (LC50) and mean lethal time (LT50) were estimated. Our results showed that acute toxicity of bioinsecticide was depending of concentration and exposure time (LC50 = 413, 151 and 96 mg a.i. L-1 after 10, 24 and 36 h of spraying, respectively). Likewise, the LT50 estimated range according to the concentration (LT50 = 91, 74, 55 and 36 h at concentrations 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg a.i. L-1, respectively). Considering that, in field, the bioinsecticide is used at concentration of 20 mg a.i. L-1, our results indicate that annonin-based commercial formulation is less toxic to worker bees of A. mellifera. However, additional studies should be performed to evaluate the sublethal effects on behavior of this pollinator, once that changes these parameters can compromise the colony. Keywords: Acetogenin , Acute toxicity , Africanized bees. Finantial support: CAPES, CNPq, Fundag.

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B CHROMOSOMES TRANSMISSION IN PARTAMONA SPECIES (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE) Diana P. Machado1, Elder A. Miranda1, Mariana Dessi1, Camila Sabadini1, Vander C. Tosta and Marco A. Del Lama1. 1

Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Genética Evolutiva, São Carlos – SP.

dianapmachado@gmail.com Chromosomes, also refer red to as supernumerary or accessory chromosomes, are additional dispensable chromosomes that are present in some individuals from some populations in some species, B chromosomes are extra to the standard complement, dispensable, probably derived from the A chromosomes, but they follow its own evolutionary pathway. The maintenance of supernumerary chromosomes in natural populations is favored through its transmission at higher than expected frequencies (meiotic driven). To verify the B chromosome transmission mechanism in Partamona genus, the hypothesis ofan usual meiotic transmission by queens with one B chromosome (the expected 50% chance of passing it to the offspring) was tested in three species of the genus. For that, we used 217 colonies of P. helleri, 125 of P. cupira and 146 of P. rustica. For each colony, five individuals were analyzed with a SCAR marker associated with Partamona B chromosomes. Only colonies that showed individuals with and without B chromosomes of the same colony were used, indicating that in these colonies occurred segregation of B chromosome from the queen to the offspring. A χ2 test was performed considering that if the Partamona B chromosomes have a regular meiotic behavior, familial segregationat each colony should follow a binomial distribution. The χ2 obtained for each speciessupports the usual transmission hypothesis. P. helleri may have more than one B chromosome per individual in northern populations; this fact could cause a deviation in the 50% proportion of individuals with supernumerary chromosomes in offspring. A second analysis was made excludingnorthern populations and the χ2 value was even lower, supporting the absence of meiotic driven in B transmission from the queen to the offspringin P. helleri. The results obtained here, inthe three species, were consistent with that expected from a regular meiotic behavior of B chromosomes, suggesting that in these species there is an absence of meiotic driven that could favors the transmission of chromosomes in the resulting meiocytes. Keywords: Stingless bees, Supernumerary chromosomes, Meiotic drive. Financial Support: CAPES, FAPESP.

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DOES PROTEIN LEVEL OF LARVAL FOOD AFFECT CASTE DETERMINATION IN MELIPONA SCUTELLARIS? Gláucya de Figueiredo Mecca1; Ayrton Vollet Neto1; Hipólito Ferreira Paulino-Neto1; Fabio Santos do Nascimento1. 1

Universidade de São Paulo, FFCLRP, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, Brasil.

glaucyafm@bol.com.br Melipona is a stingless bee genus in which caste determination still remains unsolved. Studies suggest that genetic and trophic mechanisms, larval food quality and environmental factors, affect on the queen production. This study evaluated the effect of amount of larval food and its protein level on queen determination in M. scutellaris by rearing individuals in vitro conditions. Experimental tests were made from August 2013 until February 2014. The larval food was collected, homogenized and separated in two groups: the protein supplementation treatment with addition of 1.5μg of albumin (BSA) for each μl of food and the control with pure food. In every repetition we tested three different volumes of larval food - 120μl, 150μl and 180μl – for each treatment. The food was deposited into Elisa acrylic plates, and newly hatched larvae were carefully transferred to each spot and maintained in an incubator at 28 °C. Their development was monitored until the emergence. From 630 transferred larvae, 64.92% survived, among these 3.67% were queens and 96.33% workers. Altogether, 15 queens were produced, from which 12 queens were resulted from treatments with 150μl and 180 μl of larval food. Comparative analysis showed that the occurrence of queens was significantly higher in the treatments with 150μl of larval food and protein supplementation. Our results suggest that the variation of protein content of the larval food deposited in the cells may be an important factor for caste determination in this species. Keywords: larval food; caste determination; queen; stingless bees; Melipona.

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PROTEIN INTERACTION NETWORKS: A VIEW OF OLFACTORY LEARNING AND MEMORY ACQUISITION IN HONEYBEE BRAIN Anally Ribeiro da Silva Menegasso1; Marcel Pratavieira1; Thaisa Roat1; Osmar Malaspina1; Mario Sergio Palma1. Center of the Study of Social Insects, Department of Biology, Institute of Biosciences of Rio Claro, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP, Brazil.

1

anally02@hotmail.com The bees have been used as models of learning and memory, highlighting its usefulness for neuroscience, in particular to a better understanding of the foundations of cognition. In the present study the behavior of “Proboscis Extension Reflex” (PER) was used as input reference for neuroproteomic - comparing PER group (individuals that respond to stimuli with sucrose (80%v/v)) and the control group (the same conditions applied to experimental group, except for not exposing the insects to the sucrose odor). The brains were dissected and macerated in lysis buffer (Urea 7M, Thiourea 2M, 1% DTT, 2% Triton X-100 and inhibitor protease cocktail). A new analytical strategy was proposed, and the analysis was done in two ways: (i) supernatant (soluble proteins) and (ii) debris proteins (membrane proteins and receptors). The samples were digested with trypsin. The samples were analysed by a LC-ESI-micrOToF-QIII (Bruker Daltonics) system using a Discovery® BIO WidePore C18 (Supelco Analytical) column. The mass spectral data were analyzed by Mascot Distiller and validated by Scaffold. Were identified 350 proteins: 221 which are common to both groups, 77 e 52 which are exclusive to PER group and control group, respectively. Interaction networks of proteins were created through String software for proteins identified exclusively in experimental and control group. For the control group, it was observed that proteins are involved in metabolism control and protein phosphorylation (activating protein biosynthesis). For the PER group, the networks showed that proteins are involved in: (i) development process, including neurogenesis; (ii) nerve cell morphogenesis and (iii) learning and memory, olfactory memory, olfactory behavior and synaptic transmission. These studies suggest that olfactory system of bees has a high degree of neuronal plasticity. This strategy contributed to the understanding of neuroscience at the level of proteins and their role in molecular interactions and memory formation in bees. Keywords: neuroproteomics; honeybee; memory acquisition; protein-protein interactions. Financial Support: FAPESP – 2013/13542-6; CAPES; CNPq.

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NATIVE BEES OF THE MAULE REGION AND THEIR ECOLOGICAL INTERACTION WITH NATIVE PLANTS Victor Monzón G.; Sandra Araya C.; Marcia Guzmán L.; Claudia Araya C. Catholic University of Maule, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Department of Biology and Chemistry; Talca; Chile. vmonzon@ucm.cl Bees play an important role of pollinators in the ecosystem. There are social bees and solitary bees: the latter represent the largest group of species in the world (Michener, 2007). In Chile, 424 bee species have been described, 300 of which are native bees (Montalva y Ruz, 2010), and it is probable that double this number is yet to be determined. In particular, the Maule region (central Chile) lacks precise information on native bees and their interaction with local plants. The Goal of this work was to study the biodiversity of wild bees present in the Maule region and their association with native plants. Methodology: The study was conducted in three geographic areas of the región: the Putú wetlands, the Batuco sector and the foothills of the Andes mountain range (Armerillo and Altos de Lircay). The collection of individuals was performed by means of entomological nets weekly from October to December 2014 between 09:00 and 18:00 hrs. Samples of plants where bees foraged were also collected. Results and Discussion: 122 individuals belonging to 5 families and 18 genera were obtained. The most representative genera for each area were: Putú: Colletes (associated to Schinus latifolius) and Chilicola (associated to Bacharis sp.), Batuco: Corynura (associated to Eryngium paniculatum, Baccharis sp. y Pasithaea coerulea) and Manuelia (associated to Pasithaea coerulea); Andean foothills: Colletes (associated to Lomatia hirsuta, Lithrea caustica and Adesmia angustifolia), Cadeguala (associated to Adesmia angustifolia, Lomatia hirsuta and Ribes sp.), Corynura (associated to Lithrea caustica) and Manuelia (associated to Lithrea caustica and Tristerix tetrandus). Abundance of individuals was greater in areas of lesser altitude (Putú wetlands and Batuco). Finally, diversity of native bees at genera level was highest in Putú. Keywords: native bees; ecological interaction; biodiversity. Funding: Project NAC-I-025-2014. Environmental Protection Fund, Ministry of Environment.

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FLORAL VISITORS OF CEIBA GLAZIOVII IN THE SERRA DA MERUOCA, CEARÁ STATE, BRAZIL José Elton de Melo Nascimento¹, Jânio Angelo Felix², Yan Igor de Oliveira², Alípio José de Souza Pacheco Filho¹, José Everton Alves²,Cláudia Inês da Silva¹. ¹Universidade Federal do Ceará- Campus Universitário do Pici 60.356-000, Fortaleza, CE Brasil; ²Universidade Estadual Vale do Acaraú – UVA Av. da Universidade, 850 - Campus da Betânia Sobral - CE. eltonzootec@gmail.com Ceiba glaziovii (Kuntze) K. Schum. is a key chiropterophilous species in the Brazilian semi arid region, since it is source of nectar and/or pollen for several insects, birds and bats during shortage of floral resources. Nevertheless, little is known about its floral biology and interactions with its guild of visitors. In this study, we evaluated the floral opening and floral visitors of C. glaziovii em in an area of Rain Forest in the Serra of Meruoca, Ceará State. Observations were carried out in a preserved area located in the “Sítio Floresta” during the mass flowering period of this species, in three consecutive days of August 2013. Nocturnal and diurnal observations were made in C. glaziovii flowers. During the day, at 5 am of each day, we marked thirty flower buds at pre-anthesis and counted the number of open flowers every two hours for 24 consecutive hours. We also identified the bees and counted the diurnal floral visitors from 5 am to 18 pm and also made nocturnal observations. C. glaziovii blooms throughout the day, with about 15% of flowers opening in the morning, 47% in the afternoon (until 5:20pm) and 38% at night. Apis mellifera L. (58%) and Trigona spinipes Fabricius (1793) (35%) were the most frequent visitors, followed by Xylocopa frontalis (4%) and Plebeia sp. (3%). Trigona spinipes was more abundant in the morning and A. mellifera in the afternoon. Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier, 1789) was more frequent in the first and last hours of the day, the only bee to present effective pollinator behavior. In addition, we observed few diurnal visits of hummingbirds and abundant visits of bats overnight, both presenting effective pollinator behavior. Although C. glaziovii is described as a chiropterophilous plant, the analysis of its flowering throughout the day suggests that it can be also pollinated by large bees and humming birds. The presence of other pollinators can ensure pollination of C. glaziovii during low frequency of bats, which is common in the dry season. Keywords: Bees, Bats, Rain Forest, Pollination. Financial support: CNPq; UFC, UVA.

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QUANTITATIVE DIFFERENCE OF CHITIN IN THE PERITROPHIC MATRIX IN APIS MELLIFERA WORKERS André Henrique de Oliveira¹; Kenner Morais Fernandes¹; Weyder Cristiano Santana²; Lúcio Antônio Oliveira Campos²; José Eduardo Serrão¹. Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Departamento de Entomologia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Contato: Avenida Peter Henry Rolfs s/n, 36570-900 Viçosa, Brasil. ¹ ²

andreoliveira.ufv@gmail.com The peritrophic matrix (PM) consists of non-cellular layers lining the midgut of arthropods, serving as a barrier between the midgut lumen content and its epithelium. The PM is mainly composed of chitin, proteins and proteoglycans that form a semi-permeable structure with elastic feature. In bees the PM is synthesized by midgut epithelial cells. The objective was to evaluate the quantitative differences of PM between the anterior and posterior midgut regions of foragers and nurse workers of Apis mellifera. The midguts were dissected and separated into anterior and posterior regions, sectioned and submitted to chitin detection with WGA. The concentration of chitin in the PM was significantly higher in the anterior midgut region than in posterior one. The amount of chitin in the PM was higher in forager workers than in nurse ones. This is the first report that the concentration of chitin in the peritrophic matrix varies between midgut regions and workers of bees, suggesting that different midgut regions and workers bees may have different gut physiology. Keywords: chitin; honey bee; midgut; digestion. Financial support: CNPq; CAPES; FAPEMIG.

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ASSESSMENT OF ACUTE TOXICITY OF THIAMETHOXAM TO SCAPTOTRIGONA POSTICA LATREILLE, 1807 Lorrayne Jacinto Pacheco1*; Raquel Chaves Macedo1; Stephan Malfitano Carvalho1. Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias, Avenida Amazonas s/n, Bloco 2E, Campus Umuarama, Caixa Postal 593, 38.400-902 Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. 1*

lorrayne0312@gmail.com Depending of ecosystem, the bees of Meliponini’s tribe are responsible for up to 90% of native species pollination and also 33% of crops exploited by human. For this reason and regarding the importance of bee protection, is mandatory the development of toxicological studies of pesticides on pollinators. Thus, the goal of this work was establish the lethal dose 50 (LD50) through acute toxicity tests using the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807 (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Bee individuals were obtained directly at nests kept at natural conditions on UFU-campus Umuarama. At laboratory, they were kept on plastic cages in number of ten, fed with water and diet prepared with honey and gelatin (3%) and temperature of 28±2oC, RH of 65±5% and darkness. The administration of thiamethoxam (98.6%) was done by the application of 0.5µL of one respective solution on the thorax of bees and that were prepared taking as reference several concentrations of this insecticide. To ensure the correct handling of bees before pesticide application, they were anesthetized for 15 seconds using CO2. Each concentration was assessed in triplicate and dead bees were unregistered 24 hours after administration. With this procedure, we establish that the LD50 of thiamethoxam for S. postica was of 0.125 ng a.i./bee (DF= 13; χ2= 17.325 and CL95%= 0.05-0.20 ng a.i./bee), showing that this neonicotinoid is extremely toxic to S. postica. However, to determine the risk of this insecticide against this specie of stingless, news studies must be done taking the sublethal doses and approaches as the survival analysis, impairment of cognition abilities, physiological changes, nest fitness etc. Key-words: Meliponini; neonicotinoid, toxicity. Financial support: CAPES and Universidade Federal de Uberlândia.

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THE USE OF PROBIOTICS IN ADMINISTRATION OF FEED FOR APIS BEES Juliana Pereira Lisboa M. Paiva1*; Roseli de Fátima de Oliveira1; William Vinícius de Mello Mira1; Carolina Gama1; Elisa Esposito1; Michelle Manfrini Morais2. Universidade Federal de São Paulo/Unifesp, Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia/SJC; 2Universidade Federal de São Paulo/Unifesp, Depto de Ciências Exatas e da Terra/Diadema – Contato: Rua Talim, 330, Vila Nair, São José dos Campos-SP. 1*

juliana.lisboa@unifesp.br The Brazilian Beekeeping is based primarily on the production of honey, pollen and propolis, however, the ecological role of bees as pollinators has been highlighted, especially for its population decline. Several are the initiatives taken studies to try to clarify this phenomenon, among them the development of artificial diets that can meet animals’ needs, especially during critical periods of the year, has been recognized as an alternative to reduce losses and improve the productivity of colonies. In this study, assays were performed with Apis mellifera confined in cages (6 cages for each treatment), each worker 100, maintained in an incubator at 35°C. Fermented diets were offered added probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus (10 million), Bacillus bulgaricus (10 million) and B. casei (10 million) ) on different days of fermentation: 7 days and 28 days and as controls sucrose solution was used 30% w/v (negative control), beebread (positive control) and fresh feed (unfermented). The levels of protein in the hemolymph of workers extracted after 7 days of the experiment, were detected by the Bradford method. The largest amounts of protein were made with fresh feed and fermented feed with 28 days respectively: 12.63 ug/uL and 5.81 ug/uL, compared with the negative control (2.05 ug/uL) and positive (8.37 ug/uL). The consumption rate of fresh feed was higher (70.25%) compared with the other treatments as positive control, feed with 7 days and 28 days (57.29%, 32.87% and 45.91%, respectively). With this experiment we concluded that an artificial diet is well accepted and tolerated by bees, improving their survival rate. We could not complete the effectiveness of probiotic bacteria in animals increased strength, however, new methods of fermentation and inoculum production must be improved in order to improve palatability and consequently increase the consumption by the animals. Keywords: Apis mellifera; Fermented Feed; Probiotics; Artificial Supplementation. Financial support: CAPES; Natucentro.

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CORRELATION BETWEEN LARVAE WEIGHT AND ROYAL JELLY PER CUP IN APIS MELLIFERA COLONIES Heber Luiz Pereira¹*; Erica Gomes de Lima¹; Fabiana Castelani Andreotti²; Gustavo Henrique Simões Pereira¹; Francieli das Chagas²; Maria Cláudia Colla Ruvolo Takasusuki²; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo¹. Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Departamento de Zootecnia, Avenida Colombo, 5790 Colombo Avenue, building J45 – zipcode 87020-900 Maringá, Brazil; 2Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Departamento de Biotecnologia, Genética e Biologia Celular; Maringá; Brazil. 1*

heberlp@gmail.com The royal jelly production depends on colony fitness and the ability of the one who wields. The most widely used method is the larvae grafting until 3 days to artificial cups from their alveoli. This study aimed to verify the correlation between final larvae weight and the royal jelly harvested per cup. Twenty four mini-hives colonies subjected to two cycles of royal jelly production by week in April 2015. Three days after the grafting, accepted larvae were removed and weighed on group by bar, getting the average larvae weight (mg), and royal jelly by bar, and royal jelly per cup (mg). Data were grouped by larvae weight in three groups: light larvae < 13mg, medium larvae 13-25mg and heavy larvae > 25mg, and analyzed using the statistical software R. The average larvae weight was 7.2; 18.6 and 40.4 mg for groups light larvae, medium larvae and heavy larvae, respectively. There was statistical difference (p<0.0001) among all groups for mean weight of royal jelly by cup, 130.19; 194.02 and 243.89 mg for light larvae, medium larvae and heavy larvae, respectively. There is a positive correlation (0.61) between collected larvae weight and the amount of royal jelly by cup, assuming that the grafted larvae size do not need necessarily be smaller and other factors such as the grafting quality, larvae acceptance, food stock and colony fitness may be greater impact on the amount of royal jelly deposited by cup. Keywords: Africanized honeybee; Mini-hive colonies; larvae grafting. Financial support: CNPq – 311663/2014-1 and 308283/2011-2; CAPES.

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METABOLOMIC ANALYSIS OF HONEYBEE BRAIN UNDER LEARNING AND MEMORY PROCESS Marcel Pratavieira1, Anally Ribeiro da Silva Menegasso1, Thaisa Roat1, Osmar Malaspina1, Mario Sergio Palma1. Center of the Study of Social Insects, Department of Biology, Institute of Biosciences of Rio Claro, SĂŁo Paulo State University (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP, Brazil.

1

marcelprata93@hotmail.com The honeybee Apis mellifera has long served as an invertebrate model organism for learning and memory research. In this context, different metabolites (especially neurotransmitters) were characterized by play distinct roles in learning process and in memory formation in insects. The present study aims to perform a global metabolomic analysis of bee brain (20 days old) submitted to olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (REP). The experimental group was constituted by individuals that respond to stimuli with sucrose (80% v/v). The control group was formed under the same conditions mentioned above, except by the not exposition to the odor of sucrose solution. For this, has been standardized a metabolomic analysis technique through the use of LC-ESI-micrOToFQIII MS and MS/MS system. Initially a low molecular weight compounds library was created, containing characteristic compounds of bee brain (neurotransmitters, free amino acids, polyamines, nucleotides, nucleosides, organic acids, etc.). For library construction the following parameters were considered: chromatographic retention time, molecular mass and m/z values of fragment ions obtained at CID conditions. It was developed a metabolomic library containing 65 compounds, of which 31 were identified and quantified. Some of these compounds were only identified in control group (cadaverine, spermine, glucose and uracil), while others compounds were unique to REP group (phenylalanine, betaine, spermidine and serine). Twenty three compounds were found in both groups, and only 4 of these compounds were found with statistically significant quantitative differences (arginine, asparagine, guanosine monophosphate and putrescina). The results demonstrated that the REP test stimulates an intense brain activity, high energy consumption, heavy chemical signaling and activation of some specific metabolic pathways. Generally, the results demonstrated the enormous potential of the technique for better understanding the roles of a large number of metabolites in the modulation of olfactory learning and memory processes in honeybees. Keywords: Apis mellifera; Mass spectrometry; Metabolimics; Neuroscience. Financial support: CAPES; FAPESP; CNPq.

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EFFET OF SUBLETHAL DOSES OF THIAMETHOXAM ON MIDGUT OF APIS MELLIFERA AFRICANIZED LINNAEUS, 1758 (HYMENOPTERA, APIADE) Ana Luiza Mendes dos Reis¹*; Osmar Malaspina¹; Thaisa C. Roat¹. ¹*Centro de Estudos de Insetos Sociais, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Biologia – UNESP. Contato: Avenida 24-A, 1515, 13.506-900, Rio Claro, Brasil. analum.mr@gmail.com Some scientists and beekeepers suspect that pesticides have a central function in the colonies weakening process. Among the most used pesticides there is thiamethoxam, that belongs to neonicotinoid class. There is a crescent number of evidences showing that although not fatal, the sublethal doses of insecticides have the potencial to cause a variety of alterations on bees, The midgut is the absorptive organ of insects where occurs the greatest part of the digestion and absorption of food, so this is the first organ to be in contact with the insecticide when bees ingest the contaminated food. Considering this, it is important to analyze the cytotoxicity of thiamethoxam on this non-target organ in bees exposed to insecticides. This study aimed to analyze the possible morphological effects on the midgut of A. mellifera africanized exposed to sublethal doses of 0,227 LD50/10 and 0,0227 LD50/100 of thiamethoxam for 1,3,5,7 days, through histochemical techniques. The results showed a decreased of apocrine secretion, large amount of cytoplasmic vacuolization and increased cell elimination in the lumen in digestive cells of the midgut in both groups exposed to the insecticide. The regenerative cells showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, mainly on group of bees exposed to LD50/10 treatment. From the analysis we can conclude that sublethal doses have harmful effects on the midgut, changing their morphology and, probably its function. Keywords: neonicotinoid; Apis mellifera; midgut; cytotoxicity. Financial support: FAPESP - 2013/21832-4 e 2012/13370-8.

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ASSESSMENT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF ALFAVACA (OCIMUM SELLOI) ESSENTIAL OIL ON THE MORTALITY OF APIS MELLIFERA AND TRIGONA FUSCIPENNIS Francisca Natália Brito Rocha¹*; Leonardo dos Santos Gurgel¹; Joilson Silva Lima¹; Jânio Angelo Felix¹; Raimundo Braga Sobrinho²; Cláudia Inês da Silva¹; Breno Magalhães Freitas¹. ¹*Universidade Federal do Ceará – UFC; ²Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária-Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical Contato: Av. Mister Hull, 2977-Campus do Pici Bloco 808, CEP 60021-970, Fortaleza-CE, Brasil. nataliabrito28@gmail.com Essential oils extracted from medicinal plants have been widely used in agriculture to control pests as an alternative to chemical control. In order to assess whether bees foraging on commercial crops are susceptible to sprays with these products, we investigated the mortality rate of Apis mellifera and Trigona fuscipennis through contact with the essential oil of alfavaca (Ocimum selloi). This study was carried out in the Bee Laboratory of the Animal Science Department in the Federal University of the state of Ceará, Brazil, following the protocol of OECD - 214 (OECD GUIDELINES FOR THE TESTING OF CHEMICALS - Honeybees, Acute Contact Toxicity Test). To this end, 150 individuals of each species were subjected to five concentrations (treatments) 5%, 3%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.125%, and a control treatment with distilled water, totaling 25 individuals per treatment. Next, the bees were placed in BOD at 27°C, and the behavior thereof was assessed 1h, 6h, 12h, 24h, 36h and 48h after applying the essential oil. Results were analyzed by the software SISVAR and showed that concentrations of 5%, 3%, 1% and 0.5% from 36h intervals onwards affected T. fuscipennis bees, reaching 100% mortality. The lowest dose used (0.125%) killed 65% of the bees within this same interval. As for A. mellifera, only the concentrations of 5% and 3% led to 100% mortality after 36 hours of topical application of the essential oil, whereas concentrations of 1%, 0.5% and 0.125% affected only 15% of bees. Therefore, T. fuscipennis showed topical susceptibility to the essential oil of O. selloi much higher than A. mellifera, suggesting the need for further studies with natural products on the fauna of native bees. Key words: Native Bee; Honeybee; Pest control; Natural products and Susceptibility.

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BROOD PRODUCTION IN MELIPONA MANDACAIA (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) Francimária Rodrigues¹*; Márcia de Fátima Ribeiro2; Vera Lúcia Imperatriz-Fonseca3; Dirk Koedam1.. ¹*Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido – UFERSA, Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciência Animal, Mossoró, RN, Brasil; 2Embrapa Semiárido, Setor de Entomologia, Petrolina, PE, Brasil; 3 Instituto Tecnológico Vale Desenvolvimento Sustentável - ITVDS, Belém, PA, Brasil. *Embrapa Semiárido, BR 428, Km 152, zona rural, C.P. 23, 56.302-970 Petrolina, PE, Brasil. francimaria.rodrigues@ufersa.edu.br Information on the brood production in stingless bees is relevant to the biological knowledge of these species. In this way, the aim of this work was to follow the production of individuals and castes of Melipona mandacaia in a semiarid region of its natural occurrence. Thus, seven colonies of M. mandacaia kept at the meliponary of Embrapa Semiárido (Petrolina, PE) were observed in June and July of 2015. A map was fulfilled with the new operculated cells that appeared each 24 h. The observations began from the construction of the first cell of a brood comb up to the moment it was finished. At 35 days, after the first cell was oviposited, these combs were collected, desoperculated and put under a stereo microscope for counting and identification of castes. The results showed that there was no significant differences among the colonies, for the total production of individuals and for the castes production (P=0.423, N=7 colonies, Kruskal-Wallis, for all comparisons). For this reason, all of the colonies were analyzed together. The building of the combs lasted between seven and 13 days (x= 10.43 ± 2.57, N= 7 colonies). However, not all individuals could be identified, because some of them have been removed by the workers, and/or had no pigmented eyes yet. Thus, from a total of 542 produced individuals, 445 were identified, being 77.97% workers, 11.68% queens and 10.33% males. Concerning the tax of cells’ production, it varied from one to 16 cells a day, but this difference must have been compensated by the colonies, since they produced at the end, similar total number of individuals. All colonies also followed the same pattern of castes’ production, i.e., a larger number of workers, and similar quantities of queens and males. Keywords: stingless bees, Melipona mandacaia, production of individuals, production of castes. Financial support: CAPES; Embrapa Semiárido.

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JUST LOOKING FOR A SUITABLE MALE REPRODUCTIVE AGGREGATION Charles Fernando dos Santos1*, Maria Juliana Ferreira-Caliman2, Fabio Santos do Nascimento2. Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga 6681, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 2 Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900; Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. 1

chasanto@gmail.com Some stingless bee males may share non-specific reproductive aggregations. This uncommon behavior appears to confer no obvious increase in individual fitness. It has been suggested that this reproductive strategy is due to the similarity between male odours common to different stingless bee species. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) are candidate odours of interest because they play an important role in sexual behavior and species recognition. Here, we review the literature to evaluate whether such individuals are expected to visit non-specific stingless bee male aggregations and if so whether they could preferentially visit closely or distantly related species. Both analyzes were evaluated by means a binomial test. We also compared the CHC profiles of males of stingless bee species (Plebeia sp., Trigona spinipes, Tetragona clavipes, Nannotrigona testaceicornis, Scaptotrigona aff. depilis, Tetragonisca angustula, and Melipona subnitida) in order to reveal any chemical similarities among their male odours. For this, we performed a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis based on the Bray-Curtis distances whose data were used to make a one-way analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) to test for significance in dissimilarities between the chemical profiles of tested species. Our review demonstrated that c.a. 29% of stingless bee aggregations already received at least one or few males of other species (p < 0.001). Of these, only 18% were of closely related stingless bee species (p < 0.001). These data indicates that alien males may randomly visit any other aggregations which are taking place, i.e., not necessarily of closely related species. Furthermore, the CHC profiles revealed to be very distinct from each other and do not overlapped at all. Therefore, it is unclear yet the why of this apparently non-adaptive behavior carried out by some stingless bee males. Keywords: Chemical Ecology, Mating swarm, Sexual Behavior, Cuticular Hydrocarbons. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq - 134833/2006-6; FAPESP - 10/10027-5.

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ECOLOGICAL WALK WITH PUBLIC SCHOOLS STUDENTS OF VIÇOSA/MG, AIMING THE PRESERVATION OF STINGLESS BEES Lucas de Amaral Silva¹*; Arthur Mayrink Elizeu¹; Mara Garcia Tavares¹; Weyder Cristiano Santana²; João Marcos de Araújo¹; José Lino Neto¹; Lucio Antônio de Oliveira Campos¹. ¹*Departamento de Biologia Geral da Universidade Federal de Viçosa – UFV, ²Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa – UFV Contato: Avenida Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus Universitário, 36570-000, Viçosa - MG, Brasil. lucas.a.amaral@ufv.br Indigenous bees belong to a group of bees known as Meliponini and they do not present the sting in the terminal portion of their abdomen. The species belonging to this group are extremely important to the ecosystem, since they are responsible for pollinating many species of Brazilian native flora. Thus, the aim of this project was to use the stingless bees as a biological model to awaken in elementary school students of public schools in the municipality of Viçosa (MG), the importance of preserving these insects and the environment. The “Trail of Bees” consisted of a walking through the campus of Federal University of Viçosa so that participating students could locate and observe nests of different species of stingless bees in nature. During the guided walking, the students realized that nests can be built inside or outside the trees, as well as on walls and lampposts. They could also notice that the entries of the nests of indigenous stingless bees can exhibit different forms and be built using different materials, as wax or clay. At the end of ecological walking, students visited the Central Apiary of the University, where they could see the internal organization of hives of different species of stingless bees and the brood comb and food pots. They also learned identifying the queen and the workers form different species. With the information acquired along the walking, students could realize the importance of stingless bees to humanity and to the ecosystem and showed great interest in the activity and nowadays are able to express the importance of stingless bees for the environment, becoming important multipliers of information about the habits of these bees and the need to preserve them. These results underscore the importance of using live models in science and biology classes. Keywords: Meliponini; conservation; environmental education. Financial Support: FAPEMIG; PIBEX-UFV.

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FORAGING ACTIVITTY OF MELIPONA MANDACAIA IN PETROLINA, PERNAMBUCO STATE, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL Eva Monica Sarmento da Silva1*; Yan Souza Lima1; Géssica Andrade Paim1; Daiane Dias Ribeiro1. Univasf, BR 407, Km 12, lote 543, Proj. Irrig. Senador Nilo Coelho s/n “C1”- campus de Ciências Agrárias, 56.300-990 Petrolina (PE)- Brazil. 1

eva.silva@univasf.edu.br This study analyzed the entrance and exit of Melipona mandacaia, at different times and environments. The experiment was conducted in laboratory and in the meliponary of the Campus of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of São Francisco Valley (09º19’26”S, 40º33’36”W, 393 m altitude), Petrolina, Pernambuco State, from January 05th to January 08th, 2015. Two colonies of Melipona mandacaia were housed in wooden boxes. One colony was kept in the laboratory at temperatures around 25°C, and connected to the outside by a plastic tube, allowing a free flow of foragers. The other colony was kept in the meliponary at 30°C. Statistical analyses were performed utilizing the program SYSTAT version 12, where the values were evaluated by analysis of variance and Tukeys´s test at 5 % probability. Simultaneous observations were made in the two boxes for 20 minutes every hour from 08h00 to 16h00, by counting the number of bees that entered and left each box. The number of bees that entered and left the box was quite higher (p<0.05) in the laboratory (n=315 and 197, respectively) compared to the colony in the meliponary (n=109 and 187, respectively). Bees were more active in the period from 08h00 to 10h00. Our results evidence that temperature and sunlight can influence bee foraging and, possibly, production. Keywords: Bee; temperature; Melipona mandacaia.

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THE PROPOSAL OF A METHODOLOGY FOR APPLYING SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS METRICS IN THE BIODIVERSITY INFORMATICS DOMAIN Juliana Saragiotto Silva1*,2; Antonio Mauro Saraiva2,3. *Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso – IFMT; Campus Cuiabá; Departamento de Área de Informática; Rua Professora Zulmira Canavarros, 93, 78005-200, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. 2Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Computação da USP – BioComp-USP. 3 Universidade de São Paulo - USP; Escola Politécnica; Departamento de Engenharia de Computação e Sistemas Digitais. 1

juliana.silva@cba.ifmt.edu.br In the last decade, several researchers have used Interaction Networks for analyzing the role of species in network structure, focusing on the factors that have contributed and influenced biodiversity maintenance. The concepts, algorithms, metrics and computational resources commonly used in this field are the same as those in Social Network Analysis (SNA), which uses the graph theory concepts, computing techniques and resources to analyze the interdependencies among nodes in the network. Therefore, we propose a methodology to guide researchers to apply SNA metrics to biological Interaction Networks, in the Biodiversity Informatics domain. The methodology is structured in four steps: (i) mapping the data types and the interactions available; (ii) defining the key-questions to be answered and the analysis variable; (iii) choosing the SNA metrics appropriate to the context of the research; and (iv) performing the biological analysis with the support of SNA. As material resources, a set of computational (such as R packages, Dieta, Pajek and Ucinet software) and Statistical Analysis (Exploratory and Multivariate Data Analysis) tools were used, as well as the SNA metrics. This proposal was born at the Research Center on Biodiversity and Computing at University of São Paulo (BioComp-USP), by means of the collaboration with researchers from different areas (Ecology, Genetics, Microbiology, Social Network Analysis, Statistical and Data Analysis). To assess the suitability of this methodology it was submitted to pollinator-plant and microbiological Interaction Network case studies. Among the results, we note the benefits that providing a systematic method can bring to a researcher in the organization of its activities; furthermore, when a researcher has interaction data organized in a bipartite matrix, it is possible to apply SNA resources to identify clustering patterns and to discover new knowledge regarding the data. Finally, as future work we consider the possibility of applying this methodology to unexplored areas. Keywords: Social Network Analysis; Interaction Networks; Metrics; Methodology; Biodiversity Informatics. Financial support: IFMT; BioComp-USP; FAPEMAT; CAPES.

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DENSITY-DEPENDENT PROPHYLACTIC IMMUNITY IN MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA Talitta Guimarães Simões¹; Débora Mello Furtado de Mendonça¹*; Marcos Vinícius Vieira Mattos¹; Simon Luke Elliot¹. ¹*Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Entomologia, Viçosa, Brasil. deboravrb@gmail.com Density-Dependent Prophylaxis (DDP) predicts that organisms invest more in immunological defence when in high densities. We hypothesize that social insects will invest more in behavioural than in physiological plastic immune defence, for colony protection. To test this hypothese, we evaluated physiological and behavioural parameters in a stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, kept at different densities for 10 days. The physiological parameters are encapsulation and haemocyte densities. For encapsulation, test workers were challenged with a colourless nylon filament, inserted through the lateral region of the thorax. Two measurements were taken: capsule area and capsule melanisation. To count haemocyte densities, test workers were decapitated in order to colect haemolymph and haemocytes were counted in a Neubauer chamber. To examine behavioural defences, workers from the same colonies were marked on their thorax and contaminated with spores of Beauveria bassiana and put in contact with one bee from each density treatment. As a control, we performed the same procedures for bees without fungi. We observed antennation, self-grooming, allogrooming and aggression. Per capita interactions among bees with density treatments showed that density is in accordance with connectivity, i.e., higher density leads to higher connectivity. Physiological variables were not affected by density. In behavioural parameters, without fungi only antennation was observed, and it was more frequent at higher density. With fungi, antennation was more frequent at lower density, and aggression was the behaviour most observed at high densities. This seems to happen because when in contact with a contaminated bee, tested bees should have other priorities (i.e. to exterminate contaminated bees). Our results show that, in this bee, DDP is more expressed in behavioural than in physiological plastic defences. Keywords: immune defence; social insect; density-dependent prophylaxis. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq.

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DOES THE PROBABILITY OF CAPTURE OF EUGLOSSA MALES INCREASE WITH THE TEMPERATURE? Thiago Henrique Azevedo Tosta1*; Laice Souza Rabelo1; Solange Cristina Augusto1. Instituto de Biologia – UFU Contato: Rua Ceará s/n, 38400-902 Uberlândia, Brasil.

1

thenriquebio@gmail.com Euglossine bees have a neotropical distribution and their occurrence is related to environmental factors such as humidity and the availability of ecological. Besides, temperature can influence their occurrence and flight activities. In surveys conducted in the Cerrado biome, euglossine bees are more abundant in the hot/wet season and are usually sampled in the morning. The aim of this study was to verify if the probability of capture of Euglossa males can increase with gradual rise in temperature. Seven aromatic fragrances were used to attract the males at four seasonal semideciduous forest fragments inserted in the Cerrado. The samplings were conducted monthly, from 9:00 am to 1:00 pm, during one year. We sampled 226 individuals and the temperature registered ranged from 18.6ºC to 30.6ºC. We observed that the probability of capture of Euglossa males increased with gradual rise in temperature (t = 2.449, p = 0.014, n = 43). The chance of capture was lower than 50% at temperatures until 20ºC. We also observed that the probability of capture increased 48.1% with each one degree of raise of temperature until 25.3ºC. Above this temperature the chance of capture a Euglossa male was higher than 90%. Our results suggest that there is difference in the probability of capture of Euglossa according the temperature. However, this pattern is probably restricted to an interval of temperature, since bees does not present an efficient mechanism of control of body temperature. Besides, the flight activities can be associated with the availability of aromatic compounds. Some fragrances are more volatile than others with the increase of temperature, such as eucalyptol, the most attractive fragrance to euglossine males. Studies involving the probability of capture of bees are scarce and, therefore, it is necessary to evaluate a wider temperature range in order to elucidate the limits of temperatures tolerated by euglossine bees. Keywords: Probability of capture; Euglossa; Temperature. Financial support: CAPES; CNPq; Fapemig.

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SURGICAL INTERVENTION IN QUEENS OF SCAPTOTRIGONA DEPILIS (APIDAE, MELIPONINI) FOR SPERMATHECA REMOVAL Ayrton Vollet Neto1; Hayron Kalil Cardoso Cordeiro2; Jamille Costa Veiga3; Cristiano Menezes2; Denise de Araujo Alves4; Vera Lucia Imperatriz Fonseca5. Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil 2Laboratório de Botânica, Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Belém, PA, Brazil 3Laboratório de Biologia e Ecologia de Abelhas, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, PA, Brazil 4Departamento de Entomologia e Acarologia, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil 5 Instituto Tecnológico Vale, Belém, PA, Brazil. 1

ayrtonneto@usp.br Surgical interventions are not common approaches for research in insects due to their small size and poorly known anatomical systems. However, when it works always provide a good methodology for physiological studies. A surgical intervention in mated queens of Scaptotrigona depilis is reported, aiming to obtain one that lays unfertilised eggs, which develop into male offspring. For that, queens were placed in an artificial inseminator and narcotized with carbon dioxide (CO2). We tested two different regions for incision in two groups of two queens. For the first group, despite the fact that the spermatheca were easily exposed, when the last sclerotized sternite of queens’ abdomens was cut this procedure damaged them and they died. For the second group, an incision in the lateral pleura between the two final abdominal sternites showed the best results regarding the queens’ survival. We repeated this proceeding with five other queens. Using a U-shape tool, it was possible to remove the spermatheca and apparently the internal organs were not damaged. The incision was dried before the queen was placed alone in a Petri dish for two hours, and then introduced in a confined small colony. Three out of seven queens survived for 8 days in this condition. However, when they were introduced in free-foraging colonies they did not lay eggs, and were probably executed by the workers. A higher precision during the spermathecal removal is necessary. Despite our negative results, we showed that queens are quite resistant to surgical interventions and may have a powerful cicatrisation process. Keywords: stingless bees; insect surgery; queen anatomy. Financial support: FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, 2012/11144-0 to AVN), CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, 470372/2013-3 to DAA), PNPD/CAPES (Programa Nacional de Pós-Doutorado da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, to DAA).

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TOXICITY OF PYRACLOSTROBIN FUNGICIDE TO NEWLY EMERGED AFRICANIZED HONEY BEES Rodrigo Zaluski¹*; Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi¹. ¹*Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, FMVZ – UNESP – Câmpus de Botucatu. Departamento de Produção Animal. Distrito de Rubião Junior, s/n Caixa Postal 560, 18618-970 Botucatu, Brasil. rodrigozaluski@yahoo.com.br Fungicides are typically seen as fairly safe for honey bees and their acute toxicity to adult bees is generally low; thus, residues of these pesticides can be stored in hives. This could adversely affect the survival of newly emerged bees. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicity (LD50) of fungicide pyraclostrobin (Comet®) to newly emerged Africanized Apis mellifera through ingestion tests. The experiment was conducted at the Beekeeping Production Area of Lageado Experimental Farm, FMVZ, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo. Capped brood combs were obtained from five colonies and placed in an incubator, and newly emerged honey bees (0 to 24h) were used in tests. Bees were individually feed using a micropipette with 10 µL of contaminated honey syrup containing pyraclostrobin (10.0, 9.50, 9.00, 8.50, 8.00, 7.50, 7.00 µg and 0,00 µg). To each dose 50 bees were fed and distributed in Petry dishes (10 bees per dish) that were maintained in incubator at 34 ± 1 ºC with humidity between 70% and 80%. The number of dead bees in each treatment was recorded 24 h after the beginning of the tests, and the results were subjected to Probit Analysis in software Minitab 16. The ingestion LD50 (24 h) of pyraclostrobin was 6.73 ± 1.54 µg/bee, thus this fungicide is classified as toxicity category II “toxic to bees”. Fungicides do not carry label restrictions to reduce bee exposure, so bees may encounter high concentrations when they are applied to bee-attractive crops during bloom. Our results highlight a need for research on toxic effects of fungicides, because studies have shown the increase of susceptibility of bees to pathogens when they are exposed to fungicides. The determination of LD50 to adult honey bees is also necessary and measures should be undertaken to prevent exposure of bees to toxic fungicides. Keywords: Fungicides; Pollinators; Laboratory tests; LD50; Toxicity. Financial support: CNPq -165696/2014-1.

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MONITORING OF NOSEMA SPP. IN NATURAL HIVES OF APIS MELLIFERA LOCATED IN A GREEN URBAN AREA Larissa Thans Carneiro1*; Monique da Silva Souza1; Rayanne Vaz de Mello Marinho1; Lilian Ferreira de Oliveira2; Caio Eduardo Costa Domingues1; Josimere Conceição de Assis1; Elaine Cristina Mathias da Silva Zacarin1. Universidade Federal de São Carlos campus Sorocaba; Sorocaba; Brasil; 2Universidade Paulista campus Sorocaba; Sorocaba; Brasil.

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larissa.thans.carneiro@gmail.com There are two species of microsporidia that infect the Apis mellifera bees around the world: Nosema apis and N. ceranae. The transmission of Nosema in the colonies is mainly by fecal-oral route. After initial infection, millions of new spores can be found inside the ventricle of infected bees within a few weeks. It is known that infection by these intestinal endoparasites induce adverse effects on the colony health. Its diagnosis is difficult, and the infection could lead to complete mortality of the colony in extreme cases. In Brazil, the effects of Nosemosis are not well known by beekeepers and there are no reports about this microsporidium in non-managed hives. In this context, the monitoring of Nosema infection in managed and non-managed hives is important to understand the endoparasite cycle in colonies at different conditions. Therefore the objective was to monitoring the presence/absence of Nosema spores in natural hives of Apis mellifera found in the municipal park named Biquinha, located in Sorocaba (SP) and compare this quantitative data with those obtained for managed colonies in the apiary (Bico Doce) located in Piedade (SP). Honeybee collections were performed in Autumn 2015. Three natural hives of Apis mellifera were observed in Biquinha Park and forage bees were collected with entomological net. In the apiary, bees were collected in the entrance of the colonies. Honeybees collected had their abdomen macerated in order to counting Nosema spores in a Neubauer chamber. The data relating to apiary indicated the average of 7,26x106 spores/bee of Nosema. In relation to bees collected in Biquinha Park, the mean was 1,325x106 spores/bee of Nosema. This difference observed between the natural and managed hives represent an alert to the improvement of management practices in commercial apiaries to minimize infections by pathogens that could decrease the colony population. Keywords: Nosema; Nosemosis; Apis mellifera. Financial support: FAPESP - 2013/09419-4.

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STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF DOSES SUBLETHAL THE INSECTICIDE IMIDACLOPRID THE INTESTINE AND BEE MALPIGHIAN TUBULES MELIPONA SCUTELLARIS Grella, Tatiane Caroline1; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira² (O); Costa, Letícia Mariano2; Soares, Hellen Maria 3; Malaspina, Osmar3. UFSCar – Campus Araras/ Master’s student in the Graduate Program Agriculture and Environment. UFSCar, 13600, Araras, SP, Brazil. ²UFSCar – Campus Araras - Department of Natural Sciences, Mathematics and Education. ³Universidade State Paulista “Julio de Mesquita Filho”, Department of Biology, Center for Study of Social Insects.

1

tati_cg04@hotmail.com Bees are important pollinators of native plants and economic interest. The species Melipona scutellaris has attracted attention for being able to perform buzz pollination, essential for diverse cultures. The constant use of systemic pesticides such as imidacloprid, can contaminate nectar and pollen. So, when feeding, insecticide may reach the intestine, responsible for digestion and absorption and Malpighian tubules, responsible for excretion. With that, the objective was to study the damage caused to organs cited by sublethal doses of imidacloprid insecticide. For this, forages were collected, put into 250 mL pots and fed with water with sugar syrup 50% (v / w) for the control group, and syrups containing sublethal doses would LC50 = 0.81 ng a.i/ diet LC50 / 10 = 0.081 ng a.i / diet and LC50 / 100 = 0.0081 ng a.i / diet for exposed groups. After 24 and 48 hours bees anesthetized with CO2, the intestine and Malpighian tubules were collected, sectioned at 5 µm thickness, submitted the techniques of PAS and Feulgen and observed under light microscope. The results showed for the two organs studied, the nuclei were more reactive to Feulgen technique according to the concentrations, after 24 and 48 hours, which may indicate chromatin condensation, possibly related death feature cell. In PAS technique, after 24 and 48 hours, we observed a lower intensity labeling with dose-dependent in the brush border, tubules and in the intestine, which may demonstrate a deficit in the production of secreted substances on the surface of the epithelium, directly connect to polysaccharides. Based on the observations, we conclude that sublethal doses morphophysiology alter the intestinal and Malpighian tubules cells and could implicate the survival of long time body. Keywords: native bees; pesticide; LC50. Financial support: CAPES; FAPESP nº 2012/50.197-2.

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BIOASSAY EVALUATION FOR HOST-FINDING BEHAVIOR OF VARROA DESTRUCTOR Marcia Regina Cavichio Issa¹*; Elisa Cimitan Mendes2; David De Jong¹. ¹*Universidade de São Paulo; Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto; Ribeirão Preto; Brasil; 2 Universidade de São Paulo; Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto; Ribeirão Preto; Brasil. marciaissa.genetica@gmail.com To analyze the behavior of Varroa destructor mites collected at different stages of development of the host bee, Apis mellifera carnica, and then test substances which could act on the attraction/repulsion of varroa, was set up a bioassay, using material and similar conditions the mite environment, avoiding air currents, providing it with a small place, so that varroa realize for yourself what is offered. Petri dishes of 3.5 cm diameter were used, with the bottom covered with beeswax (0.5 cm to the edge) and a closed triangular shaped area (3,2 x 3,2 x 2,0 cm) bounded by plastic wall.The triangle widest part divided (with the same plastic) into two equal and communicable parts, where testing materials to be analyzed are placed, in the case, larvae of worker bees 3 and 5 days old, a material supposedly non-attractive-L3 and attractive-L5 (to test methodology efficacy). The mites were placed on the tapered end of the triangle. The covered Petri dish was placed in a box adapted to the appropriate temperature and humidity conditions. Adapted a camcorder with objective sensitive to low light in the box. 8-10 female mites were observed from 8 different development phases of the host honeybee, since opened-L5 larvae, until the imago-emerging bee (L5-LS-PP-Pw-Pb-Pd-Pdd-imago), about 60 minutes. We evaluated, among other activities, number of visits to a larva, the first visit time, length of time on the larvae. In the 80 observations was quantified the first visited larva: L5 = 67 mites (85%), L3 = 6 mites (7.5%), suggesting the effectiveness of the methodology. It seems that there was some difference in the behavior among the collected mites in different development phases of the host honey bees. The younger bee phases mites chosen larvae in less time, remained longer held therein, and fewer visits to it than the phase older. Keywords: Bioassay; Varroa Behavior; Apis mellifera; Host. Financial support: DAAD; CNPq; FAPESP.

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SEASONAL MONITORING OF NOSEMA SPP. IN HONEY BEE HIVES LOCATED IN AN ORANGE CROP Monique da Silva Souza¹*; Josimere Conceição de Assis ¹; Lilian Ferreira de Oliveira²; Larissa Thans Carneiro¹; Elaine Cristina Mathias Silva-Zacarin1. Universidade Federal de São Carlos; campus Sorocaba; Sorocaba; Brasil; 2Universidade Paulista campus Sorocaba; Sorocaba; Brasil. 1

monique_dasilvasouza@hotmail.com Currently the populations of wild and managed bees are globally threatened. Among the factors that can contribute to the weakening of Apis mellifera colonies are the microsporidia Nosema spp., which are intestinal endoparasites that causes nosemosis in honey bees. In cases of extreme level of infection, can there be mortality of individuals and consequently the decline of the colony population. We evaluate the frequency of Nosema spp. spores in natural hives of Apis mellifera allocated in an orange crop area in comparison to managed hives allocated to commercial apiary in order to monitorated the fluctuation of Nosema spp spores in these hives according to the seasonality. The study areas are located on the border between the cities of Sorocaba and Votorantim, SP - orange crop area (São Pedro farm), and the city of Piedade, SP - commercial apiary (Bico Doce). Bees were collected from hives in Summer and Autumn (2015). In the apiary, bees were collected in the nest entrance during the handling procedure. On the farm, bees in flight activity were collected with entomological net near to the hives. All samples were taken and immediately frozen. The abdomens were macerated and the spores were quantified in a Neubauer chamber. Quantitative data of individuals collected in the commercial apiary and natural hives showed high infection rate, being 5,975x106 spores / bee (January) and 4,930x106 spores/bee (April) to individuals collected in the crop and 7,985x106 spores/ bee (January) and 11,620 x106 spores/bee (April) for individuals collected in the apiary. However, the data revealed lower rate of spores per bee in the natural hives located in the crop area than in the managed hives located in apiary. Possible causes of this difference are: intra-colony variability, microclimate characteristics, differences in floral diversity (food source) and management of the colony, the latter in the case of the nest located in apiary. Keywords: Nosema spp.; Apis mellifera; natural nests. Financial support: FAPESP - 2013/09419-4.

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EFFECTS OF THIAMETHOXAM AND NOSEMA SPORES IN HYPOPHARYNGEAL GLANDS OF AFRICANIZED HONEY BEE Elaine C. M. Silva Zacarin¹*; Thamiris Porto Sipriano¹; Caio Eduardo da Costa Domingues¹; Paulo José Balsamo¹; Ana Carolina Batista¹; Fabio Camargo Abdalla¹. ¹*Universidade Federal de São Carlos – UFSCar (Campus Sorocaba); Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural e Funcional; Sorocaba; Brasil. elaine@ufscar.br Multiple stressors, such as chemicals and pathogens, are likely to be detrimental for the health and lifespan of Apis mellifera. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of co-exposure of the insecticide thiamethoxam and Nosema ceranae spores on the hypopharyngeal glands of Africanized honey bee (AHB). Newly-emerged worker bees were exposed to two different sublethal doses of thiamethoxam and N. ceranae. Six experimental groups were essayed in triplicate: I) 0.0856 ng bee1 of thiametoxam (1/50 or 2% of LD50 for AHB); II) 0.00856 ng bee-1 of thiametoxam (1/500 or 0.2% of LD50); III) 0.0856 ng bee-1 of thiamethoxam plus Nosema spores; IV) 0.00856 ng bee-1 of thiamethoxam plus Nosema spores. V) Nosema spores (60.000); VI) bees received sucrose water solution (1:1). Bees were essayed in triplicate. Acute exposure were performed by oral via (per os). After exposure, all bees were kept in cages (N= 15 per cage) and they were fed with sucrose water solution (1:1) ad libitum for five days. At the end of experiment, bees were collected from each group and they were dissected for remotion of the hypopharyngeal glands (HPGs), which were fixed and processed for resin embedding. Glands were sectioned and the histological sections were submitted to Haematoxilin and Eosin staining. Morphological analysis of HPGs indicated the greatest amount of secretion vesicles in bees exposed simultaneously to N. ceranae and thiamethoxam, in comparison to control and the others groups, suggesting an acceleration of changing from newly-emerged bee to nurse bee. The HPGs of worker honeybees undergo age-dependent physiological changes and these changes could be modified in bees exposed to Nosema. Our data add information to the hypothesis that Nosema causes a precocious onset of foraging and provide insights into the effects of the neonicotenoid thiamethoxam and N. ceranae spores in honey bees. Keywords: Worker bee; bioassays; neonicotenoid; pathogen. Financial support: FAPESP (2013/09419-4; 2013/27071-5 and 2014/04697-9); CNPq (490379/2011-7).

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CAPACITY FOR POLLEN PRODUCTION OF HONEYBEES IN THE APIARY OF THE ANIMAL SCIENCE CAMPUS, UNIVASF, PETROLINA-PE DURING THE MONTH OF JUNE Jadson Cardoso de Almeida1*; Leandro Santos Silva1; Daiane Dias Ribeiro1; Bruno Henrique Alves de Souza1; Alisson Willame Santos Silva1; Eva Mônica Sarmento da Silva1; David Ramos da Rocha1. *Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco; Campus Ciências Agrárias; Projeto de Irrigação Nilo Coelho; Petrolina; Brasil .

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jadsoncardoso.1@hotmail.com Honeybee pollen is gathered from plants by worker bees as a protein source for feeding purposes. Pollen has been described as the “Nature’s perfect food” because it is extremely concentrated, being a complex source of high quality nutrientes, enriched with vitamins, minerals, enzymes and aminoacids. The goal of the presente research was to measure the capacity for pollen production of Apis mellifera bees in the region of the São Francisco Valley. The study was conducted on an apiary belonging to Univasf- CCA, Petrolina- Pe (09º19’28”S; 40º33’34”W). Five homogeneous colonies of Apis mellifera bees were used, with five pollen collectors for the cell. Collection took place during the month of june, 2015, in two consecutive days, from 8am to 5pm, with a rest period of 24h to attend colony needs. After collection, the pollen was weighed using an analytical scale with precision of 0,0001g. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Tukey’s test. Results showed that the daily average of pollen production by all colonies was 6.4844g, and the average production per colony was 1.2968g. However, there were no differences (P<0.05) for pollen production among colonies. These results showed that the polen production during the month of june/2015 was considered low, therefore pollen collection during that period is not recommended. Keywords: Production; Pollen; Apis mellifera.

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PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PROPOPLIS EXTRACT Fernando Antônio Anjo1*; Grasieli Beloni de Melo1; Lorrany Matos Cardozo Silva1; Rafaela Cristina Turola Barbi1; Lucilene de Mattos Almeida²; Rejane Stubs Parpinelli³; Maria Josiane Sereia3. UTFPR – Coordenação de Alimentos - Campo Mourão - Brasil. 2UEM – Departamento de Zootecnia - Maringá - Brasil. 3UEM - Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia - Maringá - Brasil. Contato: Via Rosalina Maria dos Santos, 1233 CEP 87301-899 Caixa Postal: 271- Campo Mourão - PR – Brasil. 1*

fernandoaanjo@hotmail.com The brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA) defines propolis as the product original from resinous substances, gummy and balsamic, collected by bees, shoots, flowers and exudates from plants, in which the bees add salivary secretions, wax and pollen for final preparation of the product. From propolis the propolis extract is obtained, which is the product of the extraction of soluble components of propolis in neutral food grade alcohol. Propolis and its extract are used for a long time for medicinal purposes, studies show its effectiveness due to its antibacterial property, antiinflammatory, immunostimulant, antioxidant, among others. This work aimed to evaluate propolis extracts samples made from raw propolis from the genre honeybee colonies Apis mellifera of Campo Mourão region, northwest of Paraná. The following physical and chemical analyzes, according to the methodology of Silva were performed (1998): Residual wax, total solids, lead acetate, sodium hydroxide, alcohol, ash, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. In all samples weren’t observed significant amounts of wax; lead acetate, sodium hydroxide; alcohol above 70° GL or ash above 0.15%. One sample showed a concentration of greater than 1% wax and total solids concentration less than 11%, not meeting the current MAPA standart. The higher content of phenolic compounds observed was equal to 225.83 mgEAG/mL and antioxidant activity of 44.83 mgEAG/mL. The analyzed parameters allowed to observe differences in the effectiveness of extraction of the active substances and the failure to meet the legal standards set forth by Brazilian legislation. Keywords: Propolis; Phenolic compounds, Legislation.

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EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS IN THE PREPARATION OF POLLEN COLLECTORS Wellington Luiz de Paula Araújo1*; Emi Rainildes Lorenzetti2; Rodrigo de Oliveira Almeida3; Rafaelly Calsavara Martins 2; Ana Paula Vitor Martins2 . Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sudeste de Minas Gerais - Campus Rio Pomba,1Departamento de Zootecnia; 2Departamento de Agricultura e Ambiente; 3Instituto de Biotecnologia da UNESP – Botucatu. Contato: Rio Pomba, Brasil. wellingtonluiz16@yahoo.com.br Pollen is an excellent source for income for beekepers, thus being largely exploited. For efficient collection and with a cost-effective, the choice of materials used in the manufacture of pollen trap can be an economy to beekeepers, since raw materials available on the property can be availed for doing rational and efficient collectors. This study aimed to test different materials in pollen trap, efficiency and the impact caused by these in the hive. The experiment was conducted at the Campus of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology Southeast of Minas Gerais, located in the municipality of Rio Pomba, from February to March 2015. For the preparation of pollen trap, it was used three materials of easy availability in farms: polyethylene, zinc plate and wood. Two hives were used for each collector model, totaling six hives, with evaluation of weekly collections. In addition, weekly data of the movement of bees and development of the colonies were analyzed. Preliminary results of natural and dry matter indicated that zinc showed better results, with averages of 28.72 and 40.75g, respectively (with a total production of 352.33 and 244.54g), compared to polyethylene results in which they were observed averages 29.78 and 19.84g, and total production of 178.68 and 119.01g, and the wood that showed an average of 28.23 and 19.36g, with total production of 169 38 and 116.17g. This preliminary result demonstrated that the use of zinc as material for pollen trap was more efficient than others for this practice. Keywords: alternative materials; pollen collector; pollen apiarian.

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QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS APIS MELLIFERA HONEY SAMPLES OF WEST PARANA REGION - SEASON 2014/2015 Edirlene Andréa Arnhold*1; Karin Janaina Royer1; Tatiane Kaiser1; Thiago Henrique Radtke1; Ana Tereza Borge da Costa1; Alceu Maurício Hartleben1; Regina Conceição Garcia1. Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná – UNIOESTE; Centro de Ciências Agrárias; Curso de Zootecnia; Marechal Cândido Rondon; Brasil. *1

ediaarnhold@hotmail.com The physicochemical characteristics of western honey have been evaluated in recent years, aiming beyond the legal aspect, seeking a geographical identity, because the bee flora is quite characteristic for reforestation in areas of permanent preservation of the Itaipu lake shore. The aim of the study was the physicochemical characterization of Apis mellifera honey samples provided by beekeepers counties of western region of Paraná, from August 2014 to July 2015. We collected 101 samples of honey and subjected to analysis of: moisture, pH, acidity, ashes, Fiehe test, reactions of Lund and Lugol, HMF and color. The results were compared with the current Brazilian legislation. Of the total, only three showed higher values than ​​ 20% moisture allowed. The pH ranged from 3.53 to 4.90, and only one sample showed higher pH than allowed by law (3.3 to 4.6). The acidity had values ​​below 50 meq / kg, which does not indicate the fermentation samples. Honeys analyzed showed ash content between 0.03% to 0.45%, below the maximum allowed value (0.6%). For Lugol and Lund reactions irregularities were not found, however 14.85% of the samples tested showed positive results for Fiehe test, which may indicate honey warming, although the current legislation does not consider this mandatory analysis. One of these samples tested positive for HMF, indicating the presence of commercial glucose. As for the color of honey, it was found that 46.54% of the samples had extra light amber color, 29.7% were clear amber, 10.89% white, 8.91% amber and 3.96% dark amber. These results confirm analyzes since 2006, indicating that the honey from the counties in west region evaluated, in general, have light color and physicochemical characteristics compatible with the rules. Keywords: Beekeeping; Quality; Bees; Legislation. Financial support: UNIOESTE; MEC-SESu; SETI-UGFPR.

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PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL QUALITY EVALUATION OF APIS MELLIFERA HONEY PRODUCED IN PALMEIRA DAS MISSÕES - RS Edirlene Andréa Arnhold*1; Karin Janaina Royer1; Tatiane Kaiser1; Thiago Henrique Radtke1; Ricardo Schulz Mittanck1; Regina Conceição Garcia1; Luiz Eduardo Avelar Pucci*2. Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná – UNIOESTE; Centro de Ciências Agrárias; Curso de Zootecnia; Marechal Cândido Rondo; Brasil; 2Universidade Federal de Santa Maria – UFSM; Departamento de Ciências Biológicas e Zootecnia; Curso de Zootecnia, Palmeira das Missões; Brasil. *1

ediaarnhold@hotmail.com The physicochemical characterization of honey can enable improved processing and production. Beekeeping has been disseminating up in Palmeira das Missões - RS, however studies about quality of honey produced are still scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical and chemical quality of Apis mellifera honey samples from beekeepers of this county. In January and February 2015, were collected 15 samples of honey, provided by beekeepers and subsequently subjected to moisture analysis, pH, acidity, ashes, Fiehe test, reactions of Lund and Lugol, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and coloring . When comparing the results with the current Brazilian legislation it was found that, as moisture, 6.7% of the samples showed values ​​higher than 20% permissible. The pH should have values between ​​ 3.3 to 4.6 and in our studies we observed a variation between 3.79 and 4.57, in the required pattern. The acidity values were ​​ between 23.48 meq / kg of honey and rules allows up to 50 meq / kg of honey and pH values does not indicate fermentation in the samples. The samples had residues of values ​​from 0.04 to 0.37%, below the 0.6% allowed by law. By Fiehe tests, reactions of Lund and Lugol, and determination of HMF, which indicate whether the honey went through overheating or some process of tampering, it was found that all samples were within the standards set by law. With regard to color, light amber predominated among samples (33.33%), followed by extra light amber and amber (both with 26.67%) and white (13.33%). We conclude that all samples are in accordance with the rules and suitable for human consumption. Keywords: Beekeeping; analysis; Rio Grande do Sul; Legislation. Financial support: UNIOESTE; MEC-SESu; SETI-UGFPR.

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HONEY CONSUMPTION ASSESSMENT IN LIMOEIRO DO NORTE-CE Lorena Galdino da Franca¹; Natálya Vidal de Holanda¹; Lunian Fernandes Moreira¹; Silmara Azevedo Lopes¹; Ana Josymara Lira Silva¹; Sandra Maria Lopes dos Santos²; Marlene Nunes Damaceno². ¹Mestrandos em Tecnologia de Alimentos; Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará – Campus Limoeiro do Norte, Brasil; ²Professoras Doutoras do curso de Mestrado em Tecnologia de Alimentos do IFCE – Campus Limoeiro do Norte, Brasil. lorena.galdinof.lgf@gmail.com Over the years, consumers have been reformulating their food, their tastes and their preferences: there is now an increasingly demand of a diversity of products with superior quality. The consumer behavior study is important to identify what are the parameters that influence the purchase of a product. Honey, the main element of this work, is characterized by being a natural, liquid, viscous and sweet food, produced by bees from the nectar collected from flowers. It is a product composed of several properties that aid to the health of human beings and it is rich in nutrients; therefore, it must be present in the diet of all of us. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate the behavior of a portion of the population of the city of Limoeiro do Norte - CE related to honey consumption, which means assessing family habits, frequency, methods of use, how much they love the product and its importance in the life of these people. For this purpose, a questionnaire was administered to 120 people of different age groups. The results showed that most respondents consume honey on a monthly basis and that the most important reason pointed out to the honey-taking is its benefits for a healthy body. The results also showed that the most common form of honey consumption is natural – it is commonly used as a medicine. In addition, 66% of respondents answered that their families have the habit of consuming honey. Regarding organoleptic parameters, 47% and 43% answered that they really like and enjoy honey slightly, respectively; 99% justified the importance of honey intake for its therapeutic effect: the fact it is free from chemical products and it is used as a natural substitute for sugar. Therefore, it was concluded that consumers are concerned about their health and include honey in their food targeting the benefits that this product offers. Keywords: Healthy food; Health; organoleptic parameters. Financial support: CAPES; FUNCAP; IFCE.

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PROPOLIS: A POSSIBLE USE AS ANTIOXIDANT FOR BIOFUEL Maíra Martins Franco1*; Camila Nonato Junqueira2; Fernanda Helena-Nogueira3; Douglas Queiroz Santos4; João Carlos de Oliveira5. *Programa de Pós Graduação em Biocombustíveis – UFU; 2,4,5Escola Técnica de Saúde – UFU; Instituto de Ciências Biológicas – UFU. Contato: Av. João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Campus Santa Mônica, 38408-100 Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil.

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mairafranco.mel@gmail.com Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that can be produced from the process of transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats. Fuel quality has been a priority of regulatory agencies such as ANP (National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels). Due to the biodiesel chemical structure (presence of unsaturations), this has a high level of reactivity with oxygen, especially when put in contact with air, moisture, metals, light and heat. So there is the possibility of compromising the biodiesel quality when stored for a long period of time, and the tank storages a major source of contamination. Thus, the companies add antioxidants in the biodiesel for preventing or delaying autoxidation. Several studies on the use of synthetic antioxidants were already done in biodiesel, however, the use of natural antioxidants are more scarce. Of all the compounds present in propolis, flavonoids and phenolic acids attract the attention of researchers in attributing the antibacterial, antiviral and antioxidant. In this work we use two types of propolis, green and brown, in different concentrations (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.20% and 0.50%). To perform the analysis was employed the accelerated oxidation technique using the Rancimat method according to EN 14112. From the results it was found that, with the increase of propolis concentration, the greater the beneficial effect on oxidative stability. Both of propolis have antioxidant potential to be used as additives in biofuel, but the green propolis showed a more significant effect than the brown propolis, ranging from 1.88 to 11.41% and 0.43 to 5.69%, respectively. Keywords: Propolis, Antioxidant, Biodiesel, Oxidative Stability, Rancimat. Financial Support: CAPES; FAPEMIG.

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PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND POLLEN DESCRIPTION OF HONEY SAMPLES OF GEOREFERENCED APIARIES IN MARECHAL CANDIDO RONDON AND SANTA HELENA – PR Regina Conceição Garcia*1; Simone Cristina Camargo*2; Bruno Garcia Pires*3; Diana Jessica Pereira*1; Thiago Henrique Radtke*1; Karin Janaína Royer*1; Alceu Maurício Hartleben*1. Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná – UNIOESTE; Centro de Ciências Agrárias; Marechal Cândido Rondon, Brasil; *2 Universidade Estadual de Maringá – UEM; Departamento de Zootecnia; *3 Secretaria de Estado da Educação - Governo do Paraná, Brasil. *1

regina.garcia@unioeste.br This study aimed to characterize Apis mellifera honey samples from counties Santa Helena and Marechal Candido Rondon, located in western Parana, through physical-chemical and pollen. Two areas were chosen, both in Rondon (predominantly agricultural), as in Santa Helena (predominance of riparian forest), based on Geographic Information System of the apiaries: one with characteristic lowoverlapping apiaries and one with high overlap, a total of four areas assessed. They were collected 15 samples of honey in each area, totaling 30 samples of each county. Regarding the physical and chemical characteristics, all parameters were within the limits prescribed by law. Samples of Santa Helena showed lower acidity and ash and pH values higher than the Marechal samples. Regarding color, 20% of the Marechal samples were classified as amber, 32% were amber, 36% light amber and 12% light amber extra, while Santa Helena samples were 19.5% amber, 47.5% light amber, 26% extra light amber and 7% white. The most common pollen types in the samples of the two counties were Anadenanthera coIubrina and Hovenia dulcis, present in all Marechal samples and 25 samples of Santa Helena, followed by Eugenia uniflora and Leucaena leucocephala, respectively in the two counties. The analyses of honey samples of Marechal showed that 48% had A. coIubrina as dominant pollen type, the remainder being classified as poliflorais. In Santa Helena, 46% of the samples showed H. dulcis as the dominant pollen, the remainder being classified as poliflorais. The changes in physical and chemical characteristics can be attributed to the dominant pollens present in the honey of the two municipalities, reflecting the reforestation programs carried out by the lake of Itaipu. These results confirm research carried out since 2006 in the region that allow designation of origin certification request for this product. Keywords: Melissopalynology; Beekeeping; Apis mellifera; designation of origin. Financial support: UNIOESTE; MEC-SESu; SETI-UGFPR.

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INFLUENCE OF BEE SPECIES AND FLORAL ORIGIN OF HONEY ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY Thaís Luana Grzegozeski; Murilo Keith Umada; Natália Martelozo Santos; Thalita Pereira Delduque; Paulo Agenor Alves Bueno; Raquel de Oliveira Bueno; Elizabete Satsuki Sekine. Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR Campus Campo Mourão. Departamento de Ambiental, Campo Mourão-PR, Brasil. essekine@gmail.com The medicinal uses of honey date from earliest times. Lately, there have been references of inhibitory effect on about 60 species of bacteria. There is a positive antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, bacteria that can bring harm to humans. Three honey samples of each bee species, Tetragonisca angustula, Scaptotrigona bipunctata and Apis mellifera, were used in this study. For the microbiological analysis, the disk-diffusion technique was used on plates containing S. aureus and E. coli. For pollen analyzes was used the acetolysis method. Only one honey sample from each bee species showed a dominant pollen type. The Eucalyptus type in A. mellifera and S. bipunctata and Alcornea in T. angustula. Using the Bray-Curtis similarity index, two groups were obtained, based on the pollen types. One with the three T. angustula samples and another with samples of A. mellifera and S. bipunctata. With respect to antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, there was no difference between the bee species. Difference was observed (p = 0.049), only between samples from S. bipunctata, which can be explained by the different main types of pollen grains found in the samples. There were significant differences in the antimicrobial activity of honey from different bee species against E. Coli (p=0.0001). The activity was lower using the A. mellifera honey than using honey from two native species. However among native bees there was no significant difference. Comparing the susceptibility of both species of bacteria, S. aureus was more susceptible to honey. More studies should be made to observe the connection of the antimicrobial activity with other variable factors present in honey. Keywords: pollen analysis; Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Scaptotrigona bipunctata.

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THE ACCEPTABILITY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF A COOKIE PREPARED WITH GREEN BANANA SWEETENED WITH HONEY BEE Natálya Vidal de Holanda¹; Lorena Galdino da Franca¹; Maria Claudilene da Costa²; Lunian Fernandes Moreira¹; Silmara Azevedo Lopes¹; Ana Josymara Lira Silva²; Sandra Maria Lopes dos Santos³; Marlene Nunes Damaceno³. ¹Mestrandas em Tecnologia de alimentos; Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará – Campus Limoeiro do Norte, Brasil; ²Graduanda em Bacharelado em Nutrição, IFCECampus – Limoeiro do Norte, Brasil; ³Professores Doutores do curso de Mestrado em Tecnologia de Alimentos do IFCE – Campus – Limoeiro do Norte, Brasil. natalyaholanda@gmail.com The growing demand for food rich in functional ingredients is an incentive to the development and industrialization of these products. Among these kinds of food, honey is a product that has several properties that help the metabolism of human beings. It is consumed and known by humanity for over 200,000 years, but it is surrounded by mysticism, legends and beliefs. The large amount of chemicals makes honey an energetic food of high quality. Since green banana flour presents a high concentration of dietary fiber and crackers have great potential of being a nutritious product, this study aimed at using green banana flour in order to obtain an exclusively type of cookie sweetened with honey bee and at analyzing its sensorial quality. We used levels of 50 and 100% green banana flour; the cookie prepared for the control group had only unleavened wheat flour. The cookies were subjected to microbiological analyses and they were later evaluated at the hedonic scale testing, considering the ordering and the purchase intent of 120 tasters at a supermarket in the city of Limoeiro do Norte - CE. The results were submitted to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and it was compared by Tukey test at 5% probability using Statistica 7.0. The acceptance testing showed no significant difference between the formulations, obtaining a score between seven (they liked it moderately) and eight (they liked it) on the overall impression. As far as the preference analysis was concerned (there were differences of formulation – one used 100% green banana flour), the value of purchase intent was positive and similar for all samples. According to the applied sensory evaluation, it was found that the formulation using 50% green banana flour is the best option to produce the cookies as there was no difference between it and the formulation prepared for the control group, mainly because it is a healthier option, due to the greater presence of food and mineral fibers. Keywords: Cookie; Dietary fiber; Functional ingredients; Sensorial quality. Financial support: CAPES; FUNCAP; IFCE.

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IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF BEE PROPOLIS FROM THE NORTHWESTERN STATE OF CEARA AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Lidiana Souza Correia Lima1; Luanny Lima Gadelha1; Rinaldo dos Santos Araújo1; Júlio Otávio Portela Pereira2; Georgia Maciel Dias de Moraes2. ¹*Instituto Federal do Ceará, Campus - Fortaleza; ²Instituto Federal do Ceará, Campus - Sobral. Avenida Treze de Maio, 2081, 60040-215 – Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. lidicorreia@ifce.edu.br Propolis is a complex composition of bee product that has attracted interest from the scientific community and industrial market for their bioactive properties. It has been studied as a possible inhibitorof bacteria growth in food preservation to increase shelf life. In this context, the aim of this study was to test the effect of different concentrations of ethanol extracts of propolis on Staphylococcus aureus. Experimentally three concentrations of ethanol extract (50, 10 and 3%) were prepared using propolis obtained from municipalities of Bela Cruz, Alcantaras, Granja, Mucambo and Santana do Acaraú, located in the northwestern state of Ceara. The methodology of the diffusion in paper disc containing agar was used in the investigation of antibacterial activity. The results showed that the extract at 10 and 30% did not have halos of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus at any of the investigated samples. Haloes were observed in the ethanol extracts at 50% in Alcantaras (5mm), Santana Acarau (5mm) and Mucambo (8mm), which has higher antimicrobial potential for applications in food preservation. Keywords: Bee própolis; bioactive compounds; antibacterial activity; Staphylococcus aureus.

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IDENTIFICATION BY UV-VIS SPECTROSCOPY OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN PROPOLIS EXTRACTS FROM THE CEARA STATE, BRAZIL Lidiana Souza Correia Lima1*; Luanny Lima Gadelha1; Emanuela da Silva Batista1; Rinaldo dos Santos Araújo1; Júlio Otávio Portela Pereira2. ¹*Instituto Federal do Ceará, Campus - Fortaleza; ² Instituto Federal do Ceará, Campus - Sobral. Avenida Treze de Maio, 2081, 60040-215 – Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. lidicorreia@ifce.edu.br Propolis is a natural resinous product produced by Apis mellifera from plant secretions. The molecular absorption is an important analytical technique to classify and evaluate the pharmacological and antimicrobial activities of propolis. In this context, the objective of this work was to identify by UV-Vis absorption the bioactive compounds present in the composition of ethanol extracts of propolis from the Timbira, Tuina, Forest and Grace villages, located in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Experimentally hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared (70% ethanol) from propolis in a ratio of 1: 1000 and scans were performed between 200 and 400 nm. In general, all samples exhibited a similar profile as the phenolic constituents with absorptions from 276 to 294 nm and only Tuina sample showed an absorption at 352 nm, which is attributed mainly to flavonoids and flavone (antioxidants) present in the composition. Keywords: Bee propolis; Bioactive compounds; UV-Vis spectroscopy. Financial support: PIBIC – IFCE – 02/2014.

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DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PHENOLS, FLAVONOIDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BEE PROPOLIS FROM THE STATE OF CEARÁ, BRAZIL Lidiana Souza Correia Lima1*; Luanny Lima Gadelha1; Emanuela da Silva Batista1; Rinaldo dos Santos Araújo1, Júlio Otávio Portela Pereira2; Masu Capistrano Camurça Portela3. ¹*Instituto Federal do Ceará, Campus - Fortaleza; ²Instituto Federal do Ceará, Campus – Sobral; Instituto Federal do Ceará, Campus – Ubajara. Avenida Treze de Maio, 2081, 60040-215 – Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. 3

lidicorreia@ifce.edu.br Propolis is the generic term used to describe the resinous material collected and processed by bees from various plant sources. Because of its antibiotic and antifungal activity, the propolis have been used for centuries in folk medicine in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic applications. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the total phenolic content and flavonoids and oxidation index inpropolis samples in coastal, saw and semiarid areas of the Ceará state. The propolis collected from the locations of Santo Elias (saw), Aguiar (coast) and Tuina (semiarid) were crushed and following submitted to cold extraction with 70% ethanol. The ethanol extract of propolis obtained was used to carried out the analysis of total phenols (%) by Folin-Denis method, flavonoids (%) using the aluminum chloride method and qualitative oxidation index (seconds) using potassium permanganate as the oxidizing agent. The results showed flavonoid content of less than 1% in all samples. The total phenols showed values of 0.2% to the coast sample; 0.6% for the saw sample and 5% for semiarid sample, which was the only sample in accordance with the parameters established by agriculture brazilian legislation. For the antioxidant activity, the results were times of 1.6 s in Tuina; 27.6 s in Santo Elias and 29.6 s in Aguiar, which corroborate the values obtained for total phenols and flavonoids. This scenario suggests that the propolis sample from the semiarid region has a higher content of bioactive compounds. Keywords: Bee propolis, bioactive compounds, oxidation index. Financial support: PIBIC-IFCE – 02/2014.

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SENSORY ANALYSIS AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BEE PROPOLIS OF CEARÁ STATE NORTHWEST, BRAZIL Lidiana Souza Correia Lima1*; Luanny Lima Gadelha1; Lukas Angelim Matos1, Emanuela da Silva Batista1; Rinaldo dos Santos Araújo1; Júlio Otávio Portela Pereira2; José Everton Alves3. ¹*Instituto Federal do Ceará, Campus - Fortaleza; ² Instituto Federal do Ceará, Campus - Sobral. Universidade Estadual Vale do Acaraú – Sobral. Avenida Treze de Maio, 2081, 60040-215 – Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil.

3

lidicorreia@ifce.edu.br The bee propolis is a resinous substance collected by Apis mellifera bees from different exudates of plants. This substance is used by bees in the hive protection against the proliferation of microorganisms. The qualitative characteristics of propolis and bioactive properties depend on their chemical composition, which has on average 50% resin, 30% wax, 10% essential oils, 5% pollen and 5% organic bioactive compounds. In this context the aim of this study was to identify the organoleptic and physico-chemical characteristics of Apismellifera propolis collected in apiaries located in municipalities of Santana do Acaraú, Sobral and Mucambo situated in Ceará state. The sensory tests were the performed by untrained panel composed of ten tasters who assessed the propolis in color, aroma, taste, consistency and granulometry. The physicochemical analyses involved the contents of moisture, ash, wax content and mechanical mass. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and comparison of means by Tukey test at 95% significance level. The results showed slightly greenish for samples from Santana do Acaraú and Sobral and brown for the sample of the Mucambo city. The aroma was typically balsamic; the taste ranged from mild to strong, consistency was the soft type and heterogeneous granulometry. The physicochemical parameters showed values between 2.1 and 6.2% for losses on drying, 2.0 to 3.6% for ashes, wax between 10.4 and 15.2% and mechanical mass between 23.6 and 39.0%.In general, all physicochemical and sensory parameters found are in agreement with the quality standards established by the Brazilian legislation for this type of product. Keywords: Physicochemical characterization; sensory analysis; Bee Propolis, Quality Standard. Financial support: PIBIC-IFCE – 02/2014.

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DEVELOPMENT, CENTESIMAL COMPOSITION AND MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF A CEREAL BAR WITH AND WITHOUT ADDED POLLEN Silmara Azevedo Lopes¹; Ana Josymara Lira Silva¹; Natalya Vidal de Holanda¹; Lorena Galdino de Franca¹; Antonia Lucivânia Sousa Monte²; Júlio Otávio Portela Pereira². ¹Mestrado em Tecnologia em Alimentos, IFCE- Campus – Limoeiro do Norte. ²Professores do mestrado em Tecnologia em Alimentos do IFCE – Campus – Limoeiro do Norte. silmarazevlopes@gmail.com There is a growing demand for nutritious and safe food since eating balanced food is the correct way of avoiding or correcting health problems. Cereal bars answer to this trend: they are prepared from the extrusion of the sweet and tasty mass of cereals, which is a source of vitamins, minerals, fibers, protein and complex carbohydrates. The nutritional importance of pollen to humans is it is recognized for being a protein source; it has in its composition antioxidant vitamins and also vitamins D and B complex. We aimed at drawing up a cereal bar with and without added pollen and executing the centesimal composition and microbiological analyses of the produced bars. In order to prepare the bars, we used granola, oatmeal, glucose syrup, honey and pollen. It is noteworthy that the ingredients were added equally to both formulations, differing only in the pollen percentage, which corresponded to 0 and 2% (when it was added). The ingredients were weighed and mixed under heating up to the cut-off point; afterwards, we added the pollen, executed the cutting and the storing and submitted the sample to physicochemical and microbiological analyses. Microbiological analyses of salmonella and MPN of fecal coliforms were held according to the official methods recommended by the FDA; the recommendations of AOAC (1992) were followed to the physicochemical analyses. Considering the microbiological analyses, both formulations showed values ​​within the standards established by the RDC Resolution No. 12. The physicochemical analyses showed no significant difference at the level of 5% for the analyses of lipids, proteins and ashes in food; only food moisture (80.59% and 76.52%) and carbohydrates (4.80% and 10.68%) for the formulations with and without pollen, respectively, showed significant difference between them. Therefore, we suggest further work on pollen insertion in food and its ideal amount to be satisfactory. Keywords: Food; nutritious; bee product. Financial support: CAPES; FUNCAP; IFCE.

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EFFECT OF SEASONALITY IN APITOXIN PRODUCTION Melina Stoian Modanesi¹; Thais de Souza Bovi¹; Adriana Fava Negrão¹; Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi¹. UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista – FMVZ, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia – Departamento de Produção Animal – Botucatu, São Paulo - Brasil.

1

melina_sm@zootecnista.com.br The Apis mellifera bees have always been interesting to man, because of their economic importance and the possibilities of use of their products, as the venom (apitoxin). Poison production may vary according to swarm the population (number of worker bees), influenced by environmental conditions. The objective of this study was to identify the effect of seasonality in the production of bee venom by bees Apis mellifera L. The experiment was conducted in the apiculture area of the College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, located in Edgardia Farm, UNESP, Botucatu, always being the venom sample taken in the morning (09:00 a.m.) lasting 60 minutes and collected from September 2013 to August 2014. The harvest of poison was performed by means of electrical collectors placed in the hive’s entrance, without causing mortality in bees. The results were evaluated by ANOVA followed by Tukey test (P <0.05). The largest production of crude venom was observed in autumn season (120.28 ± 63.1 mg), statistically differing from spring (49.91 ± 42.0) and summer (65.48 ± 34.8). This observed difference, is probably associated with increased food supply at the location where the beehives is housed met, resulting in greater number of worker bees and hence greater flow in the venom collector. Keywords: bees; seasons; poison.

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EFFECT OF SEASONALITY ON THE BROMATOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF POLLEN APICOLA PRODUCED IN BOTUCATU SAO PAULO Melina Stoian Modanesi¹; Thais de Souza Bovi¹; Adriana Fava Negrão¹; Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi¹. UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista – FMVZ, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia – Departamento de Produção Animal – Botucatu, São Paulo - Brasil.

1

melina_sm@zootecnista.com.br The pollen composition may vary among species, age and nutritional status of the plant, and environmental conditions during their development. The pollen represents the major source of protein, fat (lipids), vitamins and minerals, and has fundamental functions in the proper development of young and bee nutrition. The objective of this study was to identify the effect of seasonality in the composition of pollen collected by bees Apis mellifera L. The experiment was conducted in the apiculture area of the College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, located in Edgardia Farm, UNESP, Botucatu. For quality analysis, pollen stored in the alveoli, called “bee bread”, was collected fortnightly from September 2013 to August 2014. Results were evaluated by ANOVA followed by Tukey test (P <0.05). Evaluating the quality of the pollen collected by clusters, one can observe that the higher protein content, dry matter and ash were found in the spring season, just as there was a greater number of plant species (12) through pollen analysis. This hypothesis could be reinforced by lower levels of crude protein, dry matter and ashes obtained in the autumn season, when there was fewer plant species (8) available for the collection of pollen by bees. Thus, it can be seen that the botanical origin of the pollen collected by the bees could influence its composition throughout the year and result in a food with different nutritional quality for the bees. Keywords: Pollen; composition; beehive.

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CHARACTERIZATION OF POLLEN IN HONEY SAMPLES OF AFRICANIZED BEES FROM SANTA HELENA AND TERRA ROXA COUNTIES (PR) Fernanda Jacobus de Moraes*1; Regina Conceição Garcia*2; Edmar Soares de Vasconcelos*2; Simone Cristina Camargo*3; Diana Jessica Pereira*2; Bruno Garcia Pires*4; Alceu Maurício Hartleben*2. Mestre em Zootecnia – Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná – UNIOESTE; *2UNIOESTE, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Marechal Cândido Rondon, Brasil; *3UEM, Departamento de Zootecnia, Maringá, Brasil; *4Secretaria de Estado da Educação - Governo do Paraná, Brasil.

*1

regina.garcia@unioeste.br This study aimed to characterize pollen in the honey and calculating the similarity between the presented study areas. Twenty Apis mellifera honey samples from the county of Terra Roxa and 20 of the Santa Helena county, located in the west of Paraná were collected in order to carry out the floristic characterization of the regional honey and the similarity in terms of bee flora, areas where samples were produced. With regard to Santa Helena honey samples, eight samples had considered dominant pollen types of Hovenia dulcis; the others were classified as wild (many flowers). In the county of Terra Roxa found seven samples with dominant pollen Glycine max, two Mimosa scabrella Benth. and Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Mimosa verrucosa Benth., a Senecio sp. and another of Mikania spp., and the remaining classified as wild (many flowers). The similarity index was 87.23%, considered high, which can be explained due to the proximity between the counties, expressing the phytogeographic characteristics of the region. These results confirm research carried out since 2006 in the region that allow designation of origin certification request for this product. Keywords: Melissopalynology, Beekeeping, Apis mellifera; designation of origin. Financial support: UNIOESTE; MEC-SESu; SETI-UGFPR.

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NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF APIS MELLIFERA L. DIET DURING FOOD SHORTAGE PERIOD IN RAINFOREST José Elton de Melo Nascimento¹; Hiara Marques Meneses¹; Jânio Angelo Felix¹; José Everton Alves²; Alípio José de Souza Pacheco Filho¹; Breno Magalhães Freitas¹; Cláudia Inês da Silva¹. ¹Universidade Federal do Ceará- Campus Universitário do Pici 60.356-000, Fortaleza, CE Brasil; ²Universidade Estadual Vale do Acaraú – UVA Av. da Universidade, 850 - Campus da Betânia - Sobral-CE. eltonzootec@gmail.com The demand for food and the mechanisms that regulate its quantity and quality are important ecological factors in the evolution of all organisms. Bees use mainly nectar and pollen for their maintenance. However, the nutritional value of the diet depends on many variables and may vary throughout the year according to the availability of floral resources. In this context, this study aimed to assess the nutritional quality of bee pollen used by Apis mellifera L. in Serra da Meruoca, Ceará State, during the dry season, when there is low availability of flowers. The study was conducted from July to December 2013. Pollen was collected from a total of 10 colonies during the six months of the dry season, each hive received a frontal pollen collector, and samples were taken every other day, monthly. All samples were analyzed for contents of mineral (MM) and dry (DM) matter, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), following the method of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC International). Total carbohydrate (TC) content was also calculated. The nutritional value of pollen collected varied over the study period (MM: 2.41% ± 0.61; DM: 76.84% ± 3.43; CP: 22.4% ± 3.7; EE: 2.23% ± 0.75; TC: 71.50% ± 8.75). The percentage of DM and MM showed little variation throughout the study. The TC content increased significantly from the beginning to the end of the dry season, while the EE and CP levels decreased. The latter decreases dramatically. These results show that the nutritional level decreases with the advance of the dry season, when the diversity of pollen sources also decreases, indicating that plants flowering in the hottest and driest months have less nutritious floral resources. Keywords: Beekeeping; Bee; Nutrition; Rainforest; Animal nutrition; Bee pollen. Financial support: CNPq; UFC.

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HARVEST SEASON INFLUENCES THE PRODUCTION AND BOTANICAL ORIGIN OF BEE POLLEN Adriana Fava Negrão1; Thaís de Souza Bovi1; Marcela Pedraza Carrilo1; Melina Stoian Modanesi1; Ricardo Oliveira Orsi1. UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista; Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia; Departamento de Produção Animal; Campus de Botucatu, Brasil.

1

adrianafava@yahoo.com.br Bee pollen is the flower pollen collected by Apis mellifera, for the purpose of feeding its larvae in the early stages of development. The harvesting of pollen from a variety of plant species assures bees a balanced diet, once pollen is source of proteins, lipids and minerals. Information regarding the harvesting frequency and botanical profile of bee pollen could serve as an initial tool to start an artificial protein feed to the managed colonies. In this study, we aimed to assess the possible influences that the collection season has on production and botanical origin of bee pollen. Pollen samples were collected weekly from five hives, through front pollen collector, during the 2010 and 2011 season. After each harvest, the pollen was mixed, weighed in analytical balance to determine the production, dehydrated and cleaned. Pollen analysis was conducted in a qualitative way (determination of botanical families) and quantitative (count of 300 pollen grains for classification).The results were reviewed by One Way ANOVA followed by Dunn’s test, to verify the differences between the means. These were considered statistically different when p<0.05. For the production of bee pollen based on the season, we found that the highest average was obtained during the winter (114.67 ± 33.1 g), which differed significantly from spring, summer, and autumn. Regarding the palynological data, we identified a total of 14 botanical families and 3 pollen types. We verified that the families Poaceae sp.1, Asteraceae sp.1 and Myrtaceae sp.1 were found in all studied seasons, being the last family predominant in the winter. We can conclude that the pollen harvest season influences its production and botanical origin. We observed that the winter season was more favorable to the food collection with the greatest diversity of vegetation. We conclude that the pollen production and botanic origin is influenced by seasonality. Keywords: bee pollen; beekeeping; production; palynology. Financial support: FAPESP (2010/06074-8).

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PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF HONEY SAMPLES OF MELIPONA AND TRIGONA BEES FROM THE STATE OF PARANÁ Rejane Stubs Parpinelli 1*; Maria Josiane Sereia1; Lucilene de Mattos Almeida²; Fernando Antônio Anjo³; Fabricio Batista Lins4; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo1. Universidade Estadual de Maringá – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia - Maringá - Brasil. UEM - Departamento de Zootecnia - Maringá - Brasil. 3UTFPR – Coordenação de Alimentos Campo Mourão – Brasil. 4Faculdade Integrado de Campo Mourão – Departamento de Farmácia Campo Mourão – Brasil. Contato: Av. Colombo, 5.790, Jd. Universitário, 87020-900, Maringá – PR, Brasil. 1* 2

rezootecnia@gmail.com knowledge of physico-chemical parameters of honey produced by stingless native bees, it may help to define quality standards for this product, proposing a database to assist in definitions for creating Normative at the state or national level having basis for a certification standard and quality for the honey produced by stingless bees. This study aimed to analyze 26 honey samples from stingless bees from different Regions of State of Paraná. The range for moisture analysis values from 23.27 to 41.80%; soluble solids: from 55.50 to 75.33%; pH: from 3.30 to 4.70; total acidity: from 17.67 to 147.63meq.kg-1; formaldehyde ratio: from 2.01 to 14.05mL.kg-1; ashes: from 0.02 to 12.55%; electrical conductivity: from 287.40 to 1688.50μS.cm-1; hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF): from 0.00 to 54.76mg.kg-1; protein: from 0.12 to 0.78%; reducing sugar: from 50.00 to 67.12%; sucrose: from 0.94 to 2.72%; viscosity: from 23.60 to 1695.67mPa.s; diastase: from 0.000 to 0.084 Gothe; water activity (aw): 0.69 to 0.85%. We recommend the creation of legislation for honey of stingless bees (Normative Instruction) based on analyzed parameters within a range between the minimum and maximum. moisture: from 20.00 to 42.00%; soluble solids: from 55.50 to 75.33%; pH: from 3.00 to 5.00; total acidity: from 18.00 150.00meq.kg-1; formaldehyde index: from 2.00 to 14.10mL.kg-1; ashes: from 0.03 to 0.60%; electrical conductivity: from 288.00 to 1689.00μS.cm-1; HMF: 0.00 to 55.00mg.kg-1; protein: from 0.12 to 0.80%; reducing sugar: from 50.00 to 70.00%; sucrose: from 0.90 to 3.00%; viscosity: 23.50 to 1697.00mPa.s; diastase: 0.00Gothe; aw: from 0.65 to 0.89%. The characterization of physico-chemical parameters contribute to the supervision and quality control of honey produced, considering that there are several studies on the physico-chemical honey samples of stingless bees, we need to stablished the normative as base to stingless bees honey analysis. Keywords: Physical and chemical quality; stingless bees; legislation. Financial support: CNPq – 311663/2014-1

482947/2013-6.

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MICROBIOLOGY OF HONEY SAMPLES OF MELIPONA AND TRIGONA BEES OF THE STATE OF PARANÁ Rejane Stubs Parpinelli1*; Maria Josiane Sereia1; Lucilene de Mattos Almeida²; Fernando Antônio Anjo³; Juliana Martins³; Carina Theodoro Nogueira³; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo1. UEM - Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia - Maringá - Brasil. 2UEM - Departamento de Zootecnia - Maringá - Brasil. 3UTFPR – Coordenação de Alimentos - Campo Mourão – Brasil. Contato: Av. Colombo, 5.790, Jd. Universitário, 87020-900, Maringá – PR, Brasil. 1*

rezootecnia@gmail.com Honey of Melipona and Trigona bees as well as the honeybees are popularly characterized as a natural, healthy product and high value aggregate and are widely consumed either as food or for medicinal purposes. Honey has various substances such as sugars, organic acids, pollen grains, wax particles, amino acids, vitamins and minerals, these substances give to the honey bactericidal capacity. Despite having antimicrobial activity, honey cannot be considered a fully safe product, occasionally, during your synthesizing the same is susceptible to microbial contamination, either by itself microbial loads that bees carries or even those found in pollen, flowers and components of the hives. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of 26 honey samples from stingless bees from different regions of State of Paraná through the following analysis: coliforms at 35°C, fecal coliforms, Salmonella, molds and yeast, according to RDC No. 12/2001 of the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (National Agency Health Surveillance). It was not found presence of Salmonella in honey samples, 15% of the honey samples presented amounts of coliforms at 35°C above those permitted by law; 8% of the honey samples were contaminated by fecal coliforms; all honey samples presented mold and yeast counts more than 102 CFU/g, this value is the maximum permitted by the law. Contaminated honey samples is due to failure occurred during the handling and management, such as contaminated equipment with soil and faeces and this fact, associated with the improper cleaning or the facility in unhealthy environment contributes to the growth of contaminating microorganisms that can reduce shelf life of the product or transmit diseases to the costumer. Keywords: Microbiological analysis; stingless bees; coliforms; Molds and yeasts; Salmonella. Financial support: CNPq – 311663/2014-1

482947/2013-6.

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MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF HONEYS OFFERED BY THE BEEKEEPING IN JAGUARIBE CEARENSE Sebastiana Cristina Nunes Reges¹*; Júlio Otávio Portela Pereira²; Masu Capistrano Camurça Portela3. ¹*Instituto Federal do Ceará, Campus – Limoeiro do Norte; ²Instituto Federal do Ceará, Campus – Sobral; 3Instituto Federal do Ceará, Campus – Ubajara. Rua Estevão Remígio de Freitas, 1145, 62930-000 Limoeiro do Norte-CE, Ceará, Brasil. cristinanunesreges@yahoo.com.br The characteristics of honey depend on their origin, being influenced by climatic conditions and the raw material used by bees. In the food technology the big challenge is the standardization of raw materials of origin beekeeping for use in industry and for this to happen the knowledge and the characterization of bee products with emphasis on the honey bee is needed. Important aspects such as color, moisture, HMF and others are still little known in the honey produced and marketed in the state of Ceará. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological characteristics of honey samples of honey (Apis mellifera) produced and marketed in the region of the Vale do Jaguaribe, it were evaluated 46 honey samples from this region, through microbiological analysis (moulds and yeast, total coliforms). The analysis are not compulsory, but they were realized to evaluate the hygienic quality of the honeys. The mould and yeasts analyze revealed 46% of samples is between 10 and 90 CFU.g-1. The presence of these yeasts are associated mainly with the honey contamination during handling and/or processing, and may make changes in the composition of honey. No of them showed fecal coliforms. From the results obtained it is concluded that showed good microbiological quality, which ensure the stability of the product. Keywords: Honey; Microbiological quality; Apis mellifera. Financial support: CAPES.

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PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF HONEYS OFFERED BY THE BEEKEEPING IN JAGUARIBE CEARENSE Sebastiana Cristina Nunes Reges¹*; Júlio Otávio Portela Pereira²; Masu Capistrano Camurça Portela3. ¹*Instituto Federal do Ceará, Campus – Limoeiro do Norte; ²Instituto Federal do Ceará, Campus – Sobral; 3Instituto Federal do Ceará, Campus – Ubajara. Rua Estevão Remígio de Freitas, 1145, 62930-000 Limoeiro do Norte-CE, Ceará, Brasil. cristinanunesreges@yahoo.com.br The characteristics of honey depend on their origin, being influenced by climatic conditions and the raw material used by bees. The honey composition varies depending on the flowers visited and of the environment conditions of the area, such as climatic and soil, where it was produced. In the food technology the big challenge is the standardization of raw materials of origin beekeeping for use in industry and for this to happen the knowledge and the characterization of bee products with emphasis on the honey bee is needed. Important aspects such as color, moisture, HMF and others are still little known in the honey produced and marketed in the state of Ceará. The aim of this study was to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of honey samples of honey (Apis mellifera) produced and marketed in the region of the Vale do Jaguaribe, it were evaluated 46 honey samples from this region, through physical-chemical (moisture, reducing sugars, sucrose, ash, insoluble solids, acidity, pH, activity water, hydroxymethyfurfural and color). The results were compared to the established limits of Instrução Normativa nº 11, of October 20, 2000. The samples showed disagreement to the legislation, in the parameters of reducing sugars, sucrose, insoluble solids and hydroxymethyfurfural. From the results obtained it is concluded that the physico-chemical quality of honey was not considered good. Keywords: Honey; Physical-chemical quality; Apis mellifera. Financial support: CAPES.

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THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YOGURT WITH ADDED POLLEN AND FLAVORED WITH HONEY AND GUAVA Ana Josymara Lira Silva1; Silmara Azevedo Lopes1; Lorena Galdino de Franca1; Natálya Vidal de Holanda1; Daniele Maria Alves Teixeira Sá2; Júlio Otávio Portela Pereira2; Antonia Lucivânia de Sousa Monte2. Mestrandas em Tecnologia de alimentos do Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará – Campus Limoeiro do Norte, Brasil; 2Professores Doutores do Curso de mestrado em Tecnologia de alimentos do Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará – Campus Limoeiro do Norte, Brasil. 1

Josymara.lira@gmail.com Yogurt is a kind of food with high nutrient content and sensory quality. The bee products have properties beneficial to our health. The objective was to prepare a flavored yogurt with honey and guava and added pollen in order to evaluate its physicochemical characteristics to verify the interference of the addition of pollen on the product characteristics. Two yogurt treatments were drafted: A(without pollen) and B(2.5% pollen). First, the preparation of the flavoring was held, in which it was used a concentration of 1:1 (honey:guava pulp); it was then led to the fire at 37°C/40 minutes. Afterwards, the milk was heated up to 65°C/1 minute; after that it was added powdered milk, flavoring and pollen in the formulation B, which was cooled to 43°C, then, yeast was added (yogurt). The sealing of the mixture in plastic containers was made; subsequently the mixture was fermented in an incubator at 42°C for approximately 6 hours, storage was at 4°C. Physicochemical analyses of proteins, ashes in food, food moisture, fat, carbohydrates, acidity and pH were held according to the recommendations of AOAC (1992). The results were analyzed by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA), for the purpose of comparing the means we adopted the Tukey test, p<0.05 using Statistica 7. The percentages were: protein (6.71 and 6.20), ashes in food (0.90 and 0.96), food moisture (80.29 and 77.49), fat (7.50 and 12.50) carbohydrates (4.60 and 2, 85), acidity (0.75 and 0.70) and pH (4.5 and 4.5) for A and B, respectively, which is within the legislation. The only parameters that showed no significant difference between the treatments were proteins and pH. We conclude that the addition of pollen to yogurt modified some of itsphysicochemical characteristics, except protein and pH; besides, the products developed are within the physicochemical standards set by the current legislation. Keywords: Fermented milk; bee products; chemical composition. Acknowledgements: IFCE; CAPES; FUNCAP.

ANAIS DO XI ENCONTRO SOBRE ABELHAS, 2015

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RIBEIRÃO PRETO, SP, BRASIL


CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF HONEY FROM STINGLESS MELIPONA MANDACAIA BEES Paulo Ricardo da Silva1; Celso Amorim Camara1; Eva Monica Sarmento da Silva2; Rodolfo França Alves3; Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos Santos3; Tania Maria Sarmento Silva1*. Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Departamento de Ciências Moleculares, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. 2Universidade Federal do Vale de São Francisco, Colegiado de Zootecnia,Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. 3Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. 1

sarmentosilva@gmail.com Melipona mandacaia is a stingless bee species popularly known as ‘mandaçaia’ that is native from northeastern Brazil. In this study, we conducted both melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses to investigate the minerals and amino acids of four sample of mandaçaia honey collected in the semiarid region in the state of Bahia, Brazil. In addition, the major phenolic constituents of the honey samples were extracted and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography using a diodearray detector (HPLC-DAD). Mimosa arenosa (Fabaceae/Mimosoideae) was the predominant pollen type in the four honeys, it’s a very common plant species in the Caatinga region. All of the identified compounds, i.e., quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic, 1,2-dihydroxybenzoic caffeic, cinnamic, and ferulic and sinapic acids, were quantified by HPLC-DAD. The existence of luteolin and quercetin in Melipona honey from Brazil was previously reported. Kaempferol and caffeic acid were also detected in the monofloral honey of Mimosa scabrella provided by Melipona marginata in southern Brazil. All of the samples of honey exhibited the presence of essential amino acids: proline, alanine, serine and threonine. The highest mineral contents consisted of calcium followed by potassium. All honey samples exhibited free-radical-scavenging activity,which supports the relevance of this type of honey being an important dietary source of antioxidant compounds Keywords: Honeybee; Phenolics; Physico-chemical analysis. Financial support: CNPq; FACEPE-PRONEM 0741-1.06/14.

ANAIS DO XI ENCONTRO SOBRE ABELHAS, 2015 RIBEIRÃO PRETO, SP, BRASIL

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A NEW SPECIES OF MEGACHILE (PSEUDOCENTRON) MITCHELL, 1934 (HYMENOPTERA, MEGACHILIDAE), WITH A SYNOPSIS OF THE SPECIES OCCURRING IN THE BRAZILIAN STATE OF MINAS GERAIS Igor Rismo Coelho1; Paula Caetano Zama1. Pós-Graduação em Zoologia, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av Antônio Carlos 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG.

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igoriscoe@gmail.com Megachile Latreille, 1802 is one of the most diversified and widely distr