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pumpindustry Slurry pumping STATE OF


INDUSTRY Features Repair & maintenance Valves Product liability LNG

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President’s welcome W

elcome to a new year, and a new issue of Pump Industry.

Pump Industry Australia Incorporated Kevin Wilson – Secretary PO Box 55, Stuarts Point NSW 2441 Australia Ph/Fax: (02) 6569 0160 Ron Astall – President United Pumps Australia & Astech Consulting Services John Inkster – Vice President Brown Brothers Engineers Mike Bauer - Councillor Dynapumps Frankie Camilleri – Councillor John Crane Geoff Harvey - Councillor Davey Products Pty Ltd Tony Kersten - Councillor Grundfos Pumps Pty Ltd

I am going to start with a wonderful quotation from Astronaut John Glenn Junior – the first American to orbit the earth, a US senator and later the oldest ever Astronaut when he flew again in the Space Shuttle. “As I hurtled through space, one thought kept crossing my mind - every part of this rocket was supplied by the lowest bidder.“ In my last commentary, I was both delighted and dismayed. Delighted by the great achievement of the FP008 Committee in drafting the updated AS2941 fire pump standard and dismayed by the landscape of soft inspection and poor enforcement of Standards in the Fire Pump arena. The revised Fire Pump Standard has now been formally issued, but we still have a way to go before we can feel confident that inspection and enforcement will ensure that all suppliers, contractors and installations will routinely meet the standard. If a fire occurs, will it be crossing the minds of building owners and their tenants that every part of the fire system was supplied by the lowest bidder?

Probably not. But they ought to be thinking along these lines, and perhaps they should be concerned. Using the lowest bidder can only safely work when there is a specification outlining the minimum standards of performance and construction. Specifications can only work when there is inspection and enforcement. For these reasons, PIA will continue to work with the industry with seminars and education sessions, but this is a job for all of us in the pump industry; not just for fire pumps, but whenever quality, performance, reliability and energy efficiency are important. And shouldn’t that be all the time? At the time of writing, we are planning our seminar and meeting programme for 2014. Watch out for topics of interest and encourage your colleagues and customers to come along. Some of us may seem to be from another planet at times, but we are all hurtling through space right now on planet Earth. An educated and competent industry is important if we are going to rely on the “Lowest Bidder”. Ron Astall President, Pump Industry Australia

Martin O’Connor – Councillor KSB Australia Alan Rowan – Councillor Life Member Keith Sanders – Councillor Australian Industrial Marketing & Life Member

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6






Editor’s welcome

Slurry pumping STATE OF


INDUSTRY Features Repair & maintenance Valves Product liability LNG

Cover shows the MMG Century Zinc processing plant which processes the zinc before it is transported through the world's longest single pump station slurry pipeline.

3,143 Audit Period: 01/04/2013 – 30/09/2013 This publication has been independently audited by the Circulations Audit Board.

Published by

Monkey Media Enterprises ABN: 36 426 734 954 GPO Box 93, Melbourne VIC 3001 P: (03) 9440 5721 F: (03) 8456 6720 Editorial assistants: Michelle Goldsmith Rhiannon Nicholls-Down Design: Sandy Noke ISSN: 2201-0270 2

Welcome to 2014. After a fairly slow 2013, there are signs that things are starting to pick up in the economy, and we hope that this renewed confidence continues into this year. In fact, that is one of the things that this issue covers. We have asked a number of key players in the industry for their views on where the industry is going this year and their answers appear from page 20. The future certainly looks bright if the increasing take up in our circulation is any guide. Our latest audited figure of 3,143, (shown to the left of this column), is more than 20% higher since our previous audit six months ago, and more than 50% higher than when the magazine was first launched in late 2012. The number of people subscribing to our email newsletter also continues to grow, more and more people are looking to our website for the latest news, tenders and contracts awarded. Please note that we only add subscribers to the newsletter at their specific request online, so if you’re getting the print magazine but not the online news, please go to www. to subscribe. You may have heard that our planned event, Flow Technology 2014 has been postponed indefinitely and will not take place in 2014. I want to once again

thank everyone in the PIA and all the companies that did get on board to support the event. Although there were many people that were very enthusiastic about the event, the level of support was not quite enough to guarantee a successful event. We have always been very committed to quality and to delivering on our promises and so decided that it was better to postpone the event now, rather than risk doing something that did not meet our high standards. One positive thing to come out of the event planning has been an expanded interest in valves, compressors and other related products from our readers. Since there is no specific magazine for either of these products in Australia, Pump Industry will continue to expand its coverage of this equipment as well. This issue includes a look at valve selection and in future editions we will look at various applications of valves and compressors. I look forward to continuing to speak to and meet with many of our readers throughout the year. Here’s to making 2014 a big year for the Australian pump industry! Chris Bland Publisher and Editor

This magazine is published by Monkey Media in co-operation with the Pump Industry Association (PIA). The views contained herein are not necessarily the views of either the publisher or the PIA. Neither the publisher nor the PIA takes responsibility for any claims made by advertisers. All communication should be directed to the publisher. The publisher welcomes contributions to the magazine. All contributions must comply with the publisher’s editorial policy which follows. By providing content to the publisher, you authorise the publisher to reproduce that content either in its original form, or edited, or combined with other content in any of its publications and in any format at the publishers discretion.

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6





Home Page

P O Box 1105, Clayton South, Vic 3169 Email: Ph: (03) 9544 7333 Fax: (03) 9543 6706


President’s welcome................................................ 1 Editor’s welcome...................................................... 2 News briefs............................................................... 6


Contracts awarded................................................... 8



24 Mining and slurry pumping World's longest single pump station slurry pipeline................. 26


The Nerang Sands Bypass System............................................ 29


Market report

Australia's product liability laws: a minefield for suppliers and retailers................................................................ 12


State of the industry



LNG receiving terminals.............................................................. 32 The Ichthys LNG Project.............................................................. 34

38 Manufacturing Stainless steel............................................................................. 38 ...and now for the best part........................................................ 39


Repair and maintenance

Pump re-build shops: facts and considerations....................... 40

44 Coatings Wear protection of pump components using hard coatings.... 44

47 Valves Choosing the right valve............................................................. 47 Centrifugal pump protection using flow controllers.................. 50



Ken Kugler pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6


IS SU E 6 | F EB RUA RY 2 0 1 4


PROJECTS Flooding the forest


The Murray-Darling Basin Authority has brought together local companies to save the Hattah Kulkyne National Park. When dry spells persisted the MDBA used Australian pumps to artificially raise water levels.

A quick fix for a slithery problem



Crusader Hose reps travelling through Northern Queensland found themselves tackling an unusual pumping problem in the rural town of Ayr.

FEATURES Pipes and piping


Aligning your pump and piping correctly can have a big impact on the successful operation of the pump.

Design: sewage pumping stations


In part two of our series we look at submersible pump stations and drives.

TECHNICAL Cavitation – the noisy automatic control valve destroyer


Cavitation may be foremost in the minds of any pump system designer, and careful thought may be taken to avoid cavitation and the resulting damage to the pump(s), but cavitation is often overlooked or ignored when selecting automatic control valves and their location on the same pipework system.

Understanding pump curves


Minimum flow – part two: suction specific speed

Pump school


Understanding boiler feed and condensate return pumps

PIA News PIA AGM and Annual Dinner.................................. 10

Industry News


Busch celebrates 50 years with world tour........................................................16 Who is Regal Beloit?..............................................18 Don't dilute your sludge .........................................19 pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6


Pump Industry News Briefs Get all the latest news at

Keto Pumps acquires Pump Technology Services

KETO Pumps, the successful mining pumps and systems company, has completed the acquisition of Rockingham based Pump Technology Services (PTS). PTS will become a KETO Pumps Group company, providing it with opportunities to expand its pump design, manufacturing and rotating equipment repair services in Australia and beyond. Pump Technology Services has been a key player in Australian pump manufacturing for over 25 years. It specialises in supply, service and technical support for electric submersible, transfer, process pumps and associated equipment for the mining and oil & gas sectors. They are also the exclusive manufacturer of the Scale Muncher™ components and package a broad range of total solutions for dewatering, fire pump and switchboard / headworks trailers. Currently employing 26 full time employees, PTS operates from its head office in Rockingham, Western Australia and in Brisbane, Queensland. As well as the design, manufacture and supply of pumps and systems, internal capability covers a wide range of engineering services including installation & commissioning, engineering design,

Global Pumps acquires Environmental Fluid Systems

manufacturing, pattern making, pump testing, training services and re-engineering & upgrades. PTS have a wellequipped ISO 9001 qualified workshop with full pump test facility, balancing machines, coordinate measuring probe arm, lifting capacity up to 8 tonnes, 3 axis CNC router for producing patterns and 3D scanning/printing capability.

Global Pumps has finalised the acquisition of pumps and fluid handling equipment importer and manufacturer, EFS (Environmental Fluid Systems) Group, effective as of November 1.

“Our purchase of PTS is consistent with KETO Pumps strategy of growing our product range and internal engineering capability. PTS will enhance KETO’s ability to provide our customers with solutions to make their equipment more reliable and cost effective”, said CEO of KETO Pumps, Keith Mitchell. “We see huge opportunity for building on PTS’s strengths in Australia and into new markets, via KETO’s overseas network.”

Global Pumps (formerly All Pumps Supplies) is based in Adelaide and was founded in 1977 and supplies a range of pumping equipment to diverse industries. In the late 1980s, Global Pumps established an Environmental Division in response to a growing awareness of health and environmental issues. This has overseen the development of a range of water and wastewater treatment packages and pollution control systems including packaged pumping stations, potable water treatment packages, oil-water separators, trade waste treatment plants, stormwater diversion equipment and chemical dosing systems.

Commenting on the acquisition Mark Woodley, Managing Director of PTS, comments, “This is a highly complementary acquisition and we’re glad to have an owner with the same focus on growth, well-engineered product and customer satisfaction as KETO. Pump Technology Services within the mining sector has focused on alumina, iron ore and nickel and KETO’s experience is largely in gold, copper and coal.

EFS is based in Warnambool, Victoria and provides a range of fluid and chemical handling solutions. Commenting on the sale, EFS General Manager Ben Ohlmeyer said “This is a win–win situation for EFS clients, giving the best of both worlds; continued local

Together we can offer the mining sector a broader offering focused on efficient supply of pumps, parts and services.”

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DELIVERING PUMPING SOLUTIONS pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

Pump Industry News Briefs Get all the latest news at

support and representation from those who have served you well over the past decade as well as direct access to the head office of the manufacturer, importer and distributor of a vast range of pumps for manufacturing and process industry.” Mr Ohlmeyer went on to say, “Global Pumps has 35 years’ experience in the industrial pump and wastewater market, specialising in offering close support to clients around Australia where arduous or difficult pumping and treatment applications pose a particular challenge. “This very positive development will enable EFS to focus on national distribution of the Triple 7 environmental chemistries and the purasolve work safe solvent alternatives, and we will continue to deal with many existing clients in this quickly developing industry.”

Sulzer’s Chemtech department will remain as its own division. “The new operational structure with a Services division and a Water business unit is a next important step in the implementation of our strategic decision to focus the company’s activities in three attractive key markets—oil and gas, power, and water. Integrating all services for rotating equipment into one division will help us to increase sales and improve profitability. The integrated

Water business unit will strengthen our position for profitable growth in the large and attractive water market. Together with the Pumps Equipment division and Chemtech, Sulzer will be a leading supplier of both equipment and services for our three key markets,” Sulzer CEO Klaus Stahlmann said.

450m3/ hr powered by the sun? I’d like to see that!

Sulzer undergoes operational restructure

Sulzer has unveiled its new organisational structure, effective from the 1st of January, 2014. The company will have three organisational divisions, each focusing on different markets and aspects of the company’s activities. The Pumps Equipment division will cover new pumps and related systems, such as spares, and will consist of three regional business units offering engineered pumps for the oil and gas market, the power market and the water market. The water business unit is a new part of the Pumps Equipment division and will incorporate all products for the water and wastewater markets. The Services division will combine the services for turbines, compressors, motors, and generators previously provided by Sulzer Turbo Services with the services for pumps, previously provided by Sulzer Pumps, into one service division. This aims to create one comprehensive service provider for all rotating equipment.

Well now you can. The LORENTZ PSk-CS surface pumps are vertical multi stage pumps designed to efficiently deliver the highest volumes of water from a solar power source. Used in irrigation projects around the world, the new PSK range can achieve flow rates of up to 450m3/hour, and pump up to a 90m head. Each system consists of a pump and a controller to connect with tier 1 solar generation equipment. Exclusively distributed in Australia by Solco Power &Water. Contact us today on 1800 074007 or email

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6



Gas compression contract on QCLNG Thiess has been awarded a landmark $1.8 billion contract by coal seam gas producer QGC for construction of gas compression facilities and associated works for the QCLNG project in the Surat Basin. The new contract significantly expands Thiess’ role in the project which now

includes construction of all 18 Field Compressor Stations (FCS) and four Central Processing Plants (CPP), with works to be completed by November 2014. The new contract replaces and expands the $325 million agreement signed in February 2012 for construction of six FCSs and one CPP.

Contract awarded: sewer pump station switchboard replacement Whelan Electrical Services have been awarded a large contract with Unitywater (Northern Region) to supply and install 10 switchboards throughout the Sunshine Coast region to the newly developed standard.

Hawker desalination plant South Australian water treatment firm Guidera O’Conner has been awarded the contract to build a desalination plant at Hawker, in the State’s mid-north. Minister for Water and the River Murray Ian Hunter says the announcement is a further step towards improving water quality for the Hawker community. “SA Water has worked closely with the Hawker community and the Flinders Ranges Council to determine the most efficient and cost-effective solution to the region’s water quality issues,” he says.

This project includes minor civil works and plumbing alterations performed by the company’s sub-contract team. This is the latest of a number of projects completed by Whelan Electrical Services for Unitywater.

Guidera O’Conner is a South Australianbased company with a strong record of quality workmanship and successful project delivery.


• Specify and select HVAC equipment and associated control and safety equipment, where applicable.

Construction of the plant is expected to be completed in late 2014.

Ichthys HVAC system The HVAC system for the Ichthys Central Processing Facility contract has been awarded to Hi Air in Korea. The scope of HVAC system package is to provide complete design and supply of equipment and instrument for Ventilation, Heating and Cooling, Humidity and Pressure control. The Subcontractor’s lump sum scope of work and services

• Detailed Engineering and Design of the complete HVAC systems and associated Control and Safety Systems to meet the requirements of this specification including document revisions, re-designing and engineering investigations / verifications as required.

• HVAC, Mechanical, Structural, Piping, Electrical and Instrumentation design of the equipment and materials supplied.

dewatering, pump hire & solution contracting 8

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6



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PIA AGM and Annual Dinner T he Pump Industry Australia AGM was held on 12 November in Melbourne. The event, which was followed by the annual dinner, included the annual election of PIA office bearers. The AGM saw the incumbent President Ron Astall returned for another term. Vice-President John Inkster was also returned to the same role. Retiring member John Link was succeeded by Frankie Camilleri of John Crane, and the rest of the council positions remained the same. President Ron Astall commented on how fortunate he was to be supported

by such a strong team and noted the efforts of the many volunteers who had ensured such a successful year for the PIA, including Alan Rowan for all his work on the technical handbooks, Ken Kugler for his work on standards and Keith Sanders for his work on marketing and events.

Golf Club in Kew, allowing PIA members to catch up with each other in a more relaxed setting. ■

The meeting was informed that the PIA remained in a strong financial position and had also been able to reinvest some of its funds back into the growth of the industry through various events. The AGM then led into the annual dinner, both held at the Greenacres


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pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6


pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6



Australia's product liability laws: a minefield for suppliers and retailers By Colin Loveday and Sheena McKie, Clayton Utz

Suppliers and retailers of goods may find themselves in difficult positions if they unwittingly supply goods which later turn out to be non-compliant, not fit for purpose or defective. Supplying goods which do not meet expectations of performance may lead to timeconsuming remedial action including customer complaints, product recalls and, potentially, litigation. The position for suppliers may be further complicated if the goods or a component part have been manufactured overseas. Not all product defects manifest themselves immediately after supply, installation or use. Understanding some of the legal issues may help in managing and thereby minimising those risks.


n our experience, responsible manufacturers have not only an excellent appreciation of quality assurance and quality control systems, but also their legal obligations and the potential risks that have to be managed associated with their products. However, the so-called 'Chinese drywall' litigation in the US has demonstrated that not all in the supply chain are necessarily quite as aware. In the US between 2005 and 2008, hundreds of millions of sheets of drywall (plasterboard) were imported from Chinese manufacturers to assist in the rebuilding of homes destroyed or damaged by hurricanes Rita and Katrina, as well as the effects of a housing construction boom. After installation it was found that the drywall had been badly manufactured and contained high levels of sulphur which 12

could corrode electrical wiring and gas pipes. There were also real concerns about potential adverse health effects. The drywall product was inconsistently labelled, and was incorporated in construction work as a commoditised product without any specific regard to branding. This made it extremely difficult to identify the affected drywall. It also turned out to be extremely difficult to identify the relevant manufacturers of the affected product. A wave of litigation followed and it is still ongoing. It has proven to be an extremely expensive (and in some cases catastrophic) event for many US suppliers. While the Chinese drywall litigation has been predominantly a US experience, we have seen several instances here in Australia in recent years that demonstrates that the legal issues that arose

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

in the Chinese drywall litigation are not problems restricted to the US.

How can I protect my business from a manufacturer supplying me with faulty goods?

If goods are installed or attached to premises, more difficulties arise in assessing the scope of any liability as well as appropriate plans for remediation. However, here are some steps that you may wish to consider taking. • Know your suppliers: Perform due diligence on the manufacturers from which you purchase goods. Visit factories, review evidence of compliance with relevant laws or Standards, perform your own testing of products. • Tighten your contracts: Make sure you have appropriate contractual protection, which allocates →

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MARKE T REP O RT responsibility for risk appropriately. • Maintain appropriate insurance: Ensure that both you and your suppliers hold appropriate insurance, which will give you some comfort in the event that a product is faulty. • Promote goods responsibly: Ensure that information you supply with goods, and any promotion you do, is clear and consistent with the intended use of the product. • Implement procedures for good traceability: Establish and maintain procedures that will help you maintain traceability of goods in the supply chain; e.g. to identify customers of goods in the event of a recall, particularly for goods which will be installed in premises.

What are my statutory obligations as a supplier of goods? If the goods or products that you are supplying are likely to be used by consumers then it is important to understand the statutory obligations that exist under the Australian Consumer Law (ACL).

The ACL is the principal consumer protection legislation in Australia. The ACL is found in Schedule 2 to the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth). It has force of law both as a law of the Commonwealth and a law of each State and Territory. The ACL contains powers granted to the "regulator", which includes the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC), as well as each State and Territory body charged with consumer protection (e.g. NSW Fair Trading). It also confers private rights of action on consumers who have suffered loss or damage from goods or services supplied to them. Many of the statutory causes of action under the ACL are only available to persons who acquire goods or services as a "consumer". A person acquires goods or services as a consumer if, relevantly, the amount paid or payable for goods or services does not exceed $40,000, or the goods are of a kind ordinarily acquired for personal, domestic or household use or consumption (sections 3(1) and (3) of the ACL). A person who acquires goods for the purpose of re-supply or for the purpose of using them up or transforming them in trade or commerce in certain 14

circumstances does not acquire those goods as a consumer (section 3(2) of the ACL). This may influence the liability that a retailer may have, for example, where the retailer supplies goods to an intermediary such as plumber, who uses those goods to supply a product or service to a consumer in the course of their own business. Under the ACL, a supplier of goods provides certain "consumer guarantees" to consumers, which cannot be excluded by contract. These include guarantees that goods supplied will be fit for their purpose and of acceptable quality. Where the consumer guarantees have been breached, a supplier may be liable for loss or damage suffered by a consumer (Parts 3-2 and 5-4 of the ACL). Manufacturers of goods may be liable where goods supplied do not comply with the guarantee as to acceptable quality (sections 54 and 271(1) of the ACL). Manufacturers may also be liable for goods which have a "safety defect" (sections 9, 138 to 141 of the ACL).

Sometimes a retailer may also be a manufacturer… The definition of a "manufacturer" not only includes a person or organisation who grows, extracts, produces or assembles goods, but the definition also includes persons who:

• hold themselves out to the public as a manufacturer; • cause or allow their name, brand or mark to be applied to goods; • import goods into Australia, where the manufacturer does not have a place of business in Australia, even if the importer is not the manufacturer of goods (section 7 of the ACL). A supplier may find itself liable as a manufacturer for goods with a safety defect where the manufacturer of goods cannot be identified (section 147 of the ACL). Section 147 allows a consumer to ask a supplier for particulars of the manufacturer of the goods (or of the supplier one step up the supply chain). A failure to provide such information within 30 days can result in the supplier being deemed to be the manufacturer for the purposes of any subsequent liability action. This reinforces the importance of knowledge of your suppliers. In addition, a supplier of goods may become a target for liability in

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

circumstances where a manufacturer of goods has become insolvent. Am I still liable if a customer misuses goods? A supplier has mandatory reporting obligations to report death or serious injury or illness of any person of which it becomes aware, which may be associated with the use or foreseeable misuse of goods (section 131 of the ACL). Whose responsibility is the recall of goods? Section 128 of the ACL sets down the notification requirements where "a person" voluntarily takes action to recall consumer goods of a particular kind (including consumer goods that have become fixtures since being supplied), where the consumer goods or a reasonably foreseeable use or misuse of goods will or may cause injury to a person. In the absence of a compulsory recall order from the ACCC or a state regulator, the determination by a manufacturer or retailer to recall goods is governed by the common law principles of negligence. A supplier of goods must determine whether a recall is a reasonable step to protect consumers from a reasonably foreseeable risk of injury. It does not matter where a person sits in the distribution chain for goods. In making a determination about whether or not to recall, a manufacturer or retailer should consider: • the magnitude of the potential harm involved; • probability of such harm occurring; • availability and effectiveness of alternative remedial action; and • degree of knowledge in potential users of the potential harm. If a manufacturer has little or no presence in Australia, it is likely that the retailer or distributor of goods will need to take a more proactive role. ■



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Busch celebrates 50 years with world tour 2013 was the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the Busch pump company in Germany. Since its initial founding in 1963, the company has grown to 2300 employees in 39 countries. To celebrate this anniversary, company founder Dr. Karl Busch embarked on a world tour of Busch companies across the globe. On 14 October 2013 the roadshow came to the Busch Australia office in Broadmeadows in Melbourne to celebrate with employees and customers.


he celebration began in Busch's large workshop where customers were able to stroll among the various pump products on display before the formalities began. The significance of the event was demonstrated by a number of local VIPs in attendance including Andrew Elsbury, the state upper house member for the Western Region as well as the Mayor of Hume City, Geoff Porter and the CEO of Hume City, Domenic Isola. These guests reflected on the contribution that the company had made to local industry and employment. Kaya Busch, the son of Dr Karl Busch, then spoke about the history of the company, detailing his father's background as an inventor leading up the founding of the business in Schopfheim in 1963, through to the establishment of their first overseas branch in the UK in 1971 and the continued growth thereafter. The company remains in family hands, and Kaya Busch explained the importance of the strong business management skills of his mother Ayhan Busch in the early days and how his parents, along 16

Mayor of Hume Geoff Porter with Dr Karl Busch - Company Founder with sister Ayla and brother Sami remain the owners today. Kaya reflected on some of the values that have led to Busch's success, including a willingness to employ local people to

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

run their overseas branches and the long term relationships they build, as well as their focus on financial stability. Busch Australia Managing Director Kurt Porflit then reflected on the company's

I N DU STRY N E WS local history. The Australasian operation started in 1985 and there are now five branches; Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Perth and Auckland, NZ with 37 staff. Busch products suit and have been sold into various markets in Australia including food, medical, woodworking, chemical, pharmaceutical, plastic, sewage, environmental, automotive, oil & gas, mining and print. The speeches were then followed by lunch for all the guests. Today Busch Vacuum Pumps and Systems is one of the largest manufacturers of vacuum pumps, blowers and compressors in the world. â–

Kaya Busch, Member for Western Province Andrew Elsbury, Busch Australia Manager Kurt Porflit and Achilles Tzelepis.

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6


Wastewater treatment plant project awarded


Bundaberg Regional Council has chosen Aquatec Maxcon and Queensland Concrete & General Construction (QCGC) as the providers for the Thabeban Wastewater Treatment Plant upgrade project. Aquatec Maxcon is responsible for the supply and installation of all mechanical works and equipment as well as the electrical works including PLC & SCADA. The upgrade will cater to more residents, increasing the current plant’s capacity from 3000 persons to 9000 persons, facilitating economic growth

and development in the region. The new plant will also provide high quality treated effluent for agricultural purposes on neighbouring properties and greatly improve the quality of unused treated effluent released into the Yellow Waterholes Creek. Furthermore, the project will provide opportunities for additional re-use options in the future. Work on the Thabeban Wastewater Treatment Plant upgrade is expected to commence in October and take approximately 12 months to construct and commission.

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pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6


Don’t dilute your sludge – new heavy duty sludge pump A new line of heavy duty sludge pumps now available from Hydro Innovations is said to be able to handle the thickest sludge. Ramparts single acting air driven diaphragm pumps are described as the most cost effective sludge pumps on the toughest of applications, including pumping undiluted sludge.


umping sludge with high solids content is a tough job. Handling foreign objects along with it (such as rags) is even tougher. And handling all this when the sludge is abrasive and corrosive is almost impossible ….for most pumps. The Ramparts air operated diaphragm pump can handle the thickest and most abrasive sludge applications, with the lowest of PH levels, and pass solids such as rags. And if a solid is too large to pass, the quick-release cover-plates on the ball check valves enable the removal of obstructions in just a few minutes. Ramparts sludge pumps are easy and cost effective to maintain and can produce flows from as little as 10 litres per minute (with the 15P) through to 1200 litres per minute for the largest pump in the range (the 60P). Diaphragms and other “wetted parts” are available in a variety of corrosion and/or abrasion resistant elastomers, and pumps can also be fully lined with these materials for added protection and extended pump life. Pumps are also able to be “fine tuned” to each and every application, as suction and discharge air pressures can be independently varied, along with cycle rates and stroke times. This capability ensures the longest possible diaphragm life, efficient use of the available air and highly accurate flow rates. ■

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6



Rob Brown, Weir Minerals Australia

John Weaver, Xylem Water Systems

Steve MacDonald, Kennards

Julie Truss, Weir Minerals

Peter Vila, seepex Australia

State of the industry After a tough year in 2013, we asked some of the leaders in the Australian pump industry for their thoughts on what 2014 may hold. The outlook for 2014

The outlook for 2014 is one of cautious optimism with most companies noting an improvement in confidence. While some expect this to translate into a better year than 2013, others expect things to hold steady. According to John Weaver, General Manager of Xylem Water Systems, "With the Federal election out of the way we are hoping for stability to return to the market place and encourage companies to expand their operations and purchasing patterns. We are expecting growth over 2013." Whereas Mathew Harris of IDEX noted that "The pump industry has plateaued and 2014 outlook should be similar to our expectations for this year. Although the confidence level for many industrial customers has rebounded from the first half of this year, many customers are still reluctant to expand their businesses however as we continue to work closely with our selected distribution partners our products and customer service position us for continued growth." Rob Brown, Regional Managing Director – Asia Pacific, Weir Minerals Australia said that he doesn't anticipate any major changes in the pump industry between 2013 and 2014, particularly in the new projects arena. "There are some analysts who believe there may be some increase in H2 2014, however I believe there are still too many variables at play to make this prediction with any certainty." Many companies also considered the impact their own plans would have. Brown noted that "Our area of focus will be on minimising total ownership costs and ensuring that Weir Minerals continues to enhance our offering across the whole mill circuit process." Peter Vila, Managing Director of seepex Australia said that "Globally, seepex has a positive outlook for the pump industry in 2014 and from a local perspective, we 20

are certainly expecting an improvement over 2013, which was our inaugural year with direct seepex presence in Australia." Steve MacDonald, General Manager of Pump & Power at Kennards, thought that "The outlook for us will be identifying our key clients and building strong relationships. We can do this by looking into custom requests and some unique

the market generally moves in cycles, where now for example, we are seeing a momentary downturn in what has been a golden era for mining, but this is being somewhat offset with increased activity within the LNG sector.

- Peter Vila

product lines. The weather combined with the resource sector downturn has made us focus on being business fit as well as equipment fit, ready for the upturn when it comes around. 2014 will be a similar business climate to what we experienced in 2013." Mark Woodley - General Manager - Asia Pacific, KETO Pumps Australia believes that "There are lots of doom and gloom discussions in the industry currently. Talk of cost cutting and budget slashing is rife. Historically these have been the times in which we outperform the competition.

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

According to Woodley "Our intimacy with the customer allows us to work with them to achieve their objectives. Tightening of the procurement purse strings means that the customer looks to suppliers to dig deep and support them or look to alternate supply. We see both of these outcomes as opportunities for KETO."

Key factors driving the industry

Our industry leaders noted both external and internal factors as having an impact on the industry in 2014. According to Vila, "Projects and maintenance across all market sectors have greatly influenced pump industry performance in the past and we expect this to continue. For project work, the market generally moves in cycles, where now for example, we are seeing a momentary downturn in what has been a golden era for mining, but this is being somewhat offset with increased activity within the LNG sector. We’ve seen similar in the past with water/wastewater, petro-chemical and to a lesser extent, general industry, food & beverage, all having had golden eras at some point or other. Unlike project work, maintenance for existing installations is generally far more stable, whether it be spare parts or direct replacement pumps, maintenance is essentially the heartbeat of our industry." Julie Truss – Product Manager - Slurry Pumps, Weir Minerals Australia said that "As our customers are primarily mining companies, the drivers for our pump business closely mirror those of the mining industry. The key factors include future metals prices, demand for metals, exchange rates, the relative cost of mining in Australia compared with the rest of the world, and the availability of capital for investment. When mining companies are pursuing fewer → new projects and reducing capital

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STATE OF THE INDU STRY spend in operating mines, this obviously has an effect on the pump industry. "In 2014, I would expect a continued focus from mining customers on value for money and getting the most out of their existing assets." Weaver agreed that a stable economic environment and investment in infrastructure and business were key. Others looked more to their own businesses with MacDonald saying "For us as an Hire Company, it has been the relationships we have with our clients, along with some company’s deciding against capital purchases on larger pumps. They have been hiring when the need arises." This was echoed by Harris who noted "Our growth and performance is driven by continual improvement to customer service and quality products. IDEX is proud to have strong distribution partners that focus on continuous improvement to delivering exceptional customer service." Woodley said "We see a shift from a focus on capital cost to through life cost, particularly in the mining sector where OPEX is so important. This means suppliers that can provide good pump efficiency and more importantly long wear life will benefit. KETO have various solutions for extending wear life and we’re responding to calls from the market for even better longevity of parts with improved designs and materials."

Individual sector performance

The relative slowdown in mining was expected to continue, but the sector should still remain a substantial contributor. Other sectors expected to be strong in 2014 include LNG and water/wastewater. Brown explained "the weakness in 2013 has certainly been the coal sector and is directly correlated to coal price. While all the macro indicators suggest that this is a cyclical event any recovery will be simply driven by the recovery of coal prices." Weaver noted "the major impact sector wise will be the mining industry having come off the boil in recent times." Woodley saw some positives in mining and expects that "It is likely that some new project work will be a little depressed compared to prior years, particularly in mining. Existing mine sites are looking to get more from their assets so increasing throughput and ultimately decreasing total cost of 22

mining will be drivers. This will lead to an increased focus on pump upgrades and quality replacement parts." Vila said that "We expect the current focus on LNG to continue in 2014 and believe there will also be increased activity within most other sectors, particularly water/wastewater and bioenergy. Mining, though may not be quite as active when compared to the previous few years, will still remain a key sector for the pump industry." MacDonald also said that "The utility market has performed well as essential services and repairs still need to go ahead regardless of the economy. The civil/construction pump requirement has been picking up of late."

Preparing for 2014

The pump industry is preparing for the challenges of 2014 by investing in products, people and customer service, Vila explains, "Creating an Australian presence in 2013 was seen as our first step toward preparing for future economic conditions in this region. In an increasingly competitive market, we feel it’s essential for businesses to form close relationships with their customers and work in partnership to achieve mutually rewarding outcomes. The structure of seepex Australia is being modelled with this in mind." MacDonald said that Kennards has "been investing in newer equipment, working on our people to ensure the right people are in the right roles. "We will be business fit in all areas, ready to make the most of every opportunity as they arise." "Weir Minerals has demonstrated on several occasions, including during the GFC, the ability to manage our internal economics and maintain our financial performance," according to Brown. "There is no magic to this. It's about being even more vigilant on controlling cost, ensuring that we don't compromise on safety and maintaining our focus on ensuring that we deliver on our promises and exceed our customers’ expectations. "In addition, continuing to expand on our product portfolio including aftermarket will allow us to provide a wider and deeper product and service offer for our customers." Harris said that "IDEX’s focus for team development and lean manufacturing has helped to continue develop organic

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

growth and increased shareholder value, this means throughout 2014 we have the ability to be more responsive to our distribution partners need to enable them to improve end user satisfaction." Woodley explained KETO's strategy, saying "We will continue develop our solutions based approach to customer issues, increase our ability to service our customers in line with our strategy of increased intimacy with our chosen client base. "We have seen that customers want one stop shop solutions, encompassing custom/bespoke packages specifically tailored for customer’s conditions, safety requirements, and standards. In this instance KETO’s size is its strength. Large enough to be considered a serious tenderer, but not so large as to be immovable, and unreactive. "

New products and plans

The Australian market should expect to see some new and improved products in 2014. From Weir Minerals; " We have developed the Warman® WBV®, a self-agitating sump pump, which has had great success in solving problems where our customers have bogging sump pumps. In addition to the current models, more sizes will be released in 2014," according to Truss. "In 2014 we will be installing a number of our tenacious froth 'problem-solver' pumps around Australia. The pump is called the Continuous Air Removal System (CARS). This design retrofits to the Warman® AHF™ series of slurry froth pumps. Trials have shown this pump to be a significant leap over existing technology, giving huge

STATE O F TH E I N DU STRY improvements in pumping stability and a reduction in power usage. "Weir Minerals also continues to invest heavily in new materials technology and industry leading design developments for the highest wearing pump applications, and we are confident of making significant enhancements in this space in 2014 as well." Vila explained that seepex's “SCT” design is a relatively new product, at least in Australia. "This technology has been available overseas now for 3-4 years and has been a huge success for seepex throughout Europe and USA, but due to a lack of promotion in Australia, it is still early days here. Now, with strong local focus, we expect to see some positive changes over the coming months and years, as the market gradually begins to learn about the advantages of this technology and the associated benefits, from both an operational and maintenance perspective." "IDEX continues to invest in product development and 2014 will see many of our business’s release new pumping products specifically designed in consultation with our key customers to meet their demanding operating demands," said Harris. "The introduction of expanded after sales support and service kits for IDEX and competitors pumps will help pump users extend the operational life of their current pump infrastructure and reducing the total cost of the operations." "KETO plan to unveil many new products to complement the core business," said Woodley. "Again, following the strategy of providing solutions and not simply

pumps. Pumps, pipelines valves, dewatering packages. Part of this strategy has been to take on the master distributorship for PexGol piping, an innovative product far in advance of the traditional ABS pipeline used in mining currently. "Local supply to allow rapid response is something KETO are frequently asked for. To meet this demand we are investing heavily in stock and have moved to a new Australia HQ in Perth which is now the largest stocked facility for mining pumps." Kennards "have been exploring the “add on” to our offerings, through flow meters, test tanks and sediment tanks, etc. we have been lucky that we also hire our generators which have been growing over the last few years," said MacDonald. According to Weaver, "Our major plan is to increase the awareness of the Xylem name and brands across Oceania.


Pump Industry magazine expects a gradual improvement throughout 2014 as confidence increases and bigger projects start to go ahead. It's clear that the ups and downs in various sectors will have an impact on the industry, but pump companies will make their own luck as well, focussing on the things they can change to improve margins and efficiency. Weaver said that "the pump industry in this region is going to benefit from the efficiency improvements being made across all types of pump types in Europe. These improvements will ensure users will get best efficiencies at cost effective prices."

Vila noted the benefits as well as the limiations of technology "In this age of electronic communication, the world is becoming an increasingly smaller place with respect to all things, including business. Customer expectations seem to be forever on the increase and the Australian pump industry is certainly not immune to these expectations and the associated strain it puts on our collective resources. Our challenge is to maintain a strong physical presence and close relationship with our customers, while perhaps also relaying a message, that while there are certainly advantages offered by these powerful communication infrastructures which we have at our disposal, it does not magically grant us a superhero’s ability to submit complex tender offers in a single day!" ■ Interviewees • Rob Brown - Regional Managing Director, Weir Minerals • Mathew Harris - Regional Sales Manager - Oceania, IDEX Fluid and Metering • Steve MacDonald - General Manager of Pump & Power, Kennards • Julie Truss - Project Manager for Slurry Pumps, Weir Minerals • Peter Vila - Managing Director, seepex Australia • John Weaver - General Manager, Xylem Water Systems Australia • Mark Woodley - General Manager Asia Pacific, KETO Pumps Australia


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pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6



Demand for condition monitoring equipment to grow in mining sector In the Australian mining sector, reduced demand for commodities from end users such as China has led to a reduction in industry profit margins. In this post-boom scenario, mining companies are looking to do more with less.


ompanies are therefore optimizing plant performance and enhancing productivity by minimizing downtime. Lowering downtime also helps cut down operational costs. This is expected to be the key driver for the growth of the Australian condition monitoring market for the mining sector. Analysis from Frost & Sullivan on the Australian Condition Monitoring Market for the Mining Sector, estimates that the market revenues for 2012 were just over $55 million and this is expected to reach close to $120 million by 2017. Vibration monitoring remains the largest segment of the market (accounting for over 70 percent of the total market), with a higher number of portable units sold over permanent/online systems. This is followed by the thermography segment and finally the oil analysis segment. Distributors are the main channel to market. As condition monitoring is a relatively new technology, mining companies are not fully aware of the benefits and consider it a capital-intensive product, rather than a tool that cuts operational expenditure. Market participants have to aggressively promote the advantages their product offers to make headway in the end-user sector. "Mining companies need to be made aware that frequent machine failures and repairs can be avoided by performing predictive maintenance using condition monitoring," said Frost & Sullivan Measurement & 24

Instrumentation Research Associate Vivek K Reghu. "The scaling up of automation in future mining operations is also likely to drive demand for condition monitoring." However, straitened circumstances and a shortfall in adequately skilled device operators may still hold back investment in the technology in the short term. Once the mining sector rebounds, end users will be more willing to adopt the system, especially cloud-based condition monitoring systems, which have a more attractive cost- benefit equation than traditional technologies. Networkbased condition monitoring requires mining companies to set up a data centre along with multiple servers that are dedicated to data collection and processing. The data will be accessible only to the systems in the network. Cloud computing will therefore help companies to reduce cost by decreasing the number of systems employed to collect data and negating the need to install high-level applications in each system. Meanwhile, some past mining activities have stoked concerns regarding consequent environment deterioration. As a result, mining companies are now placing greater emphasis on addressing these issues during the project planning stage. This will lead to accelerated implementation of condition monitoring applications over the next three to five years. “Mining companies will be looking to

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

employ best practices for environmental and energy management in the project planning stage," noted Reghu. "This translates into an opportunity for condition monitoring equipment suppliers to add energy management features to the existing product line and thereby improve perceived value." The Australian condition monitoring equipment market is highly competitive and is dictated by factors such as price and the delivery of service and support. With end users demanding lower prices, vendors need to look at ways to reduce cost to sustain profit margins. In this regard, large companies are making significant investments in R&D and are introducing better products at strategic and competitive prices. The need to provide post-sales support is crucial when deciding who should be awarded a contract. Most small companies are unable to provide this support; as a result, they lose the bulk of the business to their large counterparts. â– This article was authored by Ivan Fernandez, Industry Director, Industrial Practice, Australia & New Zealand, Frost & Sullivan. For media queries or more information please contact djeremiah@

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World's longest single pump station slurry pipeline Located in north-west Queensland, Century is Australia’s largest open-cut zinc mine. A 304-kilometre underground pipeline is used to transfer processed zinc and lead concentrates to Century’s port operation at Karumba for shipping. A single pump station at Lawn Hill pressurises the concentrate slurry, providing the driving force to propel the product over 300 km through to Karumba.


he processing of ore at Century begins at the run of mine (ROM) pad where the ore is fed into a mechanism called the crusher. Here the ore is crushed from approximately 300mm down to pieces of approximately 100mm. After crushing, the ore is carried along a conveyor into the semiautogenous grinding (SAG) mill where it is broken down further. From here, it is fed into the ball mill where steel balls grind the ore into the material about fifty five microns in size. A micron is 1/1000 of a millimetre. The Century concentrator is primarily a conventional grinding and froth flotation circuit, comprising one SAG Mill, two ball mills, 21 stirred mills and 79 flotation cells. Due to the →

About the pipeline

300NB X70 grade steel pipe Pipewall thickness 8.4mm at lawn hill, 4.8 mm at Karumba HDPE liner nominally 7.5 mm 1.2km flanged strings Minimal depth of 750 mm Directional drilling under all major rivers

FIRE PUMP AND GENERATOR SPECIALISTS SINCE 2001 Maintenance • Installations • Testing Phone: 07 3883 3833


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pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

In the tradition of groundbreaking innovations comes…

Flygt Experior

Welcome to a new era in wastewater pumping. Where engineering excellence and a pioneering spirit combine with an unmatched understanding of your needs. The result is Flygt Experior, a uniquely holistic experience that combines state-of-the-art hydraulics, motors, and controls. Today, Flygt Experior combines N-technology hydraulics and its adaptive functionality, premium efficiency motors and SmartRun – the all-new intelligent control. Flygt Experior comes from years of listening to you and applying our knowledge and expertise, to develop the most reliable and energy-efficient wastewater pumping. It is therefore the ultimate in our commitment to you.

Flygt Experior™. Inspired by you. Engineered by us.


The Pumps

3 x Wirth triplex diaphragm pump 8 ¾ “ x 14” 1.13MW VSD motors Parallel arrangement Discharge pressure – 20MPa (max) The pipeline operates continually at appox 270 m3hr-300 m3/hr particularly fine nature of the zinc in Century’s ore, and its silicate content, the ore must be ground using an ultrafine grinding process. This grinds the material to approximately six microns which maximises the amount of zinc that is recovered. Once processing in the flotation circuit is complete the zinc concentrates are thickened into a slurry form which resembles a thick liquid or paste of about 37% solids. During this process, excess water is transferred to the process water clarifier and then onto the process water dam, where it is recycled back into the process. The zinc concentrate slurry itself is pumped to storage tanks in preparation for transfer to Karumba via Century’s underground slurry pipeline. Pump Industry spoke to MMG General Manager Queensland Operations Mark Adams about the pipeline; "At MMG Limited’s Century mine, we use an underground pipeline to transfer concentrates from its mining and processing operation at Lawn Hill to its Port facility at Karumba, on the Gulf of Carpentaria. About 30 centimeters in diameter, the pipeline is located between 800 to 150 millimetres underground. "A single pump station at Lawn Hill pressurises the pipeline, propelling batches of zinc and lead concentrates the 304 kilometres to Karumba. Monitoring spools located at various lengths along the pipeline measure flow and pressure rates, with teams at Century’s Lawn Hill and Karumba sites continuously monitoring pipeline operations. It takes about three days for a batch of concentrate to be reach Karumba. 28

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

Zinc and lead concentrates are pumped in batches and separated by water and are often in the pipeline at same time. As part of the refurbishment, the pipeline was deslurried by pumping water only, then a complete dewater was completed using compressors and foam pigs

"Once received at Century’s Port facility at Karumba, the zinc and lead concentrates are dewatered and stockpiled prior to transfer to the MV Wunma, MMG’s transfer vessel custom-build for operations on the shallow Norman River channel and Gulf waters. The MV Wunma then transports concentrates to export ships anchored in a designated area offshore. "In 2012, we undertook an approximately $14 million program of pipeline maintenance and improvement work to ensure the pipeline can be operated safely and reliably into the future. The program included replacement of a 1.2 kilometre section of pipeline and 10 monitoring spools, extensive testwork and analysis, integration of newly-available best-practice standards and updating of contingency and other emergency response plans.

About the mine

Century produces zinc and lead concentrates at its mining and processing operation at Lawn Hill, located about 250 kilometres north-west of Mount Isa.Concentrates are then transferred via a 304-kilometre underground pipeline to Century’s Port facility for shipping to smelters in Australia, Europe and Asia. Century is currently in a transitionary period as it prepares for the end of open cut zinc production in approximately 2016 while examining options to extend operations. ■

The Nerang Sands Bypass System S LURRY PUMPI NG

By Norman Cowper (Snr) and Allan Thomas, Slurry Systems Pty Limited

The Nerang Sands Bypass System in Queensland is located immediately south of the Gold Coast Waterway entrance. The system was designed by Slurry Systems Pty Limited and constructed by McConnell Dowell Constructors Ltd. The system began operation in 1986 and was world-first technology then, and still remains very much at the leading edge of sands bypassing technology.


ecause of the prevailing wave direction in the area, there is a littoral drift of sand northwards along the coast averaging about 500,000 m3 per year. Without any intervention, the sand would build up against the southern groyne until eventually flowing around the tip of the groyne and forming sand bars in the entrance to the newly created Gold Coast Seaway. The conventional solution would be to periodically dredge the

entrance but this method could not be guaranteed to keep the entrance navigable at all times. The Nerang Sands Bypass System was the world’s first fixed sands bypass system capable of operating in all weather conditions.

gravity to the land based transfer pump station to feed a conventional centrifugal slurry pump. This pump then pumps the slurry through a pipeline laid under the entrance to the north for discharge on to the beach.

The system consists of a 500 m long jetty with ten vertical jet pumps spaced along its length and buried in the sand at RL minus 11 m. The jet pumps pump sand/water slurry vertically up into a sloping flume which transfers it by

During its 27 years of operation the system has been extremely successful. It has proved capable of continuous operation during the most severe storms and has transported a total of → 15 million cubic metres of sand.

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6



Design basis

Sand Properties

Specific Gravity - 2.67 Particle Size - d90=0.45 mm, d50=0.23 mm, d10=0.17 mm Design Sand Transfer Volumes

Annual average volume - 500,000 m3 Peak monthly volume - 200,000 m3 Peak 5 day volume - 100,000 m3/h These sand volumes refer to the in-situ volume of settled sand at an approximate volume concentration of 60%. (i.e. one cubic metre of in-situ sand is equivalent to about 1.6 tonnes of dry sand). The system is designed to transfer a maximum 585 m3/h of (in-situ) sand with normal weekly operation being 30 hours to transfer 10,000 m3 of sand.

System description

The sands bypass system consists of a remote sea water supply pump station, a jet pump recovery system, a flume transfer pipe, a transfer pump station and a sand transfer pipeline. A jet pump operates by providing a high velocity upwards flowing jet of water which entrains sand. Because of the high water velocity in the jet it is essential that the supply water be free of sand. Two 150 kW low pressure sea water supply pumps, installed in a remote pump station inland on the Broadwater, supply water to the suction of two 560 kW high pressure jet water supply pumps located in the main onshore pump station. Ten Genflo jet lift pumps are installed on the jetty to serve the full 300 m length of the sand trap, with any four or any seven operating at any one time. Under normal operation one low pressure sea water pump and one high pressure jet water supply pump supply four jet pumps to transfer the average sand volume. When 30

peak sand transfer rates are required the second sea water supply and jet water supply pump and the remaining three of the seven jet pumps are operated. Any combination of seven of the ten jet lift pumps covering the sand trap can be operated. Each of the ten jet pumps discharge into an elevated pipe flume transferring sand slurry to the transfer pump station. The outer four jet pumps transfer via separate horizontal pipes before discharging into the end of the flume. The Genflo jet pumps are designed specifically for sand dredging operations and to be non-clogging under fully buried conditions. Each pump includes integral fluidising jets which expand and fluidise the sand bed, enabling sand to be freely entrained by the jet pump at a controlled concentration. As sand is excavated from the region around the pump, the sand bed collapses to maintain a fluid bed adjacent to the pump. The trap continues to expand until the walls stabilise at the prevailing angle of repose. The pipe flume provides a non-blocking transfer system which has capacity to handle a wide range of flow rates and solids concentrations. With each jet pump discharging separately into the flume, jet pump performance is not affected by the discharge pressure of other jet pumps, enabling the jet pump units to be properly balanced for equal performance. The jet pump discharge and pipe flume are lined with polyurethane for extended life. The pipe flume discharges into a cone bottom sump which supplies the 710 kW centrifugal slurry transfer pump. During peak flow operation, excess water overflows the pipeline feed sump and the sand concentration automatically increases to the maximum design value in the transfer pipeline. A single DN400

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

steel pipeline, lined with polyurethane, transfers sand under the entrance for discharge north of the northern groyne. The total length of the transfer pipeline is 1430 m.

Jet pump details

The photo shows a jet pump being installed and indicates the scale of the pump. Further details of the jet pump are provided in the drawing. Figure 2 (above right) shows typical jet pump performance curves. The higher the ratio of jet diameter to throat diameter, the higher the discharge head but the lower the flow rate. The Nerang mixer diameter is 102 mm and the pump can pass particles up to 100 mm. Sea weed is easily disintegrated by the high velocity jet. Jet diameters range from 40 mm to 48 mm giving d/D ratios from 0.39 to 0.47. The mass flow ratio is around 1.5. Efficiencies of jet pumps are low, around 35% maximum.

Elevated flume performance Selection of the optimum pipe diameter and slope of the flume was very important, and to confirm and refine predictions a test rig was built and operated in Sydney. Also of importance were the ingoing and outgoing slopes of the buried transfer pipeline beneath the entrance. At the end of the flume tests the rig was reconfigured to investigate the potential for sliding and blockage in the downslope and upslope during shutdown/restart. The test rig consisted of two 12 m long clear plastic pipes, one 200 mm diameter (190 ID) and one 100 mm diameter (94 ID), the slope of which could be varied. A centrifugal slurry pump driven by a diesel engine transferred slurry from the 3 m3 collection hopper through 150 mm hose to either of the pipes. Flow exited from the sloping pipes into the hopper via a 1 m length of flexible hose which allowed


Hd = Head at diffuser discharge

Head Ratio = (Hd-Hs)/(Hj-Hs)


Hs= Head at pump suction


Hj=head at driving nozzle



d= Jet diameter


D= Throat diameter





0.1 0 0





M = Mass flow rate of Entrained Slurry Mass flow rate of Driving Fluid

the flow to be diverted into a 200 litre drum mounted on scales to measure flow rate and solids concentration. Measurements of slurry flow height and the height of any bed of solids, if present, were measured at locations 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 m from the pipe entrance.

Figure 2: Typical Jet Pump Performance Curves

Bain and Bonnington, “The Hydraulic Transport of Solids by Pipeline” Pergamon Press, 1970

After analysis of the flume test data, a DN600 spiral welded pipe was selected for the Nerang flume. The flume is 370 m long set at 2.5% slope and is lined with 6.4 mm of polyurethane.


The Nerang Sands Bypassing System has been a resounding success. It was the world’s first fixed sands bypass system capable of operating in all weather conditions and after 27 years operation still represents the gold standard for sands bypassing systems. To date it has transferred overt 15 million cubic metres of in-situ sand. The Nerang Sands Bypass system requires a jetty structure. More recently Slurry Systems embarked on the development of a significantly cheaper sand bypass concept not requiring a jetty. This concept can be applied more universally to the majority of ocean entrances. The development resulted in the invention of a fixed submarine sand recovery system, the Slurry Systems Sand Shifter Unit (SSUnitTM ). The SSUnit development was trialled at Noosa Qld. The Noosa system recovers littoral sand which accumulates at the western end of Noosa beach and recycles the sand for beach nourishment at the eastern of Noosa beach. The trialled system was successful and the permanent system was installed a couple of years ago. The technology has been commercially proved and is available for installation for future fixed bypassing of ocean entrances. ■

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1800 656 771 pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6



LNG receiving terminals

By David A. Coyle and Vinod Patel, Kellogg Brown and Root, Inc, Houston, Texas

Last year we looked at pump services in the LNG production process. Once the LNG is shipped, there is a second series of processes to import and regasify the LNG. This process also involves a number of pumps.


he LNG receiving terminal (sometimes called a “regas” facility) receives liquefied natural gas from LNG ships, stores the LNG in storage tanks, vaporizes the LNG, and then delivers the natural gas into a distribution pipeline. The receiving terminal is designed to deliver a specified gas rate into a distribution pipeline and to maintain a reserve capacity of LNG. The amount of reserve capacity depends on expected shipping delays, seasonal variations of supply and consumption, and strategic reserve requirements (strategic reserves are needed when the terminal may be called upon to replace another large source of gas from either a pipeline or another receiving terminal on short notice). A simplified process flow diagram is shown in Figure 1.

The LNG terminal consists of the following:

pipes, each 24 or 26 inches diameter or a single 30 inch or larger pipe. LNG storage tanks

LNG unloading system, including jetty and berth

LNG is transferred to the onshore LNG tanks by the ship pumps. The unloading facility is often designed to accommo­ date a wide range of tanker sizes from 87,000 m3 to 165,000 m3, though larger sized “Q-Max” ships up to 266,000 m3 are becoming common on Qatar trade routes. It takes approximately 12-14 hours to unload one 165,000 m3 ship, though the larger ships can take longer. From the ship, the LNG flows through the unloading arms and the unloading lines into the storage tanks. The loading lines can be two parallel

Vapor Return Line

Two or more above ground tanks are generally installed for receiving and storing LNG, though terminals have been built with a single tank. To reduce cost, designers try to minimize the number of tanks and maximize the amount of storage per tank. If the facility has only one tank then sendout and LNG unloading will be from the same tank, but this does not cause any operating difficulties. The types of tanks are similar to the ones used for liquefaction facilities. The decision to use single, double, or full containment is based on cost, land availability, and sometimes protection from external events such

Figure 1.

Boil-off Gas Compressor

LNG Unloading Arm Recondenser LNG Tanker

1st Stage Sendout Pumps LNG Storage Tanks


pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

Fuel Gas Vaporizer

2nd Stage Sendout Pumps

To Pipeline

L NG as vapour cloud blast pressure, and missiles or small aircraft. Vapour handling system

During normal operation, boil-off vapour is produced in the tanks and liquid-filled lines by heat transfer from the surroundings. This vapour is collected in the boil-off header that ties into the boil-off compressor suction drum. A Boil-Off Gas (BOG) recondenser may also be provided which serves to recover the BOG as product and provides surge capacity for the LNG second stage pumps. During ship unloading, the quantity of vapour in the tank outlet increases significantly. During upset, extreme turndown or emergency conditions, vapours may be generated within the terminal that exceeds the capacity of the pipeline compressor. If this occurs the vapours vent to the atmosphere through an elevated vent stack or a flare for safe disposal. In the case of a vent stack the vapours are preheated if necessary to avoid flammable mixtures near ground level. LNG vapourisers

LNG terminal facilities have multiple parallel operating vapourisers with spares. Open Rack Vapourisers (ORV) are common worldwide (although they are not used much in the US terminals to date) and use seawater to heat and vaporize the LNG. The Submerged Combustion Vapouriser (SCV) uses send-out gas as fuel for the combustion that provides vaporizing heat. Because of the seawater system cost, the ORV’s tend to have a higher installed capital cost while the SCV’s have a higher operating cost because of the fuel charge. At many facilities the best economics are achieved by using ORV’s for normal send out and SCV’s as spares. Other site factors also impact the decision of whether to use ORV’s or SCV’s. If the seawater temperature is below 42oF, ORV’s are usually not practical because of seawater freezing. At some sites, it is not practical to separate the seawater discharge from the seawater inlet, and SCV’s must be installed to avoid recirculation problems. The submerged combustion vapourisers also have environmental issues because of NOx emissions and the water combustion product that requires treating before discharge. Open rack vapourisers

Seawater in an open falling film type arrangement vaporizes LNG passing through the tubes (see Figure 2). The water falls over aluminium panels

Figure 2 - Open Rack Vapouriser


Burner Combustion Control Part

Stainless Steel Heat Exchanger


Waste Gas NG LNG


Water Bath Figure 3 - Submerged Combustion Vapouriser and collects in a trough below before discharging back to the sea. The seawater first passes through a series of screens to remove debris before entering the intake basin. Raked bar screens provided in the inlet of the intake basin remove floating debris and provide protection for the vertical seawater and firewater pumps in the basin. The pumps are located in individual separate bays within the intake basin. At the inlet of each seawater pump bay, a travelling band screen may be provided for further removal of suspended solids to prevent blockage or damage to the open rack vapourisers. The larger single ORV units installed are for a gas send-out rate of approximately 200 to 250 MMSCFD.

the pumps are smaller. A very large receiving terminal will have a sendout rate of 2 Billion Standard Cubic Feet per Day (BSCFD) while the ship unloading rate is closer to 5 BSCFD. The discharge pressure of the 1st Stage Sendout Pumps is around 8 barg.

Submerged combustion vapourisers

Receiving terminals to date are expected to operate close to 365 days per year and have spared equipment to achieve this availability. In at least one case a terminal operated over three years continuously and was shutdown only for a statutory inspection. In spite of the traditionally high terminal availability, spare equipment can be eliminated and cost savings achieved if the gas consumers can tolerate interruptions in the send-out supply. ■

These vapourisers burn the natural gas taken from the send-out gas stream and pass the hot combustion gases into a water bath that contains the heating tubes for LNG (see Figure 1). The largest single SCV units installed are for a gas send-out rate of approximately 150 MMSCFD. First stage send-out pumps

Several low-head LNG send-out pumps are installed in each LNG storage tank. These pumps are similar to the loading pumps at the LNG liquefaction facility, except the send-out rate is much lower than the loading rate therefore

Second stage sendout pumps

The send-out gas is usually injected into a high pressure gas distribution system of approximately 80 barg. For this pressure, multi-staged send-out pumps (booster pumps) are required. The pumps are high-head and take LNG from the first stage pump discharge and boost up the pressure to the vapourisers at the required pipeline pressure.

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6



The Ichthys LNG Project by Michelle Goldsmith

The Ichthys LNG Project is a large scale LNG project to develop the Ichthys Gas Field, discovered during 2000-2001 off the North-West Coast of Western Australia, approximately 820 kilometres South-West of Darwin.


t is estimated that the field, named for the classical Greek word for ‘fish’, has the potential to produce 12.8 trillion cubic feet of gas and 527 million barrels of condensate over 40 years. The projects initial capacity is estimated at 8.4 million tonnes of LNG per annum and 1.6 million tonnes of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) per annum, as well as approximately 100,000 barrels of condensate per day at peak. The project is a Joint Venture between the operator INPEX group companies, its major partner TOTAL group companies and the Australian subsidiaries of Tokyo Gas, Osaka Gas, Chubu Electric Power and Toho Gas.

It is currently in the construction phase with various contracts having been awarded, to both Australian and international contractors.


Gas from the Ichthys Field will undergo preliminary processing at the offshore central processing facility (CPF). Here water and raw liquids, including a large proportion of the condensate, will be removed. This condensate will be pumped to a floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) facility anchored nearby, from which it will be transferred to tankers for delivery to markets.

Key offshore facilities will include: Semi-submersible Central Processing Facility (CPF) Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) unit for condensate treatment and storage Umbilicals, risers and flowlines (URF) 885km export pipeline to Darwin


The gas will be transported from the CPF by being pumped through a subsea pipeline more than 885 kilometres long to reach the onshore LNG processing plant proposed for Blaydin Point on Middle Arm Peninsula, Darwin, Northern Territory. There it will be cooled to below minus 161 degrees Celsius, the point at which the gas becomes a liquid, known as liquefied natural gas. Onshore facilities will include: • Two LNG trains with a capacity of 8.4 million tonnes per annum • LPG and condensate processing plants • Storage tanks for LNG, LPG and condensate • Administration facilities • Utilities and services • Power generation infrastructure • Product offloading jetty Processing and transporting large amounts of gas 885km to shore can’t happen without pumps. Therefore both offshore and onshore facilities will utilise an array of different pumps for different applications. A large number of pump supply and installation


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contracts have already been awarded. While many contracts were awarded to overseas companies, some Australianbased businesses have also been successful.

Offshore Pumps Firewater Pumps

The contract for the design, manufacture, testing, supply and integration of four firewater pump packages for the offshore floating central gas processing facility has been awarded to Norwegian pump manufacturer, Frank Mohn Flatoy AS. Diaphragm Pumps

INPEX has awarded a contract for the design, manufacture, quality control, factory tests, supply and shipment of diaphragm pumps for the offshore Central Processing Facility to Dongil ENT (Korea). Centrifugal Pumps

The offshore facility’s 54 centrifugal pumps will be supplied by Finder Pompe (Italy). API 610 Pumps

The contract to supply 69 pumps to Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering for installation on the Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessel has been awarded to Sulzer Pumps South Korea. API 610 Centrifugal Pumps

The Australian company, Renroc Group (Pumps & Engineering) was awarded the contract for a number of API 610 Centrifugal Pumps for the Central Processing Facility (CPF) and the FPSO for INPEX Ichthys LNG Project. This contract includes the design, manufacture and installation of pump packages on the CPF and FPSO.

Onshore Pumps

Boiler Feed Water Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps

Multi-stage centrifugal pumps for the boiler feed water service of the onshore facility will be supplied by Tokyo based company, Ebara.

INPEX has awarded the contact for offshore centrifugal pumps to KSB’s Australian branch. This contract involves the design, manufacture, testing and delivery of centrifugal pump systems for the 500 megawatt of electrical power demand Combined Cycle Power Plant for the onshore Liquefied Natural Gas facility at Blaydin Point, Darwin. Closed Cooling Pumps

KSB has also been contracted for the design, manufacture, testing, and delivery of horizontal end suction pumps to cool water for the Combined Cycle Power Plant at the same onshore facility at Blaydin Point, Darwin. Liquid Handled: Closed Cooling Water Pumping Temp: 5° - 46°C

API610 Horizontal Pumps (large capacity)

The contract for large capacity API610 horizontal pumps has been awarded to Tokyo based company, Tatsumura Trading. API610 Vertical Pumps

Tatsumura Trading will also supply vertical API610 pumps to the project. Column Mount Submerged Cryogenic Pumps Column Mount submerged cryogenic pumps will also be supplied to the onshore facilities by Tatsumura Trading. Pot Mount Submerged Cryogenic Pumps

Max Vapor Pressure: 12.3 kPA Casing: Cast Iron Duty: Continuous

The contract for submerged motor cryogenic pumps for the onshore facility has also been awarded to Tatsumura.

Pump Type: Centrifugal

API610 Vertical Sump Pumps

Class of Pump: Horizontal End Suction

Vertical sump pumps for the onshore facility will be provided by JGC Trading and Services, part of Shin Nippon Machinery.

Design Capacity: 268 – 500 m³/hr

Condensate Pumps

The contract for the design, manufacture, testing, and delivery of vertical pumps to pump condensate through the condensate system at the Combined Cycle Power Plant has been awarded to Japanese supplier Shan Nippon.

API610 Horizontal Pumps

The contract for API610 pumps of regular capacity has gone to multinational pump company, Flowserve. →

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6


L NG Fire Water Pumps

Sanitary Pumps

Firewater pumps for the onshore plant will be provided by Peerless Pump, an American company.

Ruhrpump Australia has been contracted to provide the design, manufacturing and testing of 18 sewage system pit pumps for the onshore facility. Twelve of the submerged motor sewage pumps will have a capacity of 14 m3 and a head of 19 m and six will have a capacity of 25 m3 and a head of 27 m.

Canned Pumps

Japan based company, Nikkiso Co. have been awarded the contract for the facility's canned pumps. Sundyne Pumps

INPEX has also awarded the contract for Sundyne pumps to Nikkiso Co. Non API horizontal and vertical pumps

The contracts for both horizontal and vertical non API pumps have been awarded to Flowserve GB. Vertical Progress Cavity Pumps

Chemical Metering and Transfer Equipment from ProMinent速 for process and water treatment in the Mining, Oil and Gas Industry

Solenoid and motor driven lower capacity metering pumps


The vertical progress cavity pumps for the onshore facility will be provided by UK based Mono Pumps Ltd.

DULCOflex速 hose and tube pumps, Spectra速 PC pumps

Process and flameproof metering pumps

High end metering pumps and dosing packages


pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

ProMinent Fluid Controls Pty Ltd Head office: Sydney (02) 9450 0995 Brisbane: (07) 3213 1900 Melbourne: (03) 8795 7430


QCLNG progressing smoothly seepex at the world's first project to turn gas from coal seams into liquefied natural gas. QGC Pty Limited, the Australian subsidiary of BG Group, is developing the world´s first project to turn gas from coal seams into liquefied natural gas - the Queensland Curtis LNG (QCLNG) Project. The project draws on QGC’s extensive expertise and BG Group’s international experience in natural gas development, LNG, at a time of rising demand for cleaner, more efficient energy. Importantly, QCLNG will help to address

climate change by allowing natural gas, which has the lowest carbon emissions of all fossil fuels, to be transported economically around the world. seepex Australia Pty Ltd in parternship with ITT Blakers received a pump package purchase order from the EP Contractor WorleyParsons. In January 2012 they issued the formal quotation for the “Interceptor Pit Pump Packages”.

The order included 44 vertical 316 stainless steel seepex pumps (range BE) in various installation lengths for oily water applications and installation into the pits in the field compression stations and central processing plants. Preliminary site commissioning has commenced and so far things are going smoothly. ■

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seepex Australia Pty. Ltd. Tel +61.2.4355 4500

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6



Stainless steel


umpserv has built a reputation for not only supplying pumps but also for specialising in design and manufacturing in stainless steel.

We utilise stainless steel to manufacture simple through to complex pump system manifolds, bases, submersible pump cooling shrouds, guide rails systems, and custom designs for the broader pump applications. Pumpserv design and manufacturing capabilities range from single pump sets through to multiple pump systems. Pumpserv can offer unique manifold design to suit even the most challenging applications. The utilisation of 304 and 316 stainless steel as materials allow the customer flexibility to meet their specific site requirements. Pumpserv has in-house CAD design capabilities and can offer as built drawings for standard and specific designed pump systems. Pumpserv’s ability to custom design and build


in stainless steel for the pump industry has led to innovative applications from all stainless steel guide rail systems for rock pools pumping seawater, to space confined manifold design and manufacture for the water features industry. Pumpserv’s long established knowledge in the pump industry means that its designs are built on extensive pump hydraulic know-how, which means, for the customer, reliable operation of the system. Pumpserv’s reputation is not only built on its manufacturing, quality and design capabilities, but also due to its flexibility and can do approach. These attributes mean that some of Australia’s major pump companies utilise Pumpserv to meet their specific applications. ■

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

To keep up to date on Pumpserv please visit us at: Or contact us on : P: 02 9457 8622 F: 02 9457 9891 E:


...and now for the best part R

otating equipment such as pumps often includes precision machined components and parts. The design and manufacture of these parts are generally governed by strict tolerances, machining guidelines, material specifications and strength ratings. This overall process is, in part, driven by the desire to produce the best part possible. With the current difficult trading conditions in some sectors, we are seeing increased pressure on margins, softer sales figures, increased competition from off shore and a relentless march to reduce cost. We have touched on this previously where an initial cost saving may only be short lived. For example, a rotating assembly made up of inferior parts may fail well before its expected life cycle resulting, at the very least, loss in production and damage to reputations. Often, the sign that things are going wrong shows up as a vibration or balancing issue with your equipment. The initial production cost saving are quickly eroded and invariably it now

becomes a problem out on-site. In more recent times we have seen undersized shafts used in rotating equipment where the bearings became loose during commissioning. The subsequent vibration caused further damage to other parts of the assembly which then needed a partial rebuild. This scenario could have been avoided by specifying the correct raw material then machining the shaft to the correct tolerances and checking it, prior to assembly. Another assembly involved the use of drive shaft components where the mating parts were machined to a loose tolerance (or perhaps not one at all) and hence had too much play in the assembly. This made balancing the assembly impossible and the shaft had to be rebuilt with newly sourced components from a company that checks the tolerances as part of their quality assurance system.

Assemblies that have critical fits should use quality parts with proven tolerances In our respective engineering and manufacturing fields we must endeavour to adhere to best practice and insist on the selection of the best part most suited to the equipment and its application. All equipment is ultimately the sum of all its parts, and if we cut corners on any one of those parts, we may well pay the price. It just makes sense to get the best part. Precision Balancing has been offering in house and on site dynamic balancing and vibration analysis services since 1989 and have the equipment, skills and experience to satisfy your industrial balancing requirements. Precision Balancing strictly adhere to the requirements of the relevant ISO standard. â– For more information on how industrial balancing can assist with machine reliability please visit

Balance Matters! Imbalance is a common source of faults in rotating assemblies, pumps and fans.

Precision Balancing can help!

(03) 9758 7189

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6



Pump rebuild shops: facts and considerations Heinz P. Bloch, P.E. - Process Machinery Consulting Jim Steiger and Robert Bluse - HydroAire, Inc.

Trying to rebuild a vintage process pump to original OEM specifications makes no sense given current pump rebuilding capabilities and changes to system performance that occur over time. Thus, a qualified independent rebuild shop deploying highly experienced personnel and a full range of state-of-the-art technologies (including balancing and alignment, vibration analysis, ultrasonics, infrared thermography, oil analysis, nondestructive testing techniques, etc.) can verifiably offer high-quality upgrades that improve both uptime and efficiency consistent with current system performance requirements. How, though, do you go about identifying such an operation? More importantly, how can you be sure that the shop to which you entrust your pumps will rebuild them to deliver the reliability you desire? It’s not easy—you have many factors to take into consideration. This month, we discuss some general guidelines regarding the selection of a competent non-OEM pump repair operation.

Warranty issues

A competent repair facility will fully warrantee its work. There is no quibbling as to who supplied what associated parts and services, and which subvendors are responsible for delivering questionable or inadequate components. Truly competent facilities will not shift responsibility in this regard. Their competence is their bond and they will have taken steps to assure quality at all levels. That being the case, an informed user will not claim that only the OEM stands behind his work. A competent repair facility will do no less and the case is closed.

understanding of what caused a given pump failure will enable the user or competent pump rebuild shop to point out and explain, specify or recommend a number of appropriate options. Once cost-effective options are selected, the competent pump rebuild shop, henceforth abbreviated to “CPRS,” should be asked to implement measures that include upgrading of sensitive components, avoidance of vulnerable lubricant application methods and others. At the same time, there should be an understanding between the pump owner and CPRS as to whether hydraulic upgrade options exist. In other words, before embarking on the repair of a pump that presently operates at 65% of best efficiency point (BEP) flow and draws a current of, say, 100 amps, it would be nice to know if a different impeller would be available that might cause operation to shift to 95% of

Consider a large refinery with well over 3,000 centrifugal pumps installed on its premises. The refinery owns pumps that rarely fail and others that fail rather often. Some are large and others are small. Some are critically important and others less so. Some are reliable but inefficient, or efficient, but less reliable overall. A well-informed pump user will have access to much pertinent information and, especially, will have failure frequency data relating to his pump population. These data and an 40

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

BEP and draw only 90 amps. A simple calculation might reveal the payback and straightforward overall cost justification for such an upgrade. Also, based on an understanding of what failed and why, a reliability-focused user will surely want to implement routine shop upgrades, which are defined as those done on “bad actor” pumps. Bad actors are those that require repairs more often than the rest of the pump population, and routine upgrades are done on those pumps so as to reduce future failure risk.

Uptime-extending upgrades

The following list is a summary of routine shop upgrading done on pumps that fail frequently. This summary is presented early in this article because it seems these upgrade measures are rarely pursued by OEM shops, whereas an independent CPRS is more likely to explain and advocate them. Figure 1: Advanced bearing housing protector seal in nonrotating (left) and rotating (right) equipment shafts (Source: AESSEAL plc, Rotherham, UK)

REPA I R A N D MA I NTENA NCE 1. Double-row, single inner ring angular contact bearings in ANSI pumps can be replaced with modern doublerow, double inner ring angular contact bearings.

Conventional labyrinth seal technology in axial movement application.

2. The unbalanced constant level lubricator is discarded and a balanced model incorporating a sight glass is installed. The balance line is routed to the top of the bearing housing (former location of the housing vent—now discarded). 3. The new balanced constant level lubricator is mounted on the “up-arrow” side shown in the vendor’s or manufacturer’s literature. 4. Oil rings are being replaced by suitable flinger discs. Flinger discs have a metal hub and are setscrewed or suitably fastened to the shaft. The actual disc is either an integral part of the hub, or is attached to it by screws. In general the disc has to be dimensioned so that its lowermost 3/8” (~11 mm) portion is immersed in the lube oil. To be considered suitable, the manufacturer-endorsed peripheral speed limitation must be observed. Also, to make installation of a large diameter flinger disc possible, the

Nominal Position

Displaced Position

Figure 2: Generalized sketch of damage-prone O-rings in older style bearing housing protector seals thrust bearing set may have to be placed in a removable cartridge. 5. On larger bearings and in installations where circulating lube oil is often preferred, plant shops are encouraged to obtain input from their respective Plant Technical Services Group. With the concurrence of these reliability professionals, convert to direct oil spray lubrication with a device that pressurizes oil drawn from the bearing

housing sump. 6. Pumps with dry sump oil mist previously applied at the center of the bearing housing should be modified to apply oil mist per recent API-610 Editions, e.g. the mist enters between the bearing protector seal and the bearing. 7. All “bad actor” pumps and small steam turbines are being fitted with advanced bearing housing seals (Figure 1). The bearing housing →

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Head Office-QLD Phone (07) 3279 1144 Freecall 1800 773 454 Fax (07) 3279 1067 pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6


REPAIR AND MAINTENA NCE end cap is painted with white spray paint so that any (highly unlikely) oil leakage will show up easily. Old-style bearing housing protector seals (Figure 2) are being phased out by reliability-focused users. 8. Unless oil rings are used (in which case, a thinner oil may be needed), use ISO Grade 68 diester or PAO synthetic lubricant on all bad actor pumps (“bad actors” are those that fail more frequently than most others in a given plant). An aluminum or stainless steel label stating oil type is affixed to the top of the pump. 9. Cooling water is removed from all centrifugal pumps with rolling element bearings. 10. The shaft interference fit for backto-back angular contact bearings is carefully measured and verified not to exceed 0.0003” on shafts up to and including 80 mm diameter. Of course, pump repair and rebuilding efforts often go beyond just the routines that were described above. Repair scopes differ from pump to pump and must be defined if the goals of uptime extension and failure risk reduction are to be achieved.

Defining the repair scope

The CPRS has both the tools and the experience needed to define a work scope beyond the foregoing summary of routine upgrading. The CPRS takes a lead role in defining the repair scope and all parties realize that reasonably accurate definitions will be possible only after first making a thorough “Incoming Inspection.” On a written form or document, on both paper and in the computer memory, the owner-customer, manufacturer, pump type, model designation, plant location, service, direction of rotation and other data of interest are logged in, together with operating and performance data. The main effort goes into describing the general condition of a pump, and this effort might be followed by a more detailed description of the work. Either way: it constitutes the condition review. Condition reviews include photos of the as-received equipment and close-up photos of parts and components of special interest. End floats, lifts and other detailed measurements are taken and recorded on a dimensional record both before and after total dismantling. Components are marked or labeled, and hardware is counted and cataloged. 42

Figure 3: Assembly checks (Source: Pacific Wietz, Dortmund, Germany). Bearings, bushings and impellers are removed. Bead blasting, steam or other cleaning methods are listed and a completion date for these preliminary steps is agreed upon. It should be noted that only now would a competent shop consider it time to arrive at the next phase in its repair scope definition. Non-destructive testing (NDT) is the next step and must be used where applicable. A good pump rebuild shop will issue a form that identifies the chosen inspection method, perhaps liquid dye penetrant or magnetic particle methods. While a detailed discussion of NDT inspection is beyond the scope of this article, its importance must be stressed and the CPRS will recognize this need. There also may be a need for electrical runout readings at eddy current probe locations, rotor (shaft) total indicator readings (TIR), individual impeller balance, rotor balance and residual unbalance. Such a form would also list the authority for performing these

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

inspections, acceptance criteria, condemnation limits and other items of interest. Some of the ultimate inspection results would be documented on this form as well; other inspection results would go on separate forms. Recall that the term “form” refers to both paper and computerized formats. It also should be evident that there is a transitioning of documents that define initial work scope, to documents that deal with material certification, documentation of as-achieved (or as built) dimensions, adequacy or fitnessfor-service of auxiliary components or repair quality.

Repair procedures/restoration guidelines

Pump manufacturers usually supply pump maintenance manuals with detailed assembly and disassembly instructions that are either generic or specific to a particular pump style and model. A number of important checks should be performed by the CPRS for

REPA I R A N D MA I NTENA NCE users whose serious goal it is to systematically eradicate failure risk. Both the CPRS and the user have responsibilities in ascertaining that all quality checks are performed with due diligence.

Concentricity and perpendicularity

Experience shows that after years of repairs, many pumps are due for a series of comprehensive dimensional and assembly-related checks. As a minimum, every pump that is labeled a “bad actor” and considered part of the reliability-focused user’s initial pump failure reduction program should be given the checks described in the following material. The verification setup is conveyed in Fig. 3; it originates in decades-old vendor literature. These directives are still quite relevant today. After the various dial indicator checks of Fig. 3 are complete, the dimensional “before vs. after” findings listed in Figure 4 should be recorded in either the (preferred) electronic, or, as a minimum, paper format. Users and shops that do not take time to record these pump repair data will find it very difficult to reach their desired failure reduction objectives. (Note that certain seal-related dimensions may not apply to cartridge seals). In Part II of this article, we hope to explain additional guidelines. These will highlight selection of competent non-OEM pump rebuilders and illustrate the discussion with actual case study accounts. ■ General Bibliography Bloch, Heinz P. ; (2011) “Pump Wisdom—Problem Solving for Operators and Specialists”, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey, ISBN 978-1-118-04123-9 Bloch, Heinz P. and Alan Budris; Pump User’s Handbook: Life Extension, (2013) Fairmont Publishing Company, Lilburn, GA, 4th, Revised Edition, ISBN 0-88173-720-8 Bloch, Heinz P. and Claire Soares; Process Plant Machinery for Chemical Engineers, (1998) ButterworthHeinemann, Woburn, MA. 2nd, Revised Edition, ISBN 0-7506-7081-9 Bloch, Heinz P.; “Twelve Equipment Reliability Enhancements with 10:1 Payback”, Presentation/Paper No. RCM-05-82, NPRA Reliability & Maintenance Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 2005 Bloch, Heinz P.; “High Performance



For aditional details use back page DIMENSION LOCATION



* I.B. refers to the coupling end of the pump shaft ABNORMAL CONDITION/CORRECTIVE ACTION

O.B. Bearing Fit I.B.* Bearing Fit Impeller Fit Coupling Fit Coupling Bore Sleeve Fit O.B. Sleeve Fit I.B. Keyways and Threads Shaft Run Out Shoulder Run Out Sleeve Bore I.B. Sleeve O.B. Sleeve Diameter I.B. Sleeve Diameter O.B IMPELLER DIMENSION LOCATION




Impeller O.D. Impeller I.D. Hub Run Out Wear Ring O.D - I.B Wear Ring O.D - O.B. Balance

Figure 4: Dimensional log (partial example). Polymers as Wear Components in Fluid Machinery,” World Pumps, November, 2005 Bloch, Heinz P. and Fred Geitner; Major Process Equipment Maintenance and Repair, (2006) Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX, 2nd Edition, ISBN 0-88415-663-X

Dufour, John W., and William E. Nelson; Centrifugal Pump Sourcebook, (1993) McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, ISBN 0-07-018033-4

Bloch, Heinz P.; "How to Select a Centrifugal Pump Vendor" Hydrocarbon Processing, June 1978 Bloch, Heinz P.; "How to Buy a Better Pump," Hydrocarbon Processing, January 1982 Bloch, Heinz P.; "Implementing and Practicing Reliability Engineering," ASME Energy Conference, Houston, Texas, January 1996 Bloch, Heinz P., Machinery Reliability Improvement, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston,Texas, 3rd Edition (1998) ISBN 0-88415-661-3 Bloch, Heinz P. and Fred Geitner; Machinery Failure Analysis and Troubleshooting, (2012) Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX, 4th Edition, ISBN 978-0-12-386045-3 pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6



Wear protection of pump components using hard coatings By Hugo Howse, United Surface Technologies

Pump components are subject to wear, corrosion and cavitation damage in service, which reduces pump efficiency and component life and significantly increases the life cycle cost of the pump. All these degradation mechanisms are active on the surfaces of the pump components, and therefore surface coatings could be an effective way of addressing this problem. This article hopes to provide the pump user with some insight into the common commercial coating technologies available. Wear in pumps

Pump components are subject to abrasion, erosion, cavitation and sliding wear in service. Abrasion and erosion results from abrasive particles in the medium being pumped, but even in the absence of any abrasive particles sliding (or galling) wear can occur due to unintentional contact between rotating and stationery components. Moreover these wear rates in pumps are often unexpectedly high because of the synergistic relationship between wear and corrosion; even a mildly corrosive process media can significantly increase wear rates. This is often increased even more by the high flow velocities that can be found in some high-energy pumps. As the pump components in the flow path wear, efficiency critical sealing clearances increase and vane angles change, resulting in a decrease in pump efficiency over time. Abrasion wear is also common in other areas of the pump such as product lubricated bearings and shaft sleeves, often resulting in increased vibration or leakage over time. Wear therefore reduces the service life of the pump and increases the life cycle cost significantly. There are numerous strategies to reduce the impact of wear on pump components such as specialised pump design and the use of sophisticated materials (e.g. high-alloy steels, ceramics, rubbers etc.), but surface coatings are some of the most successful and cost-effective tools for managing wear.

Surface coating technologies

Surface coatings are extensively used to protect pump components from degradation due to wear, corrosion and cavitation. These coatings have traditionally been based on nickel-chrome and cobalt-chrome alloys, but the recent development of ceramic metal 44

composite (CMC) have further improved on the wear resistance of commercially available coating materials. There are several coating technologies that are commonly used for applying coatings to pump components, and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. A basic understanding of the different coating processes will assist the user in selecting the right solution for a specific pump problem. The common surface coating processes are briefly described: Thermal spray

Thermal spray coatings are produced by projecting a molten stream of particles onto the base material. On impact these particles deform and solidify to form splats, and these splats mechanically lock onto the surface. There are numerous ways of generating the stream of molten particles using an electric-arc, plasma or a combustion process. Depending on the process it is possible to produce coatings of pure metals, alloys, ceramics and ceramic metal composites (cermets), and coating thickness generally varies between 0.1 and 2 mm. The adhesion and cohesion of a thermal spray coating is purely mechanical, which has certain advantages and disadvantages. The main advantage is that there is no metallurgical compatibility issue between the substrate and the coating, and it is therefore possible to apply a wide variety of coating materials onto essentially any substrate (e.g. bronze and cast-iron). The heat input into the base materials is also limited, and it is therefore possible to apply a thermal spray coating to a heatsensitive substrate (e.g. heat-treated HSLA steels like 4140 and martensitic stainless steel) with no risk of softening

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

or distortion. The main disadvantage is that the adhesive and cohesive strength of a thermal spray coating is relatively low, making coatings susceptible to damage from high mechanical loads (such as point or impact loads), cyclical loads or thermal stresses. Thermal spray coatings are commonly used for applying tungsten carbide cermet coatings onto impeller and casing wear ring surfaces, impeller inlet and outlet vane tips, anti-galling coatings onto pump shafts (e.g. to assist with assembly and disassembly on stainless steel pump components), carbide and ceramic coatings onto shaft sleeves and for the refurbishment of worn or damaged shafts. There have recently been significant material and process developments, especially the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray process, and it is now possible to produce carbide coatings with exceptional wear (i.e. hardness of >1200 HV0.3) and corrosion ( i.e. ASTM B117 > 400 hours) resistance and high toughness (i.e. tensile adhesion strength ASTM C633 > 80 MPa).

Figure 1: Microstructure of a highquality WC-CoCr HVOF coating Figure 2: HVOF gun in action spraying pump wear rings

C OATI NG S Spray and fuse

The original powder flame spray processes developed towards the middle of the previous century were not able to produce coatings with sufficient density, cohesion and adhesion to make them suitable for use in corrosive or high-wear applications. To overcome these limitations a special range of nickel-chrome and cobalt-chrome alloys were developed which allowed for post-spray densification and fusing of the coating. This was made possible by the addition of alloying elements such as boron, iron and silicon, which significantly reduced the melting point of the coating alloy, making it possible to melt the coating during post-coating processing at temperatures below the melting point of the substrate. The post-coating heat treatment, which involves the heating of the part with a high-energy gas torch to approximately 950°C, results in the densification of the coating and the formation of a metallurgical bond (i.e. fusing) to the substrate. Using this technique it was possible to produce nickelchrome alloys with a hardness of up to 60HRC, but even harder coatings were subsequently developed through the addition of tungsten carbide particles into the coating alloy. The spray and fuse process produces dense corrosion resistant coatings of between 0.5 and 1.5 mm with good wear resistance and damage tolerance. The main disadvantage of spray and fuse coatings is the fact that the coatings hardness and thickness is somewhat limited compared to other competing technologies (e.g. PTA and laser), and

because of the high temperature postcoating processing there is a limitation on suitable substrate materials. This technology has been employed in pump application for many years, and the Colmonoy range of spray-fuse coatings is a well-known brand, particularly in API 610 pumps.

to apply tungsten carbide containing nickel based overlay, although the high melt-pool temperature places limitations on carbide size, volume fraction and binder alloy composition. The major disadvantage of PTA is that it is essentially a welding process with relatively high heat input into the base material compared to thermal spray and laser cladding, resulting in potential distortion issues and the possible need for post-weld heat treatment. Because PTA is a welding process the weldability of the base material also needs to be considered. Figure 4: PTA welding of pump shaft sleeve

Figure 3: Post-spray fusing of large pump sleeve Plasma transferred arc

The plasma transferred arc (PTA) weld hardfacing process was developed to produce high quality weld overlays with relatively low heat input and very low dilution of the substrate into the weld overlay. The PTA process is essentially a hybrid process containing elements of thermal spray (i.e. powder consumable melted in a continuous plasma heat source) and welding (i.e. melting of and the formation of a metallurgical bond with the substrate). The torch manipulation is generally automated and hence can achieve uniform overlays on complex parts. The PTA process is typically used to apply relatively thick (i.e. 2-3 mm) wear and/or corrosion resistant cobalt (Stellite and Triballoy ) and nickel (Inconel 625 ) alloys. Stellite 6 is a well know overlay in the pump and valve industry. It is also possible

Laser cladding

Similar to PTA, laser cladding is a welding process that uses the concentrated light of a laser as the heat source. A powder consumable is melted by the laser in the presence of an inert gas. This consumable is then deposited onto the surface to be treated. The main advantage that laser cladding offers over PTA is that the heat input into the substrate is reduced and so the heat affected zone is smaller and there is even less dilution. There is also generally less distortion, and with laser cladding it is possible to overlay certain problematic steels, notably martensitic stainless steels. Laser cladding however has the disadvantage of significantly higher cost compared to PTA, and in many pump applications there → is no compelling performance

ENGINEERED COATING SOLUTIONS Technologies • Thermal spray coating

• • • •

· High velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) · Plasma · Combustion powder and wire · Arc-spray · Spray and fuse Plasma transferred arc (PTA) overlay & hardfacing Weld overlay & hardfacing Polymer coatings (see Machining and grinding

United Surface Technologies 26-32 Aberdeen Road, Altona, Victoria, 3018

P +61 3 9398 5925 F +61 3 9398 2738

Applications • Repair and refurbishment • Wear protection • Corrosion protection • High temperature oxidation resistance • Traction / high friction • Low friction • Release and cleanability • Electrical insulation


pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6


C OATI NG S Figure 5: Laser cladding of pump shaft (courtesy of Hardchrome Engineering) advantage.

Which is best?

So how do these processes compare, and which material and/or process will be best suited for a specific wear application? This is not always an easy question to answer, and very often there might be more than one “right” answer. It is best to consider this question with reference to two well-known coating types: Stellite 6

This alloy is a well-known cobalt-chrometungsten alloy that combines good corrosion and wear resistance with excellent galling and sliding wear resistance. This coating material can be applied using any of the coating processes previously described, although for a spray and fuse application a modified alloy chemistry is required (generally called SF6, which contains additions of boron, iron and silicon for reasons previously explained). A thermally spayed Stellite 6 will be suitable for low-stress sliding wear applications with low to moderate abrasion or erosion wear, e.g. impeller and casing wear rings in a process medium with relatively low solid particle content. Where high mechanical or thermal stresses, or high wear rates due to high solid particle levels are expected, one of the other techniques will be more appropriate. It is important to note that PTA and laser cladding produces Stellite 6 overlays which are superior to those produced by conventional welding techniques like MMA or TIG. The latter processes are all high-energy arc welding processes that result in a large dynamic weld pool resulting in a significant dilution of especially iron into the Stellite 6 overlay. Once the iron content of the Stellite 6 exceeds approximately 10% there is a substantial decrease in galling resistance and high temperature hardness. These arc-welding processes require the Stellite 6 overlay to be applied in multiple passes to reduce the dilution level, therefore requiring very thick (i.e. 6 mm) overlays. Both PTA and laser can achieve sufficiently low dilution in a single pass weld, thereby reducing the required overlay thickness to approximately 3 mm. Tungsten carbide based coatings

As previously described, CMC materials are made of a mixture of very small 46

Figure 6: Very low dilution typical of PTA Stellite 6 weld overlay (generally < 0.5 mm) wear resistant ceramic particles (typically tungsten carbide) in a ductile metal matrix (typically cobalt or nickel alloys), resulting in a material with the hardness comparable to that of a ceramic but with the ductility approaching that of a metal. The choice of ceramic hard phase and metal binder is largely determined by chemical compatibility (i.e. wetting). Generally the smaller the tungsten carbide particles the higher the binder fraction and therefore the harder the coating, and this is a significant differentiator between the different coating processes. The corrosion resistance of the CMC is primarily determined by the corrosion resistance of the binder alloy, which can vary from pure metals (e.g. cobalt or nickel) with marginal corrosion resistance to complex alloys with excellent corrosion resistance. Thermal spray is the most flexible in terms of binder alloy type, and it is possible to spray a wide variety of different carbide binder phase alloys, such as:

Figure 8: WC-10Co4Cr coating applied with HVOF process phases in the binder alloy and a decrease in the carbide fraction. For this reason a PTA or laser carbide coating will have an average carbide size of approximately 200 µm (or 0.2 mm) and a carbide mass fraction of less than 60%. Furthermore the binder composition is limited to nickelboron-silicon and nickel-chrome-boronsilicon alloys, with generally relatively low chrome content, therefore limiting the use of these coatings in certain corrosive environments. These processes can however produce very thick coatings (i.e. >2 mm) and they will generally be able to withstand high mechanical or thermal stress. For this reason PTA and laser clad carbide coated shaft sleeves are commonly used

• WC-10Co4Cr- Excellent wear and moderate corrosion resistance • WC-10Ni5Cr - Excellent wear and good sea-water resistance • WC-NiCrMo (Hastelloy C binder Excellent wear and sea-water corrosion resistance. With the HVOF process it is possible to spray carbide coatings with very fine carbides (i.e. average carbide size < 3 µm) and high carbide mass fraction of more than 80%. This provides superior wear resistance in the presence of fine abrasives particles. Coating thickness is however limited to approximately 0.5 mm and these coatings are not suitable for applications where the coating will be subject to high mechanical or thermal stresses. HVOF coatings are therefore commonly used in light to medium wear applications and/or where a corrosive medium is present. All the other processes have a limitation on minimum carbide size and carbide fraction because of the high processing temperature and time. Smaller carbide particles will decompose at these higher processing temperatures, resulting in the formation of unwanted hard and brittle

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

Figure 9: WC-NiBFeSi coating applied with PTA welding process in slurry pump applications.


Although this is a brief introduction to coating technologies for protecting pump and valve components in severe service applications, it will hopefully provide the reader with some insights into selecting the right solution for a specific problem. It is clear that the pump user will benefit from developing a relationship with a knowledgeable and reputable coating service provider to assist in ensuring that the optimum coating solution is identified and correctly applied. This can result in a significant extension to the service life of pump components and improve pump efficiency over its service life, resulting in a substantial reduction in the life cycle cost of the pump. ■


Choosing the right valve: matching function and application C by Michelle Goldsmith

hoosing the right valves for your system can be vital to its performance, efficiency and longevity. Different valve types have different functionalities and suit specific applications.

Some of the most important factors that decide a valveâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s suitability for a particular application include how the materials used interact with the particular substance to be conveyed, the amount of substance and the desired flow rate, and the overall mechanical design of the system. Here we will take a closer look at some of the most common valve types and their suitability for particular applications.

Gate valves

Gate valves (also known as sluice valves) are a common type of on/off function

Gate Valves

Photo courtesy of AVK Valves

valve, that allow the flow of fluid through the system to be shut on or off via the use of a sliding part, or gate, that can be moved in or out of the path of the conveyed substance. This is particularly useful for straight-line flows and when you wish to isolate a particular area of a pipeline.

Depending on the materials used in its manufacture, gate valves can be used in applications involving the conveyance of both neutral and corrosive liquids, slurry, fibrous suspensions, neutral or vacuum gases and lubricating powders such as graphite or talcum. â&#x2020;&#x2019;

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9/12/2013 pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

10:50:11 AM47


Ball Check Valve

Photo courtesy of AVK Valves

Butterfly Valve

Photo courtesy of AVK Valves

the straight-through configuration the diaphragm closes over a depressed seat that matches up with the shape of the compressor. This allows for better flow control and facilitates line clearing. However, the larger movement requires a more flexible diaphragm material and can mean that the diaphragm needs to be replaced more often. Gate valve

Check Valve

Photo courtesy of Amiad

Photo courtesy of AVK Valves

In some cases the rectangular or round â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;gateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; can also be used to regulate flow by controlling the extent of the aperture through which the fluid can move, with a fully open gate allowing for maximum flow. However, most gate valves are not designed for this purpose and using them this way is not recommended. If precisely controlling flow rate is your desire there may be other types of valve that better suit your application.

the valve is turned to the off position the plug is rotated so that the passageway is blocked off and flow through the valve is prevented.

Rotary ball valves

Diaphragm valves

Rotary ball valves serve a similar function to gate valves in that they primarily work as on/off valves that either completely restrict or enable the flow of the conveyed substance. These valves utilise a ball like structure containing channels through which fluid may flow. The ball can then be rotated so that entry to the channels no longer matches up with the passage of the fluid, thus restricting flow through the valve. Rotary ball valves may be used for a wide range of applications such as isolating sections of pipelines conveying neutral or corrosive liquids, slurry, and neutral, corrosive or vacuum gases.

Plug valves

Plug valves are another type of on/off valve that make use of a rotating part containing passageways through which fluid may flow when the valve is open. The cylindrical or conically tapered plug in a plug valve contains one or more hollow passageways going sideways through its width. When the handle of 48

Depending on the particular models material make-up, plug valves can be used for a wide variety of applications involving the isolation of sections of pipeline conveying neutral or corrosive fluids, slurry, and neutral or corrosive gases. Diaphragm valves, also known as membrane valves, involve a flexible diaphragm material connected to a compressor, which is moved up and down by the valveâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s stem to open and close the valve. The valve may be used to shut the flow of fluid completely on or off, or to control the rate of flow. It is the diaphragm material and not the operating mechanism of the valve that is exposed to the media within the pipeline. Therefore when the diaphragm is made of compliant materials the valve may be used for hygienic applications such as in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, food and beverages. There are two main configurations for diaphragm valves, the weir configuration and the straight-through configuration. In the weir configuration the valve seals over a raised weir (or saddle) allowing a small diaphragm movement to close the valve, which may reduce wear on the material. However, this configuration does not allow for very precise flow rate control, especially at lower flowrates. In

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

Diaphragm valves composed of suitable materials may be used for on/off and flow control functions in pipelines containing neutral, corrosive or hygienic fluids, slurry, fibrous suspensions, and neutral or corrosive gases.

Butterfly valves

Butterfly valves utilise a disk-shaped closing mechanism positioned in the centre of the pipe and are controlled by a rod passing through the disk which is connected to an actuator on the outside of the valve. Rotating the actuator rotates the disk, which can be turned face-on to the flow to completely block fluid from passing, at various angles to control flowrate, or completely parallel to allow for maximum flow rate. Disk valves are often lightweight and depending on their materials may be used for on/off or control functions in a variety of applications. These include use in systems conveying neutral, corrosive or hygienic fluids, slurry, and neutral, corrosive or vacuum gases.

Globe valves Globe valves are primarily used for modulating flow through a pipe system. Traditionally these valves had a spherical body, lending them their name, although this is no longer always the case. Globe valves consist of a moveable disk shaped plug and a stationary ring seat. The plug is connected to a stem that is controlled on the outside of the valve either manually by a hand wheel or automatically by an actuator. The plug can be screwed into the seat to throttle the flow of fluid through the valve.


Ant-Cavitation Valve Photo courtesy of Singer

Globe valves are mainly used in pipe systems conveying neutral or corrosive fluids or neutral, corrosive or vacuum gases.

Needle valves

Needle valves are primarily used for the precise regulation of flow through systems with low overall flow rates. These valves regulate flow through the use of a small port and a tapered, needle-shaped plunger, which may be gradually retracted from its seat to allow more fluid to pass through the valve by turning the attached screw. As the screw is extremely fine-threaded, it takes many turns to fully retract the plunger allowing for very small flow adjustments. Needle valves may be used in applications involving the control of flow through systems conveying neutral liquids, or neutral or corrosive gases.

Squeeze valves

Squeeze valves are pressure-operated valves that may perform both on/off and flow modulating functions in a range of applications. They involve the use of a tubular cuff element that is squeezed

SRD (Single Rolling Diaphragm) Photo courtesy of Singer

Butterfly valves

Photo courtesy of Amiad

together via mechanical, hydraulic or atmospheric pressure to block the flow of fluid through a system. To open the valve, the pressure is released and the cuff relaxes. Different levels of pressure can close the valve to various degrees to regulate the flow. Squeeze valves composed of compliant materials and with appropriate closing mechanisms are used in systems conveying hygienic fluids, slurry, fibrous suspensions or abrasive or lubricating powder solids.

Pinch valves

Pinch valves perform both on/off and flow regulating functions, often via direct contact to the process tubing of a system. The valve consists of a sleeve or tubing and a body. The sleeve is pinched shut by either mechanical or pressureoperated means preventing flow though the valve. The sleeve may be pinched to varying degrees to modulate flow. Because the conveyed substance is not exposed to the outside

environment or any mechanisms that contain seats or crevices where material may become caught, pinch valves are useful in hygienic applications or those where the conveyed material is a solid. Pinch valves composed of appropriate materials are used in applications involving the conveyance of hygienic fluids, slurry, fibrous suspensions, or abrasive or lubricating powders.

Spiral sock valves

Spiral sock valves are membrane valves that perform on/off and flow control functions in systems conveying powder solids via the twisting of a fabric tube or ‘sock’. The tube can be twisted so that flow is completely inhibited or twisted to various degrees to regulate flow. A completely untwisted tube allows maximum flow through the valve. Spiral sock valves are only appropriate in systems conveying solids and are primarily used for applications involving abrasive or lubricating powders. ■

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Centrifugal pump protection using flow controllers A tamper-resistant method of protecting centrifugal pumps from running off their curve is to place a correctly sized flow controller close to the pump discharge.


common cause of submersible centrifugal pump failure is allowing them to run at below their minimum operating head. This is the same as allowing them to deliver too high a flow rate. For a long trouble-free life, flow rate and head should be maintained within the manufacturers specifications.

The system also has its own characteristic curve, which will be influenced by friction and other mechanical devices such as valves, fittings, orifices & other components. Gate valves and pressure sustaining valves are often used to prevent this, however, their disadvantages include:

A typical pump performance curve is shown below.

• being prone to unauthorized adjustment • can fail due to gate vibrating loose • impose an unnecessarily high headloss at the duty point, reducing pump output and efficiency, and • can require maintenance. Flow control valves can offer protection without these disadvantages.


The benefit of the Maric flow control valve is that it will result in less energy or head loss than the common gate valve, fixed orifice or pressure-sustaining valve. This is because; as the flow rate through the valve reduces below its rated flow, the head loss drops off significantly. In other words, duty flow rate is usually well in from the right hand side of curve. The flow controllers’ orifii actually open up as the pressure differential across it reduces in an attempt to maintain the same flow. With a “fixed orifice” gate valve, head loss at lower flows remains high, and the head loss across a pressure sustaining valve will not change at all, resulting in a significant energy loss at the duty point. This increases pumping costs, and may necessitate

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VA LVES the same elevation as the pump. (Without a flow controller here, pump damage may result, due to lack of head). • Rising water tables; Limiting pump peak flow rate can prevent electric motors from overloading as operating head reduces. increasing the pump size. The Maric valve will impose whatever resistance (head) is required in order to maintain the valves rated flow rate. For example, when flow rate through valve is 70% of its rated flow, the headloss is around 4 metres only. What will be the headloss across the valve in my installation? It depends on the flow rate, i.e, at valves full rated flow, headloss will be between 140 and 1000 kPa*. At a lower flow rate, i.e., duty point, headloss will be less. e.g., 60% of flow = 30 kpa only. (*For standard “Precision” spec 140 – 1000 kPa flow controllers ) Pumps can be damaged on: • Any bore, where people can unwittingly open up the bores’ gate valve in an attempt to increase flow.

Other Applications; •

High draw-down bores, (i.e. a relatively high standing water table at start-up, as compared to a much lower level for the normal operating condition). At start-up, these pumps have little head against them.

• Empty pipe work at start–up (i.e. lack of, or faulty check valve, or where lines on surface drain empty). It takes time to fill pipes sufficiently to obtain the required head. • Over-pumping beyond the refill rate, to point of drawing in air or sand, leading to unstable conditions. • A burst in the pipework may allow uncontrolled flow and upthrust or cavitation. • Pumps with two separate duties; eg ne, a tank elevated 50m up a hill, and the other, to feed a dam at

An existing pump at rivers edge fills tanks with water. The local council mandates that, for the health of the river, property owners must reduce rate of draw. It is stipulated that a non-adjustable flow control device is used.

Key features of Maric Flow Controllers • Tamperproof: Maric valves are nonadjustable, which prevents owners from trying to “get more from their bore”. • Maintenance free, reliable and selfcleaning: As there are no wearing parts, the valves require no maintenance, adjustment or cleaning during their 20+ year life span. ■ See our next issue for Part 2 where we look at a case study on pump protection

Centrifugal Pump Protection Maric valves control flow to a constant pre-set rate regardless of pressure Ideal for:

• Preventing • Preventing • Preventing

Over-Pumping, Up-Thrust Damage & Cavitation Damage

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f: 08 8431 2025


pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6



Proper pump piping procedure – 10 steps By Dr. Lev Nelik, P.E., APICS, Pumping Machinery, LLC

Aligning your pump and piping correctly can have a big impact on the successful operation of the pump.


The delivery of the equipment can either be early or it can be late in arriving at the site. When the equipment is late it is critical to have certified elevation prints of the equipment. The certified prints mean that the isometrics required for the piping takeoffs can be made without impacting the construction schedule. If the equipment is early, it will arrive at the site prior to the construction team needing it for installation. In such cases, early preparations must be made for long term storage. It is customary to use oil mist lubrication to keep the equipment in as-shipped conditions during the storage. The pressurization of the bearing housing and the casing with just 10 to 20 H2O pressure prevents moisture and contaminants from entering the sealed areas and damaging the components. The early delivery of equipment to the site has the advantage of allowing for verification of the actual measurements.

t should be realized that piping issues directly affect the pump’s life and its performance. Bringing the pump to the pipe in one operation and expecting a good pump flange or vessel fit is a very difficult, if not impossible, task. When bringing the pipe to the pump the last spool (suction side and discharge side, each) should always be left until the pump has been levelled in place and rough aligned. Then, the final alignment will be a “free bolt condition”, and, as may come as a surprise to some, no “come-alongs” would be needed. As an ultimate investment in common sense and proper attention to details, - your pumps will last longer, with fewer failures of seals, shafts, bearings and couplings. More equipment uptime, and less lost production, will result in significant savings in dollars, and fewer headaches.

Step 1

This applies only in cases where there is NO thermal growth – otherwise see Step 2 At this point the pipe should be securely anchored just before the last spool, to prevent future growth towards the pumps flanges. The final piping lay out should not be finalized until certified elevation drawings are received from the engineering group or from the pump vendor. Once the final certified prints are received the final isometrics can be completed and the piping takeoff can be completed. 52

Figure 1. Occasional usage of “anchors” (only if there is NO thermal growth (which in practice is very rare) for the pump piping – example would be where a very short run of suction pipe connects a pump to a cold water tank, which keeps the pipe at essentially constant (e.g. ambient) temperature, same as water in the tank. In most cases, however, anchors should not be used (see Step 2 discussion)

∆L /L = α∆T = (6.9 x 10-6 in/in°F)x30°= 0.0002 in/in ∆L = Lα∆T = (2' x 2") x 0.0002 = 0.0005" Stress δ = Σ ( ∆L /L) = (301106) = 6000 psi

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Figure 2. Rough alignment phase (note that the motor and the pump are not coupled yet and the baseplate is still sitting free, not grouted). A. Correct: sliding support does not retrain the piping to slide up/away B. Piping restrained (can not slide up/away), high thermal expansion loads. C. “Anchor” will allow pipe to expand towards/into the pump, causing high axial loading.

Step 2 Once the location of the equipment is set, the baseplate can be put in place, leveled and rough-aligned, with the equipment mounted. Rough alignment of the equipment should be done prior to building the grout forms. To avoid stresses caused by thermal expansion of pipes, expansion loops should be installed in suction and discharge lines. The “sliding” pipe supports near pump suction and discharge are required to eliminate weight loads of piping on the pipe, which can cause excessive loads and misalignment, leading to failures in seals, bearings, couplings and so on. However, “anchors” (three dimensional restraints) should not be used, as these could cause significant stresses and casing distortions due to thermal expansion. Consider, an example (Fig. 2C) of incorrectly placed “anchor” (restraining growth in ALL directions, i.e. not simply a vertical “sliding” support), even 2 feet away from the pump suction, and the case where the pipe expands by only 30 degrees F (morning to afternoon): For the pipe you use, the area of contact between the pump and pipe flanges depends on the size of the pipe. Assume, for example, a 20 in2 contact area (or use your pipe/flange number). The resultant force on the pump will be: F = 6000 x 20 = 120,000 lbs – very high. It will distort the pump casing, feet, shafts, etc., causing problems. If, in addition to that, you are pumping hot product, the piping expansion problem could be so much worse. But even the daily fluctuations of

ambient temperature alone could cause problems, as shown in a sample calculation above. Figure 2 Rough alignment phase (note that the motor and the pump are not coupled yet and the baseplate is still sitting free, not grouted

Step 3 Once you are satisfied with the rough alignment, remove all the equipment (pump, motor gearbox, etc) from the baseplate. Level the baseplate to maximum out of level of 0.025" (0.06 mm) from end to end in two planes.

Figure 3 Baseplate leveling pads and grout location Use machined pads as the base for the leveling instruments. Inspect the foundation for cleanliness, and if not clean, use solvent to remove grease and oil.

Step 4 Allow time for the cleaning substances to evaporate. Form the base using the appropriate techniques to allow for the weight, temperature rise and fluidity of the grout material. Grout the base using epoxy grout. Allow the grout to

Figure 4 Typical anchor bolt and leveling wedges cure, following the grout manufacturer’s recommendations. This normally requires 24 hrs at 80° F (27°C). Remove the forms and clean all sharp residue and edges from the foundation.

Step 5 The rough alignment step, which we mentioned above, is critical to minimize the changes that will be required to appropriately fit the piping to the pump.

Figure 5 Potential bolt-bound situation due to tight clearances between bolt, feet and base At the last stage, when the final spools are installed, the final alignment will be achieved with small adjustments. This will minimize the adjustments required on the motor feet/bolts. Unfortunately (motor manufacturer’s take heed!), motor hold-down bolts are often too tight and allow only for small adjustments to the motor before becoming bolt bound. Motor manufacturers could improve this situation significantly if → motor feet were slotted, by design,

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PIPES AND PI PI NG quick analysis of the failed parts can clearly show the evidence of piping misalignment. To make a final confirmation of the symptoms, unbolt the piping while measuring the movement in the vertical and horizontal plan. Again, the piping that moves more than 0.002" (0.005 mm) must be modified to correct the situation.

rather than drilled for bolts. Figure 5 shows the tightness of space available to insert the foot hold-down bolt. This illustrates once again why good alignment at step 3 can save time and the cost of having to alter motor feet (a nightmare) by slotting or reaming.

Step 6

Reinstall the pump and the motor on the baseplate. Rough align the equipment again, using reverse indicator or laser alignment or similar accurate techniques. It should now be easy to fine-tune the motor movement within the allowable alignment target without becoming bolt bound. This is possible because of the rough alignment during the prior step (Step 4) was completed. Note: Never install shims under the pump feet. If the shims are lost or misplaced then alteration to the piping may be required to get the pump within the required alignment specification. The normal procedure is to place 0.125" (3.2 mm) thick shims under the motor feet. This allows for adjustments that will be required during final alignment.

Figure 6 Rough alignment after grouting

Step 10 Place an indicator in horizontal and vertical planes, using the motor and pump coupling. Figure 8 Final piping As a final alignment step, bring the piping to the equipment, take final measurements and tack weld the spools in place. At this time the spools can be removed and taken back to the hot work permit area to finalize the weld. Leave a square and parallel gap between the flange faces. The gap should be wide enough to accommodate the size of the gasket required, plus 1/16 - 1/8”, depending on piping sizing. (This is the only distance over which the piping will be pulled. However, because it is properly anchored before the spool pieces, this length is short, and stresses are minimized). Final align the equipment, taking into account hot and cold operating conditions, using two indicators on the pump shaft coupling area.

Step 9

Step 7

Make up the final spool pieces for the suction and discharge spaces. Bring the piping to the pump now.

As the piping is tightened into place, the shaft shall not be moved more than 0.002" (0.005 mm), otherwise modify the spool pieces until the piping misalignment is fixed.

Uncouple the pump and motor, while watching the indicator movement. Start unbolting the flanges, and continue watching for movement in the indicators. If the needle jumps over 0.002" (0.005 mm) the piping has to be modified to improve the pump’s performance. ■ References 1. Pump Standards, Hydraulic Institute publication, ANSI/HI 1.1 1.5 1994, Parsippany, NJ, 1994 2. API 610 Standard for centrifugal pumps, 8th Edition, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC, August, 1995 3. API 676 Standard for rotary pumps, 2nd Edition, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC, December, 1994 4. Equipment Testing Procedure for Centrifugal Pumps (Newtonian liquids), 2nd Edition, AlChE, New York, 1984 5. AlChE Equipment Testing Procedure for Rotary positive displacement pumps (Newtonian liquids), Second printing, New York, 1968 6. Nelik L., "Centrifugal and Rotary Pumps: Fundamentals with Applications", CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, March, 1999 7. AlChE Equipment Testing Procedure, 1999, New York, NY

Figure 7 Illustration of the final connection of the suction piping.

Figure 9 Overhead view of the motor and pump

8. L. Rizo, L. Nelik, “Piping-to-Pump Alignment”, Pumps & Systems, April 1999

Step 8

Warning! –if the “anchor” is placed erroneously - it will restrain the pipe thermally moving away from the pump free: the pipe will expand from the anchor into the pump! (see step 2).

Several clues are common indicators of piping misalignment. These clues come via the way of mechanical seal and or bearings running hot, and failures. A For an online archive of other useful pump articles, please see


pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6


Flooding the forest The Murray-Darling Basin Authority has brought together local companies to save the Hattah Kulkyne National Park. The area relies on natural flooding to keep the river system healthy. When dry conditions persisted the MDBA used Australian pumps to artificially raise water levels - creating the ideal conditions for the river to flourish.


he demands of the task required Tocumwal-based Batescrew Pumps & Valves Australia to use seven pumps, each 32 metres long, capable of churning 1600 litres of water per second. Their combined power can shift 1050 mega litres every day into the creek-lake system, simulating the natural, cyclical flooding that sustains the ecosystem. For such a demanding task model 24/30, 2-stage Axial flow and driven pumps were selected for the job. With 300kw variable speed electric motors and a 745 rpm capability the pumps peaked at a 85% efficiency. →

BATESCREW PUMPS & VALVES All Australian Company Manufacturing Axial Flow and Mixed Flow Pumps World Leaders in Angle Application, Line shaft driven, Long Life, High Pressure Pumps



Proudly Manufacturing in Tocumwal Australia Since 1951

Ph: (03) 5874 2101 email:

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6



The pumps are automatic and capable of variable rates of water flow. This is controlled from the G. M. Water Flow Office in Mildura. The motors are set above FLOOD water level and connect to the impellers at the bottom. This means that the pump can work when the river is at any level. Once the motors are on the pumps can supply water straight away without any priming. The 77 tonnes of pump machinery is supported by 56 300-350mm diameter steel piles, installed by Hunter Piling, Newcastle. An additional row of piles surround the pumps to protect the assett from any trees or houseboats. The pumps were designed, manufactured, and tested in Tocumwal, NSW and

the castings for the impeller assembly took place in Melbourne. The junction of the Chalker Creek and the Murray River was the spot chosen for the project. This allows for the water to be pumped from the Murray River, through concrete lined discharge steel pipes into a junction box, where it is then diverted into a 2100mm diameter pipe that feeds it the last 300m to the Chalker Creek. Flood gates manufactured by AWMA Cohuna ensures that no water ends up flowing back into the Murray. The “Electricals” were designed and installed by Ladd Electrical of Melbourne. The solar panels provide power to the SCADA system and essential controls. Inside the shed the electric starters,

dynamic filters, variable speed drives, SCADA system Human Machine Interface (HMI) and electric urn are stored. Principal Contractor Comdain Infrastructure managed the overall project including Occupational Health and Safety Concerns. Logistical challenges came to light during the installation process because the building site was in a remote forest area. Changing weather conditions meant that over the six months of construction, semi trailers of supplies had to be dragged through swampy bog or over cracked, dry ground in 46 degree heat. To protect surrounding trees and grassland, extra expense and planning went towards minimising the harmful

Extensive professional pump industry knowledge attained through years of hands on experience •

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Guide Rail Systems

In-House CAD design

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pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

PROJ ECT S environmental impact of the project. Rather than felling trees and powering the pump station with overhead wires, 5.2km of underground HV cable carrying 2100kw was laid down. An expensive way to wire a pump, but one that saved 26 hectares of native forest. The construction required the use of two 100-tonne cranes supplied by Sunraysia Crane & Rigging. The steel work was completed by Sunstone Industries while GHD Melbourne Office did the design and modelling work. In total the project saw to the completion of three major structures including diversion gates further down river at the forest’s edge. These should maximise the impact of the project by increasing water supply to the river lakes over a greater area. Access to the area was denied to the public during major construction , but the track had to remain open to fire authorities. The Murray-Darling Basin Authority expects this solution will have long-term positive effects on the ecological health of the river catchment, the beauty of which can now continued to be enjoyed for years to come.


more natural and healthy pattern of flooding to the lakes. "The beautiful Hattah Lakes system needs both wet and dry periods to be healthy, but river regulation and a changing climate have reduced the frequency and extent of natural floods and the environment has suffered as a result,” Mallee Catchment Management Authority (CMA) Board Chairperson Sharyon Peart explained. “By constructing these works, it is now possible to top up natural floods to increase water levels in the lakes system or, when river flows are not able to naturally reach the lakes, water can be pumped into the system to maintain watering regimes.” The Hattah Lakes system is part of the 48,000 hectare Hattah-Kulkyne National Park, 60 kilometres south of Mildura. The 18 kilometre Chalka Creek connects the lake system to the Murray River, with the lakes supporting populations of River Red Gums and Black Box communities, as well as many threatened and rare native plants and animal species. These works will deliver water to the twelve lakes that are Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar convention.

After years of drought one of Australia’s largest environmental works projects was initiated to secure a sustainable future for this iconic system of freshwater lakes with the use of pump technology.

The Mallee CMA coordinated the environmental works construction project, on behalf of the Murray Darling Basin Authority and the Victorian Department of Environment and Primary Industries, and in partnership with Parks Victoria.

The package of works included the construction of a permanent pump station, regulators and environmental levees, which will be used to return a

Funding was provided through The Living Murray program, which is a joint initiative funded by the New South Wales, Victorian, South Australian,

Australian Capital Territory and the Commonwealth Governments, coordinated by the Murray–Darling Basin Authority. Construction works were undertaken by Goulburn-Murray Water. The works will deliver water and achieve environmental benefits that would be normally require a natural flood with river flows of nearly 100,000 megalitres a day over a number of months. The works will make it possible to achieve the environmental outcomes of a natural flood while the river is operating at normal flow levels (approx 5 to 10,000 ML/Day), without any impact on other river users. Environmental water to be delivered to the lakes will come from a number of sources, including The Living Murray, the Commonwealth Environmental Water Holder and the Victorian Environmental Water Holder. “Using environmental water effectively and efficiently has always been the top priority at Hattah Lakes,” Ms Peart said. "The Hattah Project is a good example of how environmental works and measures can offer a more accessible and effective way to deliver Basin Plan environmental outcomes in wetlands and floodplains along the Murray. “Using water more efficiently means environmental outcomes can be achieved without further significant economic impact on Basin communities." Future watering events at Hattah Lakes will be informed by water availability and ecological requirements. ■

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A quick fix for a slithery pumping problem On the 25th of September, two reps from Crusader Hose who were travelling through Ayr in Northern Queensland,received an unexpected call from a customer. The customer, Carl List from Ayr Boring Co, told them that he had a problem with a pumping system. He suspected that the Flexibore riser pipe was leaking as the flow rate from the submersible pump had suddenly halved from 50 litres per second down to 25.


etermined to work out why the flow had decreased, Crusader Hose sales representative, Geoff Nathan, arranged with Carl to retrieve the malfunctioning pump the next day and check the condition of the riser pipe. Carl turned up at the farm with his rig early the next morning and set about his task. Within fifteen minutes he retrieved the submersible pump, which had been hanging at approximately 25m deep in the bore. The moment the pump surfaced, the cause of the malfunction became clear to all. A yellow bellied black snake had somehow made its way down the pipe and through the pump where it had met its grisly end. The reptile had


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PROJ ECT S ended up wrapped around the motor shaft of the pump causing the obstruction that had restricted the its flow. Using a pair of long pliers, Geoff untangled the unfortunate snake from the motor. The pump was then easily reinstalled on the Flexibore system and was soon back in working order. Within an hour of Geoff’s arrival, the pump was back to its designed flow rate of 50 litres per second and the Ayr’s local birds of prey were provided with a tasty lunch courtesy of Crusader Hose and an over-adventurous snake. Although the problem was not what either Crusader Hose rep or customer was expecting, the visit was a success for all involved. Except perhaps the

black snake, who would probably have been better off contacting Crusader customer service if he was so interested in Flexibore.

About Crusader Hose

Crusader Hose is an Australian layflat hose manufacturer with over 24 years industry experience who specialises in supplying premium quality layflat hose for the fire-fighting, mining, irrigation, agriculture, fuel transfer and utility sectors in Australia and globally. Their products include Flexibore which has revolutionised the submersible pump market. Apart from the fact that there is never any iron bacteria build-up inside, it is also very easy to install and retrieve.

Crusader Hose has developed an outstanding reputation for quality products as well as excellent and responsive customer service. Whether they are installing a new hose or removing a snake from a pump, no job is too big, too small or too tricky and getting on the road to deal directly with pump resellers has always been a key part of Crusader Hose's strategy. ■ More information on Crusader Hose can be found on the Crusader Hose website:


About Ayr Ayr is a rural town on the Lower Burdekin River delta, 70 km south-east of central Townsville. Established in 1882, Ayr is home to around 8400 people and is located within the Burdekin Shire, the region which produces the most sugar cane per square kilometre in Australia. Much of the water used for irrigation is drawn from underground water supplies or from the nearby Burdekin Dam.


22 Industry Place Bayswater VIC 3153 Australia Phone: +61 3 9720 1100 Email:

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Sewage pumping stations â&#x20AC;&#x201C; current design practice Part 2 By Milan Rubcic, Principal Engineer â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Infrastructure Delivery, Sydney Water

In part one of this article (see November, 2013 edition) we looked at some of the current design practices in sewer pumping stations. This edition we take a closer look at submersible pump stations and drives.


typical submersible sewage pumping station consists of a wet well, valve chamber, inlet maintenance hole, electrical kiosk or switchroom and supporting systems. The wet well is a circular or sometimes rectangular inground reinforced concrete structure that accommodates pumps, discharge pipes, incoming sewer line with isolating valve and level sensing equipment. The wet well floor is benched to provide adequate hydraulic flow to the pumps and achieve self-cleansing. Its control volume between pump cut-in and cut-out levels should be sufficient to limit the number of pump starts per hour to no more than that recommended by the manufacturer. Wet well roof provides suitably sized openings for pumps, level sensors and personnel access. All the openings are fitted with water and gas tight covers with safety grilles underneath. A typical submersible pumping unit consists of a single stage centrifugal pump driven by an electric motor via a common rotor/impeller shaft, forming a compact and completely watertight 60

vertical pumping unit. The motor is cooled by the pumped liquid so that no external cooling is required. The pumping units are supplied with a discharge connection (also known as duck-foot bend, discharge pedestal or discharge bend), lifting chains, guide rails, electrical power and control cables. The lifting chain and guide rails are of a suitable length to reach the access opening at the top of the wet well. The guide rail arrangement permits easy lowering and lifting of the submersible pumps in the vertical plane. When lowered down the guide rails the discharge end of the pump automatically connects to the discharge bend installed at the wet well floor. The weight of the pump facilitates a watertight seal between the two. The pumps can be fitted with an automatic flush valve for flushing of the wet well. The valve opens at each pump start for approximately thirty seconds to stir up the sludge settled in the well. Preferably, the valve opening / closing operation shall be induced hydraulically by the pump flow and pressure, thus eliminating

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

the need for electrical components and cables. Submersible sewage pumps are today available up to and above 600kW. There are a number of suppliers in Australia, but for the purpose of standardisation of spare parts and maintenance procedures, most water authorities have a single or dual supplier policy. SPS discharge valves are usually installed within an inground valve chamber. These include pump non-return and stop valves, pressure main stop and scour valves and bypass connection stop and non-return valves. In Sydney Water submersible SPSs, the chamber has open grid type cover with hinged access hatches and access through the cover to all stop valve spindles to reduce the need to access the valve chamber. Permanent ladders are provided for personnel access into the chamber when required. Non-return valves suitable for unscreened raw sewage applications include long body swing check and ball check type valves. Either resilient seated or metal seated gate valves or eccentric plug valves can be used for flow isolation.

DESI GN A N D ENGI N EERI NG Inlet maintenance hole collects all the sewage from the upstream catchment. It is usually co-sited and positioned close to the wet well and connected to it via low and high level drain pipes. It is sized to enable personnel access and accommodate level sensing equipment, isolating flange to the high level drain pipe, and an emergency bypass pump to enable pumping into the pressure main when the wet well is isolated for maintenance or in case of SPS failure. It is usually connected to an emergency relief structure (gas check maintenance hole) to provide controlled sewage overflow in case of excessive inflow or failure. The inlet maintenance hole can also be designed to collect grit to protect pumps and pressure main. All the electrical and control equipment is usually installed within an outdoor electrical kiosk positioned next to the wet well. Motors larger than 5.5 kW usually use assisted start i.e. soft starters or in special cases variable speed drives (VSD), while up to 5.5 kW direct-on-line (DOL) starters are adequate. Motors and starters shall be matched to obtain the required torque to run the pump under all operating conditions and provide adequate margin over the maximum power required at the pump shaft (usually 15%). They should ensure correct starting and running sequences and provide adequate protection for the motor under its starting and operating conditions. The types of starters selected for motors shall be determined by the rating of the motor and its starting currents. Starting characteristics of the motors, including maximum starting currents, shall comply with power supply authority’s requirements The use of variable speed drives in sewage pumping stations is limited to situations where hydraulic control is required (e.g. pumping directly to sewage treatment plants), where their application significantly improves the cost of pumping, where they can assist with water hammer attenuation during normal operation, or where the pumping station needs to cope with a wide range of flows and heads (e.g. staged development). VSDs above 22kW and very large motor starters usually require additional cooling or are physically too big for an outdoor kiosk and are installed in well ventilated and/or air conditioned switchrooms. SPS supporting systems may include ventilation, water supply, telecommunication, power supply, site security and

Small SPS in low density residential area.

New development submersible SPS with electrical kiosk and chemical dosing unit.

Medium size submersible SPS in flood prone rural environment with electrical kiosk elevated above flood level. access, odour control, chemical dosing, emergency storage structure etc. Pumping stations wet well and inlet maintenance hole are usually fitted with natural ventilation system, comprising of low level induct and high level educt vent shafts. Where odour is found to be a problem, a forced ventilation or even an activated carbon odour control unit may be considered Water supply is provided for wet well, emergency storage structure and inlet maintenance hole wash down and general cleaning around the site. Hydrant and a vandal proof tap are usually considered adequate. A reduced pressure zone device must be provided in the water service to prevent contamination of the water supply system. Telecommunication system facilitates remote monitoring and control (SCADA or IICATS) of the asset. Where sewage septicity is a problem, chemical dosing may need to be provided to reduce corrosion and odour downstream of the SPS pressure main discharge point. Chemical dosing is often required in new catchments where due to low inflows during early development stages sewage detention times in the wet well and pressure main are excessively long.

Wet well, valve chamber, inlet maintenance hole hatches and electrical kiosk doors are locked to prevent unauthorised entry and vandalism. Additional site security measures, such as perimeter fencing, motion / entry sensors etc. may also be provided. The type of fencing (eg. chain link, palisade, cattle) depends on the asset location, visual appearance, community consultation and vandalism experienced in the area. SPS located within public parks are usually adequately landscaped and screened instead of fencing for aesthetic reasons. Emergency storage structures are usually provided to prevent dry weather overflows in case of pumping station failure. The storage structure is sized such that in conjunction with the upstream reticulation system, wet well and the inlet maintenance hole it can contain the maximum sewage flow into the station in dry weather for the total time it takes from the high level alarm to when the contingency plan is implemented. For most Sydney Water SPSs this time is 4 hours, although more than 6 hours may be required for remote or difficult to access SPSs. This emergency storage is usually considered in wet weather as a balance storage to ‘shave off’ the peak inflows and thus reduce the pumping capacity. ■

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Ken Kugler

Ken Kugler began on the shop floor with Ajax and enjoyed a career that took him through production planning and scheduling, technical sales, marketing and eventually managing an engineering department. He officially retired in 2007, but remains heavily involved with the PIA, currently serving as the PIA’s Executive Officer for Standards as well being a life member. Recently, with the PIA he has been instrumental in the review of the Fire Pump standard AS2941, which encompasses not only pumps but their electric, diesel drivers, controls and testing and is expected to be finalised soon. We caught up with Ken and asked him where it all began. Due to the fact that both my parents had passed away before I completed secondary school I had taken on a McPherson’s engineering cadetship that consisted of a Fitting & Machining apprenticeship and, as was the norm back then, one day a week schooling, another half day and as much night school as one could cope with to study Engineering. If I kept my nose to the wheel I could complete it all in nine years! McPhersons offered me a choice to work in one of three factories manufacturing either machine tools, bolts or pumps. I chose to work at Ajax Pumps 62

Works simply because it was closest to my home. It was Monday 22nd January 1962 when I first entered the pump factory at Tottenham. Fresh from High School I had never been in a machine shop let alone had seen a machine tool. The foreman’s language was pretty colourful and the leading hand took me to a lathe, showed me how it worked and left me to part off pieces of steel tube. At lunch time on that first day I asked Johnny how long he had worked at Ajax. He replied “nine years” and I thought “He’s pretty stupid, how could anybody work at the

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same place for nine years!” The first three years were spent entirely on the machine and assembly shop floors. The tool handling skills I learnt during those years are something I truly appreciate. In fact it enabled me to keep my first car on the road – an MG-TC. “Foreigners” such as machining kingpin bushes was pretty regular. I treasure my apprenticeship papers as much as my eventual membership of the Institute of Engineers. During late 1964 I became aware that Swinburne was running a “sandwich

PI O N EERS course” in Production Engineering. Not strictly the field of engineering that particularly interested me but it consisted of six months full time study on half pay followed by six months work on full pay. A diploma was now in sight! My life really changed direction - new friends and a little cash to enjoy life! It was during these years that I could afford to take up Gliding, something I had dreamt of doing since a child. Unfortunately at that time my stepmother also was diagnosed with cancer and died during my first year at Swinburne. Work and study then took a very much back seat as I spent the rest of the sixties flying, snorkelling, shooting, skiing, bushwalking, a bit of sailing and forever fixing the VW or later the MGA. Frankly, although I worked in a pump factory I only thought of a pump as just something assembled from the parts we manufactured. In 1969, I met and married my “current” wife and without realising it my working life had some meaning. Getting married and having a family within a short period meant I needed to work for more than just my indulgences. Because I had commenced my engineering cadetship with Ajax Pumps McPherson’s insisted that I return to the pump works. (I’d spent some time at the McPherson’s Research department that was attached to their Machine Tools Factory manufacturing “Macson” lathes.) In those days in the Production Engineering department we scheduled and planned the manufacture of thousands of pumps and parts. Scheduling and planning was all manual, and calculations were performed by a woman operating the comptometer – we did not even have a calculator in those days. As Ajax had their own foundry in Kyneton we had to endeavour to control our production in line with a foundry only interested in casting tons of metal rather than that necessary part. After about a year I accepted a role with the “Sales” Department. (Now that slide rule I had used at college had a very simple commercial use. It’s still the quickest instrument to resolve affinity law calculations.) The Sales department of the Ajax Pump Works sold their pumps to the McPherson’s Ltd retail sales departments in all States. The “Works” sold only bare shaft pumps, mainly cast iron centrifugal, piston and gear pumps. The factory had little understanding of what product the McPherson’s sales outlet’s actually sold. The McPherson’s sales outlet was

Ken, pictured here in 1967, spent much of his spare time flying. a combination of an irrigation specialist and industrial pump and accessories sales outlet. Within a year or so, a structural change within McPherson’s brought all the pump operations, that is foundry, manufacturing and sales under the one division. This was also about the time I became technically involved with other pump types beginning with vertical turbine pumps ex Peerless. Then came electric motors imported from East Germany, multistage pumps and helical rotor from West Germany and finally Archimedean screw pumps ex Germany, a pump which still today intrigues me. I stayed with the same company for my working life, however, the company has changed many times and the MD’s under which I worked are quite numerous. In fact at least thirteen and with each one there came a change in direction and philosophy. From my point of view, some were good and some very bad for the company. The greatest variation from industrial pumps occurred for me personally in the early eighties when McPherson’s merged Ajax Pumps together with Davey Pumps into an organisation known as

Ajax Davey Pumps P/L. McPherson’s had purchased Davey Pumps and the domestic pump business was extremely successful. Management of the company was at South Melbourne and the Ajax and Davey plants remained at Tottenham and Huntingdale. I learnt that the difference between the product management of an industrial pump to a domestic pump is huge. Grundfos and Lowara all stainless steel pumps were entering the market. Davey were very interested in manufacturing a stainless steel pump but had no knowhow. Kelly and Lewis, the Lowara agent at the time relinquished the agency and Ajax Davey picked it up. This gave Davey an immediate product to compete directly with Grundfos. I was offered and took on the role of Lowara Product Manager. It was in this role with Davey that I became familiar with the marketing of pumps and market segments.

What do you like about the pump industry?

Pumps come in all configurations and sizes from our beating hearts to giant mega powered water supply pumps. In one way or another I’ve managed →

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6


PIO N EERS to be involved in pump products with drivers from fractional to mega kilowatts. Our customers, especially the consulting engineers often believe they know much more about pumps and systems than the pump vendors –but they rarely do and it’s nice to put them on the right track. The industry has also allowed me to experience a large business from many points of view. Through my working life I’ve worked on the shop floor machining and fitting pump parts, production planning and scheduling, technical sales, marketing, managing an engineering department and product management of numerous pump types. However, it is the variations of fire protection pumps together with their hydraulic systems, electric and diesel drivers and control systems that has keep my interest these last twenty odd years.

How has the industry changed during your time in it?

In my time in the industry it has changed from being a manufacturing industry to just another import/sales industry with minimum local manufactured product. I also have been complicit in this change as for many years I was product managing pump products from Europe, Japan, the US and had involvement with pumps from China. In the sixties and seventies the Chinese onslaught had not begun. Ajax designed and manufactured the first back pull out range of centrifugal pumps in Australia. The design was to the draft DIN pump standard and unfortunately the final published DIN standard had changes to the bearing and shaft dimensions. I’ve witnessed the slow strangulation of the locally owned Ajax Pumps with the ability to provide hydraulic design and manufacture into what is now an overseas owned importer of pumps. Substantial local pump engineering expertise has virtually disappeared with the majority of pump outlets now at the mercy of their offshore providers. The large companies with numerous overseas agencies have shrunk and smaller flexible organisations have taken up these products.

What is your most memorable moment from your career?

In 1979 KSB in Germany were looking for a new Australian agent. Ajax was importing an excellent range of German multistage and helical rotor pumps but needed a horizontal split case range to compete against local manufacturers. 64

Ajax pumps on the delivery truck in 1965. A proposal was agreed by the Ajax and KSB management at the time and I travelled to the KSB German factories for four weeks of training. On arriving back in Melbourne I reported that whilst most KSB prices and products were excellent we should not become their Australian agent. We already had competitive products from other offshore suppliers and, at the time, the very long KSB production lead times ex works plus shipping to Australia was far from competitive against the Aussie manufacturers such as Thompsons and Kelly and Lewis. Ajax Management agreed with me and we believe we were the first company ever to refuse an agency agreement with the mighty KSB organisation and they were quite stunned. KSB eventually had their revenge when in the early nineties they purchased 100% of Ajax Pumps and I spent my final working year for KSB Australia P/L who had by then dropped the Ajax from their Australian named company.

Did you have a mentor at any time in the industry? A Bulgarian by the name of Bob Bobeff was my mentor. (I realise now in writing this that he was probably my life coach in my early working life. I have him to thank for pushing me to complete a tertiary education.) Others I admired and learnt from were; • Doug Holt – Ajax Pump Works General Manager and one of the original APMA founders;

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

• Graham Denton, Davey Pumps for high-lighting that a production run of pumps was by the many thousands – not the twenty or fifty that I previously had considered a good batch quantity; • Ian Beynon – the importance of the marketing products - “Find me a product that we can market easily and we’ll find any number of manufacturers willing make it”. • Rob Campbell and Keith Sanders have also given me wisdom and insight in various ways.

Tell me about some of the other personalities in the industry that you have worked with?

I consider I have worked with the greatest pump Salesman of his era – an Indian named David Johnstone. David had friends - not customers - and he worked day and night for their business. He fought management to ensure Ajax would meet the spec and that his clients received their products on time. Being a salesman, management was always advising his quoted price was too high. To understand who David was I need to relate this brief experience. When KSB brought into Ajax Pumps, the new organization of KSB Ajax P/L hired a marketing research company to carry out some research. The report came back indicating that only a handful of respondents knew of KSB yet almost one hundred percent named David Johnstone as a pump sales engineer who they would contact to help them if they needed a pump.

PI O N EERS What are the most significant developments you have witnessed in the industry? When I started on the machine shop floor we were manufacturing and exporting pumps up to 150 discharge to Canada, New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong and most other Asian countries. Today of course this is a rare event. In my perspective the industry today comprises a large number of small companies selling product manufactured outside Australia. Very few pumps are now manufactured entirely in Australia. Even large European and American companies now source componentry for their pumps from places like China and India. The large international companies year by year become larger as they swallow up their competitors and in doing so force market changes that I sometimes think are detrimental.

1200kW diesel fire water pump for BP Vietnam.

Whilst many purchasers of pumps buy for the long term there is still a market for the cheapest possible product at the expense of long term viability – I find this disappointing.

What does the future hold for pumps?

We will always need pumps, simply because no liquid will move uphill without one. Pumps tend to be low cost items and efficiency gains over the recent years are now only marginal. Packaging of the pump with its driver and control system to provide optimum overall performance is now a common goal. But no matter how they are packaged, manufactured or sold I cannot visualize a world without pumps. Australia has already suffered the major loss of pump manufacturers and I believe the industry will remain similar in the future as it is today.

What advice would you give young people in the pump industry? A pump system from the outside appears to many people as a simple mechanical/hydraulic piece of equipment without challenges. This is rarely true and the current overall engineering expertise in pumps is poor. We have all met the consulting engineer who believes he knows better than the pump supplier involved in the business for many years.

The industry still offers young people opportunities in all business aspects and in my view it is a people business. Whilst some pump products may sell via

The Ajax pumps machine shop in May 1965. the internet this is only the lower end of the market. Face to face in some manner is still as necessary today as it was many years ago.

What do you like to do in your spare time?

An interesting question! What is spare time to a retiree? I’m not sure I have any. Apart from the PIA and other pump company projects, I work as required as the handyman/engineering inspector at a Primary school where my daughter is the Assistant Principal. Travelling wise, we have a caravan, not new because even after a few years we

are still unsure whether we really like caravanning. But we do like travelling throughout Australia, meeting the interesting people from all walks of life on the track and I’m sure we will continue. A couple of overseas trips are planned for the next couple of years but selfishly after quite of few international trips in my working life I’m not all that keen. We also have “Free Spirit” our Sonata 26 trailer-sailer in which we endeavour to spend a couple of weeks each year on the Gippsland Lakes. When time allows I race with the GTYC on Corio Bay. And, being a handyman I can spend hours fixing something on the yacht! ■

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6



A new lease on life for historic steam-powered pumping engines by Michelle Goldsmith


isitors to the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales have the perfect opportunity for an interesting pump-related daytrip; a visit to the Goulburn Historic Waterworks to see the 1883 Appleby beam engine. The engine, which passed its 130th birthday in 2013, is in full working order and is demonstrated around six times per year for a public audience. This makes Waterworks the only complete, operational, steam powered municipal water supply, left in its original location, in the Southern Hemisphere.

About the Appleby Beam Engine

Beam engines such as the Appleby model were named after the large overhead rocking beam used to transmit motion from the pistons to the cranks. The Appleby beam engine is a six pillar compound condensing engine based on the design of Arthur Woolf, who took out a patent in 1804 on compound engines after improving on the previous designs of Johnathan Hornblower from 1781. In 1883 the NSW Public Works Department had four beam engines installed in “the colony” to supply municipal water. They were located in Goulburn, Bathurst, Wagga Wagga and Albury. Each was supplied by Appleby Bros of London and varied only in the dimensions of the pumps. Although the Goulburn beam engine was considered to be only of moderate size compared to other beam engines of the era, it embodies the height of steam-powered ingenuity. Its beam measures over six metres long, and is composed of wrought iron plates with steel gudgeons. Its flywheel is 17 feet (around 5.2 metres) in diameter. Minimal wood was used in its construction due to fears of termite damage. The beam engine used two single stage pumps of the ‘ram and bucket type’ and operated over a pump well of around 12.8 metres in depth. When fully operational the beam engine generated a steam pressure of 60psi and operated at 20 strokes per minute, delivering 120 horse power. It was capable of pumping 30,000 imperial gallons of water per hour (130,000 litres). The engine operated for 32 years until 1918, with the introduction of electricity to pump water and sat abandoned until it was restored by Sydney engineer Bruce MacDonald and his family in 1958.

This engine was manufactured in Bolton, UK, by Hick, Hargreaves & Co and is the oldest of only three left in the world. The single cylinder horizontal engine measures 9 metres in length and weighs 17 tons with the flywheel being 4 metres in diameter. The engine came to Australia in 1867 and was used to pump water at Bell's Creek gold mine near Araluan, NSW. When this venture was abandoned around 1896, the engine was relocated to Botany, near Sydney where it was used at the Wright and Bruce until 1961. The engine eventually made its way to the Goulburn Steam Museum (precursor to the Waterworks Museum) in 1970. It was during this period that a grant was made available under the Regional Employment Development Scheme (1975) for the installation and restoration of the Hick in the annexe of the pumphouse. Both engines are available to view by the public at the Historic Waterworks and are regularly demonstrated. The next confirmed steaming dates for the engines are: • Sunday, 9 February 2014 – 'Australian Blues Music Festival' • Sunday, 9 March 2014 – 'Goulburn Heritage & Roses Festival' • 8 June 2014 – Queens Birthday long weekend • 26 October 2014 – 'Waterweek' activities

The Goulburn beam engine is the only Appleby Bros Beam Engine left in existence.

Please note however that these dates are subject to circumstances (such as days of total fire ban). ■

The Hick, Hargreaves Corliss Valve Steam Engine

For steaming date updates or more information on the engines and other attractions at the Goulburn Historic Waterworks please visit

The Waterworks also house the Hick, Hargreaves Corliss valve steam engine, although Goulburn was not the site of its original operation. 66

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6


Cavitation – the noisy automatic control valve destroyer By Johan Cilliers, Valve Product Manager, Amiad Water Systems.

Cavitation may be foremost in the minds of any pump system designer, and careful thought may be taken to avoid cavitation and the resulting damage tothe pump(s). However, it is often overlooked or ignored when selecting automatic control valves and their location on the same pipework system.


hen a pressure reducing valve automatically reduces a higher inlet pressure to a lower outlet pressure, the combined kinetic- (velocity) and potential (pressure) energy remains the same either side of the valve (law of energy conservation). Water is virtually incompressible, and the flow area at the valve inlet is the same at the valve outlet, hence the flow velocity at the valve inlet is the same as at the valve outlet. The pressure at the valve outlet is however lower than at the valve inlet, and the so-called pressure “loss” is achieved by converting some of the potential energy to heat, but mostly to another form of kinetic energy – vibration, which we experience as “hydro-dynamic noise” being omitted from the vicinity of the valve station as illustrated on Figure A. As illustrated on figure B, the flow stream velocity increases as the water passes through the valve seat/seal opening,

Figure A

while at the same time the pressure decreases, up to the “vena contracta”. The “vena contracta” defines a point in the flow stream just downstream of a flow restriction where the flow stream velocity is maximum, and the pressure is at its lowest. Downstream of the vena contracta, the velocity usually decreases back to its original value while the pressure again resumes a value lower than its original value (P1 minus pressure energy “lost” to vibration/noise). If the minimum pressure at the vena contracta drops below the liquid vapour pressure (-9.77m for 20oC water at sea level), vapour bubbles form in the flow stream. As the flow stream continues on through the valve outlet, the pressure in most cases then again increases above the internal air bubble pressure (vapour pressure) , causing these newly formed → bubbles to “implode” on themselves. This process of

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6



Figure B

bubble formation and subsequent collapsing of the air bubbles is known as CAVITATION. The energy release of the air bubble implosions causes instantaneous heat (energy) as hot as the surface of the sun and if it occurs in close proximity to a solid surface, the energy tends to be projected as a shock-wave directly at the solid surface, “pitting” away the material of the solid surface and resulting in a rough, eroded appearance, as illustrated in figure C. The cavitation process is extremely noisy, typically in excess of 85dBa, sounding like gravel passing through the valve. If left in this state, the destructive cavitation could destroy the valve in a matter of days or months. This is often discovered as a thin stream of water coming from a pinhole through the downstream side of the valve body, and at this stage it is too late to save the valve. Cavitation can be prevented by either locating the valve further upstream (resulting in more downstream pipe friction increasing P2 set point requirement), or by locating the valve at a lower location (resulting in higher pressure either side of the valve). However this is not practically possible, cavitation protection measures should be applied to provide a decent valve life. Particular valve body materials could assist to prolong a cavitating valve’s life, e.g. bronze is a more resistant to cavitation erosion than coated grey- or ductile cast iron, and stainless steels even more resistant than bronze. However, even with the use of more costly materials, cavitation will still require eventual, and probably regular, replacement of the valve.

Figure C

There are several cavitation protection methods, all based on the principle of generating additional resistance up- or downstream of the valve opening. A static orifice plate is one such option, BUT considering that the pressure drop across an orifice plate varies according to the flow rate passing through it, this option only works within a narrow calculated flow rate band. For systems with varying demand a dynamic solution is required such as the installation of multiple valves in series, to “stage” the pressure reduction across each of those valves, instead of all through one valve, or to or to use a valve fitted with an anticavitation trim. Different valve manufacturers have different internal anticavitation trim options, each with its particular advantages and disadvantages. One particular disadvantage all of these anti-cavitation devices share to differing degrees is considerable additional headloss across the valve when fully open. For systems where the pressure drop across the valve opening is permanently in the cavitation zone, this additional head loss is not a problem, but in networks such as municipal distribution networks where the system pressure fluctuates as the demand varies, this could cause excessive head loss across the fully open valve during maximum demand conditions when the system pressure is at its lowest, potentially starving certain areas of the network. The customisable Dorot “cavitation free” version of their 300 series globe type valve is one of the most effective solutions, generating only 2bar headloss at a general design velocity of 2m/s (i.e. during maximum demand conditions), and can handle a pressure reduction of up to 20bar (irrespective of the ratio). The most commonly used method to predict the potential for destructive cavitation in automatic control valve applications is a rule of thumb ratio of 3:1 maximum upstream (inlet) pressure to minimum downstream (outlet) pressure. If the upstream pressure is more than 3 times the downstream pressure, there is a potential for destructive cavitation to occur. This is however 68

pump industry |February 2014 | Issue 6

not always the case, especially at lower pressures. A more accurate method is to calculate the cavitation potential of the system, and compare that to the cavitation characteristic of the particular valve model. Some automatic control valve manufacturers can provide a valve characteristic destructive cavitation number [σd], which more accurately identifies under which hydraulic conditions destructive cavitation will occur for the particular valve design. σd can only be determined under controlled laboratory conditions, while the system characteristic cavitation number [σs], is calculated [σs = (P1-Pv)/ (P1-P2)]. Destructive cavitation will then occur if σs < σd. The valve cavitation number varies between valve designs, even from the same manufacturer, so please contact your local automatic control valve specialist for the correct cavitation number for the particular valve model! ■ Acknowledgements Contributions from- and peer reviewed by Giora Heimann, Specialist Consultant for Dorot Valve Manufacturers and Jamie Pickford, WA State manager for Amiad Water Systems.


Understanding pump curves #6 : Minimum Flow – Part Two : Suction Specific Speed By Ron Astall, United Pumps Australia In our last discussion we looked at what happens when a pump is operated in an off design condition; in particular; low flows. See Fig 1. To recap, Fig 1 is generalised but provides a convenient overview of the symptoms associated with low flow operation issues such as: • Increased internal turbulence • Recirculation • Increased pressure fluctuations • Increased vibration due to the above • Increased axial thrust – depending on pump hydraulic balance method • Increased radial thrust; particularly with single volute casings • Temperature rise due to high internal energy loss In this article we will look at the parameter “Suction Specific Speed” (NSS) and how it influences low flow stability in a centrifugal pump.

Flow reversal and vortexing at low flow

Again, from our last discussion, Fig 2 shows a simplified representation of smooth flow at BEP versus the sort of flow disturbances that occur at reduced flow. The degree of turbulence and associated vibration and buffeting depends on the hydraulic design and on the energy levels in the pump. The effects are generally worse for impellers with relatively large entry diameters. In larger higher energy pumps, vortexing (recirculation) can be so severe that cavitation like effects ensue. “Suction Specific Speed” (NSS) is a design parameter that can be used to predict how susceptible a pump may be to recirculation and instability at low flows and also at high flows. NSS gives an indication of the priority given to suction performance for a given impeller.

Figure 1

Courtesy PIA Australian Pump Technical Handbook

It is calculated as follows : Where N is the running speed in rpm, Q is the flow per impeller eye at best efficiency and using the NPSHR at best efficiency flow.

Pumps designed for very Low NPSH For a given flow, a higher value of NSS denotes improved suction performance (low NPSHR). Fig 3 shows the typical variation between a low NSS impeller and a high NSS impeller. The high NSS impeller has a much larger eye diameter, which reduces velocities and thus entry losses for improved NPSHR.

Trade Offs

Unfortunately, by virtue of this larger eye diameter, this type of impeller is much more prone to flow instability and recirculation when operating at flows away from best efficiency. Considerable research has shown that the range of stable operation is dramatically reduced at higher values of NSS. This is shown graphically in the hydraulic stability guidelines in → fig. 4 (US units). pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6



Figure 3.

Figure 2. The primary problem created is recirculation which can occur at the pump inlet and at the outlet of the impeller at partial flows and, less frequently, at high flows. This recirculation can produce high vibration levels, surging, axial shuttling of the shaft and mechanical damage to the impeller and casing. When severe at low flows, recirculation cavitation like damage will be evident on the pressure (non visible) side of the impeller eye vanes. This should not be confused with classic cavitation damage due to inadequate NPSHA which will appear on the visible low pressure side of the impeller vanes. The noise from recirculation will be similar to cavitation noise but is more random in character. Typically, recirculation noise will reduce as the flow is increased, whilst classic cavitation noise will normally increase with higher flows. These problems will impact on other areas of the pump affecting the reliability of seals and bearings in particular. Research by J. L. Hallam, studying 480 pumps and 1881 failures over a five year period in the refining industry concluded that pumps with high values of NSS (above 12,800 in metric units or 11,000 in US units) had a failure rate approximately double that of lower NSS pumps. This has resulted in many Oil Industry specifications applying arbitrary limits on NSS. Overall, this is not a bad thing, but it is important to remember that it was a statistical survey and such an arbitrary approach may reject a few perfectly good pumps that have tested out as smooth units despite having a high NSS. It is also important to remember that a well selected pump with a higher value of NSS will still be a better proposition than a pump with low NSS selected near minimum flow.

Figure 4.

Impact on Minimum Flow

Most commercially available pumps now comply with the upper limit of NSS as a matter of routine, but there may be some pumps in the field with high numbers for this parameter due to suction constraints. Pumps with a High vale of NSS will probably be much more sensitive to low flow operation and additional care will be required, such as setting higher minimum flow values for these units. â&#x2013; Next article: Are your pumps running too slowly?

The benefit of this knowledge is as a tool to predict the likely NSS requirement for the pumps at the system design stage. This gives the designer the option to raise vessels etc. if it looks like the original system NPSHA will result in the need for pumps with a narrow hydraulic stability range.


pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6

Understanding boiler feed and condensate return pumps


In smaller systems it is common for one pump to be used for both pumping to the boiler and condensate return. Larger systems tend to require multiple pump banks that are dedicated to both processes.


hen selecting pumps for boilers ensure you receive information on:

• Volume metric boiler feed water rate or Boiler MCR (maximum continuous rating which gives you flowrate) • Pump discharge pressure, • Inlet temperature of water, and • NPSHA available

Method of control

There are two main methods of controlling a boiler. 1. Boiler on/off

The most cost effective way is an on/off control that utilises floats or electrodes mounted directly in the boiler and dependent upon the water level will start and stop the feed pump. Anti-siphon valves are also used on this control method which prevents the boiler from flooding. Boilers that utilize this type of control are of a smaller design up to 300kw. 2. Continuous operation

A water tube boiler comprises a number of tubes surrounded by fire created by gas or oil. The feed pump passes water through the tubes. The pump runs continuously whilst the flow varies depending upon the demand of the boiler. The pump will tend to need some form of protection to prevent running beyond its maximum capacity. Normally a bypass line is installed which is either left open to a tank or controlled via a modulating valve. a. Modulation control

valve in the bypass line; this acts in the opposite way to the valve above. As the water level in the boiler rises the modulating valve in the pump bypass line will open and return water back to the condensate tank thus reducing the water flow to the boiler. Normally a high-level alarm will activate if there is loss of boiler pressure.


In all boiler applications due to the use of the pump with higher water temperatures (often above 100°C), it is essential that the NPSH be calculated for the system as incorrect selection may result in the pump being damaged. It is not unusual for the height of the condensate tank or de-aerator to be set to ensure sufficient static head to provide the NPSHA.

Potential problem areas

Boiler manufacturers are acutely aware that their application can be extreme and that the pump may be operating constantly and at high temperatures. Problems are often attributed to the pump but when analysed, these problems are usually down to a system problem. Typical problems are: Cavitation: The pump or components are damaged and this occurs if the NPSH conditions are incorrect. On/off control: The pump is working at the end of the curve at a bad NPSH point.

With this type of control the pump is controlled via a control valve in the main pump discharge line with a bypass. Anorifice plate is installed or a modulating valve fitted in the bypass line. The signal for modulation can be provided by either a level, pressure or temperature controller. The advantage of this type of control method is a smaller pump with better efficiency and reduced running costs.

Modulating control: Can cause damage to the valve due to over-pressurization, as well as the pump itself.

When using modulating control it is essential to install a bypass pipe line back to the condensate tank or de-aerator. DO NOT RETURN TO PUMP SUCTION.

The Lowara e-SV Series pump range offer high temperature versions suitable for boiler feed applications up to 180°C. Contact your nearest Brown Brothers Engineers office today about your requirements

b. Bypass control

Pipeline losses: If incorrectly calculated can increase the pressure the pump produces. Making steam: Steam can escape back through the boiler check valve damaging internal pump components. ■

Another method of control is to place a modulating control

pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6


Editorial schedule May 2014

Deadline: 21 March, 2014

Main feature

Related Products: Seals


Industry Focus

Water HVAC Plastics, rubber, chemicals

Couplings & seals Bearings Fans Filtration systems Lubricant & lubrication systems

Acromet...............................................3 AESSEAL.............................................41 Amiad Australia..................................67 AVK Australia......................................47 Batescrew...........................................55 Brown Brothers Engineers.................6 Busch Australia .................................17

Pump Products



Seal-less pumps


August 2014

Deadline: 13 June, 2014

Crusader Hose....................................59

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Related Products:

Diesel Dog..........................................10

Pump manufacturing Imports & exports

Industry Focus Mine dewatering Food Wastewater Coal Seam Gas

Motors and drives Compressors

Pump Products Balancing

EMT Motors........................................38 f.el.som Middle East...........................57 Haskel.................................................IBC Hydro Innovations..............................19 Kelair...................................................50 Kennards Hire - Pumps......................11

November 2014

Deadline: 5 September, 2014

Main feature

Instrumentation, control & monitoring

Energy efficiency

Industry Focus

Power generation Fire protection Irrigation

Pressure and temperature gauges Vibration instrumentation Flow meters Condition monitoring sensors

Pump Products

Keto Pumps........................................OBC KSB.....................................................13 Maric Flow Control.............................51 Milton Roy...........................................IBC Northern Diesel & Hydraulic..............26 Precision Balancing ...........................39 Prominent Fluid Controls...................36

Pump protection


February 2015

Deadline: 28 November, 2014

Regal Beloit........................................21

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Rexnord Australia ..............................15

State of the industry

Industry Focus

Oil & Gas: LNG Mining and slurry pumping Manufacturing & heavy industry

Valves Pipes and piping systems Coatings Custom casting Vacuum pumps

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Repair & maintenance

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seepex Australia.................................37 Singer Valve Inc..................................49 Solco...................................................7 Southland Filtration...........................31 Sterling................................................18 Toshiba International.........................IFC United Pumps Australia.....................23 United Surface Technologies.............45 Vortex Hire..........................................8 Welling & Crossley..............................29 Xylem Water Solutions.......................27 Xylem Water Systems.........................9


pump industry | February 2014 | Issue 6


KETO pumps and parts are designed for improved reliability which means less plant downtime. Our parts offer lower power consumption and low gland water consumption to save you energy, water and money. Combine these benefits to economise your operations and allow your site to reach its full potential. Compatible with legacy pumps.


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Pump Industry February 2014  

Includes coverage of mining, slurry pumping, condition monitoring, pump repair, valves, product liability, LNG, coal seam gas, manufacturing...

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