Page 1

ISSUE 4

AUGUST 2013

pumpindustry Australia’s

Number 1 Pump Source

Motors

& drives

Mining Local manufacturing under the pump

Features

Industrial fans Food and beverage Wastewater pump stations


When Time, Money & Efficiency Matters in Driven Machines‌

Toshiba has the solution!

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PU M P IN D U STRY

President’s welcome W

e all want our pumping systems to be reliable and energy efficient.

Total cost of ownership (TCOO) is a concept that is bandied about by many pump purchasers. Pump Industry Australia Incorporated Kevin Wilson – Secretary PO Box 55, Stuarts Point NSW 2441 Australia Ph/Fax: (02) 6569 0160 pumpsaustralia@bigpond.com Ron Astall – President United Pumps Australia & Astech Consulting Services John Inkster – Vice President Brown Brothers Engineers Mike Bauer - Councillor Dynapumps Geoff Harvey - Councillor Davey Products Pty Ltd Tony Kersten - Councillor Grundfos Pumps Pty Ltd John Link – Councillor Link Pumps Martin O’Connor – Councillor KSB Australia Alan Rowan – Councillor Life Member Keith Sanders – Councillor Australian Industrial Marketing & Life Member

Over the projected lifetime of a piece of equipment, TCOO aims to gather all the costs such as purchase cost, running cost, down-time cost and maintenance cost. How often is this concept really applied properly? I suspect rarely, if ever. Sure, running cost information, spare parts usage, and overhaul cost estimates may be included in some bid evaluations but this stuff is only part of the picture. Where there is a large installed equipment base, some purchasers may also have developed comparative data on equipment mean time between failure rankings between vendors; but this is a difficult thing to substantiate, particularly during bid evaluations. During recent discussions with a senior engineer in the resources sector we agreed that a major project management cost issue is that of equipment commissioning delays. A major compounding factor is poor supplier support and response times. This is also a major problem for ongoing maintenance. The grizzle was that they were likely going to end up with the lowest cost bidder and they really wanted a local supplier for the best support. One or two days lost due to a slow supplier response would often eclipse the purchase price savings. They were tired of waiting for answers from

different time zones and from overseas factories where the small size of the Australian market meant that they were regularly a low priority. They knew which vendors they preferred but were at a loss as to how to quantify this into a purchase specification. “How can I put this into a spread sheet?” I have heard this grizzle so many times. Australian manufacturers should have a unique advantage in the local market because our engineers and technical people are right here and, if we let them, they can talk directly with customers to solve their problems and provide assistance. Also, I have found that in Australia, because our organisational structures are smaller, our engineers typically need to be more multi-skilled and they are better at troubleshooting than often more narrowly focussed experts from overseas. I have found that Australian manufacturers historically have a better success rate on projects where the end user’s engineers have a strong influence on equipment selection. I also believe that when this occurs, the benefit of using local suppliers is normally demonstrated through better product support and consequently faster commissioning, better ongoing reliability and better product knowledge transfer. The challenge for pump users is to find a way to ensure that the concept of TCOO is implemented in full. The challenge for the suppliers is to ensure that we do indeed provide the best possible customer support. Ron Astall President, Pump Industry Australia 1


P U M P INDU ST RY

ISSUE 4

AUGUST 2013

pumpindustry Australia’s

Number 1 Pump Source

Motors

& drives

Mining Local manufacturing under the pump

Features

Industrial fans Food and beverage Wastewater pump stations

Cover shows Weir Minerals Australia’s manufacturing facility in Artarmon, NSW.

2,601 Audit Period: 01/10/2012 – 31/03/2013 This publication has been independently audited by the Circulations Audit Board.

Published by

Monkey Media Enterprises ABN: 36 426 734 954 GPO Box 93, Melbourne VIC 3001 P: (03) 9440 5721 F: (03) 8456 6720 monkeymedia.net.au info@monkeymedia.net.au pumpindustry.com.au magazine@pumpindustry.com.au Design by Linda Tucker Happy Places Design www.happyplaces.com.au ISSN: 2201-0270 2

Editor’s welcome E

vents and trade shows are a vital tool for keeping in touch in most industries. We launched this magazine last year to tie in with the PIA’s event in October, and as I write this I’ve just returned from a pump and compressors conference in Perth. Many pump companies I speak to are regularly travelling to attend big events in mining, water, oil & gas and other disciplines. But something missing from the event calendar is a large scale pump event that attracts end-users of pumps and brings the industry together. And just as we hope we have filled a gap with this magazine, we now plan to fill the event gap as well. Which is why I’m delighted to announce that we have agreed with the PIA to bring you a major new conference and exhibition in 2014. I’ve spoken to a lot of pump companies about what they want to achieve out of an event and unsurprisingly the one answer that keeps coming up time and again is making sure the right people attend. So from the outset our event will focus on this, which means we are creating an event that goes beyond pumps to ensure we attract the right audience. At this point, we have at least four different conference streams in development aimed at reaching end-users of pumps in diverse industries such as oil &

gas, mining, water and wastewater and building services, as well as pump distributors and retailers. Rather than focussing just on pumps, we will be offering innovative new programs that appeal to these end users, covering issues such as reliability engineering, energy efficiency, asset management and more. These conferences will all come together under the one umbrella of Flow Technology 2014: Pumps, Valves, Compressors and for two days in November 2014, the Melbourne Showgrounds will become a hub for all things pump and rotating equipment related. At the moment we are working hard on the early stages of marketing and market research to build our attendance. We welcome your input on this, so please contact me directly if you have any suggestions. And watch this space for more details. Another thing I will be keeping in mind is events that work well, and one that consistently comes up as being a great event is WIOA. Every time I’ve been along, both exhibitors and delegates are full of praise for the event, and to that end we will be back in Bendigo this September exhibiting - I hope to see you there! Chris Bland Publisher and Editor

This magazine is published by Monkey Media in co-operation with the Pump Industry Association (PIA). The views contained herein are not necessarily the views of either the publisher or the PIA. Neither the publisher nor the PIA takes responsibility for any claims made by advertisers. All communication should be directed to the publisher. The publisher welcomes contributions to the magazine. All contributions must comply with the publisher’s editorial policy which follows. By providing content to the publisher, you authorise the publisher to reproduce that content either in its original form, or edited, or combined with other content in any of its publications and in any format at the publishers discretion.


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Home Page

Celebrating 50 years of Service To Australian Industry


pumpindustry

President’s welcome...................................1 Editor’s welcome.........................................2 News briefs..................................................6 Chelsea flower show winner........................8 Calendar of events....................................69

C O N T E N T S

Index

72

MAIN FEATURES 20

Mining

The Mining Pump Market .............................................................18 Mine Groundwater Management by Dr John Waterhouse..........20 Using Slurry rheology to assist with tailings pumping design by Dr Paul Huggett.........................................................................23

28

Food and beverage

Water savings taste sweet ...........................................................28 Pump maintenance for monks.....................................................29 Solutions for the food industry......................................................32

35

The state of pump manufacturing

We interview some of Australia’s leading pump manufacturers about the industry today and tomorrow.......................................35 Innovation in hose making............................................................38 46

Motors and drives

Energy efficient motors ................................................................46 New 1000V motor and drive package .........................................47 46

Wastewater

Revolutionary new technology.......................................................40 Pump contingencies in action at Sydney Water ..........................42 Pump station power outage protection........................................44

PUMP PIONEERS 58

Ken Willcock

Ken Willcock served as President of the Australian Pump Manufacturers Association (APMA), the forerunner to PIA from 19801982. A visit to the Snowy Hydro Mountains Scheme spurred an interest in engineering in Ken, which led to a career in pumps.

27 51


CON TEN TS

8

PROJECTS Vineyard saves with efficient irrigation

54

Located in NSW’s Griffith region, Farm 8a Benerembah is a 165 ha property, producing a wide range of grape varieties. Some of the vine row lengths are as long as 800 m, making good fuel consumption even more important.

Gold Coast desalination

37

56

The Gold Coast desalination plant is one of the largest of its kind on Australia’s eastern seaboard. The plant, which uses the reverse osmosis desalination process, has the capacity to provide drinking water to 650,000 people in South East Queensland.

FEATURES

Coal Seam Gas

48

Coal seam gas watered crops bloom.............................48 Booster pumps increase production .............................49

Industrial fans

50

Big cooling tasks need great technology, at the highest efficiency possible. This is especially important for industries that generally require a lot of power to run their operations, such as mining, manufacturing and construction

TECHNICAL Long term costs in the balance

34

Elements of design, engineering and quality are often compromised in order to achieve cost savings.

Membrane life insurance PIA News New Technical handbooks now available.........10

PIA Member News Pump hire and dewatering companies merge......12 Lowara’s energy efficient multi-stage pump..........14

Product showcase Xylem’s intelligent pumping control system...........70 Haskel customers are key........................................71

60

Membrane technology development and the influx of solution providers over the last 10 years has been the driving force lowering the cost making ultrafiltration a viable option for many applications in water treatment.

Air operated double diaphragm pumps 62 Ease of maintenance and operation make these pumps a good solution for many applications

Understanding pump curves

64

Variable speed: the answer to all your prayers?

Pump School

67

A glossary of pump terms, from L-Z

5


Pump Industry News Briefs Get all the latest news at www.pumpindustry.com.au

PSG buys Ebsray Pumps

Pump Solutions Group (PSG) has completed the acquisition of Ebsray Pumps Pty Ltd, located in Brookvale, NSW. Ebsray, a market leader of pumps for a wide range of industrial applications, will become part of PSG’s Blackmer operation. Founded in the late 1930s, Ebsray is a leader in the design and manufacture of regenerative turbine and positive displacement pump technologies, including sliding vane and gear used for LPG, chemical, general industrial and military markets. “This acquisition is consistent with our strategic vision to expand PSG’s presence in select vertical markets,” said Tom Madden, PSG Vice President and General Manager of Blackmer, the global brand of rotary vane and centrifugal pump, and reciprocating compressor technologies for the transfer of liquids and gasses. “Ebsray’s pump technologies complement Blackmer’s and PSG’s current portfolio of pumps, and extends our ability to provide customers with the best possible solutions to meet the widest range of applications.” A part of Dover Corporation’s Engineered Systems segment PSG has facilities in the US, France, Germany, India, China, and Australia.

Pump Industry magazine gets audit tick

Looking for the latest news and contracts awarded?

The CAB said that “by committing to an audit, you are demonstrating your title’s undoubted integrity through your willingness to conform to industry agreed standards.” The audit covers the first two editions of the magazine, and every edition of Pump Industry will be audited by the CAB

Get the latest contracts and tenders awarded at; pumpindustry.com.au/category/awarded/

Pump Industry magazine has received its first circulation audit certificate and been accepted as a full member of the Circulations Audit Board.

You can get all the latest news daily online at the pump industry website. Sign up for the free newsletter so you don’t miss anything.

See the latest open tenders at; pumpindustry.com.au/category/tenders/ Sign up for the free online news at; pumpindustry.com.au/subscribe/

The CAB is an independent body that has operated for 58 years, verifying circulation information of various media.

Or just visit the home page and follow the menu options.

The CAB strongly recommends that companies only advertise with audited media to ensure that they do not fall victim to dishonest operators or scams.

Got any news?

If you have any news, such as people movements, new staff, contracts awarded, projects completed etc, please submit to the editor at

Pump Industry publisher Chris Bland has long been a strong advocate of auditing circulation and has previously campaigned for magazines to be audited in his role as a board member of Publishers Australia, the industry body for magazine publishers.

magazine@pumpindustry.com.au

Correction

In the May 2013 issue on page 28, the article ‘Oil mist lubrication’ by Don Ehlert and Marty Williams a change of 10o Celsius was incorrectly converted to 30o Fahrenheit. The correct figure should be 18o Fahrenheit.

The audit confirmed that the average distribution of the first two issues of Pump Industry magazine was 2,601. Since then, a large influx of new subscribers has continued to grow the circulation of the magazine and the new numbers will feature in future audits.

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6

DELIVERING PUMPING SOLUTIONS


N EWS New acquisition for NOV Mono National Oilwell Varco (NOV) has announced that it completed the acquisition of Robbins & Myers. “We are delighted to announce the merger between Robbins & Myers and NOV Mono, a leading manufacturer of progressing cavity pumps and associated equipment. The merger of these two companies will provide us with an incredible opportunity to expand the products and services offered to our customers,” said Pete Miller, Chairman and CEO of National Oilwell Varco.

As a result of the acquisition, many of the Robbins & Myers industrial products have been placed under the Houstonbased NOV Mono division of National Oilwell Varco. This has resulted in an enhanced NOV Mono business that is now positioned as a global leader in progressing cavity pump technology, one which offers a broad portfolio of products and services to help global process industries improve production, reliability and profitability. The new NOV Mono is now the world’s largest designer and manufacturer of progressing cavity pumps. It also designs and manufactures a wide range of associated products including grinders, screens, mixers, parts and packaged solutions. These product solutions have numerous applications in water and wastewater, pulp and paper, specialty chemicals, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, mining and mineral processing, oil and gas, energy, solar and agriculture. NOV Mono Senior Vice President Santosh Mathilakath, who leads the new company, said the combination of these strong businesses represents a new force in the industrial pump arena, building on each company’s rich history and unique market strengths to provide customers with unparalleled breadth and depth of solutions and services. “The combination of these businesses creates a platform for significant growth,” said Mathilakath. “Our truly global footprint, combined engineering strength, larger market channels, enhanced manufacturing and broadened supply chain capabilities will enable NOV Mono to rapidly create enhanced value propositions for customers, realize manufacturing and supply chain efficiencies, shorten response time, and provide a superior customer experience.”

CAP Industries relocates

CAP Industries is pleased to announce that it has relocated to larger premises in the Scoresby Industry Park. The move represents a major step in the staged expansion of the company that is celebrating its 10 year anniversary this year. According to CAP Industries’ Managing Director, Bou Spithoven, the new premises will enable the company to significantly increase its production capacity while at the same catering for the growth of its test facilities. He explains, “Increasing the capacity of our testing facilities has been in the plan for some time, but we needed to ensure the

upgrade was undertaken in line with our environmental policy. The new premises enable us to do this.” CAP Industries will install two large rainwater tanks to meet the demands of the new testing facilities which will also incorporate custom-design software and energy saving control initiatives. Mr Spithoven states that not only will the unit be able to test at higher pressures and higher flow rates; it will ultimately provide faster, more accurate results. The new details are: Factory B6, Scoresby Industry Park Janine Street, Scoresby VIC 3179 Ph: (03) 9763 8799

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WWW.STERLINGPUMPS.COM.AU 7


N E WS

Local pumps make Chelsea Flower Show winner flow The pump industry played a key role in the recent Australian victory at the Chelsea Flower Show in London. After nine years of presenting show gardens, the Aussies have made history around the world, being presented with a Best in Show medal at the awards ceremony held recently in London – a feat never before achieved by an Australian team.

JDM’s John Parker, the key was to provide a product which could be set up quickly. JDM supplied four Messner M-40,000, 230V,50Hz and one special Messner M-40,000,115V,50Hz pump. These pumps are heavy duty water gardening pumps utilizing a canned wet-rotor design with 20mm ceramic static shaft and ceramic thrust washers. At 38,700 litres per hour these very efficient pumps consume only 650 watts each.

T

he ninth and final entry for Chelsea Flower Show stalwarts, Fleming’s Nurseries, the Trailfinders Australian Garden presented by Fleming’s was not only awarded with a prestigious Gold Medal but also with the ‘Best in Show’ honour which has eluded the team for so many years. This year’s Trailfinders Australian Garden presented by Fleming’s is a sustainable

habitat complete with monolithic stone gorge, running waterfalls, a studio structure and billabong. Ferntree Gully-based JDM Pumps built a special enclosed ‘crate’ to house their pumps on site. This crate was lowered into the surrounding landscape to the rear of the build site to facilitate below water level suction for the recirculation of the pond (Billabong) water. According to

The special 115V pump version was built to allow operation of the water display for setting up and flow balancing during construction work. The 115V is an electrical safety requirement in the UK for all electrical equipment used on construction sites. The design is maintained by an integrated water management system which is independent from mains water and reduces the impact on the storm water infrastructure by retaining and recycling storm water run-off. A three metre-cubed home ‘studio’ structure, designed by Melbourne-based architecture firm, Studio 505, was a key

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8


N EWS feature in the garden’s design and had been crafted specifically for the Queen’s height.

in as many years with the team previously winning four silver-gilt and four gold medals.

Good things come in small packages

The finished design took a total of 17 days and over 2,500 man-hours to build, transforming what once resembled a bare soccer pitch into a sustainable garden retreat.

Fleming will hang up his boots at the close of this year’s event to focus on new projects back on home soil.

Importer & distributor

Wes Fleming said a team of 18 volunteers, using 38 tonnes of tools, equipment, materials and plants sourced both locally and abroad had been the foundation of the team’s success. “We couldn’t have done it without the dedication and support of our 18 volunteer crewmen and our families, not just in 2013 but on every show garden we’ve ever presented since we first arrived at Chelsea back in 2004. This is Fleming’s Nurseries’ ninth medal

Designed by sustainable landscaper, Phillip Johnson of Phillip Johnson landscapes, the Best in Show medal at what is regarded as the ‘Olympics of the horticulture world’, represents something of a career zenith for the already highlyawarded landscape firm. “Being involved in Chelsea was a dream come true for myself and my team. Winning an award amongst contemporaries of this calibre is absolutely mind-blowing. We couldn’t be more proud of what we have achieved, it’s been an incredible experience,” exclaimed Johnson.

Messner water feature pumps We hold stock of spare parts

Submersible Utility pumps We service & repair

Chemical transfer pumps Condensate removal - Partswasher Pumps Chemical Circulation & Transfer - Machine Tool Coolant Pond pumps - Ice-machine/Evaporative Cooler Small Sump Pumps - Level Control Switches Water Tank Pumps & Pressure Systems

4 / 1156 Burwood Highway Ferntree Gully, VIC, 3156 (03) 9752 2477 pumps@instantpumps.com.au www.instantpumps.com.au

Michael is keen to see the pumps that JDM Pumps have arranged to be delivered direct from Germany.

NSW: On Line Pumping - (02) 9905 3359 SA: R & D Pump Equipment & services - (08) 8371 0882 QLD: Pump Application Engineers - (07) 3201 2485 WA: Regent Pumps - (08) 9418 7521 NT: HD Pump Sales & Service - (08) 8947 1008 TAS: Webster Bearings & Engineering - (03) 6324 6555 Geelong: Parker Pumps (03) 5229 7443 9


P IA NE WS

New technical handbooks now available By Alan Rowan, PIA Life Member

Pump Industry Australia has released updated versions of its two handbooks which are specifically designed for the Australian Pump Industry; the Australian Pump Technical Handbook and the Australian Pipe Friction Handbook.

T

hese publications assist those who work in and are associated with the pump industry such as manufacturers, distributors, educators, designers, operators and users. The handbooks are designed to be easy to follow with a minimum of technical expertise and are a handy reference volumes for those working in or associated with the pumping industry. It is PIA’s constant aim to ensure that these publications comply with the very latest pumping practice and standards as a result we have just completed a major review and upgrade of both publications.

Pipe Friction Handbook

The fourth edition of the Pipe Friction Handbook is now available and has been thoroughly reviewed and updated to conform to the latest Australian Standards. The friction losses relative to each pipe type and its sizes are covered in the friction tables. It is designed to allow the reader to readily calculate the friction losses in a pump system using the most commonly used pipes and fittings. The new edition maintains the same format as previous editions with the main changes involving the tables for Polyethylene and ABS pipes. In the case of the polyethylene pipes the Australian Standard has been upgraded and expanded to cover up 2000mm N.B. pipes in some pressure ratings. Friction tables for all the additional pipes sizes have been calculated and included in the new edition. Since the third edition the polyethylene pipe manufacturers have rationalized 10

the materials in which this type of pipe is made. Until 4 or 5 years ago all polyethylene pipe was available as standard in PE80 and PE100 material, it is now only available in PE100. For the handbook, this means that we can dispense with the SDR numbers on each table and replace them with the PN pressure rating for each class of pipe, making this table much simpler to use. For ABS pipes, the current Australian Standard requires this type of pipe to be made in four material grades and 26 sizes. The previous edition only covered one material grade and a limited number of sizes. Further investigation revealed that there was only one ABS pipe maker in Australia while there were several importers of pipe. The importers preferring British or European standard pipe neither of which has the same dimensions as the Australian Standard Pipe. On this basis it was decided to withdraw ABS pipe from the handbook. In addition to the changes to the polyethylene and ABS pipe tables the remainder of the book was completely reviewed and updated to bring it into line with the latest friction calculation requirements.

Pump Technical Handbook

The fifth edition of the Pump Technical Handbook has undergone a major review and update including 4 new chapters: 1. Application & Selection of Positive Displacement Pumps This chapter comprehensively discusses the operation, selection and application of the major types of positive displacement pumps supported by diagrams,

drawings and curves and will give the reader a more detailed knowledge of these pumps. 2. Efficient Operation of Pump Systems In this chapter, the requirements that are needed to make a pumping system operate at its most efficient are discussed. The chapter is fully illustrated with charts and is designed to give specifying engineers, system designers and system owners an overview of an efficient pump system. 3. Sewage Pumps Stations This chapter discusses the basic requirements both from the engineering and occupational health point of view of the different types of sewage pump stations allowing owners, operators and designers to understand the basics of sewage pump stations. 4. Pump Troubleshooting Centrifugal, rotary and reciprocating pump troubleshooting is covered in this chapter using lists of faults cross referred to the possible causes of these faults. This will be useful to pump owners and operators in diagnosing why a pump is not working correctly from the symptoms it is displaying. As well as the new chapters the remainder of the book has been reviewed and upgraded to ensure that the handbook meets today’s industry needs. All chapters have some changes which includes the modernisation of illustrations. However, a number of the chapters have had a more comprehensive upgrade. The chapter titled “Principles, Application & Selection of Positive Displacement Continued on page 12


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PI A M E M B E R N E WS

Dewatering, pump hire & solution contractors merge Vortex Hire, Field Maintenance Service and Systems (FMSS) and Pump Affinity have merged to form Vortex Hire Pty Ltd. The NSW-based business offers a range of services including dewatering, pump hire and solution contracting.

A

ccording to Gil Milton “management and staff are excited about the strengthening of our vision to provide pump hire equipment & services maintained to the highest standard available when you want it, where you want it.” The merger, effective 1 July 2013, has given the two businesses the opportunity to combine and redefine their service offerings. Expansion into new larger premises is planned from July to accommodate the growing pump fleet and staffing requirements, the branch location will provide for faster service to existing customers.

Dewatering

Vortex Hire offer dry hire and install at day rates for a variety of dewatering systems including wellpoint (spearpoint) dewatering, horizontal dewatering, vertical wells and vacuum jumbo wells.

They also offer silt settlement tanks and pH dosing units for environmental controls.

Pump Hire

Dry Hire of 50mm, 75mm, 100mm, 150mm & 200mm centrifugal contractor pumps and high head mine dewatering pumps. Key accessories such as tanks, hose, and wellpoint dewatering accessories are also available.

Solution Contracting

Vortex Hire like to solve problems. Oners Gil Milton & Chris Buckley pride themselves on this service and it is a core value shared within the Vortex team. Their solution contracting strengths are in onsite field maintenance & refuelling services, bypass pumping, ground water & mine dewatering, pump project management, flow gauging & confined space entry.

New technical handbooks now available Continued from page 10

Pumps” in the fourth edition has been split in two with this chapter changing to the “Characteristics of Positive Displacement Pumps” and the remainder becoming the new and far more comprehensive “Application & Selection of Positive Displacement Pumps”. The slurry pump chapter has been added to with an introduction, more detail on slurry pump sealing and an expand section on positive displacement slurry pumps The chapter on pump materials has had little work done to it since the first edition, as a result we have reformatted the chapter and bring it up to date with the very latest on pump material requirements. The intake design chapter has also been upgrade to the latest intake design needs including the addition of a section on circular sumps for liquids with and without entrained solids, trench type intake design and suction manifold design.

Summary

These new editions complement each other to form the ideal tool for anyone working in or associated with the pump industry and provide an excellent learning tool for those embarking on a career in the pump industry. The Australian Pump Technical and Pipe Friction Handbooks can be purchased from the PIA website at www.pumps.asn.au

dewatering, pump hire & solution contracting www.vortexhire.com.au info@vortexhire.com.au 12


PI A ME M B E R N E WS

Lowara launch new energy efficient multi-stage pump

In Europe, Xylem has launched the Lowara e-HM series; a new range of stainless steel, horizontal, multi-stage pumps, designed for commercial, industrial and residential applications which boast superior performance and efficiency characteristics which significantly lower lifecycle costs and increase energy savings.

customer requirement. All of our pump ranges are backed by an on time delivery service. The e-HM pump range is assembled on a global platform which ensures customers can receive the product in full and on time, whenever they need it.” Olivier continues,“Xylem’s highly skilled engineers have designed the e-HM pump to offer low levels of Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) and a minimised impeller axial thrust, resulting in a longer bearing life. Due to the high grade stainless steel used, our new pump will have WRAS/ ACS/ AS4020/ NSF61 approvals and can be used to pump potable water while providing superior corrosion resistance.”

T

he new e-HM pump is based on the same innovative hydraulic design as the popular vertical multistage e-SV series and boasts the ability to improve energy efficiency in applications by 15-20 per cent, significantly lowering lifecycle costs and increasing energy savings.

The e-HM pump also provides end users with an improved ‘total cost of ownership’ as it has an average operational time of at least 20,000 hours in normal conditions. The pump has a flow of up to 29 m3/h and can perform to a maximum pressure of 16 bars.

The modularity of Xylem’s new e-HM range of stainless steel Lowara pumps will be of huge benefit to the Industrial end-user as well as Original Equipment Manufacturers and Residential users due to the range of configurations available to customers. The many configurations available mean the pump can be adapted to meet an extensive range of applications such as chillers, heating, air conditioning units, washing and cleaning, water treatment, water supply, hot and cold liquid circulation, pressure boosting and aggressive liquids.

Olivier Lamarie, Global Product Manager Multistage of Xylem, said, “at Xylem we’re dedicated to developing superior products which deliver greater efficiency and increased energy savings. The unique hydraulic design and versatility of our e-HM pump means that it is perfectly positioned to meet requirements across a wide range of industries. It provides long-lasting solutions for industrial use for leading manufacturers and suppliers in all sectors, from food processing and farming to cleaning and water treatment. When combined with Xylem Hydrovar, the e-HM pump can offer further energy savings compared to previous models.

The e-HM pump is available in two distinct designs. The one-piece e-HM pump requires no welding and is ideal for low pressure and flow. The sleeve design version is ideal for high flow and pressure. 14

“The e-HM series is available in two robust and compact designs which gives the range a dual possibility and ensures the pump can be configured to meet any

“It also meets a wide range of design, quality and motor efficiency standards, including UL/CSA, KEMCO, Australian MEPS, and IMQ approvals and certifications.” The e-HM pump can be tailored for numerous industrial applications. It is available in a range of material options such as SS AISI 304 and SS AISI 316 and electro-polished and passivated AISI 316 stainless steel. The e-HM pump can also be fitted with EPDM rubber, FPM rubber and Karlez® O-rings; as well as carbon, ceramic and silicon carbide mechanical seals. The new Lowara e-HM pump is available with variable speed option allowing the speed of the pump to be adjusted in relation to requirement, noticeably reducing energy consumption and/or to regulate their systems through an external signal. The new e-HM range is due to be released in Australia and New Zealand in late 2013. For more information please visit www.lowara.com.au/e-hm Or call Xylem Applied Water Systems on (03) 9551 7333


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P I A MEM B E R N E WS

Pentair and Tyco Flow Control merger update

Pentair and Tyco International’s Flow Control businesses merged on 1 October 2012 creating a global leader in water, fluid process, thermal management and equipment protection.

P

entair Australia welcomed Mr Ian Sainsbury as the new Vice President Asia Pacific for Pentair Flow Technologies. Previously holding the role of General Manager for Tyco Pumping Systems business since 2004; his extensive experience and background in the engineering industry provided a natural leader. Now responsible for eight operational sites, fifteen sales offices and over 300 employees throughout Australia & New Zealand. Mr Sainsbury notes “The merger of Tyco International Flow Control and Pentair has presented numerous synergies; the challenge is identifying and delivering on all of these opportunities.”

Mr Ian Sainbury, Vice President – Asia Pacific Flow Technologies

Pentair is now home to some of Australia’s leading iconic pump brands including; Onga, Southern Cross, Pentair Pool Products, Everflow Pumps, Shurflo, TurboMaster, Encon, Everpure, Sta-Rite, Australian Panel Tanks, SEMA, Tamar, Jung Pumpen, Riva-Flo, Berkeley, and Aurora Pumps. Mr Sainsbury adds “Southern Cross and Onga are highly respected and reputable brands in the Australian and New Zealand markets and one of the overriding objectives of this merger was to enhance our brand equity.” To date, Pentair has adopted a business as-usual-approach, taking time to assess each business, evaluate and plan the future for its employees and customers alike. Mr. Sainsbury adds “I am constantly reminded of the vast depth and breadth of the combined product offering as well as the depth of knowledge and experience of our staff. The opportunities these strengths potentially bring to our customer base are very exciting.” Announcing the new leadership structure in May 2013; the company welcomed the following sales team: 16

• Residential Product Sales Manager ANZ: Paul Hanns • Agricultural Product Sales Manager ANZ: Colin Gray • Mining / Oil & Gas Product Sales Manager - ANZ: Mike Brewer • Commercial, Industrial, Municipal Product Sales Manager - ANZ: Craig Robins “This is a very exciting time for Flow Technologies and I am sure our customers will embrace the realignment and continue their support of Pentair throughout this

transition and into the future.” Pentair is working towards aligning territories, products and portfolios, but with the increased product lines it can only lead to improved services for our customers. “Our customers can rely on us for expertise, innovation and sound advice, as everyone at Pentair remains committed to delivering the very best pump solution with the very best service. Whether it is household, agricultural, pool pump or a specialised engineered product - Pentair has you covered.”


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M INING

The mining pump market

Australia has one of the world’s largest mining industries and is among the top five producers of minerals globally. In terms of production volume and value, the main mined commodities are iron ore and black coal. Production of both commodities has increased significantly over the past decade, driven largely by the rapid growth in exports to Asia.

C

oal and iron ore account for combined production in excess of 1 billion tonnes in 2012-13. Iron ore accounts for over half of commodity exports by value, followed by coal (38 percent). There are 403 operating mines in Australia, mostly in Western Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. New mining projects and expansion of existing projects have generated demand for new equipment and machinery. Since the global financial crisis in 2009, expenditure on mining equipment plant and machinery has grown at an annual rate of 7.9 percent.

18

Pumps for Mining

Pumps are capital items used in a productive or extractive process, or as part of the services infrastructure in a mining facility. Hence, expenditure on pumps is normally either part of a new greenfield capital investment (for example a new mine), part of an expansion or upgrade of existing facility (commonly known as brownfield investment in the mining industry), or as a replacement for a pump in an existing application. Hence, the Australian pump market in the mining sector is largely driven by the extent of capital expenditure, both in new facilities and expansion/upgrade of existing facilities. It is also driven by

production levels (as this impacts the rate at which existing pumps need to be replaced). For new capital expenditure, pumps are normally purchased and installed late in the project lifecycle. Slurry pumps account for 40 percent of the total mining pump market, dewatering pumps account for 35 percent and other pumps (including clean water service pumps, wastewater pumps and chemical/ dosing pumps) account for the balance.

Competitive Advantage

The supply of pumps to the mining sector in Australia is very fragmented, with over 30 active suppliers, comprising both local manufacturers, local sales operations of


M IN IN G

multinational pump manufacturers, and importers/distributors. Another segment within this competitive structure is that of pump hire, where common pump applications are for dewatering, slurry, and wastewater. One of the key competitive tools for pump suppliers to the mining sector is incumbency, where an entrenched supplier with a large installed base, a proven track record and a strong working relationship with the customer can grow revenues not only from replacement demand but potentially from expansion or new projectrelated pump sales. Other key differentiators are competitive pricing, product reliability, and availability of spares. To achieve competitive advantage, some suppliers tend to focus on specific pump types or applications. Most suppliers and distributors offer services and look at services as a critical part of their ongoing revenue stream (in fact, replacement revenues often exceed revenues from new pump sales).

Outlook

The drop in the mineral resources prices has led to several delays or cancellations in new projects. In addition, the cost of mining has risen (compliance cost, decreasing ore grades and increasing input costs such as energy, labour and transaction costs). Productivity challenges and higher operational costs in Australia have seen it lose share in some commodity segments to Latin America and Africa. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), unadjusted Multifactor Productivity (MFP) in the mining sector between 2000-01 and 2009-10 declined by about one third. The strong Australian dollar has restrained profitability and mining shareholders have become more vocal about capital discipline and profitability. This is likely to weaken new unit sales of mining pumps. However, replacement demand, initiatives to recycle or reuse water and the need for reliability or productivity enhancements will continue

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to provide growth opportunities for mining pump suppliers.

Hamersley Agricultural Project (HAP)

Rio Tinto’s Hamersley Agricultural Project (HAP) is a recent example of recycle and reuse trends driving pump opportunities in the mining sector. Surplus water from the Marandoo iron ore mine in the Pilbara, WA is being used to irrigate 850 hectares of pasture for cattle. This project, which will eventually produce around 30,000 tonnes of hay per year, uses 22 pumps, 35 kilometres of mild steel pipe and associated pumping infrastructure. This article was authored by Ivan Fernandez, Industry Director, Australia & New Zealand, Industry Practice, Frost & Sullivan. For media enquiries or more information, please email djeremiah@frost.com


M INING

Mine groundwater management: more than just dewatering By John Waterhouse, Principal Hydrogeologist, Golder Associates

Managing water is crucial in avoiding costly problems in mine management. How can operators anticipate problems and achieve good groundwater management? Key issues in mine water management include depressurisation of slopes in some open pit mines, avoidance of inrushes, particularly in underground mines, and other environmental issues. Typical environmental issues requiring regulatory approval are those that may be associated with dewatering impacts and obtaining approvals for mine water discharge off a mine site. Why dewater a mine?

Mines that are developed below the water table have a potential for groundwater inflows, with such inflows varying considerably. If the inflow rate is small due to low permeability materials forming the walls of the mine, pumping to dewater the mine may not be necessary or practicable. In some situations, a simple sump to collect inflows to be pumped out might be all that is required. Such a sump would be required in any case to collect and remove stormwater. Dewatering will be required if there are likely to be inflows of groundwater at rates that affect mining operations, particularly traffic movements and blasting.

Poor trafficability due to rapid mining to a water table in clay-rich 20 materials

Traffic movements and wet blasting

If the pit floor cannot be driven over by heavy machinery because of wet materials (e.g clays that soften when driven over repeatedly) production will be affected. Soft and wet materials at and below the water table can be difficult to manage, because they may have low permeability and not be amenable to simple dewatering by pumping. In these situations, the most appropriate approach is to drain the floor by pumping from deeper permeable zones or from deep sumps. The best solution is to anticipate the problem by investigating ground conditions properly ahead of pit development. If necessary, start dewatering much earlier and perhaps reduce the vertical

rate of mining so that the groundwater conditions can accommodate ongoing traffic movements. With foresight and planning, the costs of loss of access to the pit and unnecessary sheeting of working areas with crushed rock can be avoided.

Similarly, if the water table has not been lowered ahead of production, blast holes may fill with groundwater, resulting in misfires or requiring a switch to wet blasting explosives, both at significant expense. Poor trafficability and wet blasting can typically (but not always) be managed by prior dewatering to lower the water table below the pit floor in some way. Dewatering methods include deep sumps and dewatering wells. These require planning to integrate them cost-effectively with the


M IN IN G mine plan and production schedule and will take time to construct, so they should be addressed early to avoid interruptions to mine production.

Dewatering methods

The decision to design and operate a dewatering system should be the outcome of the design process, not an initial assumption. A well-managed investigation and design program will identify the most practical and cost-effective dewatering solution and optimise equipment selection and the construction schedule. Dewatering can be achieved in several ways: • Pumped wells or deep sumps inside the pit • Pumped wells outside the pit • Free flowing drillholes inside the pit, the inflow being collected and pumped from one or more sumps • Drainage galleries with fans of drillholes • Pumping from older, deeper mine workings. All of these methods are designed to lower the water table so that mining operations can proceed in an essentially dry environment. Depending on the size of the mine and the groundwater conditions, one or more sumps will be necessary, often in parallel with pumped wells.

Issues associated with practical dewatering

Dewatering designs need to reflect what is realistic in the mine operations environment. For example, in-pit wells are almost always a challenge for mine workers. Nonetheless, in situations where they are necessary, in-pit wells can be accommodated if pit floors are large enough and the rate of mining is such that pumps can operate for many months between interruptions. Typically, in-pit wells are used in orebodies that are extremely permeable relative to the host rocks and where the

mine walls extend outside the deposit. Sometimes, in-pit wells are used, despite the logistical difficulties, where key permeable structures can be identified inside the pit. If the design process identifies the need for dewatering, designing the appropriate system is not necessarily difficult, but there are practical issues including: • access to appropriate locations to install and operate the dewatering wells • maintaining near continuous pumping at appropriate rates • accommodating changes in mine plans

manner. The alternative of creating slopes that are unnecessarily flat for the required stability may run to hundreds of millions of dollars of additional mining costs over the life of a large mine. For pits with high permeability materials in the walls, the dewatering of the mine floor may also drain and depressurise the walls. However, in many situations, wall rocks may not depressurise so easily. Examples include layered sedimentary rocks in coal mines and high permeability orebodies surrounded by lower permeability host rocks, such as many iron ore mines in Western Australia.

• designing appropriate pumping and piping systems for the likely range of pumping rates and to accommodate, at some sites, aggressive water chemistry, particularly if there are acid-generating conditions • discharging surplus water, if there is any, to the natural environment outside the mining lease, including treatment of the water if necessary.

Depressurisation of pit walls

Line of free-flowing drainholes reducing Pit slope design often depends upon groundwater pressures in a coal mine groundwater pressures in the materials wall. behind the wall. Groundwater pressures at any point are typically proportional to Dewatering Water the depth of that point below the water well table table. In practice, this means that for every 10m below the water table, the pressure increases by 98 kilopascals. The pressure is zero at the water table itself. For open-pit mines deeper than 100m, the groundwater pressures can be as high as megapascals, approaching or exceeding the strengths of some mined materials. Groundwater pressure is the only property of a rock mass that can in practice be changed by engineered activities. It is possible to lower pressures with pumped, or usually, free-flowing drillholes, in some cases allowing steeper slopes without an increased risk of failure. Some structures along which slope failures may occur have strengths that are sensitive to pressure. These may be the focus for dewatering activities. Reducing pressure is extremely important to achieve slopes without unacceptable risk of slope failure in a cost-effective

Dewatering an open pit mine by draining old, deep underground workings with an in-pit well.

Groundwater discharge issues

Dewatering and depressurisation may produce a significant volume of water. In many Australian mines, the dewatering discharge can be used at the process plant and for dust suppression on haul roads. However, in some situations there is a surplus of water which may need to be discharged. Regulatory authorities generally require the estimation of likely rates of discharge and the water quality as part of the approvals process. As government and community expectations increase, approvals for discharge to the environment are facing more scrutiny and may take more time. 21


In-pit dewatering well construction in large pit – note space required and safety bunds

Indeed, they may not necessarily be granted. For example, discharge to salt lakes, historically a common solution in Western Australia, is not automatically approved now. Large discharges of even good quality groundwater will not be acceptable in creeks and rivers that flow through arid zone national parks. Therefore, in order to develop a groundwater management plan that meets both technical requirements and prevailing environmental standards, early investigation of groundwater quality and assessment of options for water treatment, discharge or recharge is highly recommended.

Conclusion

Dewatering helps mining operations and is a hydrogeological challenge, whereas depressurisation is also a geotechnical

matter. It is fundamentally important to have a team approach so that mining engineers, mine geologists, geotechnical engineers and groundwater specialists work together to recognise and accommodate groundwater-related factors. In this way, the risk of slope failure and the associated risks to personnel and increased costs to owners can be minimised. Water discharge from mine sites cannot be taken for granted and approvals are not automatic. Like all approval processes, time will be required and sufficient allowance needs to be made for field studies, analysis and reporting. When problems develop, it is often a consequence of inadequate early thinking. Solutions to dewatering and depressurisation problems after they

have appeared are typically timeconsuming and costly. Experience shows that operators should address groundwater-related aspects of mining early in the process. The engagement of a multi-disciplinary team early in a mine’s life-cycle will benefit the owner through well thoughtout and appropriate plans, thereby offering significant cost savings. John Waterhouse is a Principal Hydrogeologist at Golder Associates in Perth. He has worked on mine dewatering and depressurisation projects across Australia and overseas for more than 30 years. He may be contacted on (08) 9213 7600 or via email at jwaterhouse@golder.com.au.

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M IN IN G

Using slurry rheology testing to assist with tailings pumping design By Dr Paul Huggett, Principal, Materials Solutions Pty Ltd

Current trends with tailings pumping often require transportation along relatively long distance pipelines. Combined with the presence of a high solids concentration, the slurry will have a high viscosity and will have a significant effect on the discharge head required for pumping. In order to more accurately determine the pipeline friction losses, it is essential to conduct slurry rheology tests on tailings samples. The rheology testing will provide information relating to the slurry viscosity at varying solids concentration, from which we can calculate the pipeline friction losses. Successful use of the right data will minimize errors in the design and selection of pipelines and pumping equipment. This article will provide a summary of the types of rheology testing that can be conducted, and how we use the data to determine the pipeline friction losses. Basic Slurry Rheology

All fluids have a specific viscosity, and the value of the viscosity will change with variations in properties such as temperature, concentration and in the case of pumping the amount of shear applied to the fluid. Fluids can be classed as having a Newtonian viscosity relationship if the viscosity is constant for changes in shear rate, or a number of other non-Newtonian types of viscous fluids, as depicted in Figure 1. Most slurries, which are typically mixtures of solid particles and water, will typically behave as Newtonian slurries when the solids concentration is below 40 to 45 weight%. As the solids concentration is thickened in modern mineral processing plants to minimize water discharge to tailings storage facilities, the slurries behave as other viscous mixtures, and either the Bingham or Hershel-Bulkley models are used to determine the pipeline friction losses. Fig 1: Types of viscous slurries

23


MINING

stress curves will have been generated, as shown in Fig 4. The various curves can then be modeled using mathematical regression analysis to provide a generalized formula or numerical expression for the calculation of the yield stress and viscosity values for any given solids concentration.

Fig 4: Series of shear rate vs shear stress curves for varying solids concentrations

Fig 2: Typical Rotating Viscometer

Slurry rheology is measured by using a few different test methods, including rotating viscometers (Fig 2), capillary tube viscometers (Fig 3), and slurry loops. All of these types of tests measure the slurry shear stress at varying shear rates, and the resulting data is then plotted on a graph to view the shape of the curve as shown in Fig 1. Weir Minerals have published an excellent guide to understanding the relationships between slurry viscosity and friction losses in pipelines [Ref 1]. This guide gives examples of how to calculate slurry friction losses for different flow regimes, known as laminar or turbulent flow. Laminar flow occurs at low shear rates, whilst turbulent flow occurs at high shear rates, and approximates more closely the friction loss model for Newtonian fluids.

Fig 3: Capillary Tube Viscometer

Once the slurry rheology testing is complete, a series of shear rate/shear

For a slurry pipeline, the shear rate within the pipe for a given flow rate is calculated from the expression: Shear Rate,γ=(8.vel)/d Equ. 1

(Units of 1/s)

where: vel = slurry velocity (m/s); d = pipe inside diameter (m) The shear stress is calculated for a given shear rate based on the mathematical model, in this case the Herschel-Bulkley model, which has the form: Shear stress= τ0+K.γn Equ. 2

(Units of Pa)

where: τ0=Yield stress(Pa); γ=shear rate(1/s); K and n are constants. The apparent viscosity for a slurry at a given flow rate is then calculated from the ratio of shear stress divided by the shear rate, with units of Pa.s.            

                                                             

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24

     


When the slurry flow is in the lamella zone, the shear stress can be used to calculate the pipe segment friction loss. When the slurry flow is in the turbulent zone, the apparent viscosity is used to calculate a modified slurry Reynolds number, which in turn is then used to calculate the equivalent Darcy friction factor for the viscous slurry. One of the advantages of using a slurry pipe loop to measure rheology is the measured pipe pressure loss values can be directly scaled to larger pipe systems, and the true change in shear stress as the flow increase through the pipe is shown. Using rotational viscometers, the shear stress relationship for pipes in the turbulent flow situation is not adequately expressed. An example of rheology test results from a slurry loop are shown in Fig 5 (overleaf).

Example Application of Slurry Rheology for a Tailings Pipeline An iron ore processing plant located in the Pilbara Region of Western Australia was undergoing a raise in the wall height for the storage facility to increase the long term capacity. A series of slurry rheology tests had been conducted and a relationship of slurry shear rate and shear stress values were determined.

Fig 6: Iron ore tails pipeline

25


MINING The data was processed to produce a mathematical model relating slurry viscosity to the solids concentration. The tails pipe line at the mine site discharged to a location approximately 7.5km from the mine processing plant. The tails pipeline consisted of a polyurethane lined steel pipe, of nominal 300mm diameter. In the example of the iron ore mine in the Pilbarra, slurry flow at approximately 40 weight % solids follows a Newtonian slurry calculation, and when the slurry is thickened to the target concentration of 50 weight % solids, the slurry has a significantly higher viscosity. Fig 5: Example of slurry rheology test results from a pipe loop.

A photo of the installed pipeline is shown in Fig 6. Slurry calculation based on the Herschel-Bulkley rheology model, and also standard Newtonian slurries were calculated for the various planned duties. The 3D pipe route and resulting pipe pressure profile is shown in Fig 7. The pipe pressure is required to be greater than the static head at any point along the pipeline.

Fig 7: 3D representation of tails pipeline. (Pump station located at bottom left of route).

26

The change in slurry viscosity for the higher solids concentration results in the total pumping head of approximately 124 metres, requiring two stage pumping. In this application, Weir Warman 6FHP high head pumps were selected for the two


Fig 8: Two stage Krebbs Mill-Max tails pumping station used for iron ore tails duty

Summary

Mining tails pumping often involve viscous slurries that have varying properties depending on the solids concentration. It is essential when conducting long distance pumping studies the slurry rheological properties are measured to enable more accurate modeling of the pipeline friction losses. Ideally slurry pipe loops should be used to measure the slurry rheology. Rotational viscometers and capillary tube viscometers will provide similar data, however the slurry loop provides a better understanding of the turbulent flow areas for the slurry. Fig 9: System resistance curve and pump duty point for iron ore tails

stage duty, each pump installed with a 280kW, 6 pole direct coupled electric motor. A second set of Krebbs Mill-max pumps were also installed for comparison trials and are shown in Fig 8. The pump duty point for the Weir Warman pump is shown in Fig 9. As part of the design process for this tails pipeline and pumping study, the existing tails duty was used to model the system, and a close correlation was found between the calculated system head loss and the actual pump discharge pressures. Having a close correlation between the calculated and measured duty provided a higher level of confidence when the final pumping duties were selected.

Care should be taken when calculating slurry pipeline friction losses for varying solids concentrations as the slurry

behavior can often change from viscous non-Newtonian to more standard settling slurries at lower solids concentrations. It is important to understand that viscous slurries can also be settling in nature. Conventional theory tends to treat viscous slurries as non-settling, however even very viscous slurries may exhibit some degree of particle settling if the pipeline is allowed to operate at very low flow rates.

References:

1. “Pumping Non-Newtonian Slurries�, Weir Minerals Technical Bulletin No. 14, Ver 2, August 2009.

About the author

Paul Huggett is the Principal Scientist/Engineer & Director at Materials Solutions Pty Ltd. Paul has over 25 years of experience and knowledge of engineering design and materials for manufacturing, mining and mineral processing industries. Areas of expertise include project management and design engineering of mining based projects, including mineral processing plants, surface and underground infrastructure, mineral processing systems and mine dewatering systems. Paul has worked on a number of overseas projects, including Obuasi Gold Mine (Ghana), Syama Gold Mine (Mali), Gosowong Gold Mine (Indonesia), Mt Muro Gold Mine (Indonesia), and Pt Koba Tin (Indonesia) and is a specialist in slurry and water pumping, hydraulics, rheology testing and troubleshooting. A major portion of work is providing specialist design engineering for tailings pumping systems for mining operations. Other areas of interest include the research and development of specialist wear materials, and Paul has an extensive knowledge of materials and materials related to manufacturing including metal alloys, ceramics, polymers and composites. 27


FO O D& B E V E RAGE

Water savings taste sweet With iconic brands such as Vegemite, Philadelphia Cream Cheese, Cadbury Dairy Milk and The Natural Confectionary Company, Kraft Foods is one of Australia’s largest and most recognised food manufacturers. The company manufactures its products across six sites located throughout Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. As part of the company’s commitment to reduce water and energy consumption, Kraft Foods embarked on a substantial water conservation project at the Scoresby site in Victoria, which manufactures The Natural Confectionary Company products.

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e-circulating water via upgraded heat exchangers and valves and through vacuum pumps and pump seals, the site reduced water consumption in one manufacturing area by 30%, whilst in an older section of the plant two refrigeration systems were combined to make one more efficient system. This resulted in the removal of an old, inefficient chiller and a more efficient multi-stack unit being installed. In addition, one cooling tower was removed, reducing water consumption of the refrigeration plants by 60%.

solution had to satisfy.

Thanks to the above initiatives, the Scoresby site has saved more than 10 megalitres of water in the 12 months to March 2012 – a 9.4% reduction in total water consumption.

The pumps are being monitored with a pressure sensor and the operator checks on pressure and temperature.

Staff at the Scoresby site have been instrumental in identifying and implementing the above initiatives and continue to work closely with management to further reduce the site’s water and energy consumption. Pump Industry magazine spoke to the engineers involved in the project, who identified reliability, energy efficiency and price as the key concerns that any 28

They used a Grundfos CR3-5 vertical multistage pump with a 0.37kw, 3/415/50Hz motor. The pumps was 250kpa and 20L/min. In selecting the pumps, the engineers provided the vendors with the expected head pressure and required flow rate. Price, commonality with other pumps on site and delivery time were identified as the main factors in their decision, with price taking into account a long term view of energy efficiency and running costs.

This project showed how much can be achieved with small changes and involved just two small water circuits. Each circuit consisted of a small tank, then a heat exchanger, then the water is used to make the seal in the vacuum pumps. The water is then returned to the tank to do another lap. The water in the tank is dumped every 24 hours by the operator and refilled via a ball valve.

The project was done totally in house by the environmental engineer and a contracting plumber. Electrical field wiring was done by a contracting electrician the chilled water pipe was insulated by a contractor. A minor amount of PLC programming as done by another contractor to insure the water circulator pump started and the chilled water valve opened prior to the vacuum pumps starting. The project achieved recognition as a finalist in the savewater! awards. Alison Dilger, ANZ Environment Manager at Kraft Foods Australia Pty Ltd believes water efficiencies have been made possible by a dedicated team working across various projects at the Scoresby site. “As a food company, we are especially dependent on the environment for the raw materials used to make our products so we continually look for ways to minimise our consumption of water and energy, so it is extremely rewarding to share our achievements and have them recognised as a savewater! awards finalist”, says Ms Dilger.


FOOD & BEV ER AG E

Pump maintenance for monks Westmalle Abbey in Belgium belongs to the Cistercian Order, commonly referred to as ‘the Trappists’, after the Normandy abbey of La Trappe. A monk’s life is primarily a life of prayer, but it is also a life in community and a life of work. The main source of income for Westmalle is brewing beer. Though they still help in the process, the monks leave the main work to professionals. We talk to Rudi Wuyts, Head of Maintenance.

When was the brewery set up?

I think it was set up in 1836 by the monks, though there were no real records kept from that time. In the Benedictine tradition, monks traditionally eat and drink the local food of the region wherever they live. The Trappist monks came originally from France where they drink wine, but here in Westmalle in Belgium the local drink is beer, so they started brewing beer. Their rule of ‘Ora et Labora’ (prayer and work) meant that they recognized the value of work in their lives. Originally they did not sell the beer, they just brewed it for their own use. But soon the people of the region wanted to buy it, and so a source of income was also developed and things started rolling. Approximately 80% is sold in Flanders and almost 20% in Holland. In many

other countries you can buy the beer, but only in very small amounts. The fact that a beer is brewed in an abbey and the tradition around that, makes it a desirable product.

What do you do in an average week?

That is unpredictable! We employ about 42-45 people and the maintenance crew is responsible for all installations in the brewery. Part of the work is planned, but we also do some engineering e.g., preparing for new installations, looking for a new brew house or maybe a new fermentation cellar. Otherwise, when something breaks down my six colleagues and I repair it, and we try to prevent unwanted stops. I spend a lot of time behind my desk too, doing computer work.

Is the brewing done in batches?

The brewing itself is a boiling system so it does not need to be cleaned every time between batches. We normally make three brews a day, starting at five o’clock in the morning and we finish at 19.30 or 20.30 in the evening. After the third brew there is usually a cleaning programme for one of the sections: so one day we clean the boiling kettles another day we clean the cooling system or the maize filter. We have a programme to clean everything within a week but this applies only to the hot system, where the danger of infection is low because of the high temperatures involved in the process there. The pumps in our boiling system are boiler circulating pumps made by the Belgian company Deplechin. 29


FOOD & B E V E R AG E How many pumps in the brewery overall? I never counted them exactly but I would estimate about 50 to 60 pumps. The basic design for about 80% of the pumps is centrifugal, though we have all kinds of other pumps such as positive displacement pumps, rotary lobe monopumps called worm pumps, small dosing membrane pumps, vacuum pumps etc. We have three vacuum pumps in the brewery; one for the de-gassing of the yeast. We harvest the yeast from the fermentation cellar in manual tanks but there is a lot of CO2 in the yeast, so it needs de-gassing before it is pumped into a vessel. We also use vacuum pumps for the bottling installation. Every bottle is vacuumed twice and filled with CO2 before bottling to prevent air getting into the beer, otherwise it oxidizes very quickly and then it becomes less tasty. We also have an unusual ship-propeller type pump used in the bottle-cleaning machine for label extraction. The impeller in the pump is as big as the propeller of a ship and intended to create a very strong fluid flow to get the labels off the bottles for re-use. We handle 45,000 bottles an hour. This is not the biggest pump we have, as the motor is something like 3 KW. The pump itself is big but it is not a large motor. Our biggest pump is a backwash pump to clean a filter, with a capacity of 200 cubic meters per hour, used to clean some membranes in a filter machine. The smallest pump we have is a tiny hose pump for use in the laboratory. The hygienic design on all pumps is very important especially for everything in the cold process. After the brew house, the next stage

30

is a cold process to eliminate germs and infections. In this cold stage, the pump is cleaned after each batch, so the sanitary design is very important with these pumps. The most dangerous part of the process is the cooling down after the brew house boiling to 20C until the end of the fermentation process. Everything has to be very clean. All pumps are cleaned in place (CIP), we don’t use steam in place (SIP) anymore, with the exception of the propagation unit for a new yeast culture every year. That is steamed in place as it has to be very sterile, to prevent the mixture of old and new yeast.

Do you have any planned downtimes?

Not in the brew house, as the demand for our beer is too high. This means that we have to brew all year round. So everything that has to be repaired is done in the weekends, but in the bottling plant we have a total stop every year for a week.

How much pump maintenance is needed to keep the place going?

This depends on the pump. Some are not repaired for ten years. We have some wells 70 meters deep and use SP pumps for pumping the water out of the soil. We put the first Grundfos pump in 1993 and they were only replaced in 2008, so that is 15 years of use without problems. We only took them out because we needed bigger pumps, not because they had failed in any way. So we bought newer bigger Grundfos pumps. New pumps are foreseen with monitoring equipment but back then there was no such thing yet those pumps

did the job all the same. Predictive monitoring is used on very important machines like a separator that turns 4000 rotations per minute for the centrifugal effect in handling beer. These pumps are monitored with vibration sensors, but not the normal daily use pumps. For the most critical pumps we have one back-up pump. Mostly we do our own maintenance, but when we have to stop the bottling plant for a week, we may have too many repairs to do and we may contract others in to help, usually from the suppliers of the machines, so we may have the original equipment supplier OEM people coming to help as they have the best knowledge of their own equipment. Grundfos mostly covers cold and hot water. For the beer and the cold stage processing, it is mostly Alfa Laval. For the hot stage we have Deplechin, KSB pumps are used for the cleaning systems of bottle cleaners and wastewater, with Flygt underwater pumps for wastewater. As for vacuum pumps we use Sterling pumps. Every pump has a lifetime, so you have to decide at a certain moment whether we are going to revamp the pump or are we going to buy a new one. When old parts are still available and the pump is reliable and would work for another 10 years if serviced, we will choose that option. From time to time the manufacturer will say that a pump is not supported anymore, that they have a new type of pump, then I will decide whether it is wise to keep the old pump in operation. I look at the yearly costs of maintaining that pump as against the cost of a new pump, where you probably have no maintenance for five or six years. We have a Real Software maintenance package for tracing costs called Rimsis, but we don’t use that very often as most pumps are part of a machine or process, so after many years you either buy a new machine or install a new process, you don’t change parts of the process or machines. A bottling plant is there for twenty years and after that you replace it with a new one. We are now looking to build a new brew house and a new fermentations cellar in the next five or ten years due to the need for renewal. We can make approximately 125,000 hectoliters a year. We can do that now, but it means using the full 100% capacity of the brewery with no time for maintenance. A little spare capacity would be very welcome. So we are looking to plan a new brew house and yeast cellar to make it possible to have more down-time for maintenance.


About Westmalle Abbey

What are the most important pump lessons you have learned? A pump has to be well calculated and well designed for the future you want for it. When you put the wrong pump in the wrong place, it is always a problem. You have to carefully look to buy the right type and capacity of the pump. Getting a pump that is too big is as bad as getting one that is too small, so we always work in dialogue with the supplier. I am not a pump specialist, I do not calculate pumps myself, and so I always rely on the expertise of the supplier. I just give the pressure, temperature and volume figures to him and ask him to select the right pump for that function. I would like to see us triple the capacity and produce the same volume, so that we have plenty of time for maintenance work.

The first monks came from the Normandy monastery of La Trappe. During the French Revolution they fled the anticlerical climate and after many wanderings, a group of monks arrived in Antwerp, where they intended to leave for America. However, the then Bishop of Antwerp asked them to stay in his diocese, granting them a small farm called “Never Rest”. In 1836 the monastery became an abbey.

You need more time to keep everything up to the state of the art. It is the same for non-abbey breweries, there is too much production and too little time to attend to the machinery involved.

What is it like working for monks?

I cannot say really as I have been working here for thirty years and this was my first job! This article first appeared in Pump Engineer and is used with permission. Visit www.pumpengineer.net for more.

When pump knowledge matters...

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FO O D & B E V E RAGE

Solutions for the food industry As food and meat industries seek to increase production efficiency, improved methods for moving solids-laden wastewater and slurries have been needed. Historically, this has been accomplished through the use the “non-clog” pump, where a recessed or open impeller passes large solids through the pump. However, experience has proven that the name “non-clog” does not mean the pump won’t clog. In many cases, especially where the solids size may be larger than the passages through a non-clog pump, or where long stringy materials are present, a more aggressive approach, such as a chopper pump, is needed.

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eveloped and manufactured by Vaughan Company, Inc. (USA), the Vaughan Chopper Pump is the world’s leading chopper pump for handling debris-laden wastewater. Using a patented chopping action, the Vaughan chopper pumps chops material into smaller, more manageable pieces as it enters the suction. Depending on the number of impeller vanes, shaft rotational speed, and discharge flow, large solids are chopped into varying sizes from 3 to 50 millimetres before passing through the pump. Vaughan chopper pumps should not be confused with other types and brands of non-clog, chopper, grinder, macerator or cutter pumps on the market, which are generally not designed to cope with severe solids loadings. Following are some of the key benefits of using a Vaughan chopper pump: • Positive chopping allows large, troublesome material to pass through the pump, eliminating downstream plugging of valves, heat exchangers, nozzles or other pumps. • A single Vaughan chopper pump can replace two pieces of equipment; i.e. a comminutor (or pre-grinder) and a “non-clog” pump, resulting in much

Horizontal pump suction

32

lower maintenance costs. • Vaughan chopper pumps can handle solids that no other pump can handle. Chopping material at the pump produces a more homogeneous slurry and reduces pipeline friction. • The heavy-duty sealing and bearing system incorporated in each Vaughan pump reduces down time by withstanding the heavy workload and associated forces of chopping and pumping solids reliably. • All main wearing parts are heat treated to a minimum of Rockwell 60C hardness for impact and abrasion resistance to provide extended service life in most applications. • Over 50 years of solids pumping experience and unmatched product reliability has allowed Vaughan Co. to guarantee the non-clog performance of every chopper pump sold. Typical applications where Vaughan chopper pumps have shown excellent results include:

Seafood Industry

Chopping and pumping of fish wastes, entrails, scales, heads, tails and carcasses, mussels and crab shells. A Vaughan chopper pump can chop and pump large solids such as entire fish carcasses, which typically cause binding or damage to generic pumps.

Meat Processing

Chopping and pumping abattoir waste and plant effluent containing paunch material, fleshings and hide, wool, blood, bone, ears and face pieces, offal and casing threads, fat and other waste materials from the processing floor.

Poultry Industry

Vaughan chopper pumps are ideal for minimising and eliminating maintenance time on processing systems that get clogged with chicken and turkey feathers, blood, carcasses, gut, legs, feet and other waste by-products.

Fruit and Vegetable Processing

Chopping and pumping of process effluent containing carrots, potatoes, lettuces, tomatoes, apples, corncobs and husks, pumpkin shells and beans etc. Vaughan chopper pumps are available for flow rates up to around 880 L/s and heads up to 70 metres, and can be supplied in a range of configurations to suit almost any process or installation including vertical wet well, horizontal end suction, vertical dry pedestal, submersible and self-priming.

Corn wastes

For further information on Vaughan Chopper Pumps, please contact the Vaughan Authorised Distributor for Australia and New Zealand – Pump Systems Ltd on 1800 121 452, or visit www.chopperpumps.com.au.


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33


B A LA NCING

Long term costs in the balance I

During difficult financial times the pressure is always on reducing costs wherever possible. Elements of design, engineering and quality are often compromised in order to achieve cost savings. Whilst it is always important to be prudent and invest wisely, it is crucial that equipment and machine reliability are not overlooked as the short term cost savings will quickly be outweighed by the longer term cost of having equipment that does not perform and is in need of constant maintenance.

mbalance of rotating components is one of the most common sources of machine faults in rotating assemblies, pumps and fans, and is a major cause of complete equipment failure. Equipment failures can have dramatic impact on a plant’s production and manufacturing commitments. This can be critical especially as up to half of electric motor breakdowns are caused by damaged bearings, due mostly to the vibration occurred by the rotors imbalance. The upfront capital expense of an engineering project can be the principal driver with ongoing operational concerns coming a distant second. A recent example of this was a series of pumps supplied to a major infrastructure project in Victoria. The pumps were sourced from Europe and were not compliant with the specification in terms of the surface coating. The impellers showed early signs of deterioration even before the units were installed. The pumps had to be stripped down and refurbished and the impellers had to be re-balanced. Industrial balancing and vibration

analysis on rotating machinery enables the early detection of faults before breakdown, and assists commercial and industrial facilities reduce their maintenance costs and unscheduled downtime. Industrial balancing is often only a small part of any overall equipment or machine assembly procedure. Another recent example was a two piece fan impeller which frequently needed rebalancing, it was only when we discovered that to fit the impeller to the fan the impeller had to be removed from the central hub (which had no specific locating devices such as a machined step and locating dowels) which of course renders the balance process useless. A subsequent design revision and updates to the fitting procedure resulted in ongoing reliability and a happy customer. It is critical not to consider various stages of equipment or machine assembly in isolation. It is very important that one person has a complete understanding of all aspects of the design and assembly. Whether industrial balancing a pump impeller, fan or drive shaft; small or large,

the process should be completed to a recognised international standard. This ensures balance quality and data consistency to ensure the item is correctly balanced within specified tolerances. The International Standards Organization (ISO) publishes several standards which are the global benchmark for industrial balancing. The main one of these standards is ISO 1940-1:2003 Mechanical vibration -- Balance quality requirements for rotors in a constant (rigid) state. Balancing can improve your pump and equipment reliability, and lengthen service life. Simply put products with unbalanced parts often have a shorter service life. Precision Balancing has been offering in house and on site dynamic balancing and vibration analysis services since 1989 and have the equipment, skills and experience to satisfy your industrial balancing requirements. Precision Balancing strictly adhere to the requirements of the relevant ISO standard, and all jobs are tracked through our system and are issued with a certificate of compliance.

Balance Matters! Imbalance is a common source of faults in rotating assemblies, pumps and fans.

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M A NU FACT U RING

The state of pump manufacturing The decline in manufacturing in Australia has been the most fundamental change affecting the pump industry in the past generation, and one of the most fundamental changes across the entire economy. Recent news of plant closures for Ford and Glaxo Smith Kline, among others, further confirms the difficulties faced by this sector. The pump industry has been transformed by these changes, and in the place of manufacturers many representative and service companies have emerged. However, there are still some companies who maintain a strong manufacturing base in Australia and we take this opportunity to speak with them.

T

hose continuing to manufacture locally range from large-scale operations as seen at companies like Weir Minerals and Mono NOV, to smaller specialised manufacturers such as United and Sterling making customised solutions. All these companies see their local capacity as a distinct advantage. Rather than trying to compete on price, Australian manufacturers are focussed on quality, reliability, expertise and aftersales service. According to Anton Merry of Sterling Pumps, “because of the specialised nature of our product there are not many manufacturers globally. Our customers want to work directly with

the manufacturer to develop the correct specification and supply for their project.”

well as being able to repair what we manufacture.”

Ron Astall of United Pumps highlighted being able to respond rapidly to customers requirements and having the flexibility to design and manufacture special items to order rather than relying on the output of an overseas factory. He noted that customers “really appreciate being able to obtain local support and talk directly to the manufacturer’s team.”

Maurice Calderon of NOV Mono agreed that aftermarket support - “to know that they are dealing with the manufacturer, who can turn over product quickly enough when it needs repair or needs to be sourced” - was key and that customers were prepared to pay a premium for that level of service.

This was echoed by Michael Bate of Batescrew, saying “They can pick up the phone and speak with the designer, manufacturer and repairer. Being close means we’re handy for extras and changes to supply contract, as

According to Julie Truss - Product Manager, Slurry Pumps at Weir Minerals, “manufacturing Warman pumps in Australia allows us to receive quicker feedback from customers to our Australian based engineering and design teams to make any alterations or improvements

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Efficiency Improvement Reconditioning Restore Clearances Re-Engineering

Inspection and trouble-shooting Case build up and re-machining Axial split case facing and reboring Axial thrust balancing Shaft and bearing upgrades Mechanical Seal upgrades to API 682 Custom Spare Parts Rotating Element balancing ASME & AS1210 qualified welding Hydrostatic Testing ISO 9001 CERTIFIED

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MA N UFAC T UR I N G as required. Local R&D trial development, employee retention, job creation, lead-time and on time delivery are differentiators for us, all enabled due to our local manufacturing facilities. “Most importantly, manufacturing locally allows Weir Minerals to ensure the highest safety standards are met, including our zero harm policy for all employees, while ensuring that our manufacturing practices meet and exceed environmental standards and expectations. “All Weir Minerals products are developed and manufactured to the highest possible standard, regardless of where they are produced, however our local customers do enjoy shorter lead times and a greater level of customisation and quality guarantee on Australian manufactured products. “By basing our manufacturing and service centres locally to the major mining regions, we are able to quickly and easily respond to urgent requests, Instalation of Sterling 6.6kv submersible pump on FPSO

eg. emergency shutdown, and project variations as the customer requires them. One other benefit of local manufacturing is that our customers are welcome to visit our pump manufacturing facilities and inspect the product through all stages of development, build and testing.”

Challenges

Everyone I spoke to was distinctly aware of the challenges, with the high Australian dollar and other local costs such as the impact of government regulation, energy cost, labour costs, transportation costs and the availability of skilled labour all being mentioned. The challenge from overseas markets is clear, with both Asian and US markets representing a threat. According to Merry, “Australia has an innovative and flexible manufacturing industry that attracts customers, but they are being pushed back to US suppliers on a cost basis” Astall agreed, saying “We need to maintain a point of differentiation

through better products and/or better support. The large overseas factories will always have an economy of scale advantage for relatively standard products.” KSB highlighted the challenge from cheap yet unreliable imports from Asia. Another key challenge is as more manufacturing moves offshore, it is becoming harder for remaining manufacturers to source needed items. According to Calderon, “items that we used to source from local vendors, such as castings and electrical components have now moved offshore, so we now need to create a new supply chain to better anticipate future demand and stock accordingly.” Bate agreed that the dwindling supply of critical items, lack of basic bar stocks as agents no longer hold stock was a problem.

Solutions

The pump industry has plenty of clear and constructive suggestions for what can be done. Merry said that, “a drop in the AUD would be a big help. Skilled labour is hard to find both in the trades and engineering. We need to train more people in Australia and we need a better training cost structure and incentive for manufacturers to take on apprentices and graduates.” The loss of skilled workers was also a concern for Bate who emphasised the need to stem the tide of baby boomers giving up business and not handing over to the upcoming generation. Astall highlighted the need to “educate our customers to appreciate the genuine advantages and equipment life cycle savings that flow from local support.” Other suggestions included a better government support for small to medium Australian owned manufactures, including encouraging Australian business and government authorities to purchase Australian made, particularly the loopholes which often leave local manufacturers locked out of major projects. One suggestion from KSB was to institute a points system for local content when evaluating tenders. Calderon says that, “If Australia needs to define itself as a country that is to pursue manufacturing, then we are not going to win on cost leadership, Asia has long won that, we need to focus our attention on absolute innovation, cutting edge technology and adding value to what we do well.”

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M AN U FACTU RIN G

He said that if we can do this we can “charge a premium, maintain a presence and continue to produce and innovate. Once you take that offshore, the expertise is lost.” While none of the companies I spoke to suggested bringing back tariffs, some of the industry pioneers still lament this change. However Calderon rejects this, “tariffs isolate you from the world, often innovation comes from accessing resources overseas and reconfiguring them.”

Exports

Many local manufacturers have also had success exporting their products and expertise. Sterling exports to Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and several other countries. Sterling Australian manufactured pumps are now installed in many process plants, FPSO and oil and gas platforms. A recent significant project for Sterling was the design manufacture and supply of 3 super duplex service water pumps 185kw 6.6kv to a significant now FPSO manufactured in Malaysia. According to Merry, “this type of pump poses many engineering challenges, and we are proud to be one of only a handful of companies in the world to be able to design and manufacture this specialised equipment in house as a complete unit.” Weir Minerals exports locally manufactured products throughout the world, including Asia, with sales in the region making up to 20 per cent of our total sales. They also export to other Weir Minerals locations in Chile, Brazil, UK, USA, South Africa, Russia, China and Europe. Throughout the last few years, they have been supplying large quantities of equipment for international projects, including their largest ever single pump order worth over US$16 million for the Taganito Nickel Project, Philippines. United Pumps exports to New Zealand, PNG, SE Asia, with Astall noting “most of our success in SE Asia has been due to our ability to custom engineer solutions that the larger overseas companies do not want to address or cannot be bothered with due to the small local market size.” Batescrew exports according to contracts won from different countries, “Malaysia flood mitigation has been an ongoing outlet for our pumps”. NOV Mono’s solar pumps are exported all around the world including to Africa, Asia and the Americas.

A Melbourne-manufactured, United API 610 double case refinery crude charge pump for a Philippines Oil Refinery with a force feed lube oil set.

The future

Despite the challenges, people were generally optimistic about the future. While some companies expected the maintain the same levels of manufacturing, others were predicting growth, but none expect to go backwards. “Sterling intends to strengthen its Australian manufacturing base. We

have invested heavily in CNC machinery, purpose built manufacturing facilities and testing facilities. We see a great future in Australian pump design and manufacture” United Pumps, Batescrew and NOV Mono all agreed they expect to continue to manufacturing more in Australia.

About our interviewees Batescrew

Batescrew manufactures completely in Australia and products include Axial Flow Pump and Lineshaft driven turbines and Channel Control Gate Valves. Batescrew employs 32 people with eight apprentices

KSB

KSB is a multi-national organisation and employs approximately 16,000 permanent staff across the globe. Their workforce in Australia is approximately 140 strong. They do not manufacture any pumps locally any more but produce solutions ie., complete skid mounted pump packages with their own range of centrifugal pumps supplied from all over the world.

NOV Mono

NOV Mono manufactures a range of pump equipment, specialising in progressive cavity pumps and solar pumps and employs 150 people locally

Sterling Pumps

Manufactures submersible pumps and motors, and vertical turbine pumps. Specialising in Super Duplex and Zeron 100. Sterling employs 18 people, all with specialist skill sets.

United Pumps

United manufactures Custom Engineered Centrifugal pumps for the oil & gas industries and employs 35 people

Weir Minerals

Weir Minerals is a global company that manufactures many quality products around the world. We maintain a strong local presence in our several Australian manufacturing facilities, where we produce Cavex® Hydrocyclones, Vulco® Mill Linings, Linatex® Screen Media, Linatex® Hose, and Aspir™ Centrifuges. To this day, Warman® Centrifugal Slurry Pumps, first developed in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia in 1938, are still designed and manufactured in locally. Weir Minerals employs approximately 1,000 staff locally. 37


M A NU FACT U RING

Innovation in hose making For over 27 years, Crusader Hose has manufactured layflat hose in Bayswater, an industrial area in Melbourne. This singular focus has enabled continual innovation in the product and Crusader is regularly called upon to supply quick and customised hose solutions in situations from bushfires to mine dewatering. This development has also resulted in a 100 per cent Australian-made product being exported to many countries around the world.

C

rusader Hose is 100% Australianowned, and the benefit for local industry is that many materials and tooling is sourced from suppliers in the area. When Crusader gets an order, this has a flow on effect through whole range of local businesses. While so much manufacturing has moved offshore, Crusader has maintained their position by being able to offer customised products for many situations. Each customer’s requirements are different and may require hoses of varying lengths, diameters, different fluids and meeting different specifications. By producing all products locally, Crusader can quickly adapt and customise to the project’s exact needs. Francois Steverlynck, the Managing Director, commented, “if we were importing product, we’d need a pretty huge shed to store all the varieties needed, it just wouldn’t be possible – there is no one-size fits all.”

Customisation

Francois feels that being local, plus the innovation philosophy, has been a big factor in the company’s success. Crusader staff rise to the new challenge that each specific project presents, and they enjoy nothing more than delivering above expectations and seeing the client happy.

Past and future

Manufacturing process

The hose is manufactured in a two-step process in Bayswater. First, the weaving looms interlock yarns of tight polyester fabric. The tight polyester fabric is designed to handle high pumping pressures with minimal friction loss. Second is the extrusion process to cover woven fabric with polyurethane. This PU cover and liner ensures maximum abrasion, corrosion and chemical resistance. The cover is also UV treated so that the hose can be left outdoors without concern for cracking. The client therefore gets a hose that is easy to roll up, handle and move around during pumping operations. 38

Crusader has continually innovated and adapted since it started manufacturing woven canvas fire hose in 1985. As demand for fire hose waned, the company developed new products which today has placed it at the forefront of the worldwide capability of layflat technology. The process of innovation is continuing to this day and the latest product under development is a 12 inch layflat hose for mine dewatering. This development will service the needs of customers who otherwise would have required fixed lines, such as HDPE poly pipe, in order to transfer water.


Case Study – Deep Submersible Pump Installation

Around 2009 Think Water, from Bunbury Western Australia, secured the major project of extracting ground water from 40 bores on behalf of Wesfarmers Coal in Collie, WA. The bores at the mine were all of various depths which ranged from 200m to 250m and submersible pumps of 90kW to 150kW were used to lower the groundwater at this site. Dilemma: Non standard depths & varying pump sizes Solution: Flexibore 125mm Diameter extra heavy duty developed and manufactured Crusader Hose developed an extra high pressure hose for this application and had it tested at an independent NATA laboratory for verification and quality purposes. Once all tests passed, the hose was approved by the consultants for use at the mine. Wesfarmers were very pleased to get the hose in customised lengths for each bore, as this eliminated any wastage.

WATERLORD

MINE DEWATERING HOSE

Australia’s leading manufacturer of layflat hose

22 Industry Place Bayswater VIC 3153 Australia Telephone: +61 3 9720 1100 Email: sales@crusaderhose.com.au

www.crusaderhose.com.au 39


WA ST E WAT E R

Revolutionary new technology for the wastewater industry NOV Mono has announced the launch of a major new technology which is set to revolutionize the wastewater industry. The InviziQ™ Pressure Sewer System (PSS) delivers enhanced performance, increased reliability and greater durability than conventional alternatives, and allows sewerage systems to be implemented in areas where they were not previously practical.

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he innovative InviziQ system does not need gravity to operate, and it offers controlled removal of waste water in a far more efficient footprint than conventional sewerage systems. This allows customers to create waste water systems in more areas than ever before, providing unlimited sewering possibilities in areas which have previously proved challenging – from rocky terrain to coastal areas and everything in between. This highly-engineered InviziQ system features an advanced Dry Well design that makes it unique in the PSS market. Unlike conventional alternatives that place the motor inside the wet area of the tank amid the raw sewerage, the InviziQ motor is located in a ‘dry’ compartment at the top of the system. This dry, compartmentalized design greatly simplifies maintenance operations and removes the need for entry into a confined space. Along with other safeguards it also minimizes the risk of anyone falling into an exposed unit. David West, Sales and Marketing Director at NOV Mono, states: “Mono’s experienced development team in Australia has created a truly advanced alternative for the PSS market. Its feature-rich design and holistic approach to engineering and performance means that the InviziQ represents a genuine step change for the industry. With its telemetry ready enhanced controller, InviziQ sets an entirely new standard for PSS technology. “One feature that really delivers on durability is the system’s cutting-edge, Mono Sense solid-state level sensor. This provides far greater reliability than traditional mechanical float/air level alternatives, which are subject to failure due to exposure to raw sewerage. Mono Sense has no moving parts and is designed to provide trouble-free performance for the life of the unit.” 40

When it comes to telemetry and network monitoring, the PCB-based design of the InviziQ offers adaptable software which can be used to program upgrades, run diagnostics or self-monitor to ensure system protection. This allows the unit to not only meet the demands of today’s operators, but also those of tomorrow. The control platform features two-way telemetry to support remote monitoring, and allows multiple InviziQ systems to be linked to create an expanded infrastructure with centralized network management. This results in outstanding system performance, better network control and improved reliability, no matter how many units are connected together. The impressive performance and enhanced reliability of the InviziQ system are down to Mono’s industry-leading progressing cavity pump technology which lies at its heart. Mono’s proven track record of designing and developing engineered solutions stretches back over 75 years and has resulted in the worldclass range of pumps, grinders, screens and packaged pumping systems which the company offers today. David West, Sales and Marketing Director at NOV Mono, adds “InviziQ is a product of Australian design, engineering and manufacturing at its finest. We have developed a system that can deliver the utmost performance and reliability no matter where our customers are building. We have engineered the system so our customers can simply set our tanks in the ground and forget about them. While the system illustrates our global ethos of ‘Smart Under Pressure’, Australians can also be proud that it’s a result of ‘Innovation Down Under.” For more information on the new InviziQ™ PSS technology, visit www.inviziq.com


Smart under pressure. NOV Mono’s Pressure Sewer System gives you the freedom to build and operate wherever you want – without worrying about sewering restrictions, slope requirements, environmental concerns or difficult terrains. Choose your location, determine your sightline and build on your terms. The revolutionary InviziQ™ Pressure Sewer System allows people to sewer in more areas than ever before. Since our technology doesn’t rely on gravity, and it offers controlled removal of sewage in a more efficient footprint than conventional sewage systems, it provides unlimited sewering possibilities. InviziQ™ offers Dry Well design, the first and only PSS alternative providing clean access to the system motor and other working parts of the unit – delivering performance, reliability, safety and more durability than any other system available. Learn more at www.inviziq.com NOV Mono Carrum Downs, Victoria, Australia 1800 333 138 ozsales@nov.com

www.inviziq.com

ph: 1800 333 138

41


WA ST E WAT E R

Pump failure contingencies in action at Sydney Water By Paul White, Team Leader - Program Management and Technical Support, Sydney Water

Sydney Water operates and maintains 680 Sewerage Pumping Stations (SPS) and 164 Water Pumping Stations (WPS) in the Sydney, Blue Mountains and Illawarra areas. It is one of the world’s largest operator of pumping stations, reflecting the hilly terrain of the Sydney Basin, particularly on the coastline and rivers.

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he early types of pumping stations were mainly of ‘conventional’ type (horizontal or vertical centrifugal pumps with coupled motors, or dry submersible-type pumps) housed in a dry well with an outer wet well for a SPS or on a platform next to a reservoir for a WPS. Apart from the conventional type pumping stations there are also different types of SPS’s. There was SPS

‘ejector’ types using compressed air to push sewage up the SPS pressure main, but these became obsolete and all have been replaced. Sydney Water was the first in Australia to use ’vacuum’ SPS’s in low, flat, high-water table areas that uses a vacuum to suck sewage from small pits located near houses and taken to the SPS. However, the majority of current SPS’s are of a ‘submersible’ type, using pumps located within a circular wet well to pump the sewage up the pressure main. The size of these pumping stations varies enormously from small of only a few litres per second pumped to large stations pumping many hundreds of litres per second. Typically, an SPS has two pumps (one duty and one standby) whilst a WPS will have two to four pumps (one to three duty and the remainder standby). The stations are unmanned and can be in remote locations. The pumps are the most important equipment of the pumping station, with its function to pump the water or sewage from a low collection point to a higher discharge point like a water reservoir or a sewerage trunk main. The stations have in normal circumstances redundancy in that if the duty pump fails then the standby pump will automatically takeover the pumping duty. Failure is detected using IICATS (a 24/7 telemetry alarm and control system). If the standby pump does not start (due to a fault, is already offline for repairs, there is supply power failure) then there is a period of detention time. Detention time is the capacity of the wet well and incoming

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sewerage main matched against the sewage inflow (inflow varies considerably at different times of the day) for a SPS. For a WPS it is the water reservoir capacity matched against customer water consumption. Detention time is the period before sewage overflow or loss of water supply will occur to allow a breakdown response crew to attend the pump failure and effect repair. Sydney Water has installed at a large number of pumping stations additional safeguards such as emergency storage tanks to greatly increase detention time, on-site gas powered emergency bypass pumps, on-site electrical generators or dual power supplies. If the pump fault repairs are likely to exceed available detention time, and there are no additional safeguards, then Sydney Water declares an Incident and implements the most appropriate contingency action to avoid sewage overflow or a loss of water supply. There are different types of contingency action for pump failures and each pumping station needs to be assessed for the most suitable action to be implemented. All the pumping stations in Sydney Water have site specific contingency plans that contain relevant technical details (pump head, inflow and required pumped flow rate, pump motor KW rating, pump type/model number and relevant drawings), if bypass pump fittings are installed, the nominated tanker collection/discharge points, suitability for mobile generator connection


WASTEWATER or a packaged diesel pump. The Incident Site Manager selects the most appropriate contingency action based on the contingency plan and experience. Previously the most common contingency action for failed SPS pumps or even power failures was using tankers. Similar in size to a large petrol tanker (about 22,000 litres capacity), these

tankers with its on-board pump are used to suck up the sewage from a collection point and then transport it to another sewerage system area for controlled discharge. Unfortunately this has significant limitations, such as sometimes the small on-board tanker pump is unable to overcome static head (generally greater than 5 metres) to lift the sewage for collection. Or due to the large SPS inflow too many tankers are required that create a logistical problem. A mobile diesel pump can be brought in to provide better lifting capability, but again there remains some limitations on ability to lift the sewage (greater than 10 metres). A submersible pump if able to be brought

in and temporarily installed within the SPS wet well is a better proposition to feed the tankers as it has no lift limitations. Better again and now the most preferred contingency action, is to have a temporary installed submersible pump having its discharge pipe connected to a purpose-built plate installed on the SPS or WPS pressure main. This bypass pump fitting plate has a camlock connector,

reflux and stop valves welded in-line and attaches to the pressure main, typically above the pressure main reflux valve. This action can provide bypass pump indefinitely with minimal ongoing monitoring, unlike using tankers. Tankers cannot be used for WPS failures, nor bypass pumps and local rezoning of the water supply network by operators can provide water to affected customers. It remains that the easiest, least expensive, and most reliable method to ensure pumping ability of the pumps at a pumping station is to perform appropriate preventative maintenance (particularly for large pumps), monitor operating performance (to detect partial chokes,

noisy or hot bearings, excessive gland seal leaks) and to effect speedy repairs to reduce the out of service time. For power failures, a suitable mobile generator can be used at the pumping station site with a quick connection box installed at most pumping station sites. It is important to consider both start-up current and running current requirements when selecting the mobile generator. From fairly humble beginnings of locating spare bypass pumps and piping at various sites in its area of operation, Sydney Water now has a much more sophisticated centralised contingency and bypass pump equipment storage at its Potts Hill Centralised Warehouse. There are various sized mobile packaged pump units, starters and generators on trailers complete with correct-sized piping and pipe joiners. It is general protocol to only use these units for a few days when needed in an Incident and then returned to the Warehouse to ensure availability. Equipment hire of this equipment is used if there is need for this type of equipment greater than a few days at the sites. There are also maintained bypass pumps, almost all of the submersible type, of various sizes and pumping duties to match the variances in Sydney Water pumping stations. These are arranged in a numbered grid pattern to facilitate easy identification, enough space for pump movement and to enable regular preventative maintenance. The aim is to ensure rapid access, easy identification, establish equipment suitability and then service reliability once installed in an Incident. As can be seen, there is much preparation to undertake a swift continuation of the pumping function at our pumping stations when faults develop to ensure continuing customer service and to protect the environment.

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WA ST E WAT E R

Sewer pump station power outage protection The norm for the protection of the surrounding environment from a sewage overflow at a sewer pump station during a power outage is to install a generator. This approach is dated and not the best overall solution according to Hydro Innovations, Australian distributor for The Gorman-Rupp International Company.

D

uring storm events, power is sometimes knocked-out, leaving electro submersibles at sewage pump stations with no electrical power to pump when they are required to do so. If power is not restored quickly, then a sewage overflow is possible. Naturally, this could have devastating effects to the health of citizens, beaches and sensi-

tive wildlife areas. Because it is a lack of power that prevents pumping, conventional thinking would fix the problem by restoring the power with an emergency standby generator. However, while the generator will get the station pumping during a normal power outage, but would be of no use if the motor control centre failed (lightning

Discover the benefits of switching from a generator to an

The benefits do not end there. With a pump, the pump only operates when pumping is required, where a generator operates the entire time the power is out. This means the pump will use much less fuel, the engine will run much less hours (keeping maintenance costs down), and the pump is much less likely to need re-fuelling during the power outage. A further benefit is that the emergency pump can be used as the standby pump should one of the submersible pumps need to spend some time in the workshop for repairs. Peace of mind for operators.

Make a wise decision

Pumps in a power outage

Fuel efficient – 80% less

No auto switch gear required

Acts as backup to submersible

Trash Pumps

Pump Systems

PDF

FREE White Paper Adobe P: (02) 9647 2700 or visit www.pump-stations.com.au

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According to Hydro Innovations, the best pump to use is a purpose built self priming (wet) Gorman-Rupp sewage pump which only needs water in the casing to guarantee priming. Garry Grant of Hydro Innovations says that other styles of pump are promoted for this purpose, but these rely on too many things to guarantee priming. The air separation tanks need to be free of debris, compressors need to be working, compressor belts need to be operational and the non-return valve needs to be seated properly. Gorman-Rupp Super T and Ultra V sewage pumps are manufactured (cast, machined, assembled and tested) in the USA as purpose built wastewater pumps and are built to be the most reliable primers and sewage pumpers in their class. Pumps can deliver flows from just a few litres per second up to 250 litres per second, and heads to 100 metres.

Other Products Rotary Gear Pumps

strike, blown fuse etc) or there was a problem with the liquid level control device. Here is where the benefits of using an emergency standby diesel driven pump start to emerge. If a pump is used instead of a generator, the pump does not care what the problem is (no power, no controls etc), it kicks in when its dedicated level system reaches the on level. It starts, pumps the sewage to the off level and stops (ready for the next cycle).

More information on these pumps can be obtained from Hydro Innovations at sales@hydroinnovations.com.au or by calling 02 9647 2700.


One of the biggest pump, valve and compressor events ever held in Australia

Coming in 2014

This must see event includes: • Multiple streamed conferences with key industry speakers • Huge trade show across 4,000 sqm

Register your interest today by signing up to our mailing list

at www.flowtechnology.com.au

pumpindustry


Energy efficient motors M OTO RS & DRIV E S

By Jari Korkiakangas, ABB

A new generation of high performance motors based on synchronous reluctance technology is now emerging. Jari Korkiakangas, from ABB takes a closer look. The future of electric motors

We believe there will be diversion within the motor industry. Induction motors picked from catalogues will no longer be the single answer for all problems anymore. In an attempt to reach ever higher efficiencies, one needs to start thinking about what properties are really needed in which application(s) and then select the motor type to suit those exact needs. The majority of industrialised countries have what is known as a Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS) scheme. Europe has International Technical Commission (IEC) regulations with IE2 efficiency as the minimum level. Australia was among the first countries to introduce MEPS1 in 2000 and MEPS2 in 2004. MEPS3 is expected in 2015. MEPS3 is still being worked on but we expect the most likely outcome to be

that MEPS3 shall follow IEC and namely IE3 efficiency very closely. We predict that Australia will most likely extend the AUMEPS motor range. Currently the range is from 0.73kW to less than 185kW. With MEPS3, the range may be extended up to 375kW. Meeting the ever-increasing efficiency requirements with conventional induction motor technology is a challenge. With current manufacturing technologies and most common materials, it is possible to meet IE3 and even IE4 levels with large motors of 75kW and up. For smaller motors it is going to be a struggle to increase the efficiency in a cost effective way. This is noticed with the timelines for adopting IE3 for smaller motors, as an example - Europe has given two years extra adoption time to manufacturers.

Increasing induction motor efficiency can be done using more advanced materials. For example by implementing lower resistance dynamoplate plus copper in rotor cages and so on. All of these materials greatly impact the cost of the motor - at least in the short term, until manufacturing methods have been perfected and production volumes for better raw materials have increased. Induction technology challenges have made motor manufacturers search for alternative, more cost effective, motor technologies for increasing overall efficiency. Currently, there are two readily available technologies which can push motor efficiency up to premium IE4 or even way past that, to super premium efficiency. To date, most common premium efficiency alternatives have been permanent magnet type motors. This is an excellent technology as long as it is able to overcome the challenges that have appeared over the last few years. Permanent magnet motors use neodymium magnets in the rotor. Neodymium is a relatively rare earth metal and its supplies’ are currently limited. Increased demand and limited supply has quadrupled the price of neodymium in just a few years. Mining projects are exploring new sources but it will take time to get the production to a level which meets the demand. An alternative to the premium efficiency option is Synchronous Reluctance technology. ABB is the first motor vendor to embrace this technology across a wide range.

46


M OTOR S & D R IV ES What is synchronous reluctance?

Synchronous Reluctance as a physical phenomena means that the magnets will always find the easiest possible way to travel between north and south pole fields. If a magnetic north and south pole field was created and an iron rod placed in between them, the flux would affect the iron rod and align it so that it creates a path between the poles. Like, for example, if you place a piece of metal in the vicinity of a horse shoe magnet - it snaps that metal piece between the poles thus completing the circuit. Flux travels through steel much easier than through air. That same principle works in synchronous reluctance motors. In synchronous reluctance motors there are several poles - typically four. The rotor is built in a way that it creates several pathways for the flux to travel, allowing the air between the pathways to work as an insulator. When the magnetic fields in stator are put to rotating movement, the rotor wants to follow the fields - because it is completing the magnet fields, and it naturally wants to stay in a position where it is easiest for the flux to jump across the air gap. The image opposite demonstrates a cut out view of a synchronous reluctance motor’s rotor. One can quite easily notice the iron pathways provided enabling the flux to travel. The greatest advantage of this technology compared to induction, is that the rotor is cageless and currentless because the rotor is not magnetised but it instead is part of the magnetic field. With induction motors a current is induced to the rotors squirrel cage. Induced current magnetises the rotor, allowing it to follow the magnetic field of the stator. Since there is current in the rotor there is then also resistance. Resistance turns electricity into heat aka losses, instead of rotating motion. Since the synchronous reluctance rotor is currentless it means that there are no rotor losses. This can equate to reduction losses of up to 40% compared to induction motors. Another valuable feature of this technology - besides greatly improved efficiency - is the redistribution of heat sources in the motor. In an induction motor the rotor is typically the hottest part. From the rotor, heat emanates through the shaft to the bearings. The hotter the bearing, the shorter the grease life – which amounts to frequent service

and maintenance issues. Since the synchronous motor’s rotor is lossless it runs cool. A cool rotor means a cool shaft and cool bearings. The majority of the heat generated in synchronous reluctance motors is borne in the stator.

Further research and development - integrated packages

New technologies such as permanent magnet and synchronous reluctance motors still have their challenges. One of the challenges is that both of these motors cannot be operated directly from the network. Both of them require a variable speed drive to start them. Add a variable speed drive to the system bumps up the initial capital cost but in the majority of cases the cost of the additional drive is paid back in a very short time frame – particularly if the application is such that it can benefit from added speed control.

Synchronous reluctance technology usage

Synchronous reluctance motors can be used in multiple applications. As a variable speed drive is always needed to accompany these applications, then the best applications are those where it is natural to adjust process performance i.e. the speed of the motor. Most commonly these would be pumps and fans. The industrial sector has a plethora of pumps and fans. They can be found amongst city infrastructure – in buidlings, in local municipal water pumping stations, at mine sites, cement mills, throughout general manufacturing, plus at food and beverage processing facilities – to name a few. Electric motors in industry are using almost 30% of all electricity available. The large bulk of the motors are running pumps and fans. Our studies further show that 90% of the motors are running constantly at full speed and the process output is being adjusted by throttling or other mechanical means. An extreme comparison would be to think about how you drive a car – certainly you don’t drive around flat out, adjusting the speed with the break pedal while maintaining the gas pedal to the floor. That wouldn’t be very efficient, nor safe. At ABB we believe that there are many more processes around Australia that would benefit from adding variable speed drive to control process output. While making this transition, we believe it is beneficial to opt for premium efficiency motors such as synchronous reluctance to ensure greater energy efficiency.

Regal Beloit steps up with a 1000V motor & drive package Regal Beloit Australia is proud to announce the introduction of the UNICO 1200 Series 1000V variable frequency drive. This exciting addition to the 1200 Series is now available from 7.5kW to 600kW in IP00 and IP66.

T

he development for this product has been driven by the need for a dedicated 1000V mining drive capable of withstanding harsh environments typically associated with remote mine sites in Australia. Regal Australia is confident the introduction of the specific IP66, 1000V drive will be of significant benefit to users in remote locations. Being IP66, the drive is suitable to be mounted wherever the application may be without the need for additional enclosures, ventilation systems or control rooms. Its unique design allows for natural cooling, even in an ambient temperature of 50°C. As the drive is capable of accepting a supply voltage of up to 1150VAC, it can significantly reduce the size of the supply and motor cables required, further reducing overall project costs. The ability to offer a 1000 volt packaged solution consisting of an IP66 VVVF drive, PPA mining series motor as well as submersible screened cable places Regal Australia as a unique point of difference in one of the most demanding markets. For further information on any of our products, please contact your nearest Regal Australia office on 1300 888 853. 47


COA L SE A M G A S

Coal seam gas watered crops bloom

An innovative Coal Seam Gas Project in Queensland is demonstrating how water can pumped out and re-used for agriculture.

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he first Darling Downs cereal crops grown with treated coal seam gas (CSG) water are flourishing on Arrow’s farm outside Dalby. The 120ha of sorghum, 120ha of corn and 210ha of mung beans are growing on Theten, Arrow’s 5,000ha working property. The crops are irrigated with treated water sourced from Arrow’s nearby Daandine gas wells. Arrow Energy CEO Andrew Faulkner said this was a ‘farming first’ on intensively farmed land (IFL) and demonstration of Arrow’s ability to coexist on IFL in the Surat Basin. “Showcasing the use of treated CSG water for agricultural purposes is a 48

practical demonstration of how Arrow can coexist with the agricultural industry and rural communities,” Mr Faulkner said. Using treated CSG water to substitute existing users’ government groundwater allocations in IFL is one of Arrow’s 12 coexistence commitments. These commitments apply to IFL on Arrow’s exploration tenements ATP683 and ATP676, east of the Condamine River and also include providing flexibility on CSG well locations with wells located by the edges of farm paddocks, maximising spacing between wells and using pitless drilling only. Arrow considers IFL to be a subset of Queensland Government-designated Strategic Cropping Land (SCL). “It is

important we continue to demonstrate we can coexist with the agricultural industry to meet the energy needs of all Queenslanders. “Based on technology advancements and feedback from our consultative committees in the Surat, we have made 12 commitments that will see us reduce our operational footprint to less than two per cent on total IFL,” Mr Faulkner said. Arrow Farming Manager Bill Schloss said the Theten crops looked extremely healthy and promised excellent yields. “We definitely expect these crop yields to be some of our best, and also expect our fertiliser use to be down as well,” Mr Schloss said.


COAL SEAM G AS

“So far we’ve used more than 150ML of water and have been drawing about 20ML a day from our reverse osmosis treated water dam since December. “The CSG water is treated then stored in a 1,250ML dam on the farm before being pumped through the pivots on to the crops. “Planting cereals in this country is historic but there is a commercial side to this as well, with the sorghum and corn going to cattle feedlots while the beans will be exported.”

Booster pumps increase production In 2012, Netzsch Australia secured an order to supply several hundred well-head booster pumps to a major CSG player in Queensland.

Arrow has Queensland Government approval to use treated CSG water on crops under an intensive water and soil monitoring program which includes monitoring bores and weekly water testing. “This includes weekly water testing and use of monitoring equipment that considers rainfall, plant uptake and metrological conditions to ensure environmental protections are in place,” Mr Schloss said. Theten also includes Surat Tek Park where Arrow actively researches ways to minimise impacts on IFL and demonstrate its gas well and drilling technology. Pad drilling and pitless drilling have been recent innovations from the Surat Tek Park. Pad drilling allows up to eight gas wells on one pad with shared infrastructure that substantially minimises the gas infrastructure footprint. Pitless drilling involves drilling without the traditional open pit to collect drilling mud and cuttings. The waste is instead contained in portable tanks which are removed from site when drilling ends. Arrow is moving to pitless drilling as standard in IFL areas where it has tenure.

E

xisting well-heads used the pressure from the downhole pump to transfer the produced water to gathering stations but this design put a back-pressure on the well and reduced production. The solution was to use a collection vessel after the downhole pump and a booster pump drawing off the vessel. The booster pumps transfer the produced water many kilometres in some cases at pressures above 10 bar. Netzsch progressing cavity pumps were selected for the duty due to their robustness and ability to handle corrosive fluids containing abrasive solids over a wide range of flowrates at high pressure. The API676 rotary positive displacement pumps are driven by hydraulic motor and are complete with a pressure relief valve with pipeback and dry running protection

is achieved with a thermistor embedded in the pump stator. NETZSCH from Germany, the world’s largest manufacturer of progressing cavity pumps, recently founded Netzsch Australia, with offices in NSW and Queensland. NETZSCH has been manufacturing progressive cavity pumps for more than 60 years and has an unrivalled portfolio of positive displacement pumps including progressing cavity, rotary lobe, twin screw, dosing pumps plus a range of macerators. NETZSCH has manufactured some of the world’s largest progressive cavity pumps at its factory in Bavaria. Capacities up to 500m3/h and pressures up to 48 bar as standard, and up to 240 bar for high pressure applications.

Your Partner for Coal Seam Gas Proven pump solutions for new challenges With hundreds of pumps already supplied to CSG sites in Australia, Netzsch positive displacement pumps are successfully used in numerous tough applications in CSG.      

Horizontal booster pumps from well-head to gathering stations Vertical pumps for open drain/sump emptying High pressure/long distance with or without abrasive solids Low NPSH and high suction lift Variable flowrate and pressure is not a limitation We supply NEMO® progressing cavity pump, TORNADO® rotary lobe pump and twin screw pumps

NETZSCH Australia PTY Ltd. nas@netzsch.com www.netzsch.com

49


FA NS

Fans in industrial applications: big cooling tasks need efficient fans By Dr Simon Bradwell, Fan Manufacturers Association and ebm-papst A&NZ

Big cooling tasks need great technology, at the highest efficiency possible. This is especially important for industries that generally require a lot of power to run their operations, such as mining, manufacturing and construction.1

T

he industrial sector typically represents 30 to 40% of a country’s total energy consumption.2 This represents a huge potential for energy efficient equipment to help reduce overall carbon footprint as well as system efficiency. Using the available energy more efficiently contributes to cost savings and market competitiveness and is an effective countermeasure to uncertain energy futures. And while all resources consumed and waste produced by manufacturing affects the environment in some way, the focus of current work is on the efficient and effective utilization of resources, particularly energy resources.

How can this be achieved?

From a resources and electricity consumer’s point of view, there are three important drivers to introduce energy efficiency improvements: • Rising energy prices

• New environment regulations putting a price on CO2 • Changing customer purchasing behavior with regards to green technology 3 The aforementioned drivers make energy efficiency an important pillar contributing to all three aspects (triple bottom line) that are considered in sustainable engineering frameworks (see Fig 1).

It is important to measure energy efficiency – but what is the definition of fan

The European Commission has taken the lead with respect to fans and power consumption. The EC has set an objective to reduce annual consumption of primary energy by 20% by 2020, estimates that an energy saving potential for the manufacturing sector of 25% could be realized by measures such as implementing energy efficient motors, fans and lightings. 4 This has already been taken on in Europe through MEPS and the ErP Societal aspect of energy use in manufacturing, eg.,

Risk of future liability cost Resource productivity Energy costs Resource costs Cost internalisation

. Influence on customers & workforce ("energy-awareness")

(e.g. Emissions Trading System - EETS)

Energy Use & Sustainable Manufacturing

. Ensure resource & energy security & an intact environment for future generations . International with political & company stakeholders . Image in society

Environmental aspect of energy use in manufacturing, eg., . CO2 emissions

(carbon footprint)

. Resource scarcity . Other emissions

50

Fan efficiency explained

What role do fans play in this?

Economic aspect of energy use in manufacturing, eg., . . . . .

Directive. Of this, a significant proportion is fan and motor applications. Examples of integrated EC fan solutions show that 50-80% power savings are typical.

Figure 1: Contribution of energy efficiency to the three main aspects of sustainable manufacturing. (Source: Bunse et al 2011)


FAN S efficiency and what is a fan? A definition of a fan is shown in Figure 2 on the next spread. Often fans are considered to be impellers only, but it is agreed that the components outlined in Figure 2 are all fundamental to the performance of the assembly and the whole system. Using motor shaft power, the normal nominal rating of shafted motors, as an input to an efficiency calculation does not take into account motor inefficiency, namely heat, electronic drive inefficiencies and mechanical transmission losses. This definition of a fan from the international standard AS/NZ ISO12759; 2013 Fans – Efficiency and classification for fans, includes: • Controls • Drive/motor • Air movement system It should be noted that the Australian Building Codes has caused confusion in this area as they have only included shaft power in their definition of fan input power.

to the air power output. For example, for a driven system that includes speed control: hed=Cc * Pu/Ped Where: hed is overall efficiency for fans with drives Cc is compensation factor to account for energy savings at part load Pu is fan air power Ped is drive/control electrical input power In the standard there are several issues worthy of note: • Efficiency figures are defined at the best performance point. This follows the test protocol for fans in which fans are tested in the best performance arrangements such that comparisons between different products can be fairly made. • Efficiencies for the primary fans, eg. axial, centrifugal forward curve, centrifugal backward curve, mixed flow, crossflow, are all defined. Note – ventilation products are not

“primary fans” and are not included. • A formula exists for uplift in efficiency figure if speed control is used. In the development of AS/NZ ISO 12759, the ISO committee surveyed the fan market in order to obtain empirical data of fan efficiencies available in the market. From this data and the definition of fan efficiency, the standard then defines a minimum efficiency grade for FMEG (Fan Minimum Efficiency Grade) for fans with motor input powers greater than equal to 125W. Figure 3 overleaf shows the fan efficiency grades FEG for bare shafted fans. FEG and FMEG are calculated from efficiency measurements and then define a gradation system by which regulators can define what is sold in a market and what is not.

Structural market changes

The standard and regulations have two important strategic effects. • As the product is now open to regulation, the manufacturers of fans and

Fans and efficiency

Fan efficiency according to AS/NZ ISO 12759 is defined as the ratio of electrical power input before a controller, if used,

51


FA N S Either side of this operating point, the efficiency can drop off considerably (see blue line in Fig 5). EC motors on the other hand have an almost flat efficiency curve which varies relatively little across the speed range (green line). This makes the EC fan much more flexible, in that we can use the same product to match the performance requirements of different applications while still benefitting from increased efficiency.

EC fans and motors : one principle, countless options

Companies such as ebm-papst manufacture intelligent, single or 3-phase, AC line powered EC drive motors that can attain full speed efficiency to 90 percent and maintain their high efficiency when operated at greatly reduced speeds. Figure 3: FEG for bare shaft fans

fan systems will be under technical scrutiny for the fans manufactured. This will mean that fan performance will need to be tested or proven by calculation. Manufacturers or contractors who are unable to do this will not be able to supply product into the market. • Speed control of fans has been identified as important in the reduction of power consumption and FEG uplifts are available if speed control is integral to the system.

Fans and speed control

Fan systems in air handling units, condensers or ventilation applications often use standard motors coupled to VSD/VFD drive systems. Figure 4 below shows that if fans are reduced in speed by 25% then, according to fan laws, a corresponding 58% reduction in power occurs. Many types of speed control for fans exist including capacitor control, voltage control and frequency control. However, many control methods do not obey fan

laws as shown above, as the motor and VSD efficiencies reduce dramatically with torque and speed.5 In order to achieve typical fan law relationships, only permanent magnet motors (PMM) systems can be used. These are nominally known as EC (Electrically Commutated) fans. Note – PMM motors are now being brought into regulations controlling motors. PMM motors are likely to be defined as IE4 which is a grade higher than most AC motors.

New Developments

The EC efficiency data (note – an EC motor comprises a motor and a control system) is shown in Fig 5. This product complies with all existing international efficiency regulations. EC shows a minimal drop-off in efficiency in the useful 100 % range of >30% speed. AC motors, unlike ebmpapst EC motors, are designed to operate at 75 % a certain point on their performance curve which coincides with their peak efficiency.

EC motors are controllable and maintenance-free. A single motor design can drive several fan types, including axial impellers up to 1250mm, backwardcurved radial impellers up to 710mm and forward-curved centrifugal wheels up to 450mm. The product line ranges up to 6kW. Replacement of existing, inefficient AC technology is simple as EC fans use the same footprint and voltage input. Integrated electronics in EC mean that we don’t need a VSD/VFD, in turn reducing equipment cost and maintenance. As electronics are an integral part of the fan, speed control is typically achieved using RS485 communication protocols such as MODBUS or BACnet. Other

Power consumption of AC motors Power consumption of EC fans Savings from continuous speed adjustment

Benefit of continuous speed adjustment

50 %

Pe

25 %

qV

25 %

Pe = Input power

Figure 2: Fan input power vs. output power as defined in AS/NZ ISO 12759: 2013 Fan Efficiency classification for fans.

52

50 %

75 %

100 %

qV = Air flow

Figure 4: Energy savings for EC fans in comparison to AC fans. The blue line shows the power input with continuous speed adjustment.


FAN S

Dr Simon Bradwell

About ebm-papst Figure 5: Comparison of AC vs. EC fan efficiency curves

methods such as 0-10V or 4-20mA inputs are also typically available. EC technology is efficient, quieter and more reliable, giving better performance and a lower whole life cost. Switching to EC technology has been shown to reduce fan electricity use by a minimum of 30% with typical savings of 50-75% achievable. With ever-increasing demand for energy efficient systems, when it comes to fan based products, there is a huge opportunity for EC technology to improve air movement systems and the bottom line.

Endnotes

1 Duflou, JR et al 2012, Towards Energy and Resource Efficient Manufacturing: A Processes and Systems Approach, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, vol 61 no 2, pp. 587-609. 2 Eichhammer W 2004, Industrial Energy Efficiency, In: Encyclopedia of Energy, Elsevier, New York, pp. 383-393. 3 Bunse, K et al 2011, Integrating Energy Efficiency Performance in Production Management – Gap Analysis between Industrial Needs and Scientific Literature, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 19, no. 6-7, pp 667-679. 4 European Commission 2006, Action Plan for Energy Efficiency: Realising the Potential, Brussels http:// ec.europa.eu/energy/action_plan_energy_efficiency/ doc/com_2006_0545_en.pdf 5 Cf. Pierre Angers, Hydro Quebec, MEPSA Sydney 2009.

The ebm-papst Group is the world's leading manufacturer of fans and motors and is a pioneer and pacesetter for ultra-efficient EC technology. ebm-papst fans and motors are represented in many industries, including ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration technology, household appliances, heating engineering, in IT/telecommunications, in medical technology and in applications in automotive and commercial vehicles engineering. ebm-papst EC motor technology, and the market leader’s engineering and logistics expertise will add value to your business. Find out more about ebm-papst A&NZ on www.ebmpapst.com.au

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qdospumps.com wmpg.com.au 02 8787 1400

53


P RO JE CT S

Vineyard saves fuel with efficient irrigation pumping Located in NSW’s Griffith region, Farm 8a Benerembah is a 165 hectare property, producing a wide range of grape varieties. Some of the vine row lengths are as long as 800 m, making good fuel consumption even more important, given the high operating pressures required by the irrigation system.

R

iverina Water Engineering solved this problem with a new turnkey drip irrigation system designed to operate with the lowest practical fuel consumption without jeopardising the integrity of the system.

These engines were purchased without a cooling system in favour of retrofitting heat exchangers to replace both the radiator and turbo air cooler. Filtered irrigation water cools the turbo charged air from around 140oC to below 50oC.

The most efficient pump for the job was the Hydro Titan end suction centrifugal pump, which can operate as high as 86% efficiency. The most efficient engines chosen were two Iveco 6.7 litre turbo charged after-cooled engines.

This was all made possible by the Diesel Dog Engine Controller, which controls and manages the systems.

54

The key advantage of using the Diesel Dog is the fuel savings. Diesel Dog will

only allow the engine to ramp to desired set pressures, regardless of dam level, filter conditions and the number of field valves open. The system is capable of applying a 12mm application of water per day and is designed to operate up to a dynamic pressure of up to 430kpa. It uses 13 litres of fuel per hour per engine, less than 37 litres per mega-litre pumped.


PROJ ECTS

What is the Diesel Dog? Built tough for Australian conditions, the Diesel Dog is purpose designed for the operation and control of diesel driven pump sets. The panel is adaptable to all makes and models of diesel engines and pumps. With simple operation and programming, the Diesel Dog is extremely user friendly. It automatically monitors service intervals and displays the time until next service. If service is too far exceeded, the engine can be programmed to ignore a start command. The Diesel Dog saves fuel by automatically adjusting engine speed to maintain a constant pump pressure in a closed pressure system regardless of irrigation system flow requirement. The Diesel Dog is also used on lift pump systems to maintain a constant level in a supply channel.

Diesel Dog will monitor and safe guard against faults such as pump flow & pressure, engine RPM, temperature, oil pressure, coolant level, battery voltage and alternator voltage. Upon receiving a command to start, the Diesel Dog will idle through a ‘warm up’ period before commencing into ‘line fill’ mode to gently fill and pressurise a piped system then continue on to maintain the pre programmed set pressure. Before completely shutting down, the Diesel Dog will idle the engine for a short ‘cool down’ period. Best of all, the Diesel Dog can be operated on farm or via instant remote access to your mobile phone or home computer. The Diesel Dog can run single or multiple pump units simultaneously, is capable of multiple pressure set points if required to dramatically further reduce fuel usage.

Are you interested in becoming a Diesel Dog distributor? Contact sales@dieseldog.com.au or 02 6966 8950 for more information.

The latest weapon in the war on rising fuel prices

Contact us today if you’d like to be a distributor

Reduce fuel costs and prolong your diesel engine life, with the all new engine controller ... the Diesel Dog™. A: Lot 1 / 1310 Hillston Rd, Griffith, NSW 2680 P: (02) 6966 8951 E: sales@dieseldog.com.au

55


P RO JE CT S

Gold Coast desalination plant The Gold Coast desalination plant is one of the largest of its kind on Australia’s eastern seaboard. The plant, which uses the reverse osmosis desalination process, has the capacity to provide drinking water to 650,000 people in South East Queensland.

O

wned by the government statutory authority Seqwater, it was the first large scale desalination facility on Australia’s eastern seaboard. Located in Tugun, it has the capacity to provide drinking water to 650,000 people in South East Queensland, one of Australia’s worst drought-affected regions. The plant, constructed by the Gold Coast Desalination Alliance (Veolia Water, John Holland, SKM, Cardno and the facility owner), produced the first desalinated water in November 2008.

Reverse osmosis (RO) desalination

The Gold Coast desalination plant uses a process called reverse osmosis, where pressurized intake water is forced through a semi-permeable membrane. The membrane filters block the salt, leaving concentrated brine on one side of the membrane and drinking water on the other.

ABB – a reliable partner

ABB supplied a wide range of automation and power products and systems for the Gold Coast desalination plant which ensure that the plant is operated at the highest levels of efficiency and reliability.

56


PROJ ECTS Scope of supply

ABB supplied the following products and systems for the Gold Coast desalination plant in Queensland.

Variable speed drives

ABB supplied variable speed drives with a total power of 40.3 MW for various processes in the desalination plant: • ACS800 low voltage drives in the power range between 1.1 kW and 710 kW to control intake, booster, filter backwash and potable water pumps. • ACS 1000 medium voltage drives in the power range of 1,120 kW and 4,800 kW to control high-pressure and energy recovery booster pumps.

Motors

ABB supplied induction motors with a total power of 28.8 MW: • M3BP low voltage motors rated at 550 kW • HXR high voltage motors rated at 800 kW • AMA high voltage motors rated at 1.1 MW • AMI630 high voltage motors rated at 4.8 MW

Transformers

• 11 kV vacuum casted (VCC) dry type variable speed drive supply

transformers rated at 1.5 MVA and 6 MVA, phase shifted for 24-pulse operation • 11 kV VCC dry type distribution transformers, rated at 1 MVA, 2.5 MVA, 3.5 MVA and 4 MVA

Power quality products

ABB supplied the following equipment to meet the power factor requirements and improve the power quality of them installation: • Metal-enclosed capacitor banks (MECB), each rated to deliver 4

Mvar at 11 kV. Each of the 4 Mvar banks has 2 steps of 2 Mvar each. The capacitors are provided with detuning reactors to protect them from possible harmonic overloading. • PQFS active harmonic filters, rated at 415 V, 120 A

Motor protection and control

Low voltage softstarters PSTB 370 and 470 for booster pumps rated at 355 kW and 450 kW / 690 V, including integrated bypass contactors, flexible bus communication and torque control for less mechanical wear.

Optimize process performance without compromising energy efficiency.

Water and wastewater utilities are facing many challenges from managing leakage and pressure, optimizing pump performance, improving potable water quality, reducing energy consumption and CO 2 emissions to lowering maintenance costs. ABB’s drives, motors and PLCs are designed to help motor-driven applications such as pumps, fans, compressors and conveyors, tackle these, and other, challenges. To discover how to improve your utility’s energy efficiency and productivity, visit www.abb.com/water

ABB Australia Pty Limited Tel. 1800 222 435 www.abbaustralia.com.au/productguide

57


Ken Willcock P U M P P IO NE E RS

Ken Willcock served as President of the Australian Pump Manufacturers Association (APMA), the forerunner to PIA from 1980-1982. A visit to the Snowy Hydro Mountains Scheme spurred an interest in engineering in Ken, which led to a career in pumps that began with Pomona Pumps and eventually led him to Singapore with Kelly & Lewis and finally General Manager of GAAM Engineering. Chris Bland asked Ken a few questions about his career.

How did you first get into the pump industry?

I have always had a passionate love of classical music and one of my earliest positions was a music producer with the ABC. Like most young people of that era I wanted to visit Europe and the UK and on my return wanted to do something different, so I applied for a sales job with a spray irrigation company. This application was successful and I was sent to Shepparton which brought me into contact with the pump industry. My territory included Eastern Victoria and the Riverina, which required a lot of travelling. On a visit to Cooma I visited part of the Snowy Mountains Hydro Scheme which gave me an incentive to attempt a tertiary qualification. That began ten years of night school and I finished up with a Certificate of Civil Engineering. During that time I met Bob Moore who was working for the Pomona Pump Company and I took on additional work as a spotter for Pomona deepwell pumps. This led to a full time job with Pomona which included a move from Shepparton to Melbourne. I stayed with Pomona for three years until the company was acquired by Clyde Industries. As there was a lot of uncertainty at this time I successfully applied for a position of Sales Engineer at Harland Engineering to promote and organise the marketing of Johnson deepwell pumps for which 58

Harland held a manufacturing licence. In the meantime Bob Moore had also left Pomona Pumps and moved to Kelly & Lewis (K&L) which had been acquired by the large UK engineering companyMather and Platt Ltd in 1961. I joined him there in 1962 not only to promote the KL Berkeley range of deepwell pumps but also to sell other products in K&L’s wide range. Time moved on and in 1964 Bob Moore accepted the position of General Manager of his former company Pomona Pumps whilst back at K&L I was appointed Sales Manager (Standard Products) Mather and Platt-K&L’s parent company had appointed Englishman Harry Smith as General Manager of K&L in 1961 and in 1968 he enticed Bob Moore back to K&L as Sales Director to strengthen the sales team. At the same time K&L’s engineering department had been built up with the appointment of outstanding engineers Andy Gasuinas and Arthur Connor thus making K&L one of the world’s great pump companies In 1970 K&L decided to open a sales and engineering office in Singapore to appoint agents and organise large engineering contracts for the region. This office also represented Mather and Platt UK and Mather and Platt-India. I was

appointed South East Asian Manager which proved to be a very successful operation. This move also involved my wife and children the latter of which were educated in Singapore. We left there late 1975 as I had been appointed General Sales Manager of K&L.( Keith Sanders- now a councillor of PIA- took my place in Singapore) Bob Moore was then Managing Director of K&L as Harry smith had returned to the UK. K&L had been members of the Australian Pump Manufacturers Association (the forerunner of PIA) since its inception and I had been on the council since 1976.1 was the elected President and served the mandatory two year term. At that time APMA produced its first Technical Handbook followed by the Pipe Friction Handbook. K&L had had its own Board for many years and in 1978 I was appointed to the Board as Commercial Director. Wormald International had taken over the whole Mather and Platt Group (which included K&L) in 1976. The relationship


PU M P PION EER S with Wormald was not a happy one. Bob Moore had been posted to the UK as Managing Director of Mather and Platt and had left them to take up a position as Managing Director of SPP (another major UK pump company). A subsidiary of SPP was a small Australian pump company called GAAM Engineering and it was proposed that I accept the position of General Manager, which I accepted. GAAM is a niche market operation that specialises in the manufacture of fire pumps for the majority of Australian Fire Services. A few years later SPP decided to divest itself of some of its smaller subsidiaries and was taken over by a Canadian company called Wajax Limited Whose main activity was the manufacture of fire pumps and fire hose. I was promoted to Managing Director and reported directly to Canada. This proved to be a very happy relationship and I retired from GAAM in 1995. After that I did some consulting work for GAAM in Vietnam and for Weir Engineering in the Philippines. A very satisfying and rewarding career.

How has the industry changed during your time in it?

The pump industry has changed enormously over the last twenty years or so. The removal of tariff barriers started the decline which has never recovered. We have gone from a manufacturing industry with great technical and design excellence to an importing industry and to a large extent that excellence has been lost. Evan the major pump companies of the past are in the majority owned by overseas interests.

What is your most memorable moment from your career?

One memorable incident stands out. In January 1975 I made one of my regular trips to Jakarta and had with me a lot of cash in the briefcase I was carrying. I had lunch with the project manager building a new hotel and after lunch he instructed his driver to take me back to my hotel. We hadn’t gone far when I saw a rampaging mob coming towards the car. The driver stopped and said to me, “Go sir go!” “Go where?” I thought! So I turned and ran in the opposite direction and felt a hand on my shoulder. My first thought was that they’d caught me. Turned out a Chinese householder had seen what was going on and took me into his house for shelter. The initial riots started as a anti-Japanese protest but the Chinese were concerned it could turn against them. After things had quietened down a little I managed to get a taxi to go back to the hotel.

Presentation to K&L of a special award for export promotion by the Minister for Science in 1977

Then the fun started. The mob were turning over cars and setting them alight and any Japanese car was fair game. The taxi I was in was a Holden so I had some immunity. After a hairy ride I got back to the hotel and opposite that was a group of shops which the rioters burnt to the ground. This went on for three days and on the fourth day the army moved in and broke it up. I flew back to Singapore having achieved nothing A number of people were killed but fortunately I was not among them.

Did you have a mentor at any time in the industry?

You will have gathered from my first statement that the only real mentor I had was Bob Moore. He was always there and played a big part in shaping my career in the pump industry. Not only career wise, but we have been very close personal friends since our early twenties and still see one another regularly. (Ed - see our interview with Bob Moore in the October 2012 issue - still available online).

Tell me about some of the other personalities in the industry that you have worked with? There were so many good people in the industry it’s difficult to mention them all but some stood out. Among those were Alan Jackson, Bill O’Hehir David Parry Kevin Wilson (now secretary of PIA) Jim Grant, Roland Palme Arthur Conner, Bill Aitken, Arthur Feiner, David McCleish Bernie Hassell. Just to name a few!

What are the most significant developments you have witnessed in the industry? I think that one of the most significant changes to the Australian pump industry is that we have gone from a

manufacturing industry to a importing one, which was largely brought about as a result of the tariff enquiry For those companies still manufacturing the development of CNC machines and computer technology has had an enormous impact on manufacturing costs. And of course the high value of the Australian dollar has aided and abetted the importing of pumps.

What does the future hold for pumps?

The world couldn’t function without pumps and electric motors so one of the big challenges is that our industry keeps abreast of the advancement of hydro technology. One of the good things is that the technical education classes run by Keith Sanders is one way of doing this. I also believe that post graduate courses in hydraulic design are necessary. What advice would you give young people in the pump industry? I believe that young people coming into the industry today need not only knowledge of pump selection but of the whole hydraulic system to which the pump is being applied. This is an age of specialisation and it’s not sufficient just to have a sound knowledge of pumps. You have to understand the whole system. Ken is no longer involved in the industry today other than being a life member of PIA and still has contact with old colleagues of “pump men”. His love of classical music has continued. As a boy he learnt piano, then following retirement decided to learn to play the trumpet and now plays with Stonnington City Brass, one of the better brass bands of Melbourne. He also play bowls with the Melbourne Cricket Club. 59


T E CH NICA L

Membrane life insurance: have you got your policy?

By Alastair Foster, Project Manager B.C.E, MBA, Amiad Australia

Membrane technology development and the influx of solution providers over the last 10 years has been the driving force lowering the cost making ultrafiltration a viable option for many applications in water treatment.

W

ithout pretreatment, the membrane is susceptible to choking of pores and reduced performance due to particles of varying sizes. Abrasive particles can cause mechanical damage and affect membrane integrity. Organic-fouling is another major factor in the reduction of membrane life and membrane performance. . Benefits associated with selecting the right pre-filtration can contribute significant performance improvements to your ultrafiltration plant. Algae blooms and Larvae from surface water (river, lake, pond and sea water) can cause significant issues of organic fouling and potential destruction of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membrane systems. Over the last 3-5 years designers have realised the negative impact that insufficient pretreatment has on operational costs and performance with respect to chemical cleaning CIP, replacement and

Figure 1 (above left) Barnacles formed permeate side of 400µm disc Spin-Klin © spine element of a pre-filter, after 4 months of service Figure 2 (above right) No Barnacles formed due to 100 micron disc Spin-Klin © spine after 13 months of continuous operation.

60

maintenance. This has led to a rethink on the need for sufficient membrane pretreatment and protection.

Enhanced flux methods have been proven to increase life of the membrane and performance by continuous dosing of chemicals. However determining the need for chemicals should be the last step as additional chemicals are costly and required for further processes of treatment or removal. The first step is to remove large particulates and suspended solids.

What is protecting your membranes?

A common problem all around the world with desalination is the issue of barnacles and crustacean contamination. Barnacle larvae are able to pass through coarse filtration, (200 to 400 micron screens have been proven to be insufficient), and thus populate & flourish downstream. Barnacles settle and establish attachment to surfaces within a 12 hour period. Their hard shells can cause damage to membranes and pumps. Once the barnacles attach they are extremely difficult to remove or eradicate as illustrated in (Figure 1). The barnacle problem can be resolved with pre-filtration degree of 100 micron or finer as illustrated in (Figure 2).

Selecting the pretreatment

Appropriate pre-filtration/treatment shall ensure the integrity, performance and longevity of the downstream membranes, minimizing CIP cycles and chemical use. The typical pre-filtration technologies are Media, Screen, or Disc Filtration. Amiad has the full range of options (media, self-cleaning screen and discs filtration). Amiad’s engineers tailor solutions to each application depending on water quality, materials of construction, and end users requirements.

The solution selected

To select a solution for desalination and coal seam gas sectors with the aim of ensuring protection to the ultrafiltration membranes. The common issues in the feed water, which are applicable to both industries; highly corrosive combined with a high organic loading. Disc filtration is chosen as it is most suited to these conditions. The polymeric design (being made out of polypropylene) is compatible to corrosive environments removing the risk of corrosion or the need for costly exotic materials and rubber lining. The AmiadArkal range of Disc Filtration Batteries have a flexible modular design which allows different configurations to manage a virtually limitless range of flow rates.


TECHN ICAL How the technology works

Amiad -Arkal Filtration Systems uses a specially designed disc filtration technology. Thin, colour coded polypropylene discs are diagonally grooved on both sides to provide a specific micron rating when compressed together. A series of these discs are stacked together and compressed, on a specially designed spine, to form a disc element (Spin KlinŽ element). When stacked together the disc grooves on top runs opposite to the disc grooves below, creating a filtration element with a statistically significant series of valleys and traps for suspended solids in the feed stream to be captured. During the filtration process, the discs are tightly compressed together by a spring’s tension as well as the Hydraulic force (created by the differential pressure). Filtration occurs by the feed water passing from the outer diameter to the inner diameter of the disc element. There are between 18 -32 stopping points depending on the micron rating selected (400-20 micron discs respectively).

Self-cleaning

By reversing the flow through the spine, water pressure is applied to underside of the piston. This forces the piston upward against the tension of the spring. The pressure that was clamping the discs is reversed allowing a gap in between the

The latest system supplied into the Queensland coal seam gas industry which is the latest one of many over the last 5 years. discs during the backwashing operation. Internal spray nozzles within the spine jet the inside of the discs forcing them to spin. The spray nozzle flow and spinning action of the discs releases the trapped debris to clean the discs, and this reject stream is directed to the filter drain (via a backwash valve).

Case Study - Desalination

The plant is designed for operating with the total flow rate capacity of 576 MLD sea water.

The recovery is 99% with a filtration degree of 100 micron protecting the ultrafiltration membranes.

Case Study – Coal Seam Gas Large scale plant in Queensland has been delivered to site and due to be commissioned later this year.

Protection for ultrafiltration membranes from raw ponds water with a flow rate of 48 MLD and with 200 microns for requirement for removal of Algae blooms. The recovery is 99% in this case.

Design & Supply of Water Filtration & Valve Solutions to The Water Industry

Screen Filtration

Control Valves

Air Valves

Disc Filtration

Amiad Water Systems | 1300-426-423 | sales@amiad.com.au


T E CH NICA L

Air operated double diaphragm pump Ease of maintenance and operation make these pumps a good solution for many applications

A

ir-operated double diaphragm (AODD) pumps are used worldwide to move a wide range of fluids, suspended solids, non-suspended solids and line-size solids from Point A to Point B, both above and below ground. End users select AODD pumps versus other pump types such as positive displacement when challenged with difficult pumping situations. Although an AODD pump is a displacement type, it is actually a hybrid. While its pressure–versus capacity characteristics resemble those of a centrifugal pump, it is best defined as a seal less, semi-positive displacement pump. The pumping principle provides 100 percent efficiency at zero flow (Figure 1).

Advantages of AODD pumps

AODD pumps are a good choice for pumping abrasive, shear-sensitive and high viscosity materials and fluids. They are self-priming, available with optional discharge porting and run dry without significant damage or heat build-up. AODD pumps can be powered by either

compressed air or natural gas and differ from other positive displacement pumps, because of air pressure acting on the entire surface of the diaphragm, the diaphragm is in a balanced condition while pumping. This process extends the diaphragm life over that of mechanically operated diaphragm pumps. Because compressed air is limited, the maximum pressure developed by the pump is also safely limited. As a result, AODD pumps are appropriate for on-demand intermittent requirements (Figure 2). These pumps are self-priming from a dry start and are frequently installed in either flooded suction installations or suction lift installations. With caution given to the non-wetted materials of construction, AODD pumps can be submerged for maximum installation versatility (Figure 3). AODD pumps safely operate on deadheaded/standby demand without the added costs associated with the need to relieve pressure. More important, at all

Figure 1. AODD head and horsepower versus flow rate. 62

deadhead condition points the AODD pump consumes zero energy (Figure 4).

AODD pump flexibility

Fragile materials are safe when pumped through an AODD unit. Low internal velocities handle abrasive slurries without damage to the pump or loss of volumetric efficiencies. The gentle pumping action does not shear fragile materials. High viscosity fluids, heavy and pourable, are capably handled. Many manufacturers’ offer pumps with optional discharge porting: • Bottom porting is an option for a high concentration of heavy solids • Top porting should be selected for thin liquids or if entrained air could be a problem AODD pumps can be regulated to adjust the pump flow from zero to maximum rated capacity.

Figure 2. The balanced operation of an AODD pump.


TECHN ICAL

Figure 3. AODD pumps can operate in many different environments.

Extending the life of AODD pumps

When the decision to invest in AODD pumps has been made, extending the life of the pumps becomes a high priority. Many pumps have a functional life of 30 or more years, but pump life is entirely dependent on the application, the pump system and how the pump is operated and maintained. Numerous options are available for when maintaining and extending the life of an AODD pump. Most AODD pump manufacturers offer

genuine replacement parts. Some manufacturers sell several different convenient kits that are developed for specific pump models, making maintenance simple. Kits are available to support different levels of service from minimal repairs to full refurbishment of the pump. AODD parts and kits provide the flexibility to swap out the internal components of the pumps to different materials. This allows the pump to change application paint to ceramics for example and provide varying levels of performance such as ball to weighted ball.

From the air valve o-ring to outer diaphragm chamber, AODD pump manufacturers can provide the parts needed to keep pumps running smoothly. Genuine AODD parts are manufactured to precise specifications and are built for durability, reliability and productivity. Today’s applications demand that pumps provide maximum efficiency, minimum operating costs and the longest life possible, without compromising production. AODD kits can provide pump users with everything they need to get their pumps back working quickly and more efficiently. When thinking of the benefits of replacing versus repairing a pump, kits and replacement parts are an attractive choice for maintenance personnel and budget conscious pump users. AODD pumps allow for simple maintenance and repair, ensuring the life of the pump investment. For more information pump users should contact their preferred manufacturer or local distributor. Mathew Harris is the Regional Manager for IDEX Corporation a global leader in fluid handling equipment and applied solutions. He can be contacted on mharris2@idexcorp.com.

Figure 4. AODD pump performance curve. 63


T E CH NICA L

Understanding pump curves 4: variable speed – the answer to all your prayers?

By Ron Astall, United Pumps Australia

Of course it depends on what you pray for. If you are a Variable Speed Drive vendor, this is the new religion. Electric variable frequency drives (VFDs) have become very affordable and are being touted as the “Saviour” for centrifugal pump energy saving and process control and the Drive Vendors are the new evangelists. Why the excitement?

Most centrifugal pumps are driven by simple, rugged and reliable squirrel cage induction electric motors, which run at essentially a constant speed. Their speed depends on the number of poles in the motor and the electric supply frequency; usually 50Hz or perhaps 60Hz as in the Americas and some parts of Asia. For Electric motors we are stuck with the typical fixed speed options as shown below:

Available motor speeds Pump Running Speed - RPM (assuming 20 RPM slip) Number of Poles

50Hz supply frequency

60Hz supply frequency

2

2980

3580

4

1480

1780

6

980

1180

8

730

880

10

580

700

64

VFDs use inverter technology to vary the supply frequency to the electric motor. In principle we can have any pump speed we want, just by the turn of a knob or by the graphic user interface on the VFD. Not only can we have any speed we want, we can change it at will while the unit is running. Now, before the suppliers of other technologies become upset, I must point out that the most if not the same benefits are available from many other Variable Speed Drive (VSD) technologies such as fluid couplings, hydrostatic drives, continuously variable transmissions, DC drives and slip ring motors. The VFD evangelists are, however, the ones currently leading the push for much more affordable speed control in pumping installations. To be even handed, from this point onwards I will use the all encompassing term ‘VSD’ except where specifically referring to VFDs. The Gospel message from our evangelist

friends is that VSDs allow flexibility, energy saving, accurate flow control and ideal process control. Let us examine whether this could be true.

Systems change

A centrifugal pump can only operate where its curve intersects with the actual system curve (Fig 1). Normally the pump curve does not change except through damage or wear. Systems, however, change all the time. The designer may have over-specified the pump in the first place, the piping may corrode, filters and heat exchangers may clog, tank levels may change and plant demand may change. So the systems change, but the pump curve stays the same (Fig 2). A centrifugal pump is a slave to the process. System changes can play havoc with the pump operating point and the pump may end up running well away from the rated flow and the system may need


TECHN ICAL

to be throttled to keep the pump on its curve or to control the flow to suit the process.

change in performance of a centrifugal pump with a change in driver speed quite accurately.

Throttling – modifies the system curve

We can thus change the pump curve to match the system.

Throttling varies the system curve by increasing the friction losses (Fig 3). The head or pressure loss across the throttling valve is obviously an energy loss. Throttling is a highly effective but often energy wasteful method of flow control. What if we could change the pump curve to match the changes in the system curve? Well, yes, this is the whole point of VSD. Changing the pump speed changes the pump curve. So how well does this work and how can we calculate what will happen? To figure this out, we need to understand the centrifugal pump “Affinity Laws”

Affinity laws – modify the pump curve

The performance of a centrifugal pump will vary with speed according to the formulae below (Fig 4). These calculations result in a set of curves called “Affinity Curves”, with imaginary lines (Affinity Lines) that pass through equivalent points on each speed curve. We can use the above to predict the

We can thus change the pump curve to control system flow instead of throttling (Fig 5). When we throttle, the energy lost across the control valve must still be covered by the pump driver. If we instead slow the pump speed to match the different system and flow requirements, we can reap dramatic power savings.

Variable speed process control Variable speed technology offers major benefits (Fig 6).

Instead of throttling, run the pump slower and save on power, save on control valve wear, eliminate throttling noise and use driver speed to control the process.

Savings

The saving in power consumption can be calculated by comparing the full speed power with the power at the required operating point assuming reduced speed. The inefficiency of the drive must be allowed for in the power calculation. Electric VFDs are slightly less efficient than a basic direct on line motor. This is because every VFD will have some unavoidable electrical losses and due

to additional eddy current losses in the motor which stem from the normally less than perfectly sinusoidal wave form that a VFD produces. Other types of VSDs also have losses which must be factored in. In general, these losses are small compared to the overall power saving. In comparison with a control valve, there may also be significant maintenance savings due to the elimination of valve wear. Pump life between overhauls is also potentially improved when a VSD system allows the pump to operate closer to its Best Efficiency Point (BEP) at the various system flows.

Costs

The capital cost of the VSD. If this is a VFD retrofit to an existing unit, the existing driver will need to be evaluated for suitability for variable frequency service. Usually an electric motor has to be de-rated to take into account the small but sometimes significant eddy current losses, and this may mean that a new, higher rated motor will be needed. If the speed is being increased, then almost certainly a new, larger motor and perhaps a new shaft coupling will be necessary.

Mechanical considerations

In most VSD retrofit applications, the idea is to use the VSD to slow the running speed down from the previously fixed maximum speed. Normally this will not present any mechanical problems for the equipment because running stresses reduce dramatically when the speed is decreased. Some aspects to watch however include hydrodynamic bearings and mechanical seals which will have a minimum speed requirement to maintain a fluid film and to ensure adequate lubricant and seal flush flow. This minimum mechanical speed is typically a 65


T E C HN I C A L enough to ensure that pump developed head exceeds the system static head sufficiently to maintain minimum pump flow.

Hazardous areas

In hazardous areas, the motor will also need to be certified for use with a variable frequency drive. This is normally available routinely for a new motor, but an existing unit may not have suitable certification.

Will it work for you?

The VSD gospel is that you will generate energy savings, improved reliability and enhanced system control. Will it work for you? It depends on your system. In our previous discussion on “Pumps in Parallel” we discussed “Flat” and “Steep” system curves (Fig 7). few hundred rpm and is normally not an issue but should be considered. Another factor that is often queried is less effective motor cooling due to lower cooling fan speed. Because the power required by a centrifugal pump reduces with the cube of the speed change, motor power is dramatically reduced and the reduced cooling capacity ought not be an issue. Motors in other VSD applications such as constant torque service may need auxiliary cooling at low speeds. When the pump itself has a shaft driven cooling fan in a hot service application, the reduced cooling capacity on the pump may need to be addressed. It is now also routinely possible to increase the pumpset speed above the standard supply frequency. For a new installation, it is expected that all

aspects would be engineered at the time to ensure the equipment is correctly rated. For an existing installation, the pump and driver combination will need to be assessed to ensure that the pump itself has been engineered for the higher speed, which implies higher pressures, higher shaft power, higher bearing loads and almost certainly poorer suction performance (higher NPSHR).

Hydraulic considerations

The system hydraulics will often dictate the minimum running speed, rather than mechanical considerations. If there is a significant static differential head in the system, the danger is that as speeds reduce, the pump head will drop below the system static head and the pump will be running at zero flow or will experience reverse flow if there are no check valves. The pump speed must always be high

A mostly frictional “Steep” system such as a closed loop system or a long pipeline is ideal for VSD control. In this sort of system, the ratio of flow versus speed will be very linear and flow control will be straightforward. Conversely, with a “Flat” system where the head is mostly static differential, VSD flow control may be difficult. If the pump curve is also reasonably flat, a small speed change may result in a dramatic change in system flow. A steeper pump curve may help, but control of “Flat” systems is often problematic; particularly at low system flows. For “Flat” systems it is valuable to draw the pump curves at various speeds against the system curve and calculate the Gain or % flow change vs % speed change and plot this against flow (Fig 8). This will allow a prediction of where VSD flow control, may become impractical. In these instances, throttling with a control valve may be the best solution. The VSD gospel is that you will generate significant energy savings, improved reliability and enhanced system control. Will it work for you? It depends on your system. Plot your pump curves against your system curves. This is the window to understanding how it will work. In some cases, it may be a complete disaster. In most cases, however, VSD offers wonderful advantages and is an ideal solution to generate energy savings and easy process control. It may indeed be the answer to your prayers. The moral of the story is, as always, understand your system. Next issue : Minimum Flow

66


IN SERT HEAD IN G HERE

pump school Glossary of pump terms L-Z Brown Brothers Engineers Australia Pty Ltd, www.brownbros.com.au.

L

Labyrinth seal A non-contacting seal utilising a tortured path for the escape of the fluid. Utilises a series of pressure drops to reduce the leakage. Lantern Ring A device used to supply lubricant to packing. Usually located in the middle of the packing ring set. Line bearings These position the rotor or shaft radially and are normally of the sleeve type. Generally used in vertical pumps. Liquefied Petroleum Gas LPG This is liquefied petroleum gas which is a by-product of the refining of crude petroleum oil.

M

Magnetic drive A type of seal less pump that utilises permanent magnet technology to provide the rotation of the impeller. Mating ring Another name for the hard face in a mechanical seal. It can be either rotating or stationary. Mechanical seal A positive sealing device used to seal all fluids (liquids and gases). The primary seal is a set of lapped seal faces that are installed perpendicular to the shaft. Metal bellows Used in mechanical seal designs to eliminate the need for a dynamic elastomer and springs. Metal fatigue A breakage of the metal caused by the bending and flexing of a metal part beyond its endurance limit. Minimum flow The minimum capacity of a pump to prevent thermal and/or mechanical damage. Moment of inertia This represents a magnitude of the inertia in respect of the rotation around

the axis of the pump and drive rotor. Multistage Pump This defines a pump that has more than one impeller on the shaft.

N

Negative pressure A pressure below atmospheric pressure. Newtonian Fluid A Newtonian liquid is one whose viscosity does not change with increasing shear rate e.g. when agitated. Non Overloading Power This refers to the maximum power absorbed by a pump with a specific impeller diameter and liquid. Motors are generally sized at the next size above this power. N.P.S.H.A The net positive suction head available to prevent cavitation of the pump. It refers to the suction side of a pump installation and is defined as the head acting on top of the liquid + static head -vapor pressure head - friction head loss in the suction piping. N.P.S.H.R. Net positive suction head required to prevent cavitation of a pump and is dependent on impeller and pump design. The pump manufacturer determines the NPSHR by testing. In all cases, it is imperative that NPSHA >NPSHR to prevent cavitation

O

O.D. Outside diameter. Operating length This measurement is set by manufacturers to provide the correct closing pressure on the two mechanical seal faces. The measurement can be made in a number of ways dependent on manufacturer. One measurement is from the face of the stationary face to the location screws for the rotating part of the seal. Orifice Plate A plate with a hole smaller than the pipe diameter in which it is located

Over hung impeller Not supported with bearings on either side of the impeller.

P

Packing The soft rings that a mechanical seal replaces to stop leakage. Packing must have a small leak because it works on the theory of a series of pressure drops to reduce the stuffing box pressure to the point where the leakage is acceptable. Generally, a minimum of five rings of packing is required to do this. Parallel operation This refers to two or more pumps that are discharging to a common header. It is important that the impeller speed and outside diameters are the same or one of the pumps may cause other pumps to operate at shut off. pH A measure of the acidity or the alkalinity of a fluid. The scale ranges from 0 (acid) to 14 (alkali) with 7 considered neutral. Pipe strain The strain on the pump volute caused by the piping. It will cause excessive mechanical seal movement and can cause contact between rotating and stationary pump and seal components. It can also cause serious misalignment with resultant damage to bearings and couplings. Pitting Surface voids caused by corrosion, erosion or cavitation. It is possible for the three to occur at the same time. Positive Displacement Pumps This is a collective definition of all pumps that operate according to the positive displacement principle. That is, the liquid being pumped is displaced by a body which periodically increases and decreases the working volume. Power end The end of the pump that attaches to the power source and is not wetted by the liquid. The bearings are in this part. 67


Precision bearing Ball or roller bearing as opposed to a sleeve bearing. Pressure gradient The pressure drop between the seal faces. Priming This refers to the filling of a pump with liquid prior to operation.

Q

Quench The introduction of a fluid outside the seal to cool the product, dilute any leakage across the seal faces or isolate seal faces from atmosphere.

R

Radial Bearing This bearing handles most of the radial loads put on the impeller. In an endsuction centrifugal pump it is the bearing located closest to the stuffing box. Radial Thrust This is the thrust produced in the radial direction i.e. at 90 degrees to the centerline of the shaft, by forces acting on the impeller when operating at points other than BEP.

before the initial start, however their design means that subsequent starts do not require priming. Pumps that can selfprime from dry are limited to diaphragm and peristaltic type pumps only (both are positive displacement pumps). Series operation Two or more pumps connected with the discharge of the first pump discharging to the suction of the other etc. Rarely used these days. Shaft packing The soft packing located in the stuffing box to provide a shaft seal for pumps. Shaft Power The mechanical power absorbed at the pump shaft. Shut off head This is the maximum head that the pump can generate with a given impeller outside diameter. It is normally at zero capacity. Sleeve bearing A non-precision or anti-friction bearing. It is usually manufactured from carbon, teflon, brass, white metal, other synthetic bearing materials.

Stuffing box The portion of the pump that held the packing and now holds the mechanical seal. Stuffing box pressure The pressure in the stuffing box and generally between suction and discharge pressure but closer to suction pressure. Submersible pump A pump/motor pumpset that operates only when totally submersed in the fluid which is being pumped. Suction lift Pumping application where the liquid level on the suction side of the pump is below the pump centerline. System resistance Curve A graphed representation of how total dynamic head varies with capacity. A pump will operate where the system resistance curve intersects the pump performance curve. System head The head caused by friction in the piping valves and fittings.

T

Radially Split Casing A pump casing with the casing joint at 90 degrees to the shaft axis.

Slurry A slurry is a liquid in which solids are present in suspension.

Tandem seals The seals are facing in the same direction with a low-pressure barrier fluid circulating between them.

Rated Operation This is the basis of selection of both pump and driver. When rated operation is specified, it generally exceeds the requirement of the design operation.

Solubility This defines the ability of a liquid to dissolve with another liquid. For example, ethanol will fully dissolve in water whereas oil will float on water.

Thermal conductivity A measure of the material’s ability to conduct heat. This is a very important factor in the selection of mechanical seal faces.

Ring Section Pumps These are multistage pumps with several identical stage casings arranged in tandem behind each other. The stage casings are radially split.

Specific Gravity (SG) This is the ratio of the mass of a liquid for a known volume to the weight of water for the same volume. The reference is water at 4 degrees C with an SG of 1.0. If the liquid you are questioning will float on water the specific gravity is less than one. If it sinks, it is higher than one. Note that this is based on the liquid not being soluble in water.

Thixotropic fluid The viscosity of the fluid decreases with agitation. Non-drip paint is an example of such a fluid.

Rockwell “C” The scale used to define hardness of materials. Run out Twice the distance that the centre of the shaft is displaced from the axis of rotation.

S

Saturation Pressure Same as vapour pressure.

Specific Speed Specific speed of a pump is determined by the geometry of a pump impeller. The higher the specific speed the less N.P.S.H. required.

Seal faces The lapped faces that provide the primary seal in a mechanical seal.

Stainless steel Alloy steels containing a high percentage of chromium and/or nickel.

Self Priming Pump These pumps are capable of pumping liquids on a suction lift by being able to remove air from the suction line of its own accord. Most self-priming pumps need to be filled with liquid (primed)

Static head The height of a liquid above a reference point e.g. pump centerline.

68

Stationary face The seal face that does not rotate with the shaft.

Throttling This means closing of a valve on the discharge side of a pump to increase friction loss. This steepens the system resistance curve with a resultant decrease in flowrate. Opening the valve results in an increase in flowrate. Thrust bearing This locates the rotor or shaft axially and is designed to handle any excess axial thrust load. In an end-suction pump, it is normally located close to the coupling. Thrust In a centrifugal pump it refers to the axial movement of the shaft. The thrust can be towards the wet or power end of the pump and at start up it thrusts in both directions. Total Discharge Head This is equal to the pressure at the pump


IN SERT HEAD IN G HERE discharge connection converted to head of liquid.

existence of internal friction between layers within the liquid.

Total Dynamic Head Total dynamic head is equal to total discharge head minus total suction head

Viton® An E.I. Dupont Dow manufactured fluorocarbon elastomer widely used in the sealing industry. Refer to Fluorocarbon.

Total Suction Head This is equal to the pressure at the pump suction connection converted to head of liquid. Tungsten carbide A common hard face seal material available in several grades depending upon hardness and corrosion resistance. Cobalt and nickel are the two most common types. Turbulence This refers to disturbance of fluid as it enters the suction connection and /or the impeller. This can cause cavitation problems in a centrifugal pump. This is often caused by an insufficient length of straight pipe before the pump suction inlet.

U

Unbalanced seal A mechanical seal not designed to balance the closing force between seals. Refer to Balanced Seal.

V

Variable speed motor This is used to control flow in a system by varying the frequency of the motor. A better system than throttling as it reduces power consumption significantly. Vacuum This is a pressure less than atmospheric. Vapor pressure Below this pressure, the liquid at this temperature will vaporise. Vaporisation The fluid passes from a liquid to a gaseous state. If this happens at the seal faces the seal faces will be blown open. Velocity A measurement of the speed of the liquid in the system. This is measured in metres per second. Velocity head Part of the total head calculation. This is calculated from the formula H = v2/2g. Vent This removes air or gas from the system. It is important to vent the stuffing box in vertical pumps to prevent the seal faces from running dry. Viscosity This is defined as the property of a liquid that offers resistance due to the

Volute casing This derives its name from a spiralshaped casing surrounding the pump impeller. It converts velocity energy to pressure energy. Vortex Pump A type of pump used to handle liquids with entrained solids, particularly stringy solids. The impeller is recessed into the volute. A very low efficiency design, but practical in many applications.

Event Calendar PIA Events General Meeting 13 August 2013 - Sydney Seminar 14 August 2013 - Sydney Half Day Workshop to review new Firepump Standard AS2941 Seminar 15 October 2013, Melbourne Full Day Seminar - Developments in the Building Services Sector – Pumps & Systems

Vortexing liquid Creating a “whirlpool affect” that can draw air into the suction of the pump. Vortecies can form both from the surface of the liquid and in vertical pumps, from the floor of a pit or channel in which they are located.

AGM 12 November 2013 (AGM)– Melbourne

W

Other Events

Water hammer This occurs in a closed piping system as a result of the pressure being rapidly increased when the liquid velocity is suddenly changed. This damaging effect is usually the result of sudden starting, stopping, change in pump speed, or the sudden opening or closing of a valve. Water hammer can usually be controlled by regulating the valve closure time, surge chambers, relief valves or other means. Water Power The calculated power coming on water at an efficiency of 100%. Watt A measure of power. Wear ring This is used with closed impeller pumps to seal leakage from the high-pressure side of the pump to the low-pressure side. This may need to be replaced as it wears when the recommended clearance is doubled or when reduction in pump performance can no longer be tolerated. Welded metal bellows A seal design used to eliminate the use of elastomers. Excellent for cryogenic and hot applications. Not as effective for hot petroleum applications because of “coking” problems. Wet end The part of the pump that gets wet from the pumping fluid. Includes the volute, stuffing box, impeller wear rings, and shaft or sleeve. See issue 3 (May 2013) for A-K

For more information or to register for PIA events, visit pumps.asn.au or email pumpsaustralia@bigpond.com

BIM-MEP Aus Melbourne 25-26 July, 2013 bimmepaus.com.au IPWEA Darwin 11-15 August, 2013 www.ipwea.org.au AIMEX Sydney 20-23 August, 2013 www.aimex.com.au/ WIOA Victoria Bendigo 4-5 September, 2013 www.wioa.org.au All Energy Melbourne 9-10 October, 2013 www.all-energy.com.au Australian Pipeline Industry Assoc. (APIA) Adelaide 12-15 October, 2013 www.apia.net.au/events Fire Australia Sydney 20-21 November, 2013 www.fpaa.com.au/events

69


P RODU C T S HOWC A S E

Xylem releases intelligent pumping control system

Pumping applications for irrigation water supply, recreational turf, building services or domestic supply needs can achieve improved efficiencies and usually significant electric power savings by the application of the unique Hydrovar™ variable speed pump controller by Xylem Water Systems Australia.

T

he Hydrovar is a pump mounted variable speed, micro-processor based system controller that has been designed by pump people for pumping applications. Originally it was the world’s first of its type to manage motor speed and match pump performance to a wide range of water industry applications. In independent tests compared to full speed pumps Hydrovar has provided energy cost savings of up to 70% by varying the pump performance to match water supply demands. Now with a unique wall or panel mounting system Hydrovar utilizes the output power of the drive to operate a cooling fan therefore reducing the need for the Hydrovar to be motor mounted to operate. This results in Hydrovar becoming a Con Goltsios, Hydrovar Product Specialist for the Applied Water Systems Division of Xylem Water Systems Australia says that the new mounting systems will enable many onsite pumps to be retrofitted with Hydrovar and provide the potential for cost savings to the owners.

standalone drive mounted directly to a wall or enclosure.

With the introduction of a wall mounted fan kit the Hydrovar increases its capabilities for more application types and installations. The new wall mount kits are specifically designed to provide the cooling capacity required to ensure longevity of the Hydrovar. Hydrovar offers a unique modular design, available as a Master Drive that is fully featured for single or multiple pump applications, as a Single Drive with reduced features for a single pump only application or a Basic Drive for use on slave pumps in multi-pump applications, or soft start in single pump applications. Hydrovar also has a unique simple clip-on design enabling it to be attached to the

TEFC electric motor of most common pumps and the wall or panel mounted alternative makes it ideal for submersible pump installations. The Hydrovar is easily integrated into existing building management systems as everything is included in the one package – micro-processor, controller, sensor, upgraded management software and a back-lit LCD control panel. As an intelligent control system it automatically adapts the demand to the pumping system capacity. In a variable speed controlled system the pump speed adapts to the required pressure & flow ensuring that no energy is wasted. Each Hydrovar has an IP 55 rated housing and a number of failsafe features including low pressure shutdown. With its clip on feature the Hydrovar unit allows very simple, fast and inexpensive retrofitting to existing pumping systems. Con Goltsios Hydrovar Product Specialist for the Applied Water Systems Division of Xylem Water Systems Australia says that especially where there is operation at partial loads of a centrifugal pump there will be significant potential for energy savings. “For instance in a multi pump application in say a building services or recreational turf watering system the Hydrovar will automatically shut down one or more pumps when demand falls. “The electric power saving thus gained can obviously be significant.” “On a multi-pump installation a benefit of having a Hydrovar system fitted is its seamless multiple redundancy feature. “In the case of a pump or drive failure one of the other drives will automatically take over control of the system ensuring a constant water supply”.

For more information and technical specifications on Hydrovar contact the Applied Water Systems Division of Xylem Water Systems Australia on 03 9551 7333 or by email to con.goltsios@xyleminc.com or see www.xyleminc.com 70


PROD U CT SHOWCASE

Haskel customers are the key Haskel is the world leader in the manufacture of high pressure equipment with pressures to 150,000 psi (approx 1,000,000 kPa). Haskel pneumatic pumps, gas boosters, air amplifiers, and high pressure systems, as well as their BuTech line of high pressure valves, fittings and tubing, are used throughout the industrial world for generating, storing, and controlling high-pressure gases and liquids. Offering both standard and customized products, Haskel is supported by a global network of subsidiary offices and distributors.

W

ith over 65 years of experience in hydraulic and pneumatic engineering, at the core of Haskel’s success is the company’s commitment to improving innovations in high pressure technologies and to solving problems at their root cause. With the implementation of a “Continuous Improvement” business model, the company is striving to provide products of the highest quality at the lowest price. Their goal is to maintain a strong focus on customer relationships by identifying and solving problems to increase efficiency and reduce waste. George Volk, Director of Sales & Marketing for Haskel explains the importance of treating a problem, such as a failed unit, as a golden opportunity to locate the root cause of a problem and learn about the issues that can be improved upon, so that problems do not recur. Haskel also believes that remaining focused on their market demands and ensuring that they remain on top of the innovations, is very important to their success in the field and so it continues to invest in technology to ensure that they maintain a leading edge in the industry. Their latest innovations in high pressure fluid and gas handling equipment includes the qualification of BuTech subsea valves to the rigorous standards of API 6A, 19th ed., ISO 10423:2003 pr2 Annex F/PSL3G. “We have been doing a lot of API (American Petroleum Institute) qualification of our valves with some relatively stringent demands that will set us apart.” Having qualified eight valve configurations over the last couple of years, Volk admitted that it was difficult to achieve but that the improvements were necessary for the success of their designs. In order to withstand the demanding temperature scale from -18°F (-28°C), far colder than the ocean itself, Haskel decided to create new designs without elastomers and

only use plastic and metal type seals. “Elastomers all generally have a life-span to them and right now, we are asked to guarantee a valve life of 20 years. Next it will be 30 years, at the bottom of the ocean,” said Volk. “This will allow for deeper depths and the major exploration is going to be in deeper sea. We feel as though we are going to get more involved in subsea valve requirements, because it is a huge growth area.” A tour of Haskel’s 9000sq/ft. (approx 830 sqm) facility reveals that even the size of the plant reflects their business model of efficiency, by ensuring that operators have less ground to cover and that materials are within a closer proximity. This system is a facet of their Continuous Improvement program which is primarily focused on customer satisfaction and product quality. Dean McCarthy, Haskel’s Manufacturing Director, stresses the importance of maintaining an organized working environment. Through the use of tool and material organizers, safety shut off switches, protective shields and proper equipment training, Haskel can ensure safety in the workplace despite working with some fairly dangerous testing procedures and manufacturing machinery. McCarthy believes that this commitment to safety in turn, promises efficient operation, which helps to keep their

customers happy with quality and service. “We go out once a year and actually ask our customers how they feel about us in terms of quality, delivery, response. And we also have external assessors that come in and rate us on different elements of our Continuous Improvement program. This is a highly quality-driven manufacturing process. When there are defects, we go through a process called relentless root cause analysis (RRCA) and mistake proofing (MP), so when we do have a defect, we take it and we analyze to find the reason for failure and until we understand that, we don’t move any further. We decide if it was a real failure; was it a customer impression or an application issue, is it something engineering has to get involved in, was it the assembly, etc. and what do we have to change to make sure that this is not a problem going forward?” “Our customers are the key to this whole thing,” he said. “We wouldn’t be here without them.”

71


Editorial schedule November 2013

Deadline: 6 September, 2013

Main feature

Instrumentation, control & monitoring

Energy efficiency

Industry Focus Power generation Fire protection Irrigation

Pressure and temperature gauges Vibration instrumentation Flow meters Condition monitoring sensors

INDE X

Pump Products Pump protection

February 2014

Deadline: 29 November, 2013

Main feature

Related Products

State of the industry

Industry Focus

Oil & Gas: LNG Mining and slurry pumping Manufacturing & heavy industry

Valves Pipes and piping systems Coatings Custom casting Vacuum pumps

Pump Products

Repair & maintenance

May 2014

Deadline: 21 March, 2014

Main feature

Related Products: Seals

Reliability

Industry Focus

Water HVAC Plastics, rubber, chemicals

Couplings & seals Bearings Fans Filtration systems Lubricant & lubrication systems

Pump Products Seal-less pumps

August 2014

Deadline: 13 June, 2014

Main feature

Related Products:

Pump manufacturing Imports & exports

Industry Focus Mine dewatering Food Wastewater Coal Seam Gas

Motors and drives Compressors

Pump Products Balancing

ADVERTISERS’ INDEX ABB Australia

57

Acromet

3

Amiad Water Systems

61

Brown Brothers Engineers

6

Chesterton

OBC

Crusader Hose

39

Diesel Dog

55

f.el.som Middle East

18

Fire Equipment Australia

8

Flow Technology 2014

45

Haskel

13

Hydro Innovations

44

JDM Instant Pumps

9

Kelair Pumps Australia

31

Kennards Pump Hire

25

Milton Roy

13

Netzsch Australia

49

Northern Diesel & Hydraulic

22

NOV Mono

41

Paterson Pumps Australia

43

Precision Balancing

34

Pump Systems Limited

33

Rathbone Engineering

24

Regal Beloit

11

Sterling Pumps

7

Toshiba International Corporation IFC Tyco Pentair

17

United Pumps Australia

35

Vortex Hire

12

Watson Marlow Bredel

19, 53

Welling & Crossley

26

WIOA Bendigo

IBC

Xylem Water Systems

15

Never miss an issue - subscribe now for free Go to www.pumpindustry.com.au and hit subscribe to ensure you keep receiving Australia’s number 1 pump source! 72


Join us at the 2013 Victorian Water Industry Operations Conference and Exhibition

WIOA RETURNS TO BENDIGO – 4 & 5 SEPT Bendigo Exhibition Centre, Holmes Road Bendigo

Operators, managers, engineers, consultants, for anyone working in the water industry - this is a MUST SEE event. The annual WIOA Victorian conference will provide a forum for individuals involved in water operations to: • Listen to the experience of others through the latest “operational” technical and research based information through platform and poster presentations. • Update the knowledge and skills of operational staff through interaction with fellow water industry employees. • View and discuss the latest advances in technical equipment, products and services with suppliers and trade consultants.

To view the conference program and find out how to register, http://www.wioa.org.au/2013conferences/vic.htm

Position your company as a leader in the water industry For more information on exhibiting and sponsorship opportunities, visit http://www.wioa.org.au/2013conferences/vic.htm

Organiser

Prime Sponsors

Who should attend? All water industry personnel involved in the operation and maintenance of urban, rural and industrial water related infrastructure for the management, conveyance, treatment, discharge and reuse of water and trade wastes should attend. This conference and exhibition will promote best practice in water management by building knowledge, skills and networks.

Over 145 Exhibitors

Media Sponsor

epigen Performance Resins & Composite Systems

Water Industry Operators Association of Australia PO Box 6012, Shepparton, Victoria, 3632 Email info@wioa.org.au Phone 03 5821 6744 Fax 03 5821 6033

www.wioa.org.au


Pump New Life into your Plant Assets Chesterton’s Total System Solutions for Pump Asset Management can improve reliability, reduce life cycle cost and enhance overall pump operating efficiency and availability. From reliable mechanical seals and gland sealing systems to advanced bearing protection, Chesterton has the technology and programs to keep your equipment running more reliable and energy efficient. With knowledgeable and experienced local specialists and service partners, Chesterton brings you proven results right at your doorstep.

Simple and Reliable – The Chesterton Method.

FITT Resources Eastern, Central Australia and PNG Contact: 1300 653 229 www.fittresources.com.au

PUMPNSEAL Western Australia Contact: 08 9302 8400 www.pumpnseal.com

SIP Tasmania Contact: 03 62725779 www.siproducts.com.au

Pump industry August 2013  

Pump Industry magazine. Features include mining, wastewater pump stations, slurry pumping, mine dewatering, coal seam gas, manufacturing, in...

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