Mojatu Magazine Nottingham M043

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News & Sports



Ambassador Training



Honorary Air Commodore


Editor’s Welcome The Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement serves as a reminder to the continuous strides by black people in the UK and beyond to be heard, recognised, and treated with equality, respect, and decency in all fabrics of society. Britain’s colonial past continues to dominate an imperial hegemonic system where people from her colonies are continuous subjects of abuse, racial discrimination, stereotypes, and deprivation. The unprecedented activities of BLM in Britain have registered a significant shift in both the narratives of the past and current realities of the general population. All types of people from across all sectors of society joined in amplifying the voice of the vulnerable, marginalised, used, and abused part of our society, the Black People. The BLM protests in 2020 signalled a beacon of hope…hope as we have been living in for centuries now. These activities have provoked serious and pertinent discourses within the very important sectors of the system, the system that we run to when we are in need, but a system that is blinded by discrimination that hardly comes to our rescue to address our unique problems. Our cry as a people is to treat us equal like everyone else. We seek EQUALITY in giving us opportunity, employment, access to services like health, housing, and financial benefits. Decolonising the system has been a constant cry which is not landing on the listening ears. We have cried against soft-core and hard-core violence - institutional racism, underrepresentation in the mainstream media, judicial prejudices, racial profiling by law enforcement authorities, intersectional inequalities among others. We shall not and will not despair, albeit the unlevel playing field. We will be united and structured like spokes in the wheel to turn our hopes into reality. HAKUNA MATATA Pa Modou Faal

Editorial Group Editor: Frank Kamau – Managing Editor: Pa Modou Faal - Design: Robert Borbely - Photos: Contributors: Angela Wathoni | Kairel MclearyBarnes | Madelaine Trudgian | Karuti Kanyinga | Tom Mboya | Pa Modou Faal | Penny Cooper | Aderonke Ige | Rosie Vacciana-Browne | Brenda Kabue | Max Kozlov | Amber Swali | Tiana Browne | Rev. Clive Forster | Tiffany La Forge | SaVanna Shoemaker | WKM Accountancy | Dr. Judy Muthuri | Dominic Kirui IT / Social Media: Eva Karanja Accounts: Athira Nair - Admin: Penny Cooper - News & Comments:

Contents News & Sports FGM, The Global Pandemic .......................................4 Female Genital Mutilation .........................................5 V. Pickering: RAF Honorary Air Commodore ..8-9 Community The Angolan Women Voice Association UK ..... 11 A Look At Climate Change ...............................14-15 Our Covid 19 work International Men’s Day .......................................... 19 Thrifting and the Environment ............................. 20 Black Friday: A Blessing and a Curse ................... 21 Summer Activities ...............................................24-25 Arts & Culture Black History is British History .............................. 30 Health & Food World Mental Health Day ....................................... 31 Balancing health below the belt .......................... 32 Business & Finance Bookkeeping for Business Owners .................... 37 Education & Career Lipreading Awareness ............................................. 39


Veronica Moraa Pickering


Mojatu Media Disclaimer The views expressed in this magazine are not necessarily those of the publishers. Every effort has been made to ensure that the contents of this magazine are accurate but the publisher cannot take responsibility for errors, omissions, nor can we accept responsibility for the advertisements or editorial contributions.

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News & Sports


How much do you know about FGM? How much does your closest friend know? Would you feel comfortable talking to them about it? How much do your school friends or work colleagues know? Would you feel comfortable talking to them about it? If you’re like most British citizens, the answers will reflect the deep-rooted stigmatisation of the female anatomy, and anything associated with it. This has disastrous affects for the women and girls who have undergone, or are at risk of undergoing, FGM in the UK. FGM stands for Female Genital Mutilation and refers to the process of deliberate altering of the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. There are four types: Clitoridectomy (partial or total removal of the clitoris); Excision (clitoridectomy and partial or total removal of the labia minora); Infibulation (creating a covering or seal from the skin of the labia minora to leave a narrow vaginal opening); and Other (any other alterations). All these operations result in severe, negative, long term physical and mental impacts for those that undergo them. This includes chronic pain, sexual problems, recurrent UTIs, incontinence and bleeding. The WHO estimates that 130 million women and girls in the world today live with the effects of FGM. Although it is most prevalent in countries in Asia; the Middle East, North-Eastern, and Western regions of Africa, as globalisation has facilitated increased migration, there is now no country that is not affected by FGM. A report by City University London (2014) estimated 137,000 women and girls affected by FGM live in the UK. Channelling the self-proclaimed liberal and equality driven ideologies upheld by the constitution in the UK, FGM was, rightly, criminalised in 1985 with varying revisions since. However, this has not been effective at eradicating the practise. By criminalising FGM the British government is acting as if the job is done, like a tick box policy. However, this is only the first of many crucial steps needed to protect women and girls. The next and most important step is education. In order to carry this out effectively we need to understand why these practices continue to occur and why we struggle to communicate with each other about women’s bodies. Firstly, we need to understand the motivations behind those who perform or enforce FGM. It is crucial to recognise that there is often no malicious agenda behind this practice, it is considered by those who perform it as justifiable and necessary. This is based on entrenched social, religious and psychological beliefs in practising communities, often linked to patriarchal origins. These include FGM to be seen as an important rite of passage for girls, to maintain their chastity and family honour, and to make them spiritually ‘clean’ or marriageable. Therefore, girls

and women who do not undergo FGM in religious or ethnic communities or groups where it is considered to be necessary for these reasons, would fear that they themselves and their families would be ridiculed. This would result in potential exclusion and high social costs; this is especially salient for those who already feel marginalised in British society. Despite this there is no recorded religious text that requires women to undergo FGM. So those performing it are doing so under misinformation or lack of information. Therefore, the association between FGM and these factors needs to be broken to address this issue. Secondly, we need to understand why we, even as a society that prides itself on development, cannot talk openly about women’s bodies and sexual health. This, just like FGM can be traced back to the persistent patriarchal structure of society. The concept of women enjoying sex and talking freely and openly about issues confined to their gender is still relatively new and highly stigmatized with the consistent justification of preventing the discomfort of others. This has to stop, by shrouding these topics in embarrassment, we are neglecting to address the root of the issues women face and we are hindering ourselves from combating them effectively. Millions of women have to deal with the consequences of FGM every day of their lives, and so many people cannot even bring themselves to talk about it. For these reasons, criminalisation on its own is not the answer. It is necessary to legally justify eradication, challenge the norm and legitimise an alternative course of action but it ignores the broader context with many negative consequences. These include further marginalisation of societal groups, potential for ethnic and racial profiling and a field day for far-right nationalists who use it to spread hate and suspicion. Furthermore, the language often used is directed at women and further stigmatises survivors. It also ignores the influence of men who are often fundamental in facilitating this process, often described as ‘gatekeepers’ with significant control and influence in FGM practicing communities. Therefore, criminalising does nothing to change beliefs. Direct work in education and with practising communities is essential. This must involve multidisciplinary action, educating at all levels: professionals, organisations and departments in a culturally sensitive way that pays attention to social justice and equality. Dialogues need to bring together communities and professionals including ‘gatekeepers’ with more emphasis on education and support for survivors than on prosecution. This needs to address the sexual and reproductive health consequences, the misinformation regarding the necessity of the procedure and the long-term psychological impacts.

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What can you do? The simplest answer is talk. Talk and educate people about this issue, open dialogues that are culturally sensitive, using the right language and information to motivate people to learn more. This is not an ethnic minority women’s issue, this is not an


ethnic minority issue, this is not a women’s issue, it’s an issue for us all and we all have the responsibility to do what we can by educating those around us. Smash down the walls of stigmatisation and talk to someone about FGM.


The practice, traditional in some cultures, of partially or totally removing the external genitalia of girls and young women for nonmedical reasons, is illegal in many countries, including the UK. Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is practiced in many Western, Eastern, and North-Eastern regions of Africa, countries in the Middle East, Asia, and by migrants from these areas. FGM happens to young girls between infancy and age 15 as some cultures believe it will help preserve their virginity making them more marriageable, more feminine, and cleaner. It has zero health benefits but many health implications, including severe or constant pain, infections such as tetanus, HIV and Hepatitis B and C, pain or difficulty having sex, infertility, bleeding, cysts, and abscesses. Difficulties urinating or incontinence, organ damage and problems during pregnancy

and childbirth which can be lifethreatening for mother and baby, are attributes of FGM. Alongside these physical effects, there are also psychological implications. Those who are in education can have their work suffer and may even stop attending school. For many, the stigma and shame around women’s sexual organs create a reluctance to go to the doctors or ask for help following FGM, meaning many women suffer alone. The latest figures from the NSPCC show that the number of people reaching out to their FGM helpline rose 36% from 476 in 2017/18 to 645 last year (2020). Since the helpline’s launch in 2013, there has been 2,747 calls, with almost 1 in 5 concerns being so severe that they were referred to external agencies. More





and women alive today have experienced FGM in 30 countries across Africa, the Middle East and Asia. But FGM is a global problem and is present here in the UK too. A new report from the City University London and Equality found that 2.1% of women in London have been affected by FGM, the highest in the country. Outside the capital, the highest estimates were for Manchester, Slough, Bristol, Leicester, and Birmingham. Many organisations, including Mojatu Foundation, are working together to end FGM. If you are concerned about a woman or girl or want to seek out support you can call the NSPCC’s 24/7 anonymous FGM Helpline on 0800 028 3550 or email fgmhelp@nspcc., in an emergency ring 999. For emotional and peer support in Nottingham contact us at info@


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News & Sports



In Kenya’s previous elections, senators spent an average $319,000 in getting elected. Kenya’s general elections, scheduled for 9 August 2022, are now less than a year away. It’s too early to say what the country’s political landscape will look like after the vote, but we do know something about who will get elected – those who can afford it. In Kenya, campaign financing laws and regulations are rarely enforced. Some new rules were recently proposed, but politicians are keen to avoid discussing electoral expenditure. They know that winning elections is more about spending money – and then making money – than worrying about constituents’ wellbeing or coming up with a compelling political ideology. As our recent research in collaboration the Westminster Foundation for Democracy (WFD), the Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy (NIMD), and Mzalendo shows, this means that access to Kenya’s political spheres is based on affluence rather than passion or aptitude. We found that candidates who were successfully elected to the National Assembly in the 2017 general elections spent an average KSh18.2 million ($166,000) during their campaigns. Those elected to the Senate expended an average KSh35 million ($319,000). In many constituencies – especially those in which one party dominates – most of the expenditure occurs during party primaries. Senators, for instance, spent an average KSh19.2 million ($175,000) during these internal contests to win their party’s nomination, compared to KSh16.3 million ($148,000) in the subsequent national election. In both instances, the vast majority of costs seem to have come from the aspirants’ own pockets. Threequarters of the those surveyed said they received no or very little support from their political party. Running as a woman To put it simply: if you want to win a political position in Kenya, be rich and spend big. The more you spend, the greater your chances of winning – unless you are a woman. Our research also found a significant gender disparity. Far fewer women make it to the ballot or win seats, but they spend significantly more. In trying to win seats in the National Assembly, for instance, women spent an average of KSh23.6 million ($240,000) compared to men’s average of KSh17 million ($155,000). Female candidates face multiple challenges arising from Kenya’s deep-seated patriarchal norms. For example, it is seen as improper for women to lead

largescale rallies or campaign late into the evening. This means that they must rely on more costly and labour-intensive strategies such as smaller events, door-to-door canvassing, and face-to-face meetings. Female candidates are also typically held to higher standards than men, while many voters simply believe women should not be in politics to begin with. As one respondent told us, “Some people still think that the woman’s place is in the kitchen”. Kenya’s “big man” politics puts women at a disadvantage too. In this political culture, candidates’ ability to solve local challenges is seen to be determined by their proximity to the centre of power, and this usually means being male. There have been attempts to increase female representation in Kenya politics. The 2010 constitution, for instance, created a new “county woman representative” position that set aside 47 seats in the National Assembly that only female candidates could contest. This has increased the proportion of women in parliament but has also had the undesirable side-effect that remaining 290 directly elected seats have been perceived by many as “men-only seats”. Fixing the system In Kenya, politics is the preserve of the rich or, more specifically, rich men. To change this, the country needs a holistic, transparent, and effective campaign finance infrastructure. To begin with, the 2014 Election Campaign Finance Act, which set spending limits, must be actively enforced. It is only with caps on expenditure that Kenya’s vastly skewed playing field can be levelled, and the transactional nature of politics can be challenged. It will also be necessary to reject the prevailing perception that women should only compete for affirmative action seats. Female candidates will need to be encouraged and supported to compete for the full range of positions. The constitutional provision that no more than two-thirds of the National Assembly or Senate can be of the same gender needs to be enforced, while gender quotas for party primaries and a reduction of electoral fees for women contesting at all levels could also help increase representation. Unfortunately, the people with the greatest capacity to change the status quo are the very ones who most benefit from it. This means that the 2022 elections will be likely to follow the same patterns as those in 2017. Less affluent Kenyans and women will, once again, be largely excluded.


News & Sports

VERONICA MORAA PICKERING BECOMES FIRST BLACK WOMAN & KENYAN RAF HONORARY AIR COMMODORE By Pa Modou Faal Veronica Moraa Pickering has made history for being the first black woman and Kenyan to be appointed the Royal Air Force (RAF) Honorary Air Commodore in the UK. Honorary Air Commodore Pickering who works as an Executive Coach and Mentor with companies and organisations across the UK, is also a Deputy Lieutenant for Nottinghamshire. She was born in Kenya and later moved to the United Kingdom with her parents in the late 60s. It is in this role that she met Air Chief Marshal Sir Andrew Pulford, formerly Chief of the Air Staff. A lifetime’s work with people, businesses and organisations fittingly qualifies Veronica Pickering to be the Honorary Air Commodore for No 504 (County of Nottingham) Squadron. No 504 (County of Nottingham) Squadron was originally a flying unit and saw action during the Battle of Britain. Today 504 Squadron is a Reserve Logistics Support Unit. It recruits, trains, and employs chefs, drivers, suppliers, and general electrical and mechanical technicians. The Squadron has personnel at RAF Stations across the UK and in deployed locations around the world. In her new role, she will be expected to hold senior appointments within the military aviation units and support the Air Officer Commanding directly. Commenting on her appointment, Ms Pickering said, “I had no idea about 504 Squadron, but Sir Andrew was very interested in the work I’d been doing in Nottinghamshire and in the UK with families, communities and businesses, and also as a Nottinghamshire Deputy Lieutenant.” She termed it an honour to be wearing the RAF uniform, adding that the ability to represent the people is a privilege. Although the official images have only recently been

released, Veronica Pickering has been 504 Squadron’s Honorary Air Commodore for around three years. In that time, she and the RAF have had significant impacts on each other. Ms Pickering has been made an ambassador for the RAF Museums and she has enjoyed a steep but fulfilling learning curve. She thanked her Group Captain and the Deputy Support Force Commander Jo Lincoln for being “the most inspiring leader” she has ever met while discharging her duties. Speaking about Ms Pickering, Commander Lincoln said that one of the benefits of being in the RAF is, “the incredible people you have the privilege to work with and the lifelong friendships that you make. Honorary Air Commodore Veronica Pickering has provided me with tremendous support during my time in command”.

Officer Commanding 504 Squadron. He said, “we are hugely honoured to have Air Commodore Pickering as our Honorary Air Commodore. As an immigrant who has made a huge success of her life, she brings an entirely fresh perspective, and the Squadron is really benefitting from that. She has encouraged us to explore and better understand what diversity and inclusion really means to members of the Black, Asian, Oriental, and Eastern European communities who contribute so much to the fabric of life in the UK.” Squadron Leader Ham continued, “we are better equipped to recruit talented members from those groups in the Midlands. Our objective is to make 504 Squadron truly representative of the communities we live amongst, and Air Commodore Pickering is helping us to achieve that.”

In a conversation with Mojatu Magazine, Ms. Pickering sees herself as a personal coach and mentor, a human rights and wildlife advocate. She has over 25 years work experience as a social worker, Children’s Guardian as well as International Child Protection Consultant for the UN and many NGOs across Africa. Ms. Pickering continues be a strong supporter of the arts and wildlife conservation and several Nottinghamshire-based charities and organisations. There were obvious parallels between Ms Pickering’s work with diverse communities and as a coach, and the ethos of the Royal Air Force. She said, “coaching is also about mentoring, supporting people to identify their strengths and helping people grow but in an intensely focused way. 504 Squadron is made up of volunteers who want to give something back and learn something to help improve their own lives – it feels like this is what I do as a coach.”

Speaking about Ms Pickering, Commander Lincoln said that one of the benefits of being in the RAF is, “the incredible people you have the privilege to work with and the lifelong friendships that you make. Honorary Air Commodore Veronica Pickering has provided me with tremendous support during my time in command”.

Squadron Leader Andy Ham is

Before her Royal appointment as the High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire for the year 2023, Honorary Air Commodore Pickering was working with UK based NGOs, universities, charities, and community-based organisations. The Office of High Sheriff is a Royal appointment lasting for one year with a major responsibility of supporting the Crown and the Judiciary. High Sheriff’s roles also include assisting community foundations and local charities, working with vulnerable and other people both in endorsing and helping to raise the profile of their valuable work as well as actively participating in crime reduction initiatives.

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The reaction to the release of Honorary Air Commodore Pickering’s official pictures, particularly in Kenya, took her by surprise. She said, “I was amazed by the reaction in Kenya, humbled by it. My cousins were calling and texting me, letting me know that I had featured on local radio and newspapers. I had never done anything that people back home had tweeted about, it’s very strange.” Kenya’s High Commissioner to the U.K, Manoah Esipisu, congratulated Honorary Air Commodore Pickering for her achievements saying, “you are definitely making history and you will notch another first when you take royal appointment as High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire in 2023.” Honorary Air Commodore Pickering concluded by saying, “I am super proud to be the first black woman to be appointed to this position, and to represent the RAF and be part of the 504 team. I am amazed by the all the skills, the technology, science and engineering, and constantly fascinated and surprised by the RAF and its amazing people.” Honorary Air Commodore Pickering is supporting several Nottinghamshire charities and organisations. She is Chair of EDI Committee, a trustee of U.K. RSPB, YMCA, Beaver Castle Cricket and Countryside Trust and New Perspective Theatre. IMAGE BY: SAC KIMBERLEY WATERSON

10 News & Sports


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Forms of DV DV attitudes & cycles Culture & DV Technology & DV Impact of power & control in DV Impact of DV on wellbeing Leaving abusive relationships Understanding and accessing support


• 1-1 support & referral services • Translation for non-English speakers • Connections and linking to community networks


Contact on M: 07759927671 T: 01157846668 E: W:

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The Angolan Women Voice Association UK is a nonprofit charitable organization which is based in Nottingham and is pioneered by three Angolan women leaders in the Portuguese speaking community: Paula Pontes, Tania Tavares, and Ana Camacho all of whom live in Nottingham. Paula has been on the forefront in the quest to help these new and emerging communities easily settle down in Nottingham.

The Thursday session is for the seniors, 50 years and above, starting from 10:00 am to 1:00 pm. As elders and people who would like to exchange pleasantries and increase their networks, the first hour is dedicated to a meet and greet session. This is a moment they enjoy and would easily transition from jokes and banter to the second hour when they are engaged with knitting, crochet, sewing and other forms of household activities.

Paula Pontes is a volunteer for Mojatu Foundation with keen interest in women affairs and issues affecting new and emerging communities. She helps in signposting service providers and offer support to these vulnerable people in the areas of interpretation, guidance, and integration.

The third hour serves as a teamwork for them to organise and coordinate their activities for the following week. Before they disperse, they check on each other’s wellbeing and mental health, and whether anyone needs support or guidance. They also use this hour to plan their field trips and mobilise resource to fund the activities.

With Paula’s intervention, the association was able to secure a place provided by Mojatu Foundation at Marcus Garvey in the Lenton Business Centre. According to Paula, the association runs two major activities for Angolan women, mothers and children at the centre geared towards supporting them in tackling problems of loneliness, mental health and post-Covid trauma.

Paula revealed that they have been facing challenges in identifying the right people needed during the initial stages the project but now they are growing, and the project is spreading by word of mouth and social media. She said these activities are key to the postCovid recovery for the elders and mothers who struggle with the family chores and bringing up their kids. Paula however said that the provision of refreshments and snacks are self-generated through contribution from participants and parents of the kids.

The kids’ activity is held every Saturday from 10:00 am to 1:00 pm and brings together children from the ages of 0-14. They come along with their parents and during the three-hour session that they are kept busy, their parents will be having a coffee time. This coffee time serves as a She regrettably mentioned that “even our day field moment of discussion, networking and sharing interesting events to other cities within the Midlands are selfand pertinent issues surrounding family and life. sponsored and this where we are really struggling because it would mean that if a Senior doesn’t have While their parents continue on their conversations, money at that moment, she would not be turning up the kids engage themselves with the support team and that is not good for their mental health.” She said on painting, drawing and other artistic things for the they are soliciting for funding from donor agencies, first hour. Teaching them Portuguese takes the second philanthropists, and the general public. hour because for this group, their language serves as identity to them and transmitting it to the children is Social media handles of Angolan Women Voice: significantly paramount. The kids are allowed to choose Instagram: @ Angolanwomenvoiceassociationuk, what to do in the third hour with activities ranging form Facebook: @ AngolanWomenVoiceAssociationUK playing games, dancing, sports among other.

12 Community


The Meadows is one of the most multi-cultural communities in Nottingham. It is home to Africans, Asians, Caribbeans and Europeans alike who bring out diversity in culture and tradition to the entire residents. This indeed makes it a friendly atmosphere to live in, visit and do business. It is evident by the opening of the grocery shop on the Wilford Grove last year, The Grand Bazaar. However, another local resident Jonathan Bryan commonly called Barber Joni has followed suit with the Clean Cutz Berbers salon located on the junction of Holgate Street and Glapton Road. Barber Joni told Mojatu Magazine that The Meadows is a quiet and friendly neighbourhood which is good to do business. When asked why he chose The meadows over the City Centre and town, Barber Joni said, “here is where I was born and brought up and as a local citizen, I deem it necessary to operate a barbering business in my neighbourhood because that is my profession and there is no Afro-Caribbean barber shop around”. He also said having these types of businesses in the area will attract other forms of investment.

He however, stressed the need to have Caribbean grocery shops among other types of black owned businesses that address their needs in the area saying, “it will reduce the burden of going all the way to Radford to do shopping considering comfort and time management factors.” Speaking on his clientele, Barber Joni said his clients are a mixture of what defines the community – Caribbeans, Africans, Asians, and native English people, young and old. He is happy with how the business is progressing and thanked the people for their patronage and reception. In as much as operations are going well, there are some challenges as well, he noted. Barber Joni also appealed to the authorities to do more for the community especially in kids related activities. He said the area should be turned into a more kids-friendly environment which will help them have activities that can contribute to shaping their transition to adulthood. “These are mitigating factors in combating crime and idleness which I think

is needed in every community no matter how good it thrives”, said barber Joni. He acknowledged that the community centre and library help but there is need to engage the younger ones in a more positive approach. Commenting on crime in the neighbourhood, Barber Joni said that things have greatly improved comparing the current state of the community and before. He challenged the notion of crime free saying, “a crime free neighbourhood is just an advocacy which we all subscribe to, but that is hardly obtainable and if one looks at The Meadows now, it is one of the most friendly and livable environments.” He expressed delight that people of different cultural backgrounds come to his barbershop, interact positively, and have fun while they enjoy his clean haircuts. Barber Joni humbly asked for a continuous patronage from the Afro-Caribbean and Asian communities as well as the other residents of The meadows that he currently enjoys. Such patronage he posited, will encourage others within the community and beyond to invest in the area.

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w v WE NEED A PEOPLE CENTRED COP26. INSTEAD, WE HAVE AN ELITE MARKETPLACE By Aderonke Ige COP26 is full of big boys in small rooms. It needs to be led by the people, not Northern elites with the financial interests in maintaining the status quo. Half a century ago, the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was lush and thriving. Then, oil was discovered and multinationals like Shell turned up. Fast forward through several decades of exploitation, pollution, gas flaring, and dozens of oil spills, and the area could not look more different. Today, ash and tar cover once luscious farming land. The fishing industry has been all but decimated. Water has become dangerous to drink with UN scientists finding 8cm of refined oil floating on top of water that supplies drinking wells. The air is thick with smoke. People’s livelihoods have been destroyed and life expectancy has plummeted. Niger Delta communities have repeatedly called on Shell to clean up its mess, but instead of launching the urgent measures needed to save lives, the multi-billion-dollar oil major has instead repeatedly denied responsibility and spent millions in courts in an attempt to evade liability. This is the impact wrought by one oil major in one region, but it is a microcosm of what the fossil fuel industry is doing to the planet as a whole. According to the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fossil fuels are the dominant cause of global warming. In 2018, fossil fuels and industry accounted for 89% of global CO2 emissions. To keep global heating to an already devastating 1.5C, the development of new oil and gas fields has to stop this year. It’s as simple as that. Like with cleaning up the Niger Delta, however, stopping projects in which they have already invested vast sums is not in the interests of the fossil fuel industry’s executives and shareholders. And so, while they invest millions in greenwashing campaigns and attempts to confuse the public through notions like “net zero”, they continue to pump tens of billions into oil and gas. It is true that they are also investing in renewables, but a 2021 report by the International Energy Agency (IEA) found that less than 1% of fossil fuel companies’ annual investments in the Global South have gone into clean energy. The economic interests of oil and gas majors are simply at odds with the need to tackle climate change. And yet, at COP26, the global summit to address the crisis, there are more delegates associated with the fossil fuel industry than from any single country. Campaigners from Global Witness assessed the list of participants and found 503 accredited participants with links to oil and gas. That is more than double the 230 approved delegates representing the UK, which is hosting the talks.

That’s not to imply that more representation from Global Northern governments like the UK would lead to better solutions. They are already the ones with the most power and that continue to enable fossil fuel companies. They are the ones benefiting the most and suffering the least from the devastating impacts of their activities. They are the ones largely responsible for historic greenhouse gas emissions that are disproportionately affecting the formerly colonised Global South. Although the whole world stands the suffer, it is the wealthy industrialised nations in the North that have the most to lose and the least to gain by taking the climate crisis seriously, at least in the short-term. Some representatives from civil society like myself have been given observer status at COP26. This is supposed to allow us to participate in and scrutinise the process, but my yellow badge doesn’t get me into the areas where the real negotiations are happening. We’ve been closed off from critical spaces and, at times, had whole sections of the conference cordoned off to us. To make matters worse, two thirds of the civil society organisations that usually send delegates to COP could not even make it to this conference to enjoy this highly limited access. Despite repeated reassurances from organisers, participants from Africa and elsewhere in the Global South have been denied visas, been unable to access the Covid vaccine, been upended by the UK’s changing travel restrictions, or been priced out due to the lack of accommodation in Glasgow. COP is always elite and exclusionary, but this year’s conference is unprecedented in its marginalisation of those most affected by the climate crisis. And so, what we have at COP26 is a lot of big boys in small rooms. We have a process led and lobbied by heavily polluting countries and industries that are more interested in their media image than the hundreds of millions of people that are suffering. We have a fundamentally illegitimate global summit in which the voices of those least responsible for climate change and most vulnerable to its impacts are effectively silenced. What we need is to completely invert this failed model. Fossil fuel companies and their lobbyists – concerned about their ability to profit – must be barred from negotiations. And civil society groups representing hundreds of millions of people – concerned about their ability to live – must be foregrounded. We need a people-centred COP that can talk about critical issues of justice and take clear and urgent actions like immediately banning any new oil and gas projects – not the elite marketplace for environmental criminals that we currently have.

14 Community

A LOOK AT CLIMATE CHANGE What is Climate Change? The BBC says ‘Climate is the average weather in a place over many years. Climate change is a shift in those average conditions’. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a group of 1,300 independent scientific experts from countries all over the world under the auspices of the United Nations, concluded that there is more than 95 percent probability that ballooning human activities over the past 50 years have warmed our planet. How Serious is it? ‘Everybody seems to realise that climate change is something that needs to be taken seriously,’ says Lisa Schipper from the Environmental Change Institute at the University of Oxford. CO2 emissions have risen from 40 million tonnes per day to more than 100 million tonnes per day, in the last 50 years. The question now is, are we on a temperature rise of 1.5oC, 2oC, 3oC or 4oC or higher? People are being forced from their homes because of flooding, the reduction of wildlife habitat due to deforestation and wildfires, the impact on agriculture due to drought. Moreover, the World Health Organisation predicts an increase in child mortality. More and more people are working towards their own climate solutions, for example, through building flood defences, but many people will end up being relocated. Hurricanes - In 2021 there have been 6 hurricanes in the Atlantic area, at a cost of $53.5 billion in damage so far. Hurricane Ida reached wind speeds of 150 miles per hour. A category 4 storm, making landfall over Louisiana. The storm moved over the Gulf of Mexico whose waters were particularly warm due to climate

By Penny Cooper

change, creating a fierce monster. Not caused by climate change but made worse by climate change. The shipping sector is a larger contributor to climate change than the aviation sector, Cruise ships emit more carbon per passenger kilometre than flying. Increasing sea level has been noted since 1992, with the world’s great ice sheets reducing rapidly, observed by NASA. China in 2019 was the largest contributor of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. With a share of almost 27.9% of the world’s total CO2 emissions that year, this was roughly twice the amount emitted by the second largest contributor the United States at 14.5%. During the pandemic, during Government restrictions, the aviation industry saw a reduction of 60% in emissions. Good News Emissions trading scheme - this is an environmental policy that seeks to reduce air pollution efficiently by putting a limit on emissions, giving polluters a certain number of allowances consistent with those limits, and then permitting the polluters to buy and sell the allowances. It is a way of putting a cap on emissions. Apart from China and India, other participating countries are European Union, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Australia, South Korea, and Kazakhstan. Chinese leader Xi Jinping announced at the UN General Assembly in New York that his country will end its contribution to global heating and achieve carbon neutrality by 2060. Operating an emissions trading system (ETS), China has set up a trade-off facility between organisations to keep emissions down. India is at 7.2% emissions contributor. Under ETS, it pays for companies to install pollution-

reducing technology. Australian Wildfires - A new study suggests that the ash from the fires in Australia entering the ocean, caused an algal bloom which sucked the carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere caused by the fires, negating the CO2 effects. Maersk, a Danish Company - among the world’s largest container shipping companies has ordered 8 ships which can run on ‘carbon neutral Methanol’. These ships are a big beginning to making change. The way they are sourcing Methanol is clean, and CO2 emissions would be vastly reduced in the shipping sector as a result. Each ship will hold up to 16,000 containers. Breadfruit - a food which grows in the tropics and is thought to be a food of the future. Nutritionally, 100g or half a cup provides 25% of the recommended daily allowance of fibre and provides a percentage of protein, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, thiamine, and niacin, it is low in fat and a good option for diabetics. North Sea - National Grid is looking at building an energy island in the North Sea to power British homes and businesses with renewable electricity. The UK so far has installed about 10 gigawatts of wind power capacity, sufficient to power about 7 million homes, and presently we have the world’s largest offshore wind energy market. Boris Johnson says, ‘we can get to complete clean energy production by 2035’. Solar Panels in Space - solar panels in space could come as soon as 2039. It has been suggested that £16.3 billion could make it happen, and it is considered that the benefits outweigh the costs, especially with new technology being developed all the time. COP26 - the climate summit held

Nottingham connected

Community What can we do?


in Glasgow in October/November 2021; the aim is to act to keep warming below 1.5oC. Decisions are being made, more than 100 countries have pledged to plant trees and cut back on deforestation, curb methane emissions and put a stop to investment in coal power. Now we need them to act.

Electric cars - if you can’t do without a car, then the best thing you could do is to buy electric. Walk instead of driving, use public transport, or if you have to use a car, use one that does not require diesel.

Concrete alternative to present Researchers from the University of Tokyo, Japan, have found a way to take waste concrete and captured carbon dioxide, and combine them, using a novel process, into a usable form of concrete called calcium carbonate concrete. At present the production of concrete uses a lot of CO2, this new product would neutralise the CO2.

Fly less - this is significant in reducing the carbon footprint.

Investments/Pension/MP - push for transparency in finances, reducing the carbon footprint with a change in your investment practices.

Go Vegetarian - this is significant in reducing the carbon footprint. The production of steak and cooking it are significant contributors. If you can’t go vegetarian cut back on

Polls/Surveys - take part and express your views, the bigger picture lies with those we have voted into office, and you should make them aware of your views.

Children - This is a long-term plan, and the immediate effect will not be felt, but reducing the number of children you have reduces the carbon footprint.

your meat intake, as Prince Charles stated, he eats less meat a week. Be energy conscious at home/work - use energy efficient appliances, cut down the temperature of your hot water, switch off rather than using stand by, maybe even downsizing to a smaller home. Turn off lights when not at work, switch off phone chargers not in use, close down your workstations.

16 Community

By Kair e

l Mclea

Forgiveness is a funny thing. It’s a breakthrough moment many of us can and do accomplish. But a lot of us sometimes feel we can’t. Or don’t want to… I’m one of those people. I know I’m not alone, thankfully. I used to even think forgiveness isn’t even real. I thought it was something unattainable. But even with me thinking that, and not ‘wanting to’ forgive; I know I must do or find some sort of alternative to forgiveness, in order to find inner peace. I was in the process of writing an article on Colourism, and all the Black Men who hurt me and the Lighter Skinned and Biracial women that watched. But I knew that would also put me in a headspace of being and feeling negative. Becoming angry all over again, as colourism is something that I still need to heal from. But I decided against it. (Growth) Because I knew it wouldn’t do me any good reminiscing over those horrid memories. So, I write this as a weird way in hopes of finding ‘Forgiveness’ or an alt version of it. When I was younger, I was very shy (still I am), but my family couldn’t understand that. They thought me odd, how can this little girl born into this big Jamaican family who all seemed to hold big personalities, be so... timid? My parents grew up in Jamaica and came to England when they were teens. They’re very Cutthroat kinds of people, (Jamaican folk alike) so the way in which they speak can sound a bit harsh, but that’s just how it is. And because of this, and my parents’ ‘tough love’ attitude to situations, I found myself feeling like an alien. I was born March 12th, I’m a Pisces, an empath. We don’t do ‘tough love’, so I found it harder in expressing myself because I was shamed for being shy, and also shamed for being sensitive, shamed for trying to defend myself; see parents want you to defend yourself to everyone else, but them. I lived with my mother, so she did most of the shaming... she also had the same thing with her mother, but in regard to emotional intelligence, my parents are similar in that aspect. So, with my parents being stone cold, it kind of always made sense that they would have an empathetic child like me. So, when it comes to forgiveness and my parents, (my mother especially) I have to learn to let go and understand that my mother’s approach to things wasn’t because she was trying to hurt me (because I believe there definitely had been times where she was) but also because she didn’t know any better, and



only played the cards she was dealt with. What she did was never right, but it was all she knew. And I have to remember that in order to ‘forgive’. I guess one of the hardest parts in forgiving is, forgiving the people who hurt you without any apology or reasoning as to why they did what they did. And of course, if you got those things, it doesn’t excuse or justify their behaviour by any means. But an explanation, an apology would be better than nothing - right?... maybe to some, but WRONG! To me, just like my topsy turvy thoughts on if forgiveness was even a real thing, I don’t think closure from others is. An exfriend of mine once said: ‘closure is a myth’ and I believe her. No amount of apologies or explanations could rid the damaging effect of the wrongdoing done against you. At least in my opinion anyway. You heal yourself. That is the only closure you need. When I was in high school, a Black guy I liked seemed to like every other race but his own. He used to say he didn’t date Black girls and come up with a stereotype or unjustifiable reason as to why. And he always used to do this, to get under my skin. And me being me, laughed it off. But really, I was hurt. I didn’t realise how much his comments affected me (and my self-esteem) until years later though, to make it worse, he dated a White Girl, - (there is nothing wrong with that, but she was also my friend...and she didn’t know I had a crush on him previously…. Awkward!) Imagine how that must have felt for me back then? A Black Girl, crushing on a Black Boy who didn’t seem to like Black Girls, and ended up dating YOUR friend who looked completely different to you. I learned later that same guy had a secret crush on me too! He just didn’t know how to tell me, (so I guess ruining my confidence was going to reel me in somehow?). He didn’t think I’d be interested, so in an attempt to get my attention, (Or to ruin my confidence) he spit the ‘I don’t date Black Girls’ spiel. It got my attention, most definitely. I learned to ‘Forgive’ him though. We were friends in high school too and remained friends even after. Our friendship was and is something I still value. But resentment definitely cancers the mind. So, I’ve chosen to live and move on as best as I can…. Besides, when you free yourself of pain, you look younger! A wise man once said: ‘Let us Forgive Each Other, Only Then We Will Live In Peace’ I intend to do just that.

Nottingham connected




On Saturday, August 28th 2021 The Gambian Community Nottinghamshire put on their yearly football tournament and family fun day at Forest Recreation Ground to raise money for the masjid

project. Among those supporting the cause were winners of the day Yayeh Instant Services LTD, runners up Jula Finance and Bestwood Councillor Audra Wynter.

18 Covid-19 Support Work


Immune cells might ‘abort’ SARS-CoV-2 infection, forestalling a positive PCR or antibody test - By Max Kozlov Data from dozens of UK health-care workers suggest a tantalizing possibility: that some people can clear a nascent SARS-CoV-2 infection from their bodies so quickly that they never test positive for the virus nor even produce antibodies against it. The data also suggest that such resistance is conferred by immune players called memory T cells — possibly those produced after exposure to coronaviruses that cause the common cold. “I’ve never seen anything like that. It’s really surprising that the T cells might be able to control an infection so quickly,” says Shane Crotty, an immunologist at La Jolla Institute for Immunology in California, who was not involved in the research. But the study’s authors strongly caution that their results do not show that people who have had the common cold are protected against COVID-19. And the authors also acknowledge that their findings have many caveats, meaning that it’s too early to say with certainty that people can stop an infection in its tracks. In the study, published on 10 November in Nature, the authors examined blood samples collected in the first weeks of the pandemic from nearly 60 UK health-care workers. All worked in hospitals, putting them at high risk of contracting COVID-19, but never tested positive or produced any antibodies to the virus for four months after enrolling in the study. The researchers noticed that in 20 of these ‘seronegative’ participants, T cells had multiplied — a sign that the immune system might be gearing up to fight an infection. Nineteen of these individuals also had increased levels of an immune-system protein called IFI27, which the authors say might be an early marker of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The authors say that these data are evidence for ‘abortive infections’, meaning that the virus made an incursion into the body but failed to take hold. The authors hypothesized that T cells halt SARSCoV-2 by disabling a cluster of viral proteins called the replication transcription complex, which helps the virus to reproduce. They found evidence to support this theory: a far higher proportion of the seronegative participants had T cells that recognize this complex than did health-care workers who got COVID-19. The researchers also found that even T cells from blood samples collected before the pandemic could recognize SARS-CoV-2 — and most strongly recognized the replication complex. These T cells could have been

generated by infections with coronaviruses that cause common colds, but without direct evidence of how or when the cells originated, it is possible that other triggers contributed to their formation, the authors say. Most existing COVID-19 vaccines target SARS-CoV2’s spike protein, which it uses to invade human cells. Spike proteins vary considerably between different coronaviruses. But replication complexes are similar across multiple types of coronavirus, making this part of the virus a promising target for a ‘pan-coronavirus’ vaccine — one that protects against a broad array of such viruses, the authors conclude. But scientists not involved in the study note that there’s no definitive evidence that the health-care workers who purportedly cleared the virus actually had any SARS-CoV-2 particles in their bodies to begin with. That makes it difficult to draw any conclusions about the role of these T cells, says Donna Farber, an immunologist at Columbia University in New York City. Study co-author Mala Maini, a viral immunologist at University College London, acknowledges that her team lacks direct confirmation of abortive infections among the study participants. But she notes that the timing of the virus’s uncontrolled early spread in the UK is well documented. As a result, she says, it is probably not a coincidence that the researchers noticed more T cells in participants’ blood around the same time that people with COVID-19 were filling UK hospitals. “The timing is so clear-cut,” she says. Clearance for all? Even if some of the study participants did clear the SARS-CoV-2 virus before it could take hold, it’s possible that infections with variants such as Delta can’t be cleared in the same way, says Marcus Buggert, an immunologist at the Karolinska Institute in Solna, Sweden. He notes that the study documents the phenomenon only in health-care workers, raising the possibility that only people such as hospital staff, who are regularly exposed to a wide variety of respiratory viruses, can mount an abortive response. The study was also not designed to determine whether the abortive response is driven by T cells or another, unknown immune process. Crotty says it will be important to test the T-cell theory in animals, and Maini says a human challenge trial, in which participants are deliberately exposed to SARS-CoV-2, would help to establish whether these T cells are really helping to clear the infection.

Nottingham connected

Covid-19 Support Work



In light of International Men’s day, on the 19th of November, it is vital to consider the heritage surrounding the day and why, despite the historical advantage that males have over women in all aspects of life, it should not undermine the dialogue surrounding issues faced by men, and undercut the positive attributions to society made by males. International Men’s day calls for the celebration of masculinity, manhood and inclusivity, as well as addressing discrimination and disadvantage, acknowledging the contribution of males, and raising awareness and actively improving the mental health and wellbeing of males. While many may question the necessity in celebrating with a day exclusive to men, we should take the opportunity to recognise the obstacles and struggles exclusive to each individual and consider the wider consequences these obstacles have on men. A rife issue that men consistently face is the confidence to address the state of their mental health. This fact can be verified by data which stated that, in 2020 3 out of 4 suicides were male. Furthermore, 2 out of 3 violent deaths are men. These horrifying statistics are all the more reason for promoting the objectives of International Men’s Day. We must take accountability for the world we live in and begin to make it a safer place for everyone, as promoted on International Men’s day.

Furthermore, the broad range of laws, values, social structures and expectations faced by different men in different countries play another hand in the necessity in educating society on International Men’s Day. The abundant role that individuality plays within society should motivate us to be mindful of the singular experience that each male faces, resultant from their social, racial, fitcal, ethnic and sexuality identification. With consideration of this, International Men’s day endorses that society needs to take the opportunity to celebrate individuality, and oppress discrimination. As a form of proactive celebration and gratitude for the positive contribution of men, people are encouraged to organise events, create posters, and send certificates of appreciation within your local community. In addition, the use of hashtags, including #mensday #internationalmensday #TalkingAboutMen will produce further engagement on the cause and allow for this day to receive the awareness necessary to provide greater equality, inclusivity and positivity around discussions on masculinity. The sooner we appreciate the necessity for celebrating International Men’s Day, the sooner we can enjoy a safer, diverse and inclusive world, commemorating each other’s achievements.

20 Covid-19 Support Work


Fashion is art, and art is timeless. I’ve seen the best-dressed people wearing second-hand clothes. It gets boring constantly seeing people in Nike Tech fleece tracksuits and Air Force 1s, it’s not every day keep-up with fast fashion and mainstream trends.

Now, I can’t lie I do dip into online stores. I buy some of my hoodies and joggers from ASOS because sometimes there’s a mad sale and I want casual everyday clothes and it’s easier to get. Bershka occasionally has good jeans and don’t even get me started on Jaded. My point is, I definitely am a second-hand/vintage enthusiast, the majority of my clothes are from thrift stores. It may seem hypocritical to dislike fast fashion but then also buy things from Urban Outfitters. However, I think you can buy firsthand clothes and still do good for the environment. I’ve never thrown clothes away, I always give to charities or resell on Depop (when I’ve had enough of them). Asos also has a marketplace where you can buy from people’s independent shops too, it’s basically Depop (but I love Depop so I’m going to be biased and say it’s not as good). FASHION IS ART, AND ART IS TIMELESS Depop should be your best mate if you’re wanting to start or continue supporting the community (instead of major retailers) and doing better for the planet. You can easily set up your own shop to sell any clothes you no longer want or buy things from other people. Depop is good because it is not just for clothes you can buy art, home decor, books and magazines, music etc. It’s like the other massive e-commerce sites, but

cooler. That being said, you cannot sell any electrical items because I tried to sell my Airpods once and they got taken down after like 5 minutes because apparently, it was violating the guidelines lmao.

The only bad thing about thrifting is that it can be a bit frustrating when you go to shops or even travel to find good ones and then you don’t find a lot if anything; it’s still good to go and see just in case you do find something you like. Personally, I’ve never found a pair of joggers or shorts from a thrift store before that is why I do buy some items firsthand. It’s a lot different to just going to a regular clothes shop and finding the same item in many sizes. Separately, one thing I hate about some second-hand stores is when they use plastic bags?!?! How can you own or work at a shop that supports sustainability then provide customers with plastic bags? It’s contradictory at the very least, but mostly it’s annoying. To be fair most of them do have paper or biodegradable bags but recently I went to Wild in Nottingham and they gave me a plastic bag and yeah…I’m name dropping too because it’s not cute! DEPOP SHOULD BE YOUR BEST MATE IF YOU’RE WANTING TO START OR CONTINUE SUPPORTING THE COMMUNITY (INSTEAD OF MAJOR RETAILERS) AND DOING BETTER FOR THE PLANET TikTok is also a good place to find thrift stores to visit, people post videos of themselves going to shops in different areas and one-day popups. They share what the prices are like and how to get there etc. It’s very

useful, especially if you are travelling to find new places. TikTok can also give you a heads up on where not to go. For example, recently I have seen that people are unhappy with the prices at shops on Brick Lane. Apparently, it’s overpriced and the whole point of thrifting is to find cheap, but good clothes. Of course, shops have to do what is best for their business, but it can be unnecessary at times. (I tried to go to Brick Lane at the weekend and I ended up in Leicester Square bye. I’m going to try again this weekend when I’m in London because last time I got annoyed and went to get bubble tea instead.) There are plenty of thrift stores to choose from in London. FYI if you do want to find prices and places to go on TikTok you can search for keywords like ‘thrifting London’, and loads of videos will come up. For those based in the capital or East Midlands here are my shop recommendations: EAST MIDS: • Bubble vintage (Notts) • Cow (Notts) • Braderie (Notts) • Wild (Notts, bring your own bag) • Threadz vintage (Derby) LONDON: • Rokit • Goldsmith Vintage THERE ARE LOADS OF GOOD CHARITY SHOPS IN NOTTING HILL AND PORTOBELLO ROAD! • Cow • Threadz

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Covid-19 Support Work



The day after Thanksgiving and a day to be grateful for all of life’s blessings, marks the day people are given to indulge in their greed and the opportunity to spend as little money as possible, on as many things as possible, most commonly known as Black Friday. While this sounds like an opportunistic holiday that is now celebrated internationally, not everyone reaps the benefits of cheap materialistic goods. When purchasing products this weekend, we must consider the repercussions of our impulsive spending habits and question the ethical and moral nature of this holiday. The origin surrounding Black Friday comes from the fact that retailers and businesses would no longer be ‘in the red’ and be ‘in the black’. It allowed business owners and economists to re-evaluate the extent of consumer confidence and discretionary spending as it is said to be the peak of profit per financial year for retailers. An alternative explanation dates back to the 1960’s in Philadelphia. The police department would complain about the overtime when the streets were packed with shoppers, tourists and fans in town for the next day Army Navy games, an environment rife with shoplifters and big crowds. However, while the big corporations and companies celebrate being out ‘the red’, and reap financial benefits, it comes at the cost of climate impacts from excessive consumerism, aiding in the cycle of poverty and profits amassed from tax evasion. Overconsumption of material goods has a harsh effect on the environment, as the production and creation aids in a greater extent of carbon emissions in the atmosphere and puts an abundant strain on the earth’s natural resources. According to a Green Alliance report in 2019, 80% of electronics and clothing, plus the plastic packaging they are wrapped in, end up in landfill, incineration or low quality recycling after a short life. Furthermore, companies like Amazon and Ebay are said to be worst for likely to use Tax Avoidance strategies, outsourcing their profits to off-shore accounts. Amazon published its 2020 tax figures, which showed that despite profits exceeding £128 million, it paid only £3.6 million in corporation tax. The pressing issue of lawful working conditions and laws has also become a cause for concern and has been exposed by numerous media outlets who commented on the offers made by companies like Pretty Little Thing in 2020. The 99% off sale which saw clothes being sold for as little as 5p made many people question how this was possible all whilst Pretty Little Thing were supposedly paying their workers the correct wages. Model and author Jamie Windhurst tweeted, “Pretty Little Thing selling literal clothes for 5p and still being

able to make a profit isn’t funny, it’s a reminder that the industry constantly exploits Black, Indigenous, and People of Color through unacceptable pay and poor conditions.” The racial issues surrounding issues of workers exploitation are further exemplified when citizens buy into the cheap clothes and the love story of Black Friday. What we can do to shop more ethically: Despite the amazing looking deals presented by Amazon, the increase in attention towards the company’s bad practice has led to a global coalition launched demanding that the company addresses the environmental, political, fiscal and workers abuse. The hashtag #MakeAmazonPay has brought together an amass of unions, campaigners and organisations to cooperate in the fight against unethical practices, exploited especially on the Black Friday weekend. Alongside Black Friday, is Buy Nothing Day, which has run since 1997 as a retaliation against Black Friday and to encourage a 24 hour detox from consumerism and to become further educated on the consequences of indulgent spending. Buying from companies that are known for their ethical practices also aids in the movement away from immoral consumerism that has manifested into society. Patagonia is a prime example of a well known business trying to change the narrative surrounding this holiday, as in 2016 they donated 100% of their sales to grassroot environmental organisations. On that day, $10 million of sales were made and donated. If more companies took this approach, we would gradually be able to eliminate the social, environmental and immoral fiscal consequences triggered from this single weekend.

22 Covid-19 Support Work

FEARLESS YOUTH ASSOCIATION By Brenda Kabue Fearless Youth Association has several projects on going that focus on training and engaging young people seeking to transform their lives. Following the Covid-19 outbreak, we have refined our services thereby offering one-to-one support with both faceto-face and online solutions.

literacy, and communication skills through these tailored trainings. Largely, we want the young people to feel that they can be active and positive members of their communities and increase community cohesion while developing practical skills in digital media that they can use to find employment.

The online programs are geared towards offering free creative media training, coupled with practical work placement, internship, volunteering, and employment schemes for young people in Nottingham. The services target mainly young people from New and Emerging communities who are not in education and employment.

These accredited creative media courses, which include Digital Storytelling, Graphic design, Music Production, Photography, Videography, Web Design, and Radio and Broadcasting are focused on young people aged 16 to 29. Each course entails 1-week digital skills training, 6 weeks of coursework, and 2 weeks of career development.

The courses are created to broaden the learner’s experience and their personal development by giving them skills for training, employment or selfemployment, confidence, and willingness to engage in learning. Importantly, learners will improve their digital,

The face-to-face support program currently running focuses on knife crime training. This course is offering support on the recognition and approach towards people who are exposed to gang and knife crime violence.

Photo: Katarzyna Rybarczyk


• Digital Storytelling, • Graphic Design, • Music Production & Editing, • Photography, • Videography, • Web Design • Radio Broadcasting & Interviewing Skills


For more Information Tel: 0115 784 6670 Mobile: 07940 801390 Address: Unit 8, Howitt Wing Building, Lenton Boulevard, NG7 2BY Facebook: Instagram: Twitter: Snapchat:

Fya Notts fya_notts FYA_Notts notts_fya

24 Covid-19 Support Work


Covid-19 Support Work 21 0 2 S E I T I V I T C A R E M FOUR YEARS ON FYA SUMGRENFELL,

Nottingham connected

By Rosie Vacciana-Browne


26 Health & Food


By Neelaveni Padayachee and Varsha Bangalee

Nottingham connected

Health & Food


Nottingham Equal Tournament 2021

28 Arts & Culture

BLACK HISTORY MONTH As part of activities making the celebration of Black History Month 2021 under the theme “Proud to Be”, the Hyson Green Youth Club and the Hyson Green Cultural Festival Group hosted a cross-section of AfroCaribbean and BAME community groups.

capital of the British colonial rulers in the territory of The Gambia) and in central Senegal. With an approximate area of 30,000 km², they are sometimes divided into the Wassu (Gambian) and Sine-Saloum (Senegalese) circles, but this is purely a national division.

The event, which was held on October 31, showcased an exhibition of some art works, children’s activities, and a display of African music instrument. There was also a musical performance by local artists from around Nottingham. One of the most interesting activities of the day was the film session.

The site consists of four large groups of stone circles that represent an extraordinary concentration of over 1,000 monuments in a band 100 km wide along some 350 km of the River Gambia. The four groups, Sine Ngayène, Wanar, Wassu and Kerr Batch, cover 93 stone circles and numerous tumuli, burial mounds, some of which have been excavated to reveal material that suggest dates between 3rd century BC and 16th century AD.

During this session a collection of films were played to the audience focusing on black history notably, the three most renown empires in African history, Mali, Ghana, and Songhai. This session brought mixed feelings at some point to some of the attendants as one of the films centered around the Nigerian version of the slave trade which documented the history of Badagry. There was a movie on the history of the Masai people and culture of Kenya. A documentary on the Haitian Revolution was also aired. The reason for the Haitian Revolution documentary was meant to highlight the resistance, resilience, and tenacity in black people. The Haitian Revolution being the first and most successful uprising by a group of enslaved black people, is hardly talked about as compared to other Eurocentric revolutions taught in the curriculum. The history surrounding Stone Circles was also caught in a documentary. These are archaeological evidence proofing them to have been used as places of burial. The Senegambian stone circles lie in The Gambia, north of Janjanbureh (formerly George Town, the first colonial

Together the stone circles of laterite pillars and their associated burial mounds present a vast sacred landscape created over more than 1,500 years. It reflects a prosperous, highly organized, and lasting society. The great African/South African freedom fighter, Nelson Mandela was also featured in a documentary with the view to inspiring the audience and instilling the spirit of upholding one’s personal beliefs and aspirations towards a worthy cause. The Organiser of the event Mr. Abdoulie Jah expressed his delight that the event was very successful and thanked everyone who contributed to it. He said Black History should not be tagged on a specific month of the year but should be seen as a continuous discourse because a lot of untold stories are yet to be discovered and revealed. Mr. Jah is contemplating holding such events on a monthly basis so as to raise black awareness around Nottinghamshire which could be replicated countrywide.

Nottingham connected

Health & Food


30 Arts & Culture


It has been interesting to see the response and range of activities around Black History Month in Nottingham and the UK. It is important to say that Black History is about British history. Black History Month was created by Carter G Woodson in the USA in 1926 to recognise the contribution of black people to society.

My own parents came to be in this country as part of the Windrush Generation who came over to the motherland after the Second World War to help rebuild the country. They came with a sense of loyalty, determination and innocence to make the country better – all a part of British History.

In the UK it was organised through the leadership of Ghanaian analyst Akyaaba Addai-Sebo, who had served as a coordinator of special projects for the Greater London Council.

Despite a chilly reception from both the weather and acts of discrimination, most of the Windrush pioneers stayed, made Britain their home and added to the culture and diversity of Britain that we have today.

There is still a slight incredulity that in my own lifetime at school the only recognition and contribution of black people was that they were enslaved. Yet the relationship between the UK and black people goes back a long way.

Our shared history and relationship go back a long way. The truth is that black people from the Caribbean were prepared to fight for the country of the UK and raised over £1 million in the First World War towards the war effort.

One example of this is that the relationship between the UK and Jamaica under the British Empire, Jamaica became a colony in 1655 which was before the formation of the British union between England and Scotland in 1707.

Black History Month as an opportunity for ongoing recognition for the contribution of black people has made to the UK the story needs to be told throughout the whole year. Black history is British history and every day, we an opportunity to make the kind of history we can all be proud of.

We know via history that this initial relationship was formed out of economic greed, oppression and enslavement.

Rev. Clive Forster is a Senior Minister of The Pilgrim Church in The Meadows in Nottingham

Nottingham connected

Health & Food


WORLD MENTAL HEALTH DAY World Mental Health Day is celebrated every 10th October, and 2021 highlights “mental health in an unequal world” as the theme of this year’s celebrations. The commemoration is aimed at raising awareness and spreading education about mental health issues across the globe. While the pandemic has affected everyone, people with long term health conditions, or facing discrimination or parenting on their own are struggling the most and need more support. Mental health has come to focus on pandemic times like never before as people of all age groups and occupations bear the brunt of the ‘new normal’. Health and other frontline workers, students, people living alone, and those with preexisting mental health conditions have been particularly affected. For those of us experiencing mental illness, we live in an unequal world. There is no two ways about it -stigma, discrimination, lack of support, limited access to housing, employment, and welfare. It doesn’t make good reading. This is the reality of mental health in an unequal world. This is inequality. Black people are still four times more likely than their white counterparts to be sectioned. Racism could be simply defined as using the concept of race to judge or treat some people worse than others. It exists in many forms, and on many levels in society – including in healthcare. It can include acts of discrimination and prejudice towards individuals and groups. It can also describe wider systems of oppression. People with mental health conditions are at higher risk of dying prematurely. Depression one of commonest mental health illness is one of the leading causes of disability while suicide is the second leading cause of death among 15-29-year-old, as per WHO. All kinds of racism can contribute to stress. This might be events such as sudden, unexpected abuse from another person. But it can also be a more long-term impact of encountering regular microaggressions, or from the ongoing effects of systemic racism on your life. This can partly help explain links between racism and physical health problems, like increased blood pressure. Racism can make us feel unwelcome, lonely, or isolated, anxious, fearful, and unsafe. Talking about racism can make you angry or frustrated, particularly if you are being treated unfairly. You may worry about how people are going to perceive and treat you. You might feel visibly different and vulnerable when you are around lots of people of a different race thereby spending time thinking about how you’ll protect yourself before entering certain spaces. These are all difficult times that one may go through, and you may find that you cannot show or even fully feel your natural responses to your experiences. Therefore, to avoid more abuse, and keep yourself safe, you may feel like you must not react to racism. This is one of the biggest forms of harm and it can leave you feeling numb or mean that the experience stays with you for a long time.

You may encounter racism regularly in lots of different parts of your life. This can have a cumulative effect on your mental health and can make you feel surrounded by racism. For those of us who are disadvantaged and harmed by racism, this can feel stressful and upsetting to explain to those who are not. But it can also feel validating and helpful to find new ways to define, describe and discuss our experiences. Experiencing racism can make us more likely to develop mental health problems. Either consciously or subconsciously, we may not realise that some of our negative feelings stem from internalised racism or colourism. It makes us feel cut off from parts of our identity and culture. This can leave us feeling unsure about who we are and could lead to low self-esteem and mental health problems. This can all lead us to hold contradictory views about our heritage and skin shade. Along with treatment gap, we must address workplace stress, stress in schools, as well as caregivers and families of people living with mental health issues. We need to proactively address stigma and discrimination associated with mental health that creates barrier to access care and treatment. Finding support to cope with racism does not fix racism. Institutions and society as a whole must take responsibility for challenging racism in every form. If you experience anxiety disorders, depression, psychosis, suicidal feelings, and other mentally challenged disorders, please remember that you need counselling and that it is not your fault.

32 Health & Food

BALANCING HEALTH BELOW THE BELT 8 Bites for Your Bits: Your Vagina’s Favourite Foods By Tiffany La Forge & Medically reviewed by Natalie Butler, R.D., L.D.

Unbalanced pH. Sounds like chemistry class, right? Add the word vaginal, and then it’s enough to make us squirm. Literally — because when you feel different down there, like with a new odour or more-than-usual discharge, it could be a sign that your vaginal pH is off.

By Rev. Clive Forster

and reproduction in both men and women, as well as healthy fatal development. The nutrients found in sweet potatoes also help with the production of sex hormones and are often recommended for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Sweet potatoes for vaginal health contain high amounts of vitamin A, which is linked to fertility and can help strengthen muscle tissues for healthy vaginal and uterine walls. 3. Probiotics introduce good bacteria down there, too

A balanced vaginal pH needs to stay in the range of 3.8 to 4.5. The moment it strays out of balance for too long, bacteria has a chance to thrive and cause discomfort or UTIs. This doesn’t mean everyone should start home testing their pH every day. But if you do have symptoms of possible bacterial vaginosis, home testing may help you get diagnosed and treated more quickly. Proper vaginal care, such as good hygiene, safe sex, and regular gynaecological visits, all play a role in keeping your pH in check. But the easiest ways to promote health below the belt is food. Here are eight eats that work in favour: 1. Cranberries help tackle UTIs We’ve all heard or heeded the popular advice: Drink cranberry juice to treat UTIs. But is there any evidence to that? Fresh cranberries or 100 percent cranberry juice (not the sweetened stuff ) are full of antioxidants and acidic compounds, which are powerful infection fighters that can help bacteria from adhering to the bladder wall. Studies show that cranberries can be especially beneficial in preventing UTIs in women with recurrent or recent UTI issues. Just make sure you stay away from the sugar-loaded cranberry juice varieties, which can make things worse down there. Cranberries for vaginal health contain powerful acidic compounds to fight bacteria, antioxidants, vitamin E, and vitamin C to boost your immunity 2. Eat more sweet potatoes for fertility These potatoes have some sweet benefits, particularly for women trying to get pregnant. Rich in beta carotene and vitamin A, sweet potatoes help strengthen and protect uterine walls. Beta carotene and vitamin A have been studied to have direct effects on fertility

Probiotic-rich food, such as fermented foods like kimchi and yogurt, are good for more than just your gut. They balance your pH level and help ward off infections. The live and active cultures in these foods provide our bodies with a boost of good bacteria, which is particularly helpful in preventing yeast infections. Even better, calcium (greatly present in yogurt) has been shown to help with PMS symptoms. Probiotics for vaginal health can balance pH levels and introduce more “good” bacteria which can help ward off infections and prevent yeast infections. It also contains calcium (in yogurt), which can help ease PMS symptoms 4. Plant fats for better circulation and sex drive Omega-3 fatty acids help with circulation and blood flow, which is good news for your sex drive. These essential fatty acids, as well as others found in sea buckthorn oil, like palmitoleic, linoleic, oleic, and palmitic, were shown in a 2014 study to help with vaginal dryness in postmenopausal women. Menstrual cramping getting you down? Studies have also shown that fish oil can ease severe dysmenorrhea more effectively than ibuprofen. Plant fatty acids for vaginal health treat painful menstrual cramping more effectively than ibuprofen, promote circulation and may relieve vaginal dryness 6. An apple for orgasms An apple a day keeps the doctor away… and keeps things more interesting in bed apparently! A study in 2014Trusted Source suggested that women who ate an apple once a day had better sex lives. One phytoestrogen phlorizin found in apples is thought to promote better sexual function, arousal, lubrication, and ability to orgasm. Women who consume two or more servings of citrus fruit per day are less likely to develop uterine fibroids. Apples for vaginal health contain the phytoestrogen phlorizin and antioxidants, which help stimulate vaginal blood flow as well as promote better sexual function, lubrication, and ability to orgasm.

Nottingham connected 6. Soy to help decreasing oestrogen levels Soy can be a bit of a controversial topic. But the phytoestrogens — compounds that mimic oestrogen in the body — found in soy are good news for vaginal health, especially in people with reduced oestrogen levels. There are many different reasons for decreased oestrogen levels in the body, from medications to menopause, but one of the symptoms is vaginal dryness. So, here’s how soy helps: Minimally processed soy products are hydrophilic (which allows your muscles to retain more water) and contain isoflavones (a plant-derived phytoestrogen) that have been studied to be beneficial for the skin in postmenopausal women. Soy for vaginal health contains plant-derived phytoestrogen beneficial to women with decreased oestrogen levels. It can help with vaginal dryness and benefit skin and blood vessel health in postmenopausal women 7. Avocados for your womanly walls Your favourite toast topper is also great for your sex life — who knew? Avocados are ample in healthy fats, vitamin B-6, and potassium — all of which have

Health & Food


positive effects on your libido. This libido-boosting fruit (yes, it’s a fruit!) can enhance lubrication and oestrogen levels Source, strengthen vaginal walls, and may even increase IVF success due to its unsaturated fats. Funny enough, the avocado tree was loosely named the “testicle tree” by the Aztecs. Avocados for vaginal health contain libido-boosting healthy fats, vitamin B-6, and potassium and enhance lubrication and strengthen vaginal walls 8. Leafy greens help decrease vaginal dryness What are leafy greens not good for?! Add vaginal health to their long list of health benefits. Dark leafy greens are blood-purifying and enhance circulation due to their many nutrients, including dietary nitrates. This can help prevent vaginal dryness and increase stimulation, which is never a bad thing. These greens are also rich in vitamin E, magnesium, and calcium, all of which are beneficial to muscle health — including vaginal muscles. Leafy greens for vaginal health are naturally blood-purifying and enhance circulation and prevent vaginal dryness and increase stimulation


Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in the UK. Each year, 41,300 women in England are diagnosed with breast cancer and, 12,000 across the UK lose their lives. Despite Breast cancer being more common in White women, Black women in England are almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer. So while Black women are less likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer, they are more likely to die from it. This worrying statistic highlights one of the many disparities between White and Black people in the British health system. There are a range of reasons why Black women are dying from breast cancer disproportionately compared to their White counterparts. Institutional racism is a factor but, so is the lack of Black women coming forward for their mammograms (a screening process that can detect cancer early). One person on the ground addressing the latter is Breast Care Nurse Sherine Kheswa from the Nottingham Breast Institute. Sherine and a group of nurses were at The Gambian Football Tournament on Forest Recreation Ground last Saturday, raising awareness around breast cancer and encouraging Black women to come for their breast screening. Speaking on the hesitance of Black women to come for their mammograms, Sherine said: “We believe part

of the problem is lack of awareness that they need to attend for their screening or at times it could be fear.” “We’re here today to try and raise awareness and encourage women to come for their breast screening because we know catching breast cancer early can save lives.” Many women just need some words of encouragement and reassurance to show up for their breast screening. For them, Sherine said: “Screenings are free, especially in the UK and, we know that it could save your life before it spreads. Please, please attend.” For more information on breast screenings and to book a mammogram, head to the Nottingham Breast Institute website here:

34 Health & Food

9 WAYS TO BOOST YOUR BODY’S NATURAL DEFENCES By SaVanna Shoemaker, MS, RDN, LD & Medically reviewed by Kathy W. Warwick, R.D., CDE, Nutrition If you want to boost your immune health, you may wonder how to help your body fight off illnesses. While bolstering your immunity is easier said than done, several dietary and lifestyle changes may strengthen your body’s natural defences and help you fight harmful pathogens, or disease-causing organisms. Here are 9 tips to strengthen your immunity naturally: 1. Get enough sleep Sleep and immunity are closely tied. In fact, inadequate or poor-quality sleep is linked to a higher susceptibility to sickness. In a study in 164 healthy adults, those who slept fewer than 6 hours each night were more likely to catch a cold than those who slept 6 hours or more each night. Getting adequate rest may strengthen your natural immunity. Also, you may sleep more when sick to allow your immune system to better fight the illness. Adults should aim to get 7 or more hours of sleep each night, while teens need 8–10 hours and younger children and infants up to 14 hours. If you’re having trouble sleeping, try limiting screen time for an hour before bed, as the blue light emitted from your phone, TV, and computer may disrupt your circadian rhythm, or your body’s natural wake-sleep cycle. 2. Eat more whole plant foods Whole plant foods like fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and legumes are rich in nutrients and antioxidants that may give you an upper hand against harmful pathogens. The antioxidants in these foods help decrease inflammation by combatting unstable compounds called free radicals, which can cause inflammation when they build up in your body in high levels. Chronic inflammation is linked to numerous health conditions, including heart disease, Alzheimer’s, and certain cancers. Meanwhile, the fibre in plant foods feeds your gut microbiome, or the community of healthy bacteria in your gut. A robust gut microbiome can improve your immunity and help keep harmful pathogens from entering your body via your digestive tract. 3. Eat more healthy fats Healthy fats, like those found in olive oil and salmon, may boost your body’s immune response to pathogens by decreasing inflammation. Although low-level inflammation is a normal response to stress or injury, chronic inflammation can suppress your immune system. Olive oil, which is highly anti-inflammatory, is linked to a decreased risk of chronic diseases like heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Plus, its anti-inflammatory properties may help your body fight off harmful disease-causing bacteria and viruses. Omega-3 fatty acids, such as those in salmon and chia seeds, fight inflammation as well.

4. Eat more fermented foods or take a probiotic supplement Fermented foods are rich in beneficial bacteria called probiotics, which populate your digestive tract. These foods include yogurt, sauerkraut, kimchi, kefir, and natto. Research suggests that a flourishing network of gut bacteria can help your immune cells differentiate between normal, healthy cells and harmful invader organisms. In a 3-month study in 126 children, those who drank just 2.4 ounces (70 mL) of fermented milk daily had about 20% fewer childhood infectious diseases, compared with a control group. If you don’t regularly eat fermented foods, probiotic supplements are another option. In a 28-day study in 152 people infected with rhinovirus, those who supplemented with probiotic Bifidobacterium animals had a stronger immune response and lower levels of the virus in their nasal mucus than a control group. 5. Limit added sugars Emerging research suggests that added sugars and refined carbs may contribute disproportionately to overweight and obesity. Obesity may likewise increase your risk of getting sick. According to an observational study in around 1,000 people, people with obesity who were administered the flu vaccine were twice as likely to still get the flu than individuals without obesity who received the vaccine. Curbing your sugar intake can decrease inflammation and aid weight loss, thus reducing your risk of chronic health conditions like type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Given that obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease can all weaken your immune system, limiting added sugars is an important part of an immune-boosting diet. You should strive to limit your sugar intake to less than 5% of your daily calories. This equals about 2 tablespoons (25 grams) of sugar for someone on a 2,000-calorie diet. 6. Engage in moderate exercise Although prolonged intense exercise can suppress your immune system, moderate exercise can give it a boost. Studies indicate that even a single session of moderate exercise can boost the effectiveness of vaccines in people with compromised immune systems. What’s more, regular, moderate exercise may reduce inflammation and help your immune cells regenerate regularly. Examples of moderate exercise include brisk walking, steady bicycling, jogging, swimming, and light hiking. Most people should aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate exercise per week. 7. Stay hydrated Hydration doesn’t necessarily protect you from germs and viruses, but preventing dehydration is important to your overall health. Dehydration can cause headaches

Nottingham connected and hinder your physical performance, focus, mood, digestion, and heart and kidney function. These complications can increase your susceptibility to illness. To prevent dehydration, you should drink enough fluid daily to make your urine pale yellow. Water is recommended because it’s free of calories, additives, and sugar. While tea and juice are also hydrating, it’s best to limit your intake of fruit juice and sweetened tea because of their high sugar contents. As a general guideline, you should drink when you’re thirsty and stop when you’re no longer thirsty. It’s important to note that older adults begin to lose the urge to drink, as their bodies do not signal thirst adequately. Older adults need to drink regularly even if they do not feel thirsty. 8. Manage your stress levels Relieving stress and anxiety is key to immune health. Long-term stress promotes inflammation, as well as imbalances in immune cell function. Prolonged psychological stress can suppress the immune response in children. Activities that may help you manage your stress include meditation, exercise, journaling, yoga, and other mindfulness practices. 9. Supplement wisely According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), there’s no evidence to support the use of any supplement to prevent or treat COVID-19. However, some studies indicate that the following supplements

Health & Food


may strengthen your body’s general immune response: • According to a review in over 11,000 people, taking 1,000–2,000 mg of vitamin C per day reduced the duration of colds by 8% in adults and 14% in children. • Vitamin D deficiency may increase your chances of getting sick, so supplementing may counteract this effect. Nonetheless, taking vitamin D when you already have adequate levels doesn’t seem to provide extra benefits. • In a review in 575 people with the common cold, supplementing with more than 75 mg of zinc per day reduced the duration of the cold by 33%. • One small review found that elderberry could reduce the symptoms of viral upper respiratory infections, but more research is needed. • A study in over 700 people found that those who took echinacea recovered from colds slightly more quickly than those who received a placebo or no treatment, but the difference was insignificant. • A high quality, 12-week study in 146 people found that supplementing with garlic reduced the incidence of the common cold by about 30%. However, more research is needed.

COME & WORK WITH US Come and join the Estates and Facilities Team! We are a vibrant and diverse team, responsible for looking after the beautiful campuses of University of Nottingham and are looking for enthusiastic, motivated and customer focused people to provide an excellent experience to our wide range of customers. We have a mix of positions available for cleaners, catering assistants, bar staff and many other roles in our halls of residence, university buildings and Café’s, over a range of hours and days that are flexible and could fit around your family and other commitments. The University of Nottingham has been providing an outstanding student experience for over 140 years and is a leading university of worldwide significance with established campuses in UK, China and Malaysia. Our award-winning sites at University Park and Jubilee Campus are only 15 minutes by bus or tram to Nottingham city centre.

36 Health & Food

WHO RECOMMENDS GROUND-BREAKING MALARIA VACCINE FOR CHILDREN AT RISK WHO News Release The World Health Organization (WHO) is recommending widespread use of the RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S) malaria vaccine among children in sub-Saharan Africa and in other regions with moderate to high P. falciparum malaria transmission. The recommendation is based on results from an ongoing pilot programme in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi that has reached more than 800 000 children since 2019. “This is a historic moment. The long-awaited malaria vaccine for children is a breakthrough for science, child health and malaria control,” said WHO Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus. “Using this vaccine on top of existing tools to prevent malaria could save tens of thousands of young lives each year.” Malaria remains a primary cause of childhood illness and death in sub-Saharan Africa. More than 260 000 African children under the age of five die from malaria annually. In recent years, WHO and its partners have been reporting a stagnation in progress against the deadly disease. “For centuries, malaria has stalked sub-Saharan Africa, causing immense personal suffering,” said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa. “We have long hoped for an effective malaria vaccine and now for the first time ever, we have such a vaccine recommended for widespread use. Today’s recommendation offers a glimmer of hope for the continent which shoulders the heaviest burden of the disease, and we expect many more African children to be protected from malaria and grow into healthy adults.” WHO recommendation for the RTS,S malaria vaccine Based on the advice of two WHO global advisory bodies, one for immunization and the other for malaria, the Organization recommends that: WHO recommends that in the context of comprehensive malaria control the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine be used for the prevention of P. falciparum malaria in children living in regions with moderate to high transmission as defined by WHO. RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine should be provided in a schedule of 4 doses in children from 5 months of age for the reduction of malaria disease and burden. Summary of key findings of the malaria vaccine pilots Key findings of the pilots informed the recommendation based on data and insights generated from two years

of vaccination in child health clinics in the three pilot countries, implemented under the leadership of the Ministries of Health of Ghana, Kenya, and Malawi. Findings include: Feasible to deliver: Vaccine introduction is feasible, improves health and saves lives, with good and equitable coverage of RTS,S seen through routine immunization systems. This occurred even in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Reaching the unreached: RTS,S increases equity in access to malaria prevention. Data from the pilot programme showed that more than two-thirds of children in the 3 countries who are not sleeping under a bed net are benefitting from the RTS,S vaccine. Layering the tools results in over 90% of children benefitting from at least one preventive intervention (insecticide treated bed nets or the malaria vaccine). Strong safety profile: To date, more than 2.3 million doses of the vaccine have been administered in 3 African countries – the vaccine has a favourable safety profile. No negative impact on uptake of bed nets, other childhood vaccinations, or health seeking behaviour for febrile illness. In areas where the vaccine has been introduced, there has been no decrease in the use of insecticide-treated nets, uptake of other childhood vaccinations or health seeking behaviour for febrile illness. High impact in real-life childhood vaccination settings: Significant reduction (30%) in deadly severe malaria, even when introduced in areas where insecticidetreated nets are widely used and there is good access to diagnosis and treatment. Highly cost-effective: Modelling estimates that the vaccine is cost effective in areas of moderate to high malaria transmission. Next steps for the WHO-recommended malaria vaccine will include funding decisions from the global health community for broader rollout, and country decisionmaking on whether to adopt the vaccine as part of national malaria control strategies. Financing for the pilot programme has been mobilized through an unprecedented collaboration among three key global health funding bodies: Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance; the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria; and Unitaid. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation provided catalytic funding for late-stage development of RTS,S between 2001 and 2015.

Nottingham connected

Business & Finance


BOOKKEEPING & ACCOUNTING FOR BUSINESS OWNERS By WKM Accountancy Bookkeeping and accounting can be an overwhelming task even for experienced business owners; however, there are a couple of straightforward strategies that can keep your finances in working order. Here is a list of some of the most helpful accounting tips for your small business.

save a lot of time and stress. As mentioned above, cloud accounting software can help with this, but you have to keep updating your records in order to stay ahead.

Keeping all your Records and Receipts in order

Most small businesses have at least two deadlines, one for filling out tax returns; the other for paying the associated tax bill. If your business turn over exceeds £85,000 your business will most likely have VAT returns to file as well. However, the payment of liability can be set up as a direct debit straight from your business bank account.

If you don’t keep your records and receipts, you could miss out on valuable tax deductions on expenses or you could end up understating your income which could lead to potential fines and penalties. A solution to help with this is to make use of one of the numbers of cloud accounting packages that allow you to track and submit your expenses on the go from your mobile or tablet. Another benefit of cloud accounting packages is that you can store all your receipts and bills online so there is no risk of losing them. Or you can still record your records on excel or use a desktop accounting package to help track your transactions. HMRC requires you to keep them for 6 years. Once all of all of your transactions are on a cloud accounting package they can be reconciled and categorized. By keeping good records of your business, you can ensure you get paid by all of your customers which is very important for small businesses with limited cash reserves. Start early and keep on top of your records If you start early and keep on top of your records you will

Forms and Deadlines

Furthermore, if you have a limited company, your company will have to file its annual accounts with companies’ house and HMRC. Should you miss any of these deadlines, Penalties can build up quickly. On top of that, if you are an employer, you also have to file payroll RTI (Real time information) returns each time you pay your staff. An accountant can help ensure you meet those deadlines and perhaps help your business to save tax and grow its turnover on profits. If you require assistance with making tax digital, please do not hesitate to contact us on 0115 82440555 or email For more information on tax/accountancy related, please visit

38 Education & Career


In Kenya, where millions struggle to get access to justice, some inmates are studying the law so they can help themselves and each other. On a bright Saturday morning, Willis Ochieng’ watches on as some children play football on a muddy field on the outskirts of the capital Nairobi. A bit further away, some women are sorting rubbish into piles alongside locals washing cars in the sun. For most, this may be a very ordinary scene, but for Ochieng’ it is one to savour. Until a few months ago, he thought he would spend the rest of his life in jail. He had already been in prison for almost two decades. “Things have changed,” he exclaims as he pulls out his phone from his pocket. “On my arrest in 2001, I left a mobile phone with an aerial!” Ochieng’, who admits to selling drugs in high school and being a member of a gang called Baghdad, had been tried and convicted for robbery with violence. In Kenya, this crime is punishable by death, though in reality this equates to life imprisonment; no one has been executed by the state since 1987. With most of his life still ahead of him, the young man who’d had little education was thrown into Kodiaga prison in Kisumu County where he believed he would see out the rest of his days. Little did he know that nearly twenty years later, he would walk out of a prison a free man, having successfully argued in court for his own release. When he first reached prison, Ochieng’ was keen to keep studying and took to it well. After a while, he sat his secondary school exams before going on to teach his fellow inmates at various different jails to which he was relocated over the years. Eventually, he found himself at Kamiti prison where he taught other prisoners’ chemistry and biology. That’s where he was in the late-2000s when a new initiative called the African Prisons Project (APP) began. Founded by Alexander McLean, who trained as a barrister in the UK, the initiative began as a way to help provide access to justice for inmates in Kenya and Uganda. “I met prisoners, usually young men like me,” he told African Arguments of his motivations for establishing the APP. “They had been in prison for years without a trial.” For Ochieng’, the APP meant an opportunity to enrol in a course – conducted in partnership with the University of London – to study law. He grabbed it with

both hands, going on to attain a law diploma and then a law degree along with 17 fellow inmates. It was through this process that Ochieng’ and others learnt that they could apply for resentencing if they felt their punishments were not justified. Some APP paralegals helped them draft their applications and trained them in how to represent themselves in court. Ochieng’ made his case in front of the judges and was ultimately successful, in part thanks to the argument that death sentences are no longer legal since Kenya’s passed a new constitution in 2010. He walked free soon after. Ochieng’ now works for the APP as an interim researcher. His colleagues include other former inmates such as William Okumu, an administrator for the initiative’s legal education programme. Okumu also managed to reduce his sentence after learning law in prison. “Studying [for a law degree] while in prison was a lot more fun and easier since everyone you met was a file,” he says. Yet other former inmates help the programme run clinics – or “mini law firms” – in prison where law students and paralegals can offer legal aid. Overall, the APP currently works in 30 prisons and has 115 paralegals, 17 law graduates and 15 law students. According to Mary Khaemba, Director for Rehabilitation and Welfare in Kenya’s prisons, these initiatives have made a huge difference to many prisoners, especially those who would ordinarily struggle to access the kind of legal support they need. “[The students and graduates] have been very useful in writing appeals for their fellow inmates and actually that was our desire from the beginning since some of the inmates are very poor. Getting lawyers or advocates to write appeals for them or to defend them is a nightmare”, she says. In Kenya, access to justice is a major problem. The country struggles to ensure all citizens get sufficient legal support and are treated equally by an overstretched legal system. It is estimated that of the over two million Kenyans arrested each year, less than a third even get charged in court. Programmes like the APP can only make a small dent in this shortcoming, but for those who have had the opportunity to get legal advice or studied for law degrees while in prison, the effects can be huge. And the initiative is now looking to assist graduates do their bar exams so that they can run law firms of their own.

Nottingham connected For some like Ochieng’ and Okumu, what looked like the end of their lives turned out to be a chance for a fresh start. “I regret that I went to prison because I disappointed so many people…somehow, I wasted ten years and seven months,” says Okumu. “But on the other side, I never

Education & Career


regret it because it gave me an opportunity to think myself in a deep way. Inasmuch as I spent that number of years in prison, I made the best use out of it…It was a blessing in disguise.”


It all began with “Hello, I’m Penny and I’m a volunteer at Mojatu Foundation”. Spoken three times in different facial profiles and silently for three times, simply mouthing the words. Organised by Nottingham City Homes, this free Lipreading taster session was an eye opener on what it means to be deaf and communicating by lipreading, which I have to say, based on a short introduction, is quite a skill.

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names, dates, times, etc. and have a pen and paper to hand. It is very frustrating to be told they will tell you later, when you know they will forget or not bother, make the effort. Keep your mouth clear of obstacles, if possible, not so easy with face masks in a pandemic. One for the men, if you have a beard, keep it trimmed. Ask if you have been understood.

Some things to think about when talking to hearing aid users:

Many of us will as we get older find ourselves needing a hearing aid and perhaps already know someone who uses one. I hope you find the above useful. If you want to know more, please visit

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Be aware of the words that you use and have an alternative word in case you are not understood. Be aware that an accent may make it difficult to lip read. Be prepared to write something down, such as

40 Education & Career


As part of activities marking this year’s celebration of Black History Month, Nottingham University Business School (NUBS) organised a community event which brought together 34 young black students from disadvantaged communities between the ages of 7 and 16 as part of the university’s external engagement. The event coincided with the 26th anniversary of the UN Conference of the Parties (COP26) where issues of urgent actions to combat climate change and its impacts were discussed. Global leaders have recognised that climate action is a global crisis, and as a UN Principles of Responsible Management (PRME) Champion, the School is committed to the attainment of Sustainable Development Goals 13 on Climate Action. The School is striving to bring about positive change through research, teaching, operations, and external engagement. Certainly, NUBS is playing a key role in shaping the mindsets and skills of future leaders. This year’s event was designed in three folds: - a guided tour of the award-winning Jubilee Campus, career, and computer coding sessions. The children were introduced to the world of Virtual Reality (VR) as they coded VR robots to complete the cleaning of plastics in the sea, one of the challenges of our time! The community event, which was held on the 27 October as part of the School’s Widening Participation agenda was led by Dr. Judy Muthuri, Associate Professor in Corporate Social Responsibility who also serves as the Chair, NUBS’ Social and Environmental Responsibility Group. For Dr. Muthuri, the event aims to raise awareness within the black children that University of Nottingham is a “welcoming and open space for all irrespective of race or gender”. The guided tour of the campus was led by Michael Kioko (Estates Department, University of Nottingham). It was eye-opening for the children who learnt about the distinctively modern and sustainable architectural buildings in the Jubilee campus. For most of these young people, that was the first time they had visited a university campus or teaching facility. Through the presentation of their Vision Boards facilitated by Dr. Kevin Brown (Rolls Royce), the children displayed keen interest in continuing their education to higher level. The description of their dreams and goals on the vision board exhibited the need for them to join specific universities that offer inclusive and exceptional learning environments meeting those desires.

The computer coding was the defining moment for these youngsters as they coded a VR robot to help clean up plastics and rubbish in our seas with the assistance of a coding expert, Asif Mussa. For some of the children who were introduced to coding for the first time, their curiosity to learn more was energised. At the end of the event, the kids expressed joy and delight in learning new things such as coding, scratch and doing their own PowerPoint presentations. Most of them expressed their desire to learn new things that can help them think about what they would like to do in the future. Elijah (Y7): “the highlight of the day is that we were able to do coding and free food was also provided and that was generous” Kaitlin (Y6): “I found doing the computing really fun and I like doing the work around the place”. Sean (Y8): “I like it because we got to do coding and learned new stuff” Dr. Muthuri and team expressed their appreciation to everyone that contributed to the success of the event. She thanked the university staff and all the parents for their involvement. It was a great moment for the organisers to work with these young children who are aspiring for a greater future in business and entrepreneurship. Most parents expressed delight that they could see the children were craving for more because it was an inspiring day. They observed that the children are the future leaders and giving them the opportunity to visualise their lives was empowering and encouraging. At the end of the event, Dr Muthuri stressed the need to increase the engagement of young black children in our local communities. These widening participation events must not be delivered only during the Black History Month. Dr. Muthuri and her team are exploring the possibilities of starting a ‘Responsible NUBS Coding Club’ to inspire the children’s creativity all year round.


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“Quality Care by Quality People”

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Nottingham connected News & Sports Female Genital Mutilation




• FGM is any procedure that intentionally alter or cause injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. • FGM has been illegal in England and Wales since 1985. • FGM is a form of child abuse and violence against women and girls. • • FGM is Non-Islamic, against the teachings of Islam and brings Islam into disrepute. • FGM is putting the health of our daughters, sisters, mothers and wives at great risk. • • Over 200 million girls and women worldwide have undergone FGM. • 10,000 girls aged under 15 who have migrated to England and Wales are likely to have undergone FGM. Taking Th • In Nottingham, about 85 new cases were recorded through NHS in 2016/17.

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48 News & Sports

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