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University of Salahaddin College of Engineering Architectural Department

Case Studier Mohammed Siyamand

coroflot.com/mohammedsiyamand behance.net/mohammedsiyamand

Supervisor Anssam Saleh Ali Year 2013-2014

Erbil

Metro Station


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

02

Erbil Metro Station Case Study Mohammed Siyamand

coroflot.com/mohammedsiyamand behance.net/mohammedsiyamand


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

Index Chapter 1 • Introduction 1.1 Thesis Statement 1.2 Definitions 1.3 Historical Review 1.4 Project Goals 1.5 The Reasons of Selecting this Project 1.6 Beneficiaries of the Project

06 06 07 08 10 11 11

Chapter 5 • Spaces Program 5.1 Capacity Calculation 5.2 Space Components 5.3 Access 5.4 Facilities 5.5 Platforms 5.6 Codes & Standards

Chapter 2 • Similar Projects 2.1 Bilbao Metro, Moyua Station 2.2 London Metro, Canary Wharf Station 2.3 Dubai Metro, Burj Khalifa/Dubai Mall Station 2.4 Riyadh Metro, KAFD Metro Station 2.5 Metro Stations Comparison

13 14 24 36 46 58

Chapter 6 • Structure 6.1 What’s Structure 6.2 Structural Analysis of Dubai Metro Station

99 100 101

Chapter 3 • Site Selection 3.1 Location 3.2 Selected Site 3.3 Analyzing Selected Site

61 62 64 66

Chapter 7 • Environment 7.1 Ventilation 7.2 Lighting 7.3 Energies Strategies 7.4 Environment Detection Systems

113 114 115 118 121

Chapter 4 • Space Components & Functional Relations 4.1 Space Components 4.2 Functional Relations

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Chapter 8 • Services 8.1 Mechanical System 8.2 Electrical System 8.3 Sanitary System 8.4 Emergency 8.5 Acoustic 8.6 Furniture & Fixture 8.7 Signs & Graphic 8.8 Security 8.9 Finishing & Materials

123 124 125 126 127 128 128 129 130 131

72 74

77 78 81 82 84 86 92

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Glossary of Terms RTS TOD CBD LRT ATM GPS LRV TOM ATG ATC KAFD

Rapid Transit System Transit Oriented Development Central Business District, in this study (Citadel/Qala) Light Rail System Automatic Teller Machine Global Positioning System Light Rail Vehicle Ticket Office Machine Automated Ticket Gates Automatic Train Control King Abdullah Financial District


1

Foreword Stations, their facilities and amenities, together with the multi-modal transport connections they offer, form an essential part of their passengers’ overall journey experience; they also perform an import- 05 ant role for local communities, which regard them as civic buildings in their own right.

Chapter Sections

Introduction

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Introduction Definitions Historical Review Project Goals The Reasons of Selecting this Project 1.6 Beneficiaries of The Project

06 07 08 10 11 11


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

1.1 Introduction

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General RTS is usually called “metro”, although in English speaking countries the terms subway and underground are used. The rapid transit system varies greatly between cities but has usually common feature that in larger metropolitan areas the underground system extend only to the limits of the inner city, or to its inner ring of suburbs with trains making frequent station stops. The outer suburbs may then be reached by a separate commuter rail network, where more widely spaced stations allow higher speeds. Rapid transit systems are often supplemented by other systems, either buses, trams including LRT or commuter rail 1. Metro stations are part of the infrastructure that allow passengers to board and disembark from trains. They need to be functional – well accessible and easy to understand – and at the same time – comfortable and aesthetically – reflecting the heritage and modernity of engineering and architecture.

1 CHALLENGES IN DESIGN OF MODERN UNDERGROUND RAPID, Ewa Maria Kido, 2009

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Thesis Statement The road network for Erbil city center must be fully integrated into a strategy for the whole city of Erbil. a strategy to be explored under the Master Plan contract, The overall goals of the traffic intervention are to enhance the quality of the experience of being in the city center, in terms of improving the pedestrian, touristic, residential, shopping and work environment. The center city will be pedestrian-oriented, and the presence of the automobile will be managed in such a way as to not interfere with that experience, in addition, three key areas have been specifically requested by the client to be addressed 2: • Road Network. • Parking Provisions. • Public Transportation.

DAR AL-HANDASAH , March 2007


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

1.2 Definitions 1.2.1 Metro Station Its a heavy rail system that runs on a track that is completely separate from road and pedestrian traffic, where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or goods, providing related services such as ticket sales and waiting rooms for a platform next to the tracks , connections may be available to intersecting rail lines or other transport modes such as buses, The construction of tunnels for trains is usually considered in isolation from the provision of circulation spaces for people, even though they are part of a continuous experience for the traveler, starting and ending at street level, therefore the stations divided into two types according to available spaces: • Overground Stations. (Figure 2.7) • Underground. (Figure 2.20)

1.2.2 Erbil Metro Station It’s new rapid transit system that will be designed to provide unparalleled levels of customer comfort and finishing, together with the frequency, punctuality and cover- 07 age to meet Erbil’s future strategic needs and ambitions. Erbil city in Kurdistan region has experienced rapid physical and economical growth in the recent decades, resulting in severe road traffic congestion. Further population growth is expected to be rising 50% in all over the city to reach 3 million by 2017 – along with a significant increase in tourism.


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1.3 Historical Review

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Subways have almost 150 years tradition in Europe and a little bit more than 80 years in Japan, They are one of the most popular and most efficient means of urban transportation. Connected with other railways and extending out from the inner city, they are basic infrastructure of the rapid transit. Like railway stations above the ground, underground Figure 1.1 • First Tunel, London, 1863. subway stations are important elements of the urban scape that are determining the image of the city. Therefore already in the past, aesthetic design of subway stations has been recognized at historical European stations. However, only recently subway station design has been getting more challenging and totally-oriented.

1.3.2 Europe Istanbul Tunnel  is one of the worlds oldest short underground railway lines in Istanbul, Turkey. It is an underground funicular with two stations, connecting the quarters of Karaköy and Beyoğlu. Tunnel construction works started on June 30, 1871. On July, 1872 British company “The Metropolitan Railway of Constantinople to the Galata Pera” was registered. On December 5, 1874 the construction was completed and started carrying people on January 17, 1875.

1.3.1 The First Tunnel The first urban underground railway was the Metropolitan Railway, which began operations on January 10, 1863. It was built largely in shallow tunnels (Image 1.1) and is now part of the London Underground. Between 1863 to 1890 there were numerous proposals to build pneumatic or cable-hauled railways in London to overcome this problem, but Figure 1.2 • An engraving from the Illustrated London News showing the initial construction stages of London’s Metropolitan Railway at King’s Cross in 1861. none proved successful.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

1.3.3 United States Boston has the oldest subway tunnel in the United States that is still in use, part of the Green Line downtown, dating from 1897. The original construction was a short four-track tunnel, with only two stations downtown, built to take light rail cars from outlying areas off the streets. Later subways in Boston carried full-size trains; the Green Line still operates with light rail equipment. In 1901, heavy rail trains began to use the tunnel as part of the original configuration of the Main Line Elevated, the first elevated railway in Boston. 1.3.4 Post 1918 The inter-war period saw the first metros established at the periphery of the continent: The Madrid Metro opened on October 17, 1919 under the direction of the Compañía de Metro Alfonso XIII. Metro stations served as air raid shelters during the Spanish Civil War. Today, Madrid’s subway is one of the longest systems in the world. Barcelona Metro followed in 1924.

1.3.5 Nowadays World’s Largest Metro Systems Rank

City

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Moscow Tokyo 1927 Seoul 1974 Mexico City New York City Paris Osaka London Hong Kong St. Petersburg

Date system completed 1935 1927 1974 1969 1904 1900 1933 1863 1979 1955

Number of riders (year) 3.2 bil (1997) 2.6 bil (1997/98) 1.4 bil (1993) 1.4 bil (1996) 1.3 bil (2001) 1.4 bil (1993) 957 mil (1997) 866 mil (1999) 790 mil (1999) 721 mil (1996)

Length (km) 340 281+ 278+ 202 371 211 114 415 82 110

Table 1.1 • Source: Jane’s Urban Transport Systems, 2002–2003 edition.

Figure 1.3 • King Abdullah Financial District Metro Station, Saudi Arabia, Zaha Hadid Architects, 2012.

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1.4 Project Goals 1. Traffic Solving To reduce crowding in different sectors of Erbil city. 10

2. Time To save people time during transportation and provide fast and efficient passenger flow. 3. Sustainability To reduces air pollution and energy consumption rates as a way to reach sustainability, Usage of natural light in order to provide healthy communities and a sustainable natural environment by meeting the needs of the present. 4. Economy To enhance the region’s economic potential through increased mobility.

5. Social Interaction To develop attractive, efficient and reliable public transport in Erbil city and gathering people in order to achieve social interaction. 6. Safety To ensure the safety and security of passengers. 7. Connectivity To be located as near the surface as possible, so that access from the street to the platforms could be easy and direct. 8. Spaciousness To Achieving greater visibility.


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1.5 The Reasons of Selecting this Project Nowadays millions of people use the nation’s railway stations every day. Towns and cities have often developed around them, placing railway stations in the heart of many communities. The station can often help to provide an identity or symbol for the town or city; it can act as a point of reference as well as a civic amenity for people who want to use the station’s facilities, whether they are traveling or not. Done well, their design and operation helps to facilitate the success of the national rail network. A successful railway station will add to the passenger experience as well as support the economic, social and environmental benefits of rail. Their effective integration with other modes of transport and the surrounding area can provide for an end-to-end journey experience that makes sustainable public transport a real alternative to private vehicle usage.

1.6 Beneficiaries of The Project 1. The community. 2. The visitors to Erbil city. 3. Ministries of transportation. 4. Tourism and trade.

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Conclusion

The architecture of the stations is the result of three concepts: 1. Simplicity. 2. Functionality. 3. Aesthetics.

What’s Next?

Analyzing thee metro stations around the world, One in Spain and the others in London and Dubai for identifying the main similar characteristics in each station then making comparisons between them in order to calculating the space program schedules.


2 Similar Projects

Chapter Introduction In order to explain Metro station components and how the station work to insure station’s sustainability and performance should be some projects analyzed in detail to obtain its positive and negative 13 points, 4 projects analyzed in this chapter.

Chapter Sections 2.1 Bilbao Metro, Moyua Metro Station 2.2 Londond Underground, Canary Wharf Metro Station 2.3 Dubai Metro, Burj Khalifa/Dubai Mall Metro Station 2.4 Riyadh Metro, King Abdullah Financial District Metro Station 2.5 Metro Stations Comparison

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2.1 Bilbao Metro, Moyua Metro Station 2.1.1 General Information Architects Location Area Network Capacity Opening Hours Year

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Foster + Partners Ltd Bilbao, Spain 13,500 m² (Underground) 158,904 passengers/day 58,000,000 passengers/year Mon - Fri 06.00 - 00.00 Sat - Sun 06:00 1988-1995

2.1.2 Network Map In Bilbao there are 2 metro lines that contains 41 metro stations (25 under ground, 16 over ground), The metropolitan network spreads out along both sides of the river Nervión, suggesting a ‘Y’ form metro system including 2 lines. L1: The first part of line 1 opened on November 11, 1995, with 23 stations between Casco Viejo and Plentzia. L2: The first line, which operates north of the River Nervión, was later joined by a second line, which operates south of the river. The two lines split at San Inazio, from where the second runs to Santurtzi. Figure 2.1 • Bilbao Metro Stations Network Map.

The network length is 40 km and serve daily ridership is about 175,342 1 1

average weekday in 2009


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15 Figure 2.3 • Logo of Bilbao Metro.

Figure 2.2 • Station entries from ground level in the side of Moyua Plaza .

Figure 2.4 • Map of a project made for Bilbao Metro in 1976.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.1.3 Site Analysis Moyua plaza have circular shape with radial axes,The station is located underground level of Moyua plaza on the Line 1 of Bilbao network between Abanda & Indautxu plaza, 16

2.1.4 Station Entries

Figure 2.5 • Pedestrian Flows.

Figure 2.6 • Relation with other stations in the site.

Figure 2.7 • Shots that shows the escalator entries.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.1.5 Site Surrounding Buildings

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“The ability to master physical communication – the ease with which people can move freely and in a civilized manner – is essential to the future of our cities; and the architecture of this kind of infrastructure is critical to urban development.”

18

Norman Foster

Figure 2.8 • Station entries from ground level in the side of Moyua Plaza .


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.1.6 The Concept Single grand volume in this way is dramatic, and the concept offers a high degree of flexibility for future change. The curved forms of these spaces are expressive of the enormous forces they are designed to withstand.

2.1.7 Foster’s design of the stations is based on the following fundamental lines: 1. The interior: The treatment of the station cavern. This is a spacious cavern with a cross-section measuring 160 m, where track bays, platforms and mezzanines are located. 2. The access areas: The mezzanines are the main concourses linked to all installations and services, where ticket dispensers and offices are also located. Stations offer an extraordinary feeling of spaciousness where passengers do not feel closed in and can avail of all services close at hand.

Figure 2.9 • Entries & Cavern relations.

3. The exterior: This is what emerges into the city. This is the street architecture, the main feature of which are the steel and glass shelters. 4. Furnishings: In November 2000, the manufacturer of the metro benches (Akaba, based in Irún), was awarded the National Industrial Design Award by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology.

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Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.1.8 Identifying the design approach “The escalators emerge under glass canopies which rise out of the street floor with great elegance and smoothness. This is our fin-de-siécle equivalent of the famous entrances to the Paris Métro; like those, the Bilbao ones use the most advanced glass technology available to offer an urbane sense of welcome and arrival. They are rightly memorable elements of the cityscape.” 1

2.1.9 Circulation Analysis 1.Vertical Via escalators or glazed lifts − lead travelers directly to the generous station caverns.

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2. Horizontal Ticket hall, security and track mezzanine level within station cavern, Station services at either end of cavern with distribution below platform.

Figure 2.10 • Entries & Glass canopy.

1

Mary Mistry, The Architectural review, May 1997.

Platform Skylight Track


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.1.10 Project Components The tube divide it self into two levels the Ticket as Mezzanine and Platform which include services. Facilities Ticket Halls Lifts Escalators Gates Toilets Photo Booths Cash Machines Pay phones Car park Help Points Bridge Waiting Room WiFi Route ways Platform Total Area Circulation

Number 2 1 4 2 2 1 2 2 16 2,000 m²

Area (m²) 285 4 132 32 50 20 485 712 1,720 300

2.1.11 One of the greatest contributions of Metro Bilbao architecture is the achievement of an architectural blend which can be seen in the attainment of three objectives: 1. High aesthetic level of installations. 21 2. Maximum comfort for passengers. 3. Simple and non-aggressive blending with urban architecture.

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

Chart 2.1 • Entries & Cavern relations.


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Figure 2.10 • Longitudinal section shown the Mezzanine/Ticket & Platform level.

Figure 2.12 • Platform level with internal elements: signs, timetables, maps, speakers, lighting & service ducts.

Figure 2.8 • Transverse Section.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.1.12 Structural Analysis

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Figure 2.13 • The construction reflects Bilbao’s great engineering tradition - the Spanish engineers who pioneered the use of mobile gantries for the aerospace industry exploited this technology to erect the prefabricated concrete panels that line the stations.


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2.2 London Underground, Canary Wharf Metro Station 2.2.1 General Information

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Architects Location Area Network Capacity Opening Hours Year

Foster + Partners Ltd London, UK 31,500 m² (Underground) ? passengers/day ? passengers/year Mon - Sat 5:30 - 00:15, Sun 07:30 - 23:45 1991-1999

2.2.2 Network Map The system serves 270 stations and has (402 km) the fourth longest metro system in the world, The network incorporates the world’s first underground railway, The network has expanded to 11 lines, and in 2012 carried over 1 billion passengers.

Figure 2.14 • Bilbao Metro Stations Network Map.

Figure 2.15 • Canary Wharf escalators from interior view.


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25 Figure 2.16 • Logo of London Metro Stations.

Figure 2.17 • Jubilee Line contains 27 Stations (36.2 km).


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2.2.3 Site Analysis The location of the station was locate underground of b plaza which surrounded with commercial facilities that have load of traffic on the plaza, the station is underground system serve the surrounding facilities.

2.2.4 Station Entries

Figure 2.18 • Pedestrian Flows.

Figure 2.19 • Relation with other stations in the site.

Figure 2.20 • Sketch that clarify the station linear entries from opposite directions.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.2.5 Site Surrounding Buildings

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Figure 2.21 • Station Entrance.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.2.6 The Concept The 300-metre-long station is built within the hollow of the former West India Dock using cut-and-cover construction techniques. At ground level, the station roof is laid out as a landscaped park, creating Canary Wharf’s principal recreation space. The only visible station elements are the arcing glass canopies that cover its three entrances and draw daylight deep into the concourse.

Figure 2.22 • Conceptual Model.

2.2.7 Identifying the design approach On entering the station concourse from either the platforms or from surface level at Canary Wharf, the large size of this space makes a notable impact. Internally, the station’s scale is monumental. However, effective organization of the space and clear design, including good lighting, create a reassuring passenger experience within the space. The building is commended for its: • Clarity. • Durability. • Ease of maintenance. • Simplicity. • Spatial quality. • Memorable image.

Figure 2.23 • Monumental interior scale.

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Figure 2.24 • Escalators.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.2.8 Project Components

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Facilities Number Ticket Halls 2 Lifts 3 Escalators 20 Gates 37 Toilets 4 Cash Machines 3 Pay phones 4 Platform 2 Help Points 2 Bridge Waiting Room 2 Route ways 2 Retail & Shops 20 Administration 1 Service 2 Total Area Circulation 18,000 m²

Area (m²) 2,500 75 1,200 650 100 150 20 1,200 80 520 4,000 300 500 160 17,255 750

Figure 2.25 • Underground plan.

Figure 2.26 • Longitudinal Section.

Figure 2.27 • Section.

Figure 2.28 • Section during construction.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.2.9 Circulation analysis “At Canary Wharf, passengers headed to the new extension of London Underground’s Jubilee Line step onto a bank of escalators under the graceful curve of a glass-panel canopy. As they glide down to the ticketing level, a space of Basilican 31 scale and calm opens up before them.” 1

Figure 2.29 • Key 3D station sections.

1

James S Russell, Architectural record.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.2.10 Environmental Analysis By concentrating natural light dramatically at these points, orientation is enhanced, minimizing the need for directional sign-age. Twenty banks of escalators move passengers in and out of the station, while administrative offices, kiosks and other amenities are sited along the flanks of the ticket hall, leaving the main concourse free and creating a sense of clarity and calm.

32

In the middle and at either end, are half-egg-shaped glass domes, which allow light to pour in, and a great parade of escalators appears to reach the sky.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.2.11 Materials The result is a simple palette of hard-wearing materials: fair-faced concrete, stainless steel and glass. This robust aesthetic is most pronounced at platform level where the concrete tunnel walls are left exposed. 33

2.2.12 In contrast to the simplicity of its materials, the station introduces many complex security and technological innovations: 1. Glazed lifts enhance passenger comfort and deter vandalism. 2. Access to the tracks is blocked by platform-edge screens, which open in alignment with the doors of the trains. 3. Servicing is also enhanced, with access via maintenance gangways that allow the station to be maintained entirely from behind the scenes.


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2.2.13 Structural Analysis Architecture and construction of the Canary Wharf station were unique and regarded as a good example of a modern underground station (See Figure 38) its constructed using (cut-and-cover) techniques, the station itself is entirely underground. The only elements of the building that are visible externally are the vaulted glass canopies above the entrances.

Figure 2.32 • Column design sketches.

Figure 2.30 • Cut-and-cover techniques.

Figure 2.31 • Seven towering ellipsoid column.

Figure 2.33 • During construction.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

The roof of the station has been landscaped as a public park, with grass, trees, seating, fountains and paths.

35

Figure 2.34 • Sketch to clarify structural element designs.

Figure 2.35 • The ceiling hangs (30 m) above you, sweeping sinuously down to meet seven towering ellipsoid column, running up the central length of the sunken structure.


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2.3 Dubai Metro, Burj Khalif/Dubai Mall Metro Station 2.3.1 General Information

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Architects Location Area Network Capacity Opening Hours Year

Atkins Dubai, UAE 31,500 m² (Overground) ? passengers/day ? passengers/year Mon - Sat 5:30 - 00:15, Sun 07:30 - 23:45 2009

2.3.2 Network Map The system consist of 2 lines: Red Line: 29 stations, (52 km) length. Green Line: 20 Stations, (23 km) length. A modern Rail System with Red and Green Lines. Both lines consists of state of the art modern designs and architects as well as many features for general public including many retail outlets, Wi-Fi connectivity, ATM Machines easy accessibility for special needs passengers with spread wide network connection to Public Transport Buses and many other exciting features. Figure 2.36 • Dubai Metro Stations Network Map.


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37 Figure 2.38 • Logo of Dubai Metro.

2.3.3 Dubai Metro Features • Driver-less. • Fully-automated. • Longest in the world.

Figure 2.37 • Overground metro station in-front of Burj Khalifa/Dubail Mall.

Figure 2.39 • Red Line contains 29 Stations (52 km).


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.3.4 Site Analysis The location of the station was locate in front of Burj Khalifa Tower while it serve Dubai mall, The station stabled in between 1.25 km Financial Station and 1.45 km from Business Bay Station. 38

2.3.5 Station Entries

Figure 2.40 • Pedestrian Flows.

Figure 2.41 • Relation with other stations in the site.

Figure 2.42 • Clarify the station exit/entry from other side of Sheikh Zayed road.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.3.6 Site Surrounding Buildings

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Figure 2.43 • Burj Khalifa with its metro station.

Figure 2.44 • The roofs to the overground stations first focus for the client.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.3.7 The Concept Dubai Metro stations combine both heritage and modern designs. They have been modeled on the shape of seashell, inspired from the diving and pearl-fishing heritage of the UAE, while the interior design depicts the four elements of nature – water, air, earth and fire.

2.3.8 Identifying the design approach Many of the wider design aims and themes were derived from heritage themes, such Dubai’s pearl-diving history being reflected in the light ‘clamshell’ frames for the overground stations and entrances (Figure 3.2.2). The metro makes use of both underground and overground stations to integrate itself into the existing fabric of Dubai, using four distinct color themes to help passengers distinguish stations – green (air), blue (water), brown (earth) and red (fire).

Figure 2.45 • 3D Modeling of the station with its footbridges were provided across major roads, significantly improving pedestrian movements generally.

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Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.3.9 Project Components The tube divide it self into two levels the Ticket as Mezzanine and Platform which include services. 42

Facilities Number Ticket Halls 1 Lifts 2 Escalators 4 Gates 2 Toilets 4 Lobby 1 Cash Machines 6 Pay phones 3 Help Points 1 Waiting Room 1 Route ways 2 Retail & Shops 20 Administration 1 Service 2 Platform 2-Side Total Area Circulation 4,500 m²

Area (m²) 300 30 100 60 50 500 30 15 20 300 600 1000 130 400 500 4,035 500

Figure 2.46 • The concourse 5 m above ground level to free circulation.


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Figure 2.47 • Fully automated driver-less trains can carry up to 14,000 passengers per hour in each direction.

Figure 2.48 • Panoramic photo showing Dubai metro station with its relation to airport.

2.3.10 Visualization It is elevated and provides breathtaking views of Dubai's spectacular skyscraper architecture as it runs along the very long Sheikh Zayed Road. It is a recommended sightseeing option for tourists, and as the metro is driver less, you can enjoy the views from the front window 1. Figure 2.49 • Escalators with its blue interior and jelly1

Open appendix CD that attached with this case book study.

fish-shaped chandeliers.


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Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.3.11 Structural Analysis The roofs to the overground station is proposed an elegant clam-shell shape spans (more details see page 90). 45

Figure 2.51 • The clam-shell shape and internal structure.

Figure 2.50 • Structural joints.

Figure 2.52 • Facades wire framing details.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

2.4 Riyadh Metro, KAFD Metro Station 2.4.1 General Information

46

Architects Location Area Network Capacity Opening Hours Year

Zaha Hadid Architects Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 20,434 m² (Overground) ? passengers/day ? passengers/year Mon - Sat 5:30 - 00:15, Sun 07:30 - 23:45 2013 - 2019

2.4.2 Network Map The system consist of 6 lines with 87 stations. The King Abdullah Financial District (KAFD) Metro Station will serve as a key interchange on the new Riyadh Metro network for three lines Line1, as well as the terminus of Line 4 (for passengers to the airport) and Line 6.

Figure 2.53 • Riyadh Metro Stations Network Map.


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47 Figure 2.55 • Logo of Riyadh Metro.

2.4.3 Riyadh Metro Features • Six lines • 176 km Length • 600,000 tonnes of steel (80 x Eiffel Tower) • 4.3 million m³ concrete (11 x Burj Khalifa) • 30,000 workers during construction • Five year construction timescale

Figure 2.54 • The ancient Arabic art form of Mashrabiya will be used in the form of project.

Figure 2.56 • Blue Line contains 24 Stations (38 km).


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.4.4 Site Analysis “The financial district has been integrated within the metro line network to ensure easy connectivity with the city center and the airport.” 48

2.4.5 Station Entries

Figure 2.57 • Pedestrian Flows.

Figure 2.58 • Relation with other stations in the site.

Figure 2.59 • Clarify the station exit/entry.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.4.6 Site Surrounding Buildings

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Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

50

2.4.7 The Concept The resulting configuration is a three dimensional lattice defined by a sequence of opposing sine-waves (generated from the repetition and frequency variation of station’s daily traffic flows) which act as the spine for the building’s circulation. These sine-waves are extended to the station’s envelope and strictly affiliated to its internal layout, translating the architectural concept to the exterior.

2.4.8 Identifying the design approach The Project applies a discrete subset of elements which are correlated through repetition, symmetry and scaling; optimizing the design while simplify technical challenges without compromising spatial quality or design ambition. Its simple station typology to emphasize the building’s importance as a dynamic, multi-functional public space; not only an intermediate place perceived through quick transitions, but also a dramatic public space for the city.


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Figure 2.60 • (Day View) the station is linked with the surrounding site through delineated pedestrian pathways.

Figure 2.61 • Interior views of King Abdullah metro station.


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Figure 2.62 • (Night View) the station also offers accessibility to the monorail network of the city via a new sky bridge.

Figure 2.63 • optimize internal circulation and avoid congestion.


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2.4.9 Project Components The project consist of 6 levels, 4 above ground with six platforms over four public floors and two levels of underground car parking, the KAFD metro station will be integrated within the urban context of the financial district, responding to the functional requirements of a multi-modal transport center and the district’s future vision. The design places the station at the center of a network of pathways, sky-bridges and metro lines envisaged by the KAFD master plan. Connectivity diagrams and traffic across the site have been mapped and structured to clearly delineate the pedestrian routes within the building, optimize internal circulation and avoid congestion.

Figure 2.64 • The glass tunel enter the platform core.

Figure 2.65 • The interior circulation with white & gold colors.


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Figure 2.66 • Clarify the station exit/entry.


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Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.4.10 Structural Analysis The façade patterning reduces solar gain while it’s geometric perforations contextualize the station within its cultural environment. The overall composition resembles patterns generated by desert winds in sand dunes, where multiple frequencies and repetition generate complex natural formations. The King Abdullah Financial District Metro Station applies a discrete subset of elements which are correlated through repetition, symmetry and scaling; optimizing the design while simplify technical challenges without compromising spatial quality or design ambition.

Figure 2.67 • The ancient Arabic art form of Mashrabiya will be used for the undulating waves of the walls and roof.

The ancient arabic art form of Mashrabiya will be used for the undulating waves of the walls and roof of the KAFD metro station building. The overall facade uilding will bear a resemblance to the complex natural patterns formed in sand dunes 57 due to desert winds.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

2.5 Metro Stations Comparison Station Features

Moyua Station

Canary Wharf

Burj Khalifa / Dubai Mall Station

King Abdullah Metro Station

Foster + Partners Bilbao, Spain 3,000 Underground 2 3

Foster + Partners London, USA 9,700 Underground 2 3

Atkins Dubai, UAE 4,500 Overground 2 2

Zaha Hadid Riyadh, Saudi 10,434 Overground 4

0.58 km - 0.68 km

1.65 km - 2.30 km

1.50 km - 2.00 km

2.26 km - 3.50 km

1988 - 1995 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ● ○

1991-1999 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ○ ● ○ ● ● ● ●

2009 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

2012-2017 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ○ ● ● ● ● ● ●

Logo 58

Architect Location Total area (m²) Type No. of levels Entries Distance from surround stations (km) Year Ticket Halls Lifts Escalators Gates Toilets Service Station Facilitates Pay phones / Components Car park Help Points Bridge Waiting Room Route ways Platform WiFi

Table 2.3 • The three metro station comparison table showing the same and different space activities.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 2.5.1 Network Comparison After analyzing the site of the three stations and its relations with other stations the result is: The minimum distance between stations is 0.58 km as shown in (Figure 3.2) 59 the Abando station and Moyua station. Figure 2.68 • Moyua Station.

Figure 2.69 • Canary Wharf Station.

The maximum distance is 2.30 km as shown in (Figure 3.3) the Canada Water station with Canary Wharf station. 0.58 km < Distance < 3.50 km

Figure 2.70 • Burj Khalifa/Dubai Mall Station.

Figure 2.71 • K. Abdullah financial Metro Station.

The intersect of two or more lines/ Tubes in one station make interchange point in this case the station complicated and need for more spaces and levels.


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study

60

Conclusion

A metro system is an excellent demonstration of how the built environment can influence the quality of our daily lives. The construction of tunnels for trains is usually considered in isolation from the provision of circulation spaces for people, even though they are part of a continuous experience for the traveler, starting and ending at street level.

Next Step

Selecting one useful site from three, By using evaluation method of site selection.


3 Site Selection & Evaluation

Chapter Introduction The success of Metro will be influenced by its integration into the urban and community fabric, and future stages of design must continue this focus. The Urban Insertion Analysis is part of the larger Con- 61 text Planning in Metro System Design Process. In this chapter three site being to select in order to evaluate them and selecting one of them as a main station to design the proposal project on it. Chapter Sections 3.1 Locations 3.2 Selecting Site 3.3 Analyzing Selected Site

62 64 66


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

3.1 Locations 3.1.1 Erbil Geographic Location

62

Iraq

Kurdistan

Capital

Area 438,317 km² Population 2012 31 million Coordinate 33°20′N 44°26′E

Area 390,000 km² Population 2012 6.2 million Coordinate 37°00′N 43°00′E

Area 15,074 km² Population 2013 1.6 million Coordinate 36°11′28″N 44°0′33″E

Erbil Urban life at Erbil (Hewlêr) can be dated back to at least 6000 BC, and it is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study 3.1.2 Erbil Master Plan Map The Erbil City Master Plan envisions a network that utilizes the ring roads/radials layout to disperse and support traffice movement, This plan manages traffic to discourage through traffic and encorage the R2 road as the primary circulation element around the district. With reduced traffic and noise. In (Figure 3.3) as shown the three locations that selected as strategic Park its usuful for these proposals: (Ride zone, Long distance coach stations, Local Public Transportation Hub, Motorway services, Long stay car parking and Transport depots).

63

Erbil City Centre Master Plan requires an understanding of the larger city roads context within which the detailed planning of the city center falls. A Suggested transport Strategy for the city center was prepared earlier, which governed the major roads strategy, parking policies and policies related to public transport. The strategy requires the adoption of a strong package of measures to reduce the numbers of cars on the city center roads, including road junctions that give access to the city center 1.

1 Stage 4 Report of Erbil City master-plan, By DAR AL-HANDASAH Shair and Partners, March 2007

Figure 3.1 â&#x20AC;˘ The final master-plan of Erbil city, By (DAR AL-HANDASAH Shair and Partners) showing the three selected alternative locations that determined as strategic place for future public transportation depots.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

3.2 Selecting Site 3.2.1 Selection Framework The site selection is structured as a framework around 4 main principles that support Network Rail’s corporate vision and policies 1: • Usability • Efficiency • Quality • Value Each principle includes one or more criteria that should be considered and addressed during the planning or selecting stage of the station site.

64

Usability The movement of passengers, public transport vehicles and non-users through a station can be complex. It is important to plan and design safe, secure, legible and accessible spaces that make the use of our stations easy, attractive and accessible for all users.

1

Guide to Station Planning and Design

3.2.2 Values (1) signifies that all criteria under that principle have been considered and addressed. (2) signifies that some, if not all, have been considered and addressed. (3) signifies that few, if any, have been considered and addressed.

Efficiency Effective planning, management and operation of stations is essential to realize a positive outcome for users and operators. Efficiency includes consideration of service coordination, operating costs, integrated ticketing, maintenance, safety and servicing.

Quality Designing integrated, high quality station environments will improve all aspects of a station user’s experience. Design of high quality facilities is based on a combination of performance,accessibility and function, all of which foreman essential part of a user’s experience while remaining adaptable and able to meet with changing passenger and functional needs.

Value Planning and design of stations must deliver good value for money, give due consideration to environmental and ecological impacts, and consider wider opportunities for regeneration and development.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 3.2.3 Erbil Tramway “The political and security status of Kurdistan is fully stable. We have no problems that might affect the mindset of an investor. Actually, we see that the coming investor to the region will not find any difference between the political and security situation found here and the one found in his own country. The political, security and even economic situation is stable. This is a very important point when thinking about attracting foreign companies and investors to Kurdistan”.1 Now the design and studding of erbil tramway was finished as shown in (Figure 3.2).

3.2.3 Erbil Metro, Visionary Network

65

Figure 3.2 • Erbil tram network. 1 Jonson S. Ayo, Minister of Transportation and Communications of Kurdistan Region of Iraq

Figure 3.3 • Three alternative sites situated on proposal network map (Not Planning Scheme).


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study

3.3 Analyzing Selected Site 3.3.1 Location & Surrounding The site located near of Erbil citadel (Qalat), 500m from the Erbil Qalat, Kirkuk Road.

66

3.3.2 Massing & Open Spaces


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study

3.3.3 Roads & Paths

3.3.4 Landuses

67


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study 3.3.5 Pedestrian Catchment

68


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study 3.3.6 Site Area

3.3.7 Path Directions

69


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study

70

Conclusion

As a result, the main selected site circulation space often has to be expanded physically. In many cases, the different roles of the expanded circulation area are usually defined in terms such as connected concourse, main concourse, main hall and entrance hall.

Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Next

Space components & functional Relationships between station spaces then drawing proximity and bubble diagrams of zones.


4 Space Components & Functional Relations

Chapter Introduction The extent and quantity of facilities within each zone will vary, but in each case the welcome offered and the quality of the service should remain the same wherever the station is on the network. 71 This will ensure that passengers and station visitors will have confidence in the total journey experience and can anticipate how their requirements will be met when visiting a station for the first time.

Chapter Sections 4.1 Space Components 4.2 Functional Relations

72 74


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study

4.1 Space Components

72

4.1.1 Main Components After analyzing the four projects in (Chapter 2, Pages: 13-60). A summary of the typical activities or facilities found in the three key zones are:

Local Area

Office/ Residential/ Commercial

Retails Info

WCs

Cycle

Info

Zone 1

Zone 2

Access

Bus

Zone 3

Facilities

Car/ Taxi Ped

Rec Station Management

Zone 1: Access and Interchange Zone 1 acts as a gateway between the station and its surrounding environment, and to station zones from station facilities within Zone 2 ensuring accessible, legible and safe navigation to, from and through the station. For external movements, it is often necessary to consider those that extend beyond the physical boundary of the station through areas that may be managed by third party organizations. Zone 1 designs should cater for the differing requirements of arriving and departing passengers.

Info

Zone 2: Core Facilities and Services It is within Zone 2 that the primary travel needs of passengers and station visitors are generally met, with the range of passenger information, services and facilities and their distribution and location being key to the planning of this Zone. Key facilities - such as travel information, waiting areas, toilets, left luggage, retail and food and beverage - should follow a logical grouping based around the needs of the passenger and should be visible (or be clearly signed) from the point of access from adjacent zones. Sight of the Platform Zone can help the passenger judge the time that it will take to gain access to the platform.

Platforms Left Lug.

Staff

Zone 3: Platforms Access between Zone 2 and Zone 3 (platform) is often controlled by ticket checks, whether by manual inspection or Automatic Ticket Gates (ATGs). This threshold ensures that train access and egress can be managed safely and securely. In some instances - where through platforms also act as waiting areas - the boundary between the Zones 2 and 3 may not be clearly defined. In these instances it is important that the quality of the service, facility and/or space is maintained such that the overall journey experience remains positive.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

4.1.2 Detail Components Zone 1

Access

Zone 2

Zone 3

Facilities

Outdoor Car Parking Metro Bus Escalators Lifts Bridge Services

Main Core Lobby Lounge Information Security Escalators Lifts

Indoor Escalators Lifts

Commercial Retails & Shops Restaurants Kitchen Store Escalators Lifts Services Kiosks

Platforms Station Management Manager Assistant Directors Control Room Meeting Room Mechanical Room Archives & Record Copy/Print Ticketing & Baggage Handling WCs Services HVAC System WiFi & Phone Fire Protection Equipments WCs

Notes Ticket sales in several forms depending on type and size of stations. • All functions may take place in one open space, (i.e., main lobby, ticket hall, etc) or separate areas, but connecting. • An arrival hall is normally the same area as a departure hall.

Departure Information Ticket Directions Waiting Arrival Information Baggage Handling Directions

73


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study

4.2 Functional Relations

Access

Lobby

Information

Security

Services

Ticketing

Retails

Restaurant

Restrooms

Store

Restrooms

Meeting Room

Control

Arrival

Departure

Waiting

Rout Ways

Retails

Ticketing

Kiosk

Services

Security

Information

Lounge

Lobby

Bridge

Lifts

Escalators

Metro Bus

Car Prking

Related Separate Nearby Adjacent Not Adjacent

Facilities

Chart 4.1 â&#x20AC;˘ Proximity matrix between for the three main components.

Platforms

Departure

Lifts

Platforms

Kitchen

Facilities

Escalators

Access

Restaurant

74

4.2.2 Main Spaces Relations Administrative office may be isolated from others or inserted among facilities in every area, but they have to be able to control all systems.

Arrival

4.2.1 Proximity Matrix Adjacency Matrix is an in-depth look into how each space relates to the other within the building. The purpose of the matrix is to organize and link different activity areas together.


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study 4.2.3 Bubble Diagrams From (Chart 4.1), Scale bubble diagrams were then produced that showed these spaces with the desired area of each. These diagrams slowly produced ideas the generated the original floor plans. These are shown below.

Platforms

75 Passenger Zone

Restaurant

Related Separate Nearby Adjacent Not Adjacent

Service Commercial Control

Lobby

Access Chart 4.2 â&#x20AC;˘ Proximity matrix between space components.

Facilities

Platforms

Rout Ways

Waiting

Directors

Baggage

Control

Meeting Room

Restrooms

Store

Kitchen

Restaurant

Retails

Ticketing

Kiosk

Services

Security

Information

Lounge

Lobby

Bridge

Lifts

Escalators

Metro Bus

Car Prking

Admin.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

76

Conclusion

A summary of the typical activities or facilities found in the three key zones which are: • Access and Interchange • Core Facilities and Services • Platforms

Next Step

Space analysis using planning methods the calculating the proximity of each space with another.


5

Chapter Introduction Process will involve our asking questions then listening. At the end of the process will establish the project design objectives a list of project needs, wants, and priorities in written and numerical form. 77

Spaces Program

Chapter Sections 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

Capacity Calculating Space Components Access Facilities

5.5 Platforms 5.6 Code & Standard Applications

78 81 82 84 86 92


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

5.1 Capacity Calculating

78

5.1.1 Erbil Population Analysis The population of Erbil city is estimated in (2013) as 1,635,081 people. The average annual increase of population of Erbil is about 3% per year, in other word, it is about 49,052 persons per year, where the inhabitants’ ratio at the urban areas is about 80% and the rest 20% are living in the countryside. The estimated number of citizens determined by using the equation of population for future target year:

PTarget = PNow (1 + n×r) P2030 = P2013 (1 + n×r) = 1,635,081 (1 + 17×0.03) = 2,468,972 citizen

2030

2,468,972

2013

1,635,081 0

1,000,000

*Keys: P= Population n= Target Years r= Growth Average

2,000,000

5.1.2 Passenger Capacity of Similar Examples Bilbao = 0.3 million (2012) 270 stations London = 8.1 million (2011) 270 stations Dubai = 2.1 million (2013) 57 stations Riyadh = 5.1 million (2004) 87 stations

158,904 p/d 3,400,000 p/d 1,200,000 p/d 2,500,000 p/d

2.5 Million Population in Target Year 2030

5.1.3 Design Capacity and Phasing 3,000,000 The Station shall be designed to meet the peak hour passenger volume based on the morning or evening arrival/departure of trains which shall not be less than 10% (ten percent) of the design daily passenger volume.

5.1.4 Tourists & Visitors Average numbers of visitors to Erbil city in the year is 130.400 persons from: Directorate stay of Erbil region.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 5.1.5 Metro Dubai Capacity Analysis for Resulting Erbil Metro Capacity

Dubai Metro

Erbil Metro

Population = 2.1 million

Population in 2030 = 2.5 million

• No. of stations in the system • Metro passengers per hours1 • Working times (6:00 AM - 11:00 PM)

= 57 stations = 54,000 p/h = 17 h

So: 54,000 × 17 = 918,000 daily passenger in all system 918,000 ÷ 57 = 16,000 daily passenger for each station Add 30% for main stations 16,000 × 1.30 = 20,800 p/d 2

20,800 ÷ 17 = 1,200 p/h

1 Each line load 27,000 p/d, Dubai TV doucmentry program. 2 In Dubai there are 2 main stations (Rashdiyah & Nakheel Harbour) that load more than other stations about 30% of daily ridership, Emirate Transport Authorities.

1,200

Passenger / hours

According to Dubai metro system 40% of Dubai population use it: 2,100,000 918,000

2,500,000 X

X = 1,000,000 approx. daily passenger in all system • • • •

Assuming Working Times (6:00 AM - 12:00 AM) = 18 h Assuming number of Erbil metro stations = 27 stations Peak hours (7:00 AM - 9:00) = 2 h Add 30% for main Station = 19,000 × 1.30 = 24,700

So: 1,000,000 ÷ 27 = 37,000 daily passenger for each station 37,000 × 1.30 = 48,000 p/d 48,000 ÷ 18 = 2,600 p/h 2,600 × 1.10 = 2,800 p/h @ peak hours

2,800

Passenger / hours

79


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 5.1.6 The Dubai Metro Trains There are 87 metro trains in Dubai metro system that stop every (20-30 minutes) that loading (643 passenger) in each trip that contain 5 cars (Gold, Silver & 3 Normals) with different levels of services that work with electrical power of 750V the speed of the metro is about 50-90 Km/h. 80

If: 1,200 passenger/hours 1,200 ÷ 3600 ÷ 30 = 10 passenger @ each 30 minutes That’s mean in each second 20 passenger go into the metro train car.


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study

5.2 Space Components 5.2.1 Component Tree From shape 4 (Page: 75) a summary of the typical activities or facilities found in the three key zones are: Zone 1

Access Outdoor Car Parking Metro Bus Escalators Lifts Bridge Services Indoor Escalators Lifts

Zone 2

Zone 3

Facilities Main Lobby Lobby Lounge Information Security Escalators Lifts Commercial Retails & Shops Restaurants Kitchen Store Escalators Lifts Services Kiosks

Platforms Administration Manager Assistant Directors Control Room Meeting Room Mechanical Room Archives & Record Copy/Print Ticketing & Baggage Handling W.Cs Services HVAC System WiFi & Phone Fire Protection Equipments W.Cs

Departure Information Ticket Director Room Waiting Arrival Information Baggage Handling

81


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

5.3 Access 5.3.1 Area per Persons The following charts outline the LOS requirements of various station elements. In design of certain facilities, where J.J Fruin standards are not applicable International Aviation Transportation Association (IATA) standards shall apply. 82

5.3.2 Circulation The key elements of the station’s normal passenger circulation system (excluding emergency egress) are: • VCEs • Platforms • Control Gates • Passageways • Ticketing • Entrances/Exits • Arrival and Departure Concourses

Table 5.1 • Level of Service Standards.

Table 5.2 • Allocated space per person in the station area. Source: IATA (International Air Transportation Association).


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

5.3.3 Escalators All escalators shall be of the heavy-duty reversible type with a design maximum practical capacity of 90 persons per minute based on a service speed of 0.65 m/sec. The following requirements are given for general planning purposes: • • • • •

Inclination 30 degrees Step speed 0.65 m/s Step width (min) 1000 mm Number of flat steps at upper landing 4 (min) Number of flat steps at lower landing 4 (min)

5.3.4 Elevators/Lifts The following design parameters are listed to facilitate initial station planning only. All dimensions shall be adjusted to suit the sizes of equipment and maintenance requirements:

5.3.5 Ramps Ramps shall only be used for small changes in level or for use by wheelchairs and the following gradients shall apply:

• Preferred gradient • Maximum gradient

5.3.6 Stairs Risers per flight Height of riser Length of tread Stair Width Length of intermediate landings Length of Flood Landing (entrances with stairs only) Vertical Clearance Handrail Falls at entrance stairs

Table 5.3 • Minimum size for the Disabled / Casualty provision.

1:20 1:12

3 No (minimum) 150 mm (maximum) 300 mm (minimum) 1800mm or 3 lanes 2000 mm or width of stairs. 2500 mm (minimum) 2700 mm (minimum) 850 mm high, 50 mm diameter 1:100 towards the street with side channels.

Table 5.4 • Design parameters of stair design in metro station.

83


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study

5.4 Facilities

84

5.4.1 Entrance & Gates Calculation for entrance capacity for example would involve passenger movement analysis that should take the more restrictive requirements of access to the station during the peak hour of the peak day, A total occupant load of say 10,000 that needs to be evacuated outside the station in a maximum of 4 minutes or ess, would require 14 (13.67) minimum door widths.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

5.4.2 Public Rest Rooms Each station shall have male and female public restrooms located in the paid and unpaid area. Minimum fixture and facility requirements for these restrooms are as follows: Men’s Restroom: • One accessible toilet. • One urinal. • Two lavatories with mirror(s). • One infant changing table. Woman’s Restroom: • One accessible toilet. • One standard toilet. • Two lavatories with mirror(s). • One infant changing table.

85


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study

5.5 Platforms 5.5.1 Center Platform Center platforms are preferred in most cases. Center platforms are located between tracks; passengers board and alight from either side of the platform. In determining emergency egress capacity any platform that can serve as noted above will assume 2 trains discharging simultaneously see (Figure 5.1). 86 Advantages 01. Simplifies way finding, free flow of customers, and cross-platform transfers.

Disadvantages 01. Queuing for vertical circulation must mix with queuing for vehicle boarding along the platform.

02. More efficient use of space, since customers traveling in both directions can share platform space.

02. Limited options for elevator placement (than for side platform stations) since elevators must be placed in the center of the platform width.

03. Platform width that may be less than combined width of equivalent side platforms; the resulting station may be smaller and less expensive.

Figure 5.1 â&#x20AC;˘ Entering from center.

03. Less accessible wall area available for sign-age, advertising, and art.

04. Fewer elevators to the platform level are required to provide equivalent accessibility.

04. Limited flexibility for future expansion (future connections, capacity, space.

05. Possible reduction in the need to cross oncoming traffic (in order to reach vertical circulation) when a single concourse is provided.

05. Less ability to accommodate increased vertical circulation demands and surges in reverse commuters.

06. Ability of passengers to change train directions without crossing tracks and changing levels.


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study

5.5.2 Side Platform Side platforms provide access to trains along one side of the track. The passenger must decide between platforms based on their direction of travel prior to descending to platform level. 87 Advantages 01. Increased flexibility in locating emergency egress and VCEs. 02. Ability to accommodate high-volume, bidirectional customer flows while avoiding bidirectional conflicts 03. Potentially greater capacity for vertical circulation and emergency egress, since it is generally possible to provide more vertical circulation devices. Figure 5.1 â&#x20AC;˘ Entering from sides.

04. Better accommodation of long-term ridership changes (such as increases in the number of reverse commuters). 05. Better accommodation of queuing at VCEs, due to reduced conflict with queuing at platform edge.

Disadvantages 01. Need for directional decisions to be made prior to descending to the platform, in order to avoid backtracking and delay. 02. Need for clear sign-age to be provided so that customers can select the appropriate platform. 03. Need for passengers to change levels and cross tracks to change train directions. 04. Less space efficiency, resulting in wider stations (minimally sized platforms meeting requirements under NFPA 130 will be larger than a single minimally sized center platform). 05. Greater number of VCEs for equivalent capacity.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

88

5.5.3 Split-Level Platform Split-level platform stations have side platforms (e.g., in- and outbound) located at different levels—typically due to alignment or site constraints. Design considerations are similar to normal side platform stations. One platform shall not be used as a path of circulation to the other.

Figure 5.1 • Split-level platform (section).

5.5.4 Stub Terminal Platform Stub terminal stations (e.g., Chattrapati Shivaji Terminus, Mumbai; Howrah Station) have center or side platforms (or combinations of both) at which the tracks dead-end, allowing passengers access from the dead-end of the platform(s). Pinched loop platforms have the advantages and disadvantages of center and side platform stations, depending on their configuration. They have the added advantage of high capacity ingress and egress from the platform end, making them particularly suitable for large passenger flows, special events, and end-ofline stations.

Figure 5.1 • Stub terminal platform plan.


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study

5.5.5 Flow-Through Platform Flow-through platforms allow passengers to board and alight the train from dedicated platforms, thereby eliminating conflicting passenger flows. Flow-through platforms speed boarding and alighting and therefore reduce vehicle dwell time at the platform. Flow-through platforms are not typically used due to cost and operational considerations, but they may have applications where very high passenger volumes and/or unique passenger characteristics (e.g., a high percentage of passengers with bags) .

5.5.6 Flow-Through Platform Flow-through platforms allow passengers to board and alight the train from dedicated platforms, thereby eliminating conflicting passenger flows. Flow-through platforms speed boarding and alighting and therefore reduce vehicle dwell time at the platform. Flow-through platforms are not typically used due to cost and operational considerations, but they may have applications where very high passenger volumes and/or unique passenger characteristics (e.g., a high percentage of passengers with bags) require that the station designer minimize cross-flows on the platform and dwell times.

89


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study



0$; 0,1

0$;

0$; *$8*(

 $//',0(16,216$5(,10,//,0(75(6 (;&(37:+(5(27+(5:,6(6+2:1

Figure 5.1 â&#x20AC;˘ Maximum train dimensions.

0,1



0$;

0,1



0$;

90

/(9(/


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study               

      Â Â?Â? Â Â Â?Â?            Â Â?Â?  

             Â? ­Â&#x20AC;

91

      Â Â&#x201A;Â Â&#x201A;

     

Figure 5.1 â&#x20AC;˘ Standard dimension of platform outside the station.

FIG. 8 OF 3.2.2 : STANDARD DIMENSIONS FOR TUNNELS & THROUGH GIRDER BRIDGES


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

5.6 Code & Standard Applications 5.6.1 Parking # 92

1 2 3 4

Space

Staff Cars Public Cars Metro Bus Bicycle Net Areas Ʃ Circulation Gross Area

Users 45 140 28

Standers (m²/p) 25 25 40 1.70

Net Area (m²) 1225 3500 40 47.6

No. of Spaces 1 1 5 2

Ʃ Net Area (m²) 1225 3500 200 95.2 5020 654 7028

Note % using individual cars 2% using public cars 40 person/bus 1% using it 40% for circulation added Total parking area of the project

7,000 m² Note The location and type of parking i.e. surface parking, underground parking or multistory parking shall be flexible and based on the above capacity requirements. Average time taken to find parking space and depart from parking space should be less than 10 minutes, in this study the area of parking not added to area of total project.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

5.6.2 Main Lobby #

Space

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Entrance Information Desk Ticketing Offices Ticket Queue Baggage Room Public W.Cs Fax & Telephone Net Areas Ʃ Circulation Gross Area

Users

20

Standers (m²/p) 1.17 0.9 1.35 1.35 0.99 1.5 0.63

Net Area (m²)

8

12.6

No. of Spaces 1 1 6 6 1 4 6

Ʃ Net Area Note (m²) 350 36 Unpaid Zone 300 Unpaid Zone 48 530 48 76 1388 1804 30% for circulation & Structure added

1,800 m²

5.6.3 Platforms # 1 2 3 4

Space

Waiting Hall Elevated Platform Underground Platform Route Ways Net Areas Ʃ Circulation Gross Area

Users 2800/2 2800/2 2800/2

Standers (m²/p) 0.64 0.57 0.43

Net Area (m²) 900 800 600 300

No. of Spaces 2 2 2 2

5,800 m²

Ʃ Net Area Note (m²) 1800 Table 5.1 (Concourse Level) 1600 1200 600 5200 600 30% for circulation & structure added 5800

93


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 5.6.4 Administration #

94

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Space

Lobby Manager Staff Offices Small Cafe Assistant Cash Accountant Conformance Room Archives Copy/Print Store Employee W.Cs Employee Lounge Net Areas Ʃ Circulation Gross Area

Users

Standers (m²/p) 0.9

1 15

1.5

1 1 20

2.5

6

Net Area (m²) 50 25 22.5 150 18 18 50 18 40 16 12 40

780 m²

No. of Spaces 1 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1

Ʃ Net Area Note (m²) 50 25 135 150 18 18 50 18 40 32 24 40 600 180 30% for circulation & Structure added 780


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 5.6.5 Commercial #

Space

Users

Standers (m²/p)

1 2 3 4

Offices Shops Pharmacy Store Net Areas Ʃ Circulation Gross Area

Net Area (m²) 25 30 28 18

No. of Spaces 3 20 1 2

Ʃ Net Area Note (m²) 75 600 28 36 739 296 30% for circulation & structure added 1035

No. of Spaces 1 1 1 2 2 1

Ʃ Net Area Note (m²) 18 25 20 36 24 16 140 42 30% for circulation & structure added 182

1040 m²

5.6.6 Security # 1 2 3 4 5 6

Space

Police Office Captain Office Holding Room Police Slumber Toilets Store Net Areas Ʃ Circulation Gross Area

Users

Standers (m²/p)

Net Area (m²) 18 25 20 18 12 16

200 m²

95


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 5.6.7 Cofeeshop #

96

Space

Captain Accountant Main Kitchen Employee Dining Employee Toilets Preparation Room Dry Store Wet Store Washing Area Storage Public W.Cs Dining Area Net Areas Ʃ Circulation Gross Area

Users

20

2800/2

Standers (m²/p)

1.5

0.58

Net Area (m²) 18 18 60 30 9 30 15 15 20 20 12 800

No. of Spaces 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1

1,780 m²

Ʃ Net Area (m²) 18 18 60 30 18 30 15 15 20 20 24 800 1068 1780 1780

Note Office type

Including lockers & changing areas

Half hours use it 30% for circulation & structure added


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 8.6.8 Services # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Space

Engineers Employee Lounge Electricity Room Water Control Air Conditioning Room Equipment Store General Store First Aid Room Employee W.Cs Camera Room Net Areas Ʃ Circulation Gross Area

Users 6

Standers (m²/p) 1.5

Net Area (m²) 10 28 50 18 30 16 18 18 12 20

No. of Spaces 5 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1

Ʃ Net Area Note (m²) 50 28 50 18 30 32 36 18 24 20 300 92 30% for circulation & structure added 392

400 m²

11,800 m2

Project Total Area

97


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98

Conclusion

The increasing numbers of passengers has resulted in the need for modern and rational designs of stations. The functions of station design are broadened. The form of the building becomes more complex. As a result, conventional stations are gradually replaced by station complexes, which do not serve travel alone. They are not just places where trains stop to collect and deposit passengers, but they become a gateway to and from communities.

Next Step

Space analysis using planning methods the calculating the proximity of each space with another.


6 Structure

Chapter Introduction The simplest way of describing the function of an architectural structure is to say that it is the part of a building which resists the loads that are imposed on it. A building may be regarded as simply an 99 envelope which encloses and subdivides space in order to create a protected environment. The surfaces which form the envelope, that is the walls, the floors and the roof of the building, are subjected to various types of loading that explained in this chapter.

Chapter Sections 6.1 Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Structure 6.2 Structural Analysis of Dubai Metro

100 101


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

6.1 What’s Structure 6.1.1 Definition Structure is the load-carrying part of all natural and man-made forms. It is the part which enables them to stand under their own weight and under the worst conditions of externally applied force1. 100

6.1.3 Types of Load • Dead load. • Live load. • Point load. • Lateral load. • Impact load.

6.1.2 Structural Form Solid

Surface

Skeletal

Membrane 1

Tony Hunt’s Structures Notebook

6.1.5 System Selections Factors • Function. • Project Size. • Cost. • Location. • Load. • Technology. • Resources. • Code requirements. 6.1.4 Structure Systems Emergency Operation Mode (Design) Smoke Control Evacuation (Smoke-free, Time!) Fire-Fighting Fire Operation Heat Resistance TVS, (TES in Station)


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

6.2 Structural Analysis of Dubai Metro, Burj Khalif/Dubai Mall Metro Station 6.2.1 Dubai Metro Architects Engineers Constructors Clint Location Area

Atkins Systra Parsons Mitsubishi Corporation Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Kajima - Obayashi - Yapi Merkezi Government of Dubai Roads & Transport Authority Dubai, UAE 4,200 m² (Overground)

Figure 6.1 • 3D Model of Dubai metro station with materials.

101

Figure 6.1 • Burj Khalifa with its metro station.


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6.2.2 Dimensions of the Project The length and width of the station is (140 m) by (30 m) respectively while (26 m) is the hight that cover (4,200 m²) over ground, its hanging by (5 m) hight by concrete columns.

6.2.3 Pilling Works The total numbers of piles and piers for the Red and Green lines were 2627 and 1945 respectively. The majority of the piers for the viaduct were typically 1·75 m or 2 m diameter and were supported on mono-piles of either 2·2 m or 2·4 m diameter respectively. The piles were designed as friction piles as end-bearing was ignored due to potential risks of weak substrates, and the design was optimized by the contractor to eliminate the need for pile caps.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

103

Pre-Stress Girder Box

Pier Cap

Pier

Figure 6.3 • Special pier head.

Figure 6.4 • The bridge pier (2.2 m) diameter.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

Alecobond Layer R.F Concrete

104

Glass

Aluminum Frames

6.2.5 Structural Materials The physical properties of materials determine the types of internal force which they can carry and, therefore, the types of element for which they are suitable. The processes by which materials are manufactured and then fashioned into structural elements also play a role in determining the shapes of elements for which they are suitable. These aspects of the influence of material properties on structural geometry are now discussed in relation to the five principal structural materials of: • Alicobond Layers. • Reinforced concrete. • Steel. • Glass. • Aluminum Frames.


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study 6.2.6 Structural Components The project structure consist of prestress girder box that covered with arching steel portal frames. 105

Glass Shell Golden Shell Covering Pre-Stress Girder Box Portal Frames

Bearing Pad Pier Cap

Main Portal Frames Purlins

Sub-Portal Frames Concerete Structure


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 6.2.4 Number of Levels

106

Figure 2.61 • Main, sub & purline portal frames

Figure 2.61 • Section that showing the distribution of structural loads with its foundational profile.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 6.2.7 Roof Structure

107 Figure 6.8 • Panel repetition with cylinders versus ellipses.

(1)

(2)

(1) Cable-to-cable connection with integral stand fitting. (2) Cable-to-cable connection with wire rope thimble.

Figure 6.7 • The roofing structure.

Figure 6.9 • The station during construction.


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study 6.2.9 Structural Connection The contractor then proceeded to assemble the cantilevered end-sections in a systematic manner until both end-sections could be simultaneously released from their temporary supports. 108


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study 6.2.10 The Joints The joints being modified after the first series in order to improve their performance. The second series confirmed the improvement and allowed strength design charts to be compiled, Following the laboratory tests a complete 30.5 by 30.5 m space grid 1.52 m deep.

6.2.11 The Sky Station The station were constructed on piled foundations (5 m) above the ground and a reinforced concrete spine beam runs the full length of each station to support the concourse steelwork and roof. 109

Figure 6.4 â&#x20AC;˘ The concourse is 5 m above ground level to free circulation beneath.


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110

6.2.10 Footbridge The design of over 200 footbridge spans as part of the Dubai Metro station context planning was challenging. Great use of automation and a modular construction approach allowed for the frequently changing span requirements to be rapidly designed to a tight design and construction programmer.

Figure 6.11 • One of the 200 footbridge spans being erected during a weekend road closure using a self-propelled modular transporter stations reflects Dubai’s pearl-diving history.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study 6.2.7 Span Dimensions Pre-cast segmental construction • Single spans of 20m to 40m. • Twin spans of either 44m+44m or 40m+40m made continuous after deck erection. • 3-span continuous structures made by balanced cantilever method with main spans of 66m to 74m. • 3-span or 4-span continuous structures of 30m to 36m through elevated stations.

111

6.2.8 Tunneling All tunnels were constructed using three earth-pressure-balance tunnel-boring machines with (9.56 m) diameter. The total length of bored tunnels was 4·2 km for the Red line and 7·1 km for the Green line.

Figure 2.69 • (9.56 m) diameter tunnel-boring machines breaking into an underground station.

Figure 2.61 • The clam-shell design of the overground stations reflects Dubai’s pearl-diving history.


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112

Conclusion

As analyzing Dubai metro structure the main principle is producing huge spacing for station concourse, lobby and platforms in order to easy circulation in the station and this accouter by using wide distance of spans that supported on two sides by hinges as the structure of Dolphin.

Next Step

Environmental studding for Metro stations case by analyzing the most sustained stations around the world and Dubai metro as example.


7

Chapter Introduction Metro stations by nature are grand structures. They must house a spectrum of services under a single roof. As a result, stations require large amounts of energy to sustain daily rail operations while 113 providing riders a safe and comfortable travel experience. Metro stations anticipate higher energy demands compared to other types of buildings because they are utilized day and night with little or no downtime throughout the year.

Environment

Chapter Sections 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

Ventilation Lighting Energy Strategies Environmental Detection System

114 115 118 121


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7.1 Ventilation

114

7.1.1 Ventilation Types 1. Longitudinal. 2.Semi-Transferse. 3. Fully/Partly Transfer.

7.1.2 Ventilation Systems 1. Tunnel Ventilation System (TVS) Fire.

7.1.3 Energy Conservation Strategies The design and proper orientation of the station can reduce the overall energy footprint of the building. Certain strategies outlined below take advantage of natural 2.Track way Exhaust System (TES) patterns found on the site such as natural Heat Release generated by the trains. light and wind while the others strategies are based on innovative building technologies. 3. Environmental Control System (ECS) Tunnel/ Station AC (Comfort)


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

7.2 Lighting 7.2.1 Erbil Climate The climate of Erbil city is Mediterranean with four clearly defined seasons. The summer is hot and dry having (3) sought months (about 31c monthly average for June, July and august and without rain fall). While the winter is rather cold mad rainy (about 8.4 C and 373.7 mm rain fall as monthly average for December, January and February). The two extreme seasons he hot and dry summer and wet and cold winter, are separated by very pleasant seasons of spring and autumn

Figure 7.1 • Erbil sun path diagram

7.2.2 Day Light Most people prefer daylight. The contact with changing natural light is physiologically, psychologically and architecturally important. Le Corbusier said “architecture is the masterly, correct and magnificent play of masses brought together in light”. Daylight availability varies enormously (in this way it is very similar to natural ventilation) and is a key design issue. (Temperature variations, on the other hand, are more seasonal and are therefore easier to control; noise level variabili- Figure 7.2 • Dubai green belt with Metro bridge path. ty depends very much on the site). The lighting level in the space is very important. One aspect of this is the daylight factor, which is defined as the luminance received at a point, indoors, from a sky of known or assumed luminance distribution, expressed as a percentage of the horizontal luminance outdoors from an unobstructed hemisphere of the same sky; direct sunlight is excluded from both values of luminance.

115


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116


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7.2.3 Energy Conservation Strategies The Hyper loop is a conceptual high-speed transportation system envisioned by entrepreneur Elon Musk,[1][2] incorporating reduced-pressure tubes in which pressurized capsules ride on a 117 cushion of air, driven by a combination of linear induction motors and air compressors.

Figure 8.2 • Artist’s impression of a Hyperloop capsule: Air compressor on the front, passenger compartment in the middle, battery compartment at the back and air bearing skis at the bottom.


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study

7.3 Energy Strategies

118

7.3.1 Energy Consumption The future only holds one certainty: the unpredictability of increasing energy costs. Energy reducing strategies must be implemented into the station design to avoid uncontrollable operating costs in the future. As a premier gateway and symbol of Portland, the station should echo the environmental values of conservation this community holds strong. 7.3.2 Energy Conservation The design and proper orientation of the station can reduce the overall energy footprint of the building. Certain strategies outlined below take advantage of natural patterns found on the site such as natural light and wind while the others strategies are based on innovative building technologies.

7.3.3 Passive

7.3.4 Active

A.

A.

B.

B.

Using natural daylighting techniques is advantageous to light office spaces to minimize the need for supplementary lighting and further reduce energy usage. When high task lighting is required, energy efficient fixtures and elements such as compact fluorescent bulbs should be specified.

These areas generally require high ambient lighting with no glare to clearly navigate passengers through the station and to their respected trains. When employing top lighting as a lighting strategy careful attention must be given as not to overheat a space being served.

The station will create a significant amount of internal heat gains generated by trains, office equipment, lights and travelers inside the station requiring an active cooling system. A ground source heat pump in conjunction with an all-water cooling system can assist in precooling air for conditioning needs.

Lighting sensors can be incorporated into the lighting design to detect when interior lighting levels are acceptable without the need of supplementary lighting. These lighting controls can also turn of lights in empty parts of the station at night.


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study 7.3.5 Photovoltaics Photovoltaics should be incorporated into the large roof structure of the train shed to collect energy during sunny days. This is energy can be stored on-site and used to operate digital train timetables, information kiosks, and public announcement systems.

119

Figure 7.3 â&#x20AC;˘ Signaling System Configuration on Red & Green Line.


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study 7.3.6 Typical Ventilation Design of a Metro Station

120

7.3.7 Energy Conservation Basic Detection and Advanced Warning Network. Unique sensors in the overall solution gather information and channel it to the monitoring station. Basic data processing starts at the monitoring station and is expanded on at the control station. A designated portion of information can also be communicated out to additional mobile network points.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

7.4 Environment Detection Systems 7.4.1 Aspirating Smoke Detection Protection of service continuity is an additional benefit of very early warning. Overheating of dense electrical and switching systems is a common cause of service disruption. The detection of very low levels of smoke produced by such overheating allows appropriate actions to be taken before service is disrupted.

121

Figure 8.2 • Fire modeling software is used to show the development of a smoke plume.

7.4.2 Smoke Plus Gas Detection and Environmental Monitoring As with fire detection, proactive gas detection enables countermeasures to be taken to protect rail/metro personnel and property from unseen gas hazards in a wide array of applications including: Figure 7.4 • systems actively sample air for the smallest trace of smoke.

• Battery and UPS rooms to detect hydrogen to prevent explosions. • Underground utility tunnels to detect leakage from utility gas lines (methane), natural seepage (methane or hydrogen sulfide), and oxygen deficiency to ensure personnel safety. • Underground car parks to detect carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide from car exhaust to ensure healthy air quality.


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122

Conclusion

In order to produce comfortable environment for metro passengers must all climate factors take to consideration like orientation, solid and void areas while it been overground or underground.

Next Step

Studding stations service with early warning life safety and security solutions, risks can be minimized and disasters avoided. Service continuity can be ensured, passenger and staff safety can be protected, and operator reputation and profitability maintained.


8 Services

Chapter Introduction This section addresses the requirements of the service portion of the Project Station. The environmental, back of house spaces and the utility and infrastructure needs for the Station Project are 123 defined in this section.

Chapter Sections 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4

Mechanical System Electrical System Sanitary System Emergency

124 125 126 127

8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9

Acoustic Furniture & Fixture Signs & Graphic Security Finishing & Materials

128 128 129 130 131


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

8.1 Mechanical System 8.1.1 Ventilation & Air Conditioning System shall consist of the following elements: 124

• • • • • • •

Air Conditioning. Chillers. Hot Water Generator. Cooling Towers. Chilled water Distribution. Mechanical Ventilation. Building Automated Systems (BAS).

Figure 8.1 • 7 numbers of district cooling plants.

8.1.2 Dubai Metro AC Systems System shall consist of the following elements: • • • • • • •

Air Conditioning. Chillers. Hot Water Generator. Cooling Towers. Chilled water Distribution. Mechanical Ventilation. Building Automated Systems (BAS).

8.1.3 Station Temperature Station air conditioning systems design conditions shall be: Concourse 29 ºC Air Temperature 65% Relative humidity Lounges Air Conditioning Including any enclosed first waiting areas 23 ºC to 26 ºC (as per NBC)

Figure 8.2 • Connecting service pipes during tunneling and constructional phase.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

8.2 Electrical System 8.2.1 Electrical & Mechanical of Dubai Metro The entire power distribution system for the metro is provided from three dedicated main power stations, each of which receives 132 kV power from the Dubai Electricity and Water Authority grid. This distributes the power by way of a 33 kV ring main system to substations located at each station, car park and independent building. From here power is then transformed and distributed to the 750 V direct-current traction power system and to the building low-voltage system. Building and station air conditioning contributes quite significantly in the overall consideration of the mechanical systems, so the client decided to use a district-cooling supplier to provide large quantities of chilled water. As part of a separate contract, the district-cooling supplier constructed a number of chiller plants along with the necessary distribution systems to meet the temperature delivery requirement of 4.8ºC as well as the high volumes.

8.2.2 Illumination Levels Illumination levels shall define and differentiate between task areas, decision and transition points, and areas of potential hazard. In addition to quantity of light, it is essential that illumination be designed to minimize glare and provide uniform distribution. Luminaries shall be selected, located, and/or aimed to accomplish their primary purpose while producing a 125 minimum of objectionable glare and/or interference with task accuracy, vehicular traffic and neighboring areas. Minimum illumination levels are shown below: Locations Station Platform and Plaza Areas Fare Vending Area Parking Lots & Access-ways Tunnels & Pedestrian Access-ways

Minimum Foot-candles 5 min. 8 min. 0.5 min. at property line (2 Averages) 5 min.

Table 8.1 • Minimum illumination levels.

Table 8.2 • Station’s Lux level.


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study

8.3 Sanitary System

126

6.3.1 Toilets The facilities include wc ,wash basin , laundries, and accessories which must be at fixed location and repeatedly at the all floors because it will provided easy of hot and cold water supply and easy of waste disposal and have economic repercussions that could put these services on each floor in the case of large administrative buildings. No. of Staff (Male)

Urinal

Toilets

Wash Basins

5-1 25-6 50-26 80-51 125-81

1 2 2 3

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 2 3 4

No. of Staff (Female)

Toilets

Wash Basins

5-1 15-6 25-16 40-26 70-41

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 2 2 3

Table 8.3 â&#x20AC;˘ The table shows how to calculate the sanitary requirements.

Note The materials that used in construction should have high degree of durability and resistance.


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

8.4 Emergency 8.3.2 Equipment Distribution Station Equipment Spaces Power Substations Electrical Distribution Rooms Station HVAC rooms Communication Rooms Water and Fire Service Rooms Station Electrical Control Room FElevator and Escalator Machine Rooms

Optimum Location Basement or ground levels Separate elevator and escalator service from all others and provide adequate number of rooms preferably near perimeter of building and to minimize branch runs to facilities. At edge of building envelope and spaced to minimize air handling runs to facilities As required for different systems (telecom, wireless, cable etc.) Next to water source for each service Next to Power Rooms Adjacent over or under elevator or escalator equipment

Detection and alarm system would require to be installed to provide early detection of fire. It would help in notifying the occupants, staffs and emergency personnel and help in timely activation of fire 127 or smoke suppression system such as smoke exhaust or sprinklers. All systems installed should be electronically supervised to permit effective maintenance of the devices that fail or other require repair

Table 8.4 • Optimum Locations for the Major Utility Function and Equipment.

8.3.3 Horizontal Utility Distribution Horizontal main utility distribution shall be located in fully accessible service corridors. Alternative locations are: 1. Ceiling level. 2. Under platform level. 3. Exterior chase wall.

8.3.4 Vertical Utility Distribution To provide as much column-free public space at platform and mezzanine levels as is feasible, the Concessionaire shall limit the number of vertical elements within the Station public areas that can carry vertical distribution.

Figure 8.3 • Emergency use only.


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8.5 Acoustic

128

8.6 Furniture & Fixtures

Acoustics of an environment has the ability to affect the way people behave. Excessive noise and poor speech intelligibility may lead to frustration on the part of the passengers in a confined area, such as the station building. The acoustic design of stations must provide a good aural environment, in which people can communicate clearly and easily, and the buildup of excessive noise is suppressed.

The furniture for each area of the station should be consistent. Following is sample list: • Toilets • Lounges and Cafe • Concession stands for retail and food • Vending machines • Waiting room furniture (reserved/ unreserved) • Lounge furniture • Platform furniture • Ticket/inquiry booths • TVM’s • Trash receptacles • Counters • Public telephone • ATM’s • Station Information Centers • Public Security Stations


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

8.7 Signs & Graphics Signs is the most visible, most scrutinized station element and essential to the proper functioning of the station. Signs provides information essential to passenger use and navigation of the system, engendering a sense of reassurance, security, and orientation when entering, exiting, or transferring, which contributes to a positive, user-friendly customer experience. In brief, signs: • Guides passengers to and from the various station areas. • Accommodates the myriad informational requirements of the station and its service. • Informs passengers of service information. • Accelerate their way finding process • To relieve them of their information anxieties.

129

Figure 8.4 • This way please: A woman walks at the subway station in Stockholm. Over 90 of the 100 subway stations in the city have been decorated with sculptures, mosaics, paintings, installations, engravings and reliefs by over 150 artists.

Inductive loop sign. Call for assistance/information sign. Emergency call sign.

Table 8.5 • Color codes of signs in metro station.


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8.8 Security

130

Cameras will be covering all operating areas and will include but not be limited to • All Vehicular ingress and egress. • All main pedestrian entry and egress points to station structure (including multi-modal connections whether at, above or below ground level. • All main entry points to paid area. • On main concourse in all areas cameras will not be more than 100m from any point. • On all platforms in all areas cameras will not be more than 100m from any point.


Manual of Standards and Specifications for Railway Stations

Signalling Equipment Room UPS/Battery room Fire Water Tank Pump Room, Sump Control

F-16 F-10 F-10 F-10

W-12 W-1,25 W-1/5,25 W-1/5,25

C-6 C-11 C-6 C-6

Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

4.6.5 Station finishes and materials Table 1 of 4.6.5: Recommended station finishes and materials

8.9 Finishing & Materials 4.6.3.7

Key

Handrails

Performance Standards 1. Steel with factory finished aliphatic polyurethane coasts • Durability. • Compatibility. 2. Stainless steel, public areas • Low maintenance. • Availability. 3. Painted galvanised steel • Quality of appearance. • Fire resistance. • Cleaning. • Finish materials. • Repair or replacement. Detailing. 4.6.4 Recommended station finishes and materials for• various locations • Nonslip. • Waterproofing. • Table Corrosion resistance. • Texture. 1 of 4.6.4: Recommended Applications of station finishes and materials LOCATION Station Entrances:- Including Access Stair Cases And Passageways Concourses Level - Public Areas Public Area - Platform Area

Floor F-12

Finishes Wall W-16/17

Ceiling C-16

F-11-12 F-11-12

W-16/17 W-16/17

C-3 C-3

F-9 W-23/26 Ticket Hall Supervisor Passenger Office + Platform Supervisor Booth F-9 W-10,23/26 Ticket Office F-16 W-15,3 Ticket and cash Office F-16 W-10,3,15 Station Operational/SCR Rm. F-14 W-12 Public Toilet F-16 W-15,3 Staff Room F-5 W-12 Staff Toilet F-5 W-12 Staff Lockers F-10 W-5,25 Store Rooms F-10 W-5,25 Permanent Way Store F-13 W-1-5,25 Maintenance Room F-8 W-12 Cleaners Rooms F-8 W-12 Driver Toilets F-16 W-12 Communication Rooms F-10 W-1/5,25 Escape stair F-16 W-12 Signalling Equipment Room F-10 W-1,25 UPS/Battery room F-10 W-1/5,25 Fire Water Tank F-10 W-1/5,25 Pump Room, Sump Control Table 8.6 • Recommended applications of station finishes and materials.

4.6.5 Station finishes and materials Table 1 of 4.6.5: Recommended station finishes and materials

C-3 C-3 C-3 C-3 C-11+W-15 C-3 C-6,W-15 C-6,W-15 C-11 C-11 C-11 C-6 C-6 C-6 C-6 C-6 C-11 C-6 C-6

Description

Remarks

Floor F-1 Concrete with colour Mixture, F-2 Concrete Steel trowel finish F-3 Concrete with Coloured Hardener F-4 Concrete with Waterproofing F-5 200 x 200 mm. Ceramic Floor Tile F-6 300 x 300 x 25 mm. Precast Terrazzo Tile Manual of Standards and Specifications for Railway Stations F-7 Resin-based Terrazzo F-8 Ceramic Tile (200 X 200 mm) Manual of Standards and Specifications for Railway Stations F-9 Computer Raised Floor Key F-10 Granolithic Floor Description SteelRemarks trowel finish F-12 300 x 600 300 mm. Granite F-11 600 Key Description Remarks F-13 F-12 300 x 300 Unpolished mm. GraniteArtificial Granite Floor Section 4 – Station Materials and Finishes Tiles F-13Design300 x 300 Unpolished Artificial Granite Floor F-14 300 x 300 Ceramic Floor Tiles Tiles 100Tiles F-15 Polished F-14 300 x 300Cement CeramicFinish Floor F-16 300 x 300Cement mm Vinyl Floor Tiles Non-Asbestos F-15 Polished Finish F-17 200 x 300 200 mm Vinyl Granite Floor Tiles F-16 300 Floor Tiles Non-Asbestos F-18 600 x 200 600 mm x 50 Granite p.c. Concrete Slabs F-17 200 Floor Tiles F-19 Bitumen F-18 600 x 600Topping x 50 p.c. Concrete Slabs Wall F-19 Bitumen Topping W-1 Concrete Wall W-2 Concrete Smooth Surface Exposed W-1 W-3 Cement Plaster W-2 Concrete Smooth Surface Exposed W-4 100 mm.Plaster Concrete Block W-3 Cement W-5 200 mm. Concrete Block W-4 100 W-6 Secondary Wall Lining W-5 200 mm. Concrete Block W-7 Resin-based Terrazzo W-6 Secondary Wall Lining W-8 Glass Wall Terrazzo W-7 Resin-based W-9 Vitreous Enamel Panels W-8 Glass Wall W-10 Clear Toughened Glass W-9 Vitreous Enamel Panels W-11 Coloured Epoxy Paint W-10 Clear Toughened Glass W-12 Glazed Ceramic Tile W-11 Coloured Epoxy Paint W-13 Spray-on Textures Acrylic Solvent Base W-12 Glazed Ceramic Tile W-14 AluminumTextures CladdingAcrylic 3 mm. Thickness W-13 Spray-on Solvent Base W-15 Interior Acrylic Emulsion Paint W-14 Aluminum Cladding 3 mm. Thickness W-16 600 x 600 x 20 Emulsion mm Polished / Honed / Flamed W-15 Interior Acrylic PaintGranite W-17 300 x 600 300 xmm Granite Tile Granite W-16 600 20 mm Polished / Honed / Flamed W-18 Plastered blockwork W-17 300 x 300 brick mm Granite Tilewall W-19 Off-Formed RC blockwork Wall W-18 Plastered brick wall W-20 Precast Concrete Panel W-19 Off-Formed RC Wall W-21 300 x 300 mm Ceramic W-20 Precast Concrete Panel Wall Tile W-23 200 x 300 200 mm mm.Ceramic CeramicWall WallTile Tile W-21 300 W-24 100 x 300 x 10 mm. Precast Tile W-23 200 200 mm. Ceramic WallTerrazzo Tile W-25 3-Coat Clear Sealer on Blockwork W-24 100 x 300 x 10 mm. Precast Terrazzo Tile W-26 Stainless Steel Panels Walling W-25 3-Coat Clear Sealer on Blockwork W-27 19 x 19 Glass W-26 Stainless SteelMosaic PanelsTiling Walling W-27 19 x 19 Glass Mosaic Tiling Ceilings C-1 Aluminum Panels Ceilings C-2 Folded, Perforated C-1 Aluminum Panels Aluminum C-3 PerforatedAluminum Steel C-2 Folded, Perforated C-4 Clear Toughened Glass C-3 Folded, Perforated Steel C-5 Steel Panels C-4 Clear Toughened Glass C-6 Structural Concrete as Ceiling C-5 Steel Panels C-7 Extruded Aluminum Ceiling C-6 Structural Concrete as Ceiling C-8 Grid Aluminum Ceiling C-7 Extruded Aluminum Ceiling C-9 Acoustic MineralCeiling Fibre Board Ceiling C-8 Grid Aluminum C-10 Off-formed RC slab with smooth surface C-9 Acoustic Mineral Fibre Board Ceiling C-11 Fairfaced Concrete C-10 Off-formed RC slab with smooth surface C-12 Feature Ceiling Panels C-11 Fairfaced Concrete C-13 Continuous Aluminum C-12 Feature Ceiling PanelsVentilation Grill C-14 Glass Reinforced Concrete Panel Grill C-13 Continuous Aluminum Ventilation C-15 12 mm. Gypsum Plaster work C-14 Glass Reinforced Concrete Panel C-16 Acoustic (Vermiculite) Spray C-15 12 mm. Gypsum Plaster work C-16 Acoustic (Vermiculite) Spray Section 4 – Station Design Section 4 – Station Design

101

Materials and Finishes Materials and Finishes

131


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study

132

Conclusion

The phenomenal advancements in the fields of electronic & software systems have enabled metro signaling to develop intelligent train protection, operation and railway control systems, and signaling plays a major role in their ability to achieve these aims. Dubai Metro has taken care to introduce all the modern trends in Metro rail signaling, and accordingly has gone ahead with modern Communication Based Train Control signaling system, which is the first one of its kind in the Middle East


Erbil Metro Station • Case Study

Acknowledgments

133

I would like to extend my thanks to:

My Family: • Eng. Siyamand Tahir • Eng. Galawezh Mohammed • Sara, Rawand & Ebrahim

Thesis Staff: • Dr. Hamid Turki • Dr. Salahaddin • Dr. Faris • Mr. Mohammed Al-Mimmar

My Friends: • Rawand Abdullah • Emad Ali • Shwan Abdulkadir • Srabast Shakir • Muhammed Essad • Muhammed Hunner • Omar Zuher • Mohammed Fahmi • Ahmed Erfan • Chalak Jawhar • Mohammed Sherwan • Dlovan Dlawar

My Supervisor: • Mrs. Anssam Saleh

• Others that help me during typing and collecting data for this case study.

Erbil Metro Station Case Study Mohammed Siyamand

coroflot.com/mohammedsiyamand behance.net/mohammedsiyamand


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study

References

Images

134

Erbil Metro Station Case Study Mohammed Siyamand

coroflot.com/mohammedsiyamand behance.net/mohammedsiyamand

Printed Date 20/5/2014 Alhamdulilah


Erbil Metro Station â&#x20AC;˘ Case Study

Figures

Tables

135

Erbil metro station by mohammed siyamand  

Thesis book for 2014 graduation year.

Erbil metro station by mohammed siyamand  

Thesis book for 2014 graduation year.

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