The Scientific Journal of the Modern Education & Research Institute, Issue 12/2020, 15.02.2020

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

15 February 2020 Brussels, Belgium

Scientific Journal

of the Modern Education

& Research Institute

ISSN 2506-8040

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

In cooperation with our members:

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

The greatest invention in the world is the mind of a child.

Thomas Edison

The idea of ecological attitude is becoming widespread in the modern social discourse. We usually understand ecology as the state of the natural biological environment. But this is a narrow understanding.

More and more often in literature, we meet such expressions as: • ecology of thinking • ecology of worldview • ecology of relationship • ecology of culture • ecology of digital well-being • etc. Preserving the spiritual, cultural, moral environment of a person is no less serious than preserving the biological environment. Dmitry Sergeyevich Likhachev believed that they were closely interrelated. In the 1970s, scientists began to apply the concept of ecology in human development. In the 1980s, they began to seriously talk about the ecology of education. Humans have a great potential that they can realise only in the historically established physical ecology. In contrast to learning, the transfer of knowledge, values ​​and traditions, ecological education is aimed at student’s personal growth. Thus, education is a complex dynamic ecosystem, flexible, depending on the society and material context. An important part of the educational ecosystem is ecological teaching. Modern Education & Research Institute devotes a significant part of its activities to studying efficient methods of teaching and learning. Education can easily become toxic. It is enough to neglect at least one component of the ecosystem, for example, to stop satisfying personal needs and requirements of educators. And here one can talk even about basic needs, such as safety, clean air in the classroom, amount of space sufficient for the creative process and recreation. In this issue of The Scientific Journal of the Modern Education & Research Institute, we continue publishing results of the scientific studies done by professors – members of MERI dedicated to effective educational models and roles of a teacher in a modern university.

Ekaterina Tsaranok

Director Modern Education & Research Institute

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

CONTENT I. Conference «odernization of the teacher’s profession: approaches, best practices, challenges» 27 November 2019 1.

Baimanova Lazzat, Liza Naviy INDECOMPOSABILITY OF LANGUAGE STRUCTURES AS AN OBJECT OF RESEARCH IN RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN LINGUISTICS Kokshetau State University named after Shokan Ualikhanov, Kokshetau................................................. 8

2. Ivanov Anton, Kondratiev I.V. Assessment of the management criteria of socio-economic processes Central Kazakhstan Academy, Karaganda................................................................................................... 12 3.

Kalandarishvili Maia THE LEVEL OF LEARNING MOTIVATION OF DISABLED CHILDREN IN GEORGIA Saint Andrew the First-Called Georgian University of patriarchate of Georgia, Tbilisi..................... 16

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Kobalia Ketevan Personality profile of the teacher of physical education and sport Georgian State Teaching University of Physical Education and Sport, Tbilisi........................................ 19

5. Milevic Inga ON NON-EXISTENT OF AUDIOVISUAL TRANSLATION STUDIES IN LATVIA (ACCORDING TO MATERIAL OF SCIENTIFIC PAPER COLLECTION) Alberta College, Riga....................................................................................................................................... 23 6. Shpirko Mikhail DIGITALIZATION OF MARKING PROCESS USING MARK ONLINE Westminster International University in Tashkent, Tashkent................................................................... 27 7.

Yuldasheva Shahlo, Gulara Yusupova, Durdona Kabulova PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS AND THE IMPORTANCE OF THE UZBEK LANGUAGE Nukus State Pedagogical Institute named after Ajiniyaz, Nukus.............................................................. 32

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Yuldasheva Shahlo, Muhabbat Hudayarova, Shakhista Buranova, Gulara Yusupova, Durdona Kabulova TEACHING THE UZBEK LITERATURE IN THE KARAKALPAK HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS Nukus State Pedagogical Institute named after Ajiniyaz, Nukus.............................................................. 37

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Zhumagulova N.S., Akhrieva L.A., Zhumagulova E.V. ON THE ISSUE OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF A UNIVERSITY TEACHER AND ITS ASSESSMENT A. Myrzakhmetov Kokshetau University, Sh. Ualikhanov Kokshetau State University, Kokshetau............................................................................. 43 7


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

INDECOMPOSABILITY OF LANGUAGE STRUCTURES AS AN OBJECT OF RESEARCH IN RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN LINGUISTICSS Baimanova Lazzat Seitzievna (ljasat@mail.ru) Naviy L.N. (liza281073@mail.ru) Kokshetau State University named after Shokan Ualikhanov, Kokshetau

Abstract This publication focuses on the issues of linguistic indecomposability of word combinations and sentences in the framework of Russian and foreign scientists scientific research. Keywords: Linguistic indecomposability, phraseologization, syntagmatics, contextual interaction, stylistic constructions.

Indecomposability of language structures as an object of research in Russian and foreign linguistics Excursus to the linguistic literature demonstrates that the issue of syntactic binding, indecomposability and phraseology traces its origin to the Russian linguistic ideas and it is relatable with the names of outstanding Russian linguists, whose research was at the forefront of creative grammatical thought.Linguistic literature provides ideas on indecomposability, first of all, at the semantical, morphological and syntactical levels and herewith indecomposability is presented as the criterion for units’ stability. Linguistic indecomposabilityis presented byA. Kh. Vostokov[1] as linguistic unity, F. I.Buslayev [2]ascribes to semantics of word-combination in the whole or semantics of limited categories of words forming a word-combination, in which the preposition serves as a grammatical means of expressing control («believe in fate», «play chess», «hope in God», etc.). Moreover, it is also necessary to note an interesting articulation of the issue of inner form of phraseological unit by A. A. Potebnjaand on lexical cohesion and on the lexical integrity and conditionality of certain categories in their relation to word-formation (particularly, on the occurrence of words from expressions) by I.I. Sreznevsky [3]. The following ideas are directly related to this issue: Ph. Ph. Fortunov[4, 173-174] doctrine on connected words («teplohod» (motor ship) and fixed fused expressions («zheleznaya doroga» (railway)), characterized by the interdependence of their components; views of P.S. Polivanov on the commensurability of phraseological units in terms of quantity with units of syntax, by value with a separate word; ideas of S.A. Abakumov on features of fixed combinations of lexemes. And it is also important to highlight the assumptions of L. B. Shcherba on the classification of the study of fixed phrases in terms of speech and language, on the formation of a closely related word families that designate one concept and is essentially a potential word, the main means of which is the word order («green grass», «thin man», «terribly much»). In the opinion of the author, the components of such combinations have a fixed word order and are interdependent, and if the defining words are put after, then the unity of the concept is violated and the expression of an associative connection is obtained: hat from the sun; light wine for a sick person [5, 145]. Academician A.A. Shakhmatov, who implied the definition of the dominant and dependent elements by the decomposition of the phrase, first posed the question of indecomposable combinations of words in the grammatical aspect. Moreover, the scientist from the point of 8

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view of modern syntactic relations noted the probability of indecomposability for individual phrases, for example, «two boys» [6, 271-278]. According to I.I. Meshchaninov, the phrase «make a good impression» is also syntactically indecomposable. The close connection and interdependence of the components of this verbal group is explained by the need for the finished content of the predicate when the verb «produce» appears in it, which requires the inclusion of an object in its group (syntactic), and since this object has a definition, it is included in the same syntactic group, outside of which it does not receive independent meaning in the sentence [7]. The idea of ​​the semantic indecomposability of a verbal group found its further development in the writings of academician V.V. Vinogradov. According to the degree of cohesion of the components, the motivation of the combination and the possibility of synonymous substitutions, V.V. Vinogradov divides phraseological units into three main classes: phraseological fusions, phraseological units, phraseological combinations [8, 23-30]. Real grammatical indecomposability as a manifestation of the stability of the composition of components at the sentence level was covered in the works of scientists N.Yu. Shvedova and N.D. Shmelev. For N.Yu. Shvedova decision-making when assigning a particular construction to phraseological is the fact of the presence of any supporting word in it, the presence of which in the construction ensures that it expresses a new grammatical meaning. According to N.Yu. Shvedova, «unlike free constructions, phraseological units are not active and each time re-emerge in the language as the realisation of its living syntactic capabilities, but are used as readymade material, updated by the speaker only in part of the significant word» [9, 94-95]. The sentence «Why not the bridegroom?» is not built according to an abstract and freely filled out scheme, but is individually designed, with an unchanged order, where «by why» and in its meaning and function departs from the case form of the corresponding pronoun, as a result of which the whole construction bears the modal meaning of a confident statement. The author emphasises the closest connection between grammar and vocabulary. In contrast to N.Yu. Shvedova, who is primarily interested in constructions characterised by «lexical phraseological identity», is in the center of attention of N.D. Shmelev – constructions in which the grammatical meaning is expressed by the construction scheme itself, including «the obligatory word order and the presence of strictly defined, strongly limited in varying grammatical forms, and sometimes certain service words» [10, 50], i.e. purely syntactic. Similar schemes for constructing a structure are called by N.D. Shmelev phrase schemes, and the constructions themselves are syntactically «connected», phraseologized. The scheme for constructing such structures is unchanged and is not related to certain, that is, it is not lexically limited. As an example, N.D. Shmelev cites sentences like:«Pomoch oni mne ne pomogut, a… (They do not help me, but ...)» This sentence is based on the phrase «infinitive + not + personal form of the same verb + but ...». In accordance with the three performed syntactic functions in the sentence G.A. Zolotova [11] identified three types of word forms: free syntactic forms of the word, the use of which as a kind of nominative sentences along with the nominative case indicates the possibility of their independent functioning despite the widespread notions of the dependence of any form of indirect cases («na dreifuyushchei ldine» (on a drifting ice floe); «v svobodnoe vremya» (in free time); «v pomoshchVetnamu» (to help Vietnam)); conditioned forms, for which the second function is a characteristic feature – the ability to act as organizing components of the proposal model. The form of «milk» in the sentences «Moloko – vvolyu» (Milk is plenty) is one of two interdependent centres of the model containing a quantitative characteristic of the item named in the genitive case; related forms, used as dependent, grammatically subordinate components of phrases («dostignut berega» (reach the shore), «dobitsya prnaniya» (gain recognition), «skuchat po domu» (miss home), etc.). For the structure of the sentence, only the syntactic form of the determinable is important outside its relationship with the determinant. Soviet German studies and English studies also widely use the term «indecomposability» when interpreting various kinds of phrases. The real indecomposability of verbal analytical constructions based on their idiom and M.M. Gukhman [12] notes indispensability of the first components, conditionally calling this type «morphogized word combinations». In the sentence Der Brief wird geschrieben the grammatical meaning of the whole (the third person singular of the present passive voice) is not deduced from the grammatical meaning of individual components – wird and geschrieben, but was created in the context of the interaction of both participants in the combination. In the works of S.I. Moskalskaya, various transitional cases were examined, on the one hand, adjacent to analytic revolutions, and on the other hand, to free phrases of the syntactic level. According to S.I. Moskalskaya, the word combinations of the modal verb 9


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with the infinitive develop lexical and grammatical idioms at the sentence level (Er soll sehrtüchtig sein. / Western früh soll sie von der Reise angekommen sein), as a result of which they turn into stable syntactically indecomposable structures with a grammatical orientation and go beyond the scope of syntactic units. Comparing free syntactic phrases and analytical forms, S. I. Moskalskaya notes that analytical forms, unlike the first ones, are reproduced in finished form, while reproducibility here is understood as «reproducibility of the grammatical model and that part of the material word of the grammatical form that characterizes the most model with infinite variability of lexical content»[13, 91]. V.G. Admoni writes of extreme importance for syntagmatics of relations that differ in the plane of greater and lesser strength of bonds between the components of the syntagmatic series. «There are a number of differences between the necessary, difficult, indissoluble bond and the possible, optional connection)» [14, 22]. This connectedness creates, according to the author, greater flexibility and «maneuverability» in the organization of speech, as well as an additional ability to express various shades of grammatical meanings. The scientist notes the great saturation of synonymous meanings with adverbs of prepositional groups and their autosemantics (there / in the house / in the white stone house / in the house of number 16 on Ozernaya street, etc.). Differentiating phraseological units from formations of a different order, I.I. Chernysheva singles out modelled formations located on the periphery of phraseology and having certain typical structures with free lexical occupancy of one or several components into a special group. According to the researcher, such units include analytical constructions and grammatical-stylistic constructions [15, 78]. The researcher considers these units to be a constant source of formation of phraseological units. Objective criteria for distinguishing phraseological units and stable phrases of the nephraseological type are present in the works of P.S. Vdovichenko [16], V.F. Egorov, etc. [17]. Very valuable in the development of the problem we are considering are the studies of Soviet Anglicists (O.S. Akhmanova, N.N. Amosova, V.N. Yartseva, A.I. Smirnitsky). O.S. Akhmanova believes that «the main criterion for distinguishing phraseological units from phrases in the proper sense of this term is precisely the nature of their correlation with reality, that is, «the integrity of the nomination» [18, 169]. Along with phrases of a productive nature («kosit seno» (mowing hay), «nesti drova»(carrying firewood), «seraya tucha»(a gray cloud)), O.S. Akhmanova notes such phrases where syntactic connections are not free, limited (hope, complain, agree to and, hope, complaint, agreement to, etc.), providing a transition to the field of lexically related, unproductive phrases. Refining the method and subject of English phraseology, N. N. Amosova introduces the concept of contextual interaction of words in their combinations. N.N. Amosova in the field of contextual, syntactic, stylistic analysis introduces the units of a variable, stable, and suitably limited context. The object of phraseology is represented by units of a constant context, thereby considering the opposition of free and phraseologically related meanings of words to be unjustified [19, 193]. The basis of the theory of A.I. Smirnitsky is a comparison of phraseological units and words, clarification of similarities and differences between them along the lines of content, function and structure. The author considers the common property for them that phraseologism and the word are a ready-made unit of the language; the difference between them lies in the nature of the design: the integrity of the word and the separately formed phraseology [20]. In the works of some foreign linguists, the problem of interest to us found its light from the standpoint of functional syntagmatics (R.F. Mikush). Developing the teachings of F. de Saussure about syntagma, R.F. Mikush concludes that each functional pair, starting with an analytic statement, defines a structure of two complementary elements, which, with their semiological values ​​(meanings), form formal classes of elements: «... first of all, I want to say that human language basically consists of only one typical structure – syntagma, it was important for me to ascertain the presence of this structure in any sign, regardless of its value»[21]. Short excursus to the linguistic literature on the issue of indecomposable linguistic units demonstrates the presence of several directions in linguistics, the development of which is associated with the idea of​​ the indecomposability of certain structures: syntactical phraseology (V.V. Vinogradov, A.I. Smirnitsky, I.I.Chernysheva); theory of analytism (A.A. Shakhmatov, M.M. Gukhman, J. Ris); grammatical phraseology (S.I. Moskalskaya, P.S. Vdovichenko, V.F. Egorov); doctrine of phrase scheme (N.D. Shmelev); functional syntagmatics (F. de Saussure, R.F. Mikush). Furthermore, syntactical phraseologyis a complex, lengthy process which ends with the fact that predicative syntactic constructions acquire semantic integrity, syntactic 10


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indecomposability in speech activity and replenish the arsenal of ready-to-use language tools. Various communicative types of sentences syntactically phraseologicalized are those that detect differs from the regular structure of the whole sentence and create various semantic-syntactic meanings (quantity, quality, statement, negation, etc.) that cannot be deduced from the meaning of the structure components [22]. This process of synthesizing all the morphological and syntactic properties of words elucidate the linear nature of the language and the pluridimensionality of the surrounding world, leading not only to an unlimited number of combinations of a limited set of units, but also to the condensation of various semanticsyntactic meanings in them.

References 1. 2. 3. 4.

Vostokov A.Kh. Russian grammar.The 12th ed. – Moscow, 1874. Buslaev F.I. The experience of historical grammar of the Russian language. – Moscow, 1958. Sreznevsky I.I. Remarks on the formation of words from expressions. vol. 10. 1873. Fortunatov Ph.Ph. Comparative Linguistics. Selected Works. – Moscow: Publishing House of the Ministry of Demand of the RSFSR, 1956. – pp.173-174. 5. Shcherba L.V. On parts of speech in Russian. Selected works in the Russian language. – M., Uchpedgiz, 1957. – p.145. 6. Shakhmatov А.А. The syntax of the Russian language. – Leningrad: Uchpedgiz, 1957. – pp. 271-278. 7. Meshchaninov I.I. Sentence members and parts of speech. – M.-L., USSR Academy of Sciences, 1945. 8. Vinogradov V.V. Russian language. The grammatical doctrine of the word. – М.-L., Uchpedgiz, 1947. – pp. 23-30. 9. Shvedova N.Yu. On some types of phraseological units in the structure of Russian colloquial speech. – Moscow: Problems of linguistics, №2, 1958. –pp.94-95. 10. Shmelev D.N. About related syntactic constructions in Russian. – Moscow: Problems of linguistics, 1960, №5.– p.50. 11. Zolotova G.A. Essay on the functional syntax of the Russian language. – Moscow: Science, 1973. 12. Gukhman M.M. Verbal analytical constructions as a special type of combination of a partial and a complete word. In the book: Problems of the grammatical structure.–Moscow: Institute of Linguistics, 1955. 13. Moskalskaya O.I. Stable combinations with a grammatical orientation. – Мoscow: Problems of linguistics, №5, 1965. – p. 91. 14. Admoni V.G. The basis of grammar theory. – Мoscow:Science, Leningrad branch, 1964. – p. 22. 15. Chernysheva I.I. Phraseology of the modern German language. – Moscow: High School, 1970. – p. 78. 16. Vdovichenko P.S. Some phraseological syntactic constructions of the modern German language.– Abstract of thesis for candidate of philological sciences – Moscow: M. Toreza Moscow State Pedagogical Institute, 1965. 17. Egorov V.F. Idiomatic constructions in the syntax of German colloquial speech. – Abstract of thesis for candidate of philological sciences – Moscow: M. Toreza Moscow State Pedagogical Institute, 1965. 18. Akhmanova O.S. Essays on General Russian Lexicology. – Мoscow: Uchpedgiz, 1957. – p. 169. 19. Amosova N.N. Fundamentals of English Phraseology. – Leningrad: Leningrad State University, 1963. – p. 193. 20. Smirnitsky A.I. Lexicology of English language. – Moscow: Publishing house of literature on foreign languages, 1956. 21. Mikush R.F. Letter to the editors. – Moscow: Problems of linguistics, №5, 1959. 22. Burdina Z.G. Indecomposable language structures and speech communication. – Мoscow: High school, 1987. – p. 110.

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Assessment of the management criteria of socio-economic processes Sciences Ivanov A.V., Master of Economic, Head of the Department of International Cooperation of the Central Kazakhstan Academy Kondratiev I.V., Professor, Head of the Department of Criminal Law and Procedure of the Central Kazakhstan Academy, Candidate of Legal Sciences

Human society arose and develops mainly along the path of improving mechanisms and forms of social management, therefore the idea of ​​the necessity and validity of the limits of managerial impact on the economy is of particular and fundamental importance. The often used concept of «economic management» due to the global nature and uncertainty of the managed object does not reveal its real content. Rather, it reflects the habitual practice of centralized state planning and government, which was formed in the past, and is completely unacceptable to adequately reflect the radically changed role of the state and its institutional impacts on the economy. On the other hand, in the modern practice of industrialized countries, the dominant position is occupied by the idea of economic regulation, i.e., the emphasis is placed on the fact that the solution of economic problems is based on the priority of economic criteria and methods, although the role of political, social, organizational and other aspects is not denied. related to its implementation. Despite all the differences in approaches and forms of specific managerial influences on the economic and social spheres as a whole, they are all based on the general theory of management. In accordance with it, any management activity is implemented as a cyclic process, which is based on a single, universal invariant algorithm, counting from 1 to 10 stages, depending on the level of detail. Therefore, it makes sense to briefly recall its contents. In the most general (minimal) form, the management cycle consists of the following steps. 1. Collection of information reflecting the state of the control system as a whole, as well as on the existing and possible mechanisms of managerial influences, unacceptable states of the system and its most important elements. 2. A comprehensive analysis of information to obtain a general picture of the state of the system in the present (diagnostics), as well as at a certain point (moments) in the future, while preserving the existing mechanisms for its functioning and implementing some non-standard management decisions (forecasting). 3. Justification and adoption of development goals for the long term (design) and a number of intermediate stages (programming and planning). Development of criteria for assessing the development, optimality and effectiveness of decisions. 4. Organization of constant current and selective (situational) control over the implementation of managerial decisions. It should be noted that the content of the first and fourth stages are almost identical. Thanks to this, the control becomes cyclical. It is quite obvious that within the framework of the general universal scheme, depending on the specific situation, the mechanisms of managerial activity can radically differ from each other. In this case, the main criterion for optimality is the conformity of the adopted control mechanism to real conditions. As you know, the experience of managing large socio-economic processes is based mainly on two approaches, on two traditions. The first program-targeted approach, which involves a rather tough, directive interaction between the subject (in our case, state structures) and the control object (in our case, the economy and the social sphere as a whole). 12

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The second is «organic», designed to take into account the internal capabilities and characteristics of the control object. In its broadest sense, it is known as the «concept of modernization.» The first approach involves setting a task, finding solutions, evaluating alternative options, choosing the optimal strategy, creating a program and ensuring its infrastructure (governing bodies and subordinate structures, a system of directive communications, collecting and analyzing feedback information, monitoring, etc.). This approach is based on the strict submission of those subsystems of the control object that, for some characteristics, are knocked out of the general movement toward the goal. The second approach is based on the premise that there are «control limits», that is, the limits of the force impact on the behavior of the subsystems of a controlled object. Within the framework of this approach, it is assumed that a change in the undesirable, «incorrect» behavior of the elements of a managed subsystem or control object as a whole should occur «softly», not by external coercion, but by the internal logic of its own development. Both approaches have in their arsenals enough funds for effective implementation, but within certain limits. The strengths of the program-target approach are well-developed and constantly improving methods and tools, including economic and mathematical methods, modeling, artificial intelligence, and others. The generated programs have the property of concentration of efforts and means, controllability and specificity, which is very beneficial not only with technological, but also social point of view. This approach is most effective in stable or well-predictable conditions, as well as in fairly rigidly centralized systems. The weakness of this approach, as often happens, is inherent in its merits. It creates an illusion among managers that power is omnipotent, and this limits its capabilities, especially during periods of instability, when changing strategies, etc. The strength of the «organic» approach is the reliance on the mechanisms of self-development and self-government. The decisive factor is the ability of the control object to its own development, and control is reduced to the impact on this process of self-development in the desired direction (shape, speed, scale, etc.). Despite the «softness», organic, and this approach is faced with limitations. Their nature is the same as that of the first approach, namely: the final, future state of the managed object is introduced from the outside, i.e., as a model of a precedent taken as a model. Whatever good wishes may have caused rationing of a positive sample, two crucial questions remain unanswered: 1. how justified are the selection criteria for this particular sample; 2. whether own forms and means of approval of this sample are suitable for use in another situation. Of course, both approaches in their pure form are extremes, and real management practices to a greater or lesser extent rely on their joint use. Moreover, the common presence of a management goal is common in both approaches. It is completely clear that the cyclicality of the management process noted above is determined by the substantial identity of the first and fourth stages, which are based on the collection and analysis of information. Therefore, control according to any of the adopted schemes is unthinkable without the information that characterizes the state of the system and its elements at any given time and allows us to assess the degree of achievement of the goal or deviation from it, as well as their causes. The continuous circulation of information between the components of the system, the system as a whole and the environment is an indispensable attribute of management. It is thanks to information processes that the system is capable of expedient interaction with the external environment, coordination and subordination of relationships between its own components, giving them a certain focus, as well as ensuring their own progress towards the goal. The interdependence of the economic and social spheres of society is quite obvious, which implies the impact of the state on the economy and the social sphere not as separate, self-sufficient strata, but on the basis of their complex vision, when they are considered together as a single whole, i.e., it should be about governance socio-economic processes. The concept of such management is intended to serve as the theoretical basis for the creation of effective means of institutional regulation of the economy. For this, it is necessary to clearly understand what are the socio-economic processes, what is their nature and how can they be managed. Management of socio-economic processes means a systematic impact on natural and social processes in order to ensure the desired changes in the state of the economy and social sphere. The effectiveness of such activities is reflected, in particular, in the dynamics of changes in such indicators as the volume of products sold (including for export) and the rate of its renewal, the level of profit and solvency, the use 13


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of production capacities and other resources, and the gross domestic product with allocation in it shares of labor and investment incomes of the population, Gross Domestic Product per capita and per worker, payroll, consumer price index (inflation), cost of living (in average per capita), the population with incomes below the subsistence level, unemployment rate, etc. Based on the analysis and evaluation of indicators of the actual state of the economy and the social and labor sphere, their possible changes are projected taking into account all the associated scientific, technological and social factors. Such a forecast is developed both from the point of view of the implementation of strategic management goals, and tactically. Depending on the emerging trends caused by the real-life social and economic processes, one or another managerial decision is made. According to the criterion of functional and purpose, we can distinguish three main areas of management of socio-economic processes. The first is aimed at processes caused by the phases of the economic cycle or the need to conduct sufficiently large-scale economic transformations, taking into account social consequences. In this area, the state, as the main subject of governance in society, should influence the socio-economic processes through anti-crisis measures – preventing and eliminating insolvency and bankruptcy, overcoming the decline in production and achieving stabilization, followed by increasing the volume of competitive products and services, reducing unemployment and growth of workers’ income, etc. The second is to manage general economic processes as a whole. It is due to the need for optimal use of such effective economic regulators as pricing, taxation, lending and investment in the development of entrepreneurship and the technological base of producers. Third, it is of a supportive nature and encompasses processes related to improving the use of existing natural, material, labor and financial resources. The economic processes of the formation and emerging demand and supply in the market of goods and services are regulated by the state on the basis of some ideological doctrine. In accordance with it, one or another economic policy is carried out, which determines the strategy for solving this problem. It is clear, for example, that in countries with autocratic or democratic regimes, the degree, forms, mechanisms, and other characteristics of the use of market mechanisms are implemented in completely different ways. In countries with developed market economies, two fundamentally different approaches are distinguished. The first is based on the theory of neoconservatism, developed on the basis of the classical school, which focuses on the regulation of aggregate supply at the micro level, giving preference to measures of monetary policy. The second approach follows from the priority role of aggregate demand at the macro level with the predominant use of government incentive measures in fiscal policy. In contrast to the classical concept, which reflects the point of view of supporters of supply priority, where a naturally realized production function, qualitatively quantitative indicators of production and national income depend on labor factors, it is assumed that the volume of production or national income is determined by the aggregate demand for goods and private investment That is, formally, the economy is in a state of equilibrium if aggregate supply is exhausted by aggregate demand. The experience has shown that both approaches in practical forms of their implementation have significant limitations, determined by an alternative choice between two strategies: «supply creates demand» and «demand creates supply». These restrictions are determined by the nature of the product, its affiliation with a particular market segment, the dynamics of the ratio of supply and demand, as well as the level of security and quality of the production base. The same experience gives reason to believe that the creation of new enterprises (or industries) requires priority support for demand, and if there is free production capacity, support for supply. This means that the appeal to a particular strategy is determined by the specific situation and may be limited by the time of its application. In all cases, it is necessary to assess the socio-economic consequences due to the choice of the strategy of regulatory impacts according to the criteria for profit growth and employment improvement. Therefore, in the same economic system, different approaches can be simultaneously applied within the framework of the general concept of demand and supply regulation. It would be a big mistake to go into one-sided extremes and evaluate economic growth in a market environment solely in terms of an increase in the supply volume, i.e., the quantity and assortment of goods and services produced (although such a one-sided assessment is often found in practice). In fact, there is an ambivalent relationship between aggregate supply and aggregate demand. This necessitates the institutional 14


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support of growth and supply and demand in their systemic relationship. The main management measures in practice are to create political and economic conditions that ensure: • the growth of the solvent demand of the population for consumer goods and services by gradually increasing the level of real income (labor and social) and the corresponding expansion of the consumer basket, which will stimulate the development of domestic production of these goods and services; improving their quality, stabilization and subsequent reduction in their prices; • the growth of solvent demand of commodity producers for the necessary means of production, intermediate goods and services on the basis of stimulating the development of intersectoral industries by creating specialized firms with mixed capital, integrating large and small enterprises in the production sphere, and applying effective forms of subcontract relations; • optimal use of the available production capacities of enterprises and firms during their privatization, conversion, bankruptcy and other forms of reorganization to maintain and increase the supply of goods and services and the associated change in the number of jobs; • the balance of supply and demand at the municipal and regional levels, taking into account the orientation to export and import of goods, self-sufficiency in production and consumption by appropriate optimization. The implementation of these measures requires legislative support of economic processes in combination with political decisions based on the dialectical nature of the interdependence of changes in supply and demand. These changes, naturally, reflect the interests of producers and consumers, which must be taken into account when determining priority areas of the political course in state regulation of the economic sphere of public life. The issue of state relations with owners and managers of enterprises (firms) is also very important. The most preferable is such state regulation of the economy, in which the state, without interfering in the operational activities of the enterprise, especially in the sphere of corporate relations, establishes the necessary legal, economic and social standards and introduces them into practice by legislative means. Features of managed socio-economic processes are determined by the fact that both economic and social processes, reflecting the dynamics of the state of the economy and being objects of managerial influences, are at the same time means of their implementation. In addition, the specifics of such management, in contrast to the management of production processes, lies in the broader analytical, research nature of the search for managerial decisions in combination with the speed of their implementation. This makes it necessary to train economists and analysts of a wide profile, focused on managing economic and social processes in all areas of the economy, taking into account industry specialization. It should also take into account the increasing importance of this activity in terms of economic and social consequences of decisions. Indeed, due to the fact that any managerial decision must be preceded by an analysis of a specific situation (diagnosis), its perspective dynamics (forecasting), development and justification of possible behavioral strategies, and each manager must possess the skills to analyze relevant information. Therefore, the need to improve the quality of analytical skills among management personnel grows as they move up the hierarchical ladder.

References 1. Yadov V. A. Sociological research: Methodology, program, methods. – M., 1995. 2. Shcherbina VV Sociology of labor. – M., 1993. 3. The foundations of modern social management: theory and methodology. Textbook / Ed. V.N. Ivanova. – M., 2000. 4. Parsons T. System of modern societies. – M., 1997. 5. Poltorak V. A. Sociology of labor and management. – M., 1998. 6. Kravchenko A. I. Classics of management sociology: F. Taylor and A. Gastev. SPb., 1998. 15


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THE LEVEL OF LEARNING MOTIVATION OF DISABLED CHILDREN IN GEORGIA Maia Kalandarishvili (kalandrishvilimaia64@gmail.com) Saint Andrew the First-Called Georgian University of patriarchate of Georgia, Tbilisi, Georgia

Abstract The purpose of our research was to assess how family attitudes impact on the level of learning motivation in a usual secondary school of schoolchildren with disabilities. Research methods: 1. The projective drawing test «My Family» and 2. The in-depth interview with children with disabilities about learning motivation and family connections. Conclusions: To conclude, the family attitude towards inclusive education of the disabled children forms learning motivation and helps them to do something according to their aims. Studying may be difficult for disabled children at first when they realise that they are different from others. They may have many questions, and the first people whom they ask is their mothers and their family members. Mothers play an important role in their life, and a mother’s negative attitude influences a child’s psychological state. Keywords: learning, motivation, disabled children, family factors.

The schoolchildren with disabilities are an important part of modern society, according to World Health Organization it is approximately 10 percent of population [5]. Throughout history, the attitude of the public towards people with disabilities was stricter than that to those in line with the established norms. The segregationist attitude towards people with disabilities was a common phenomenon. These subjects were distinguished from the early age and turned into isolation [2]. The attitude of family members has also been different, because when they get information about their children’s state, they have different reactions towards this. Some are afraid of it, some are frustrated, some think it’s a tragedy, and someone just takes the children as they are, full of despair about children because it is not «normal.» Consequently, such attitudes of parents and family have a great impact on the health and psychological condition of the disabled person. This will influence all her future life, learning and work, the desire to connect with people, and so forth [1‒2; 5]. Motivation involves biological, emotional, social and cognitive forces, which activate behaviours. The term «motivation» in everyday life is the answer to the question why people do anything in their life. This is a powerful motor, which makes us approach an aim. The formation of the human motivation is starting from the childhood in accordance with the social environment. And when in concerns learning it is important for him or her to have the motivation to acquire information, to be able to learn how to communicate with her or his peers and use their abilities. According to A. Maslow, human behaviour is directed by motivational impulses, of which the lowest are biological and psychological demands, while the highest is self-realization. On the way to self-realization, one needs family support, recognition, warmth, the feeling of security and love [3]. 16

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Family environment is important for the development of personality, especially during the first 5 years of life. Adler’s theory emphasizes that each person creates his lifestyle at the age of five ‒ in interaction with other family members. This is a pre-school period that determines the child’s attitudes towards school, classmates, teachers, and the entire world. All of these are shaped by the family and parents. The twentieth century psychiatrist Murray Bowen speaks about the importance of the family as to how much family influences the child. In particular he discusses families where one member is diagnosed with schizophrenia. In Bowen’s research, the role of patients’ mothers was well demonstrated by their influence on patients’ health and the level of motivation. Specifically, the mother’s belief that her son could not recover would be directly reflected on her child and determine the level of the patient’s motivation for recovery [4]. The purpose of our research was to assess how family attitudes impact on the level of motivation of schoolchildren with disabilities. The hypothesis lied in the following: 1. If family members are educated about inclusive education and have positive views and attitudes about the studying process in the usual secondary school for disabled children, it has a positive effect on the level of motivation for the disabled children. 2. The mothers of disabled children have a relatively greater effect on the level of the children’s learning motivation in the usual secondary school. The research tasks were to define: 1. The impact of the family factor on the level of motivation for the learning of a disabled child in a usual secondary school; 2. How family members’ attitudes (positive or negative) affect the disabled children’s attitudes to their school and community; 3. Which family member has a greater influence on the level of a disabled child’s learning motivation.

Research methods Two instruments were used as the research methods in the study: 1. The projective drawing test «My Family» and 2. The in-depth interview about learning motivation and family connections. The sample of our research included 14 children with disabilities, students from «Aisi» school and children from school #5 in Rustavi City, 7 male and 7 female, aged from 6 to 11. Thus, there were 7 schoolchildren with disabilities (the test group) and 7 schoolchildren without disabilities (control group). The process took place individually. In particular, the participant painted the picture «My Family» and then an in-depth interview began.

Result of investigation As a result of the analysis we found out that our hypotheses were confirmed. In particular, our research found that the attitudes and opinions of family members affect the attitude and the points of view of children with disabilities, they also influence the motivation to go to school, learn and have relationships with the community. According to the research it is found that mother is most likely to influence the level of motivation for disabled children. Studies have shown that mothers more often tell their children about school, encourage them on the first day of school, and they are always around, they teach children to love studying and explain to them how important friendship and peer relationships are.One of the purposes of our research was to define the influences which are expressed by the attitudes of family members, views (positive or negative) and opinions about children with disabilities, 17


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whether these factors have an impact on schoolchildren’s life, relationship with their peers and society. It is clear that the dependence and attitudes of family members significantly effect on the attitude of disabled schoolchildren toward themselves, society and education.

Concliusions To conclude, the family attitude towards inclusive education of the disabled children forms learning motivation and helps them to do something according to their aims. Studying may be difficult for disabled children at first when they realize that they are different from others. They may have many questions, and the first people whom they ask is their mothers and their family members. Mothers play an important role in their life, and a mother’s negative attitude influences a child’s psychological state.

References 1. Forlin Ch. Inclusive Education for Students with Disability / Chris Forlin, Dianne Chambers, Tim loreman, Joanne Deppeler, Umesh Sharma. ‒ Canberra: Australian Research Alliance for Children & Youth, 2013. ‒ 67 p. 2. Kalandarishvili M. Inclusive education and its aspects [Inkluziari ganatleba da misi fsiqologiuri aspeqtebi] (in Geaorgian) / M. Kalandarishvili, Ya. Torchinava. ‒ Tbilisi: Universal, 2016. ‒ P. 7‒35. 3. Maslow A.H. A Theory of Human Motivation / Abraham H. Maslow // Psychological Review. ‒ 1943. ‒ № 50. ‒ P. 370‒396. 4. O’Connor Th. G. Parenting and Outcomes for Children / Thomas G. O’Connor, Shephen B.C. Scott. ‒ London: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2007. ‒ 51 p. 5. Policy Guidelines on Inclusion in Education. ‒ Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations, 2009. ‒ 36 p.

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Personality profile of the teacher of physical education and sport Ketevan Kobalia (k.kobalia@yahoo.com) Georgian State Teaching University of Physical Education and Sport, Tbilisi

Abstract Scientists from different countries show particular interest in the problem of the preparation of physical education and sports teachers. They think that for the modernization of this process, it is necessary to take into account the requirements for the development of special knowledge and communication skills. Recently, the content of the personal structure of the physical education teacher has changed. Scientists have brought forward the personal qualities of the specialist. Nowadays, it is necessary to create a hypothetical model of a modern successful physical education teacher. For this, we have to take into account his individuality, character, professional skills and professionally valuable traits. Keywords: teacher of physical education and sport, professionally valuable traits, personality profile.

The importance of pursuing a healthy lifestyle is clearly recognized at the modern stage of the development of society. It is also obvious that to address the matter successfully, the existing system of physical education needs to be improved, focusing on the identification of the abilities of each individual and ensuring their well-being. Certainly, the effectiveness of the actions largely depends on the theoretical readiness of relevant professionals as well as the intensity of interaction between secondary and high schools. Scientists from different countries, especially since the second half of the 20th century [L. Hendry, B. Ogilvie, B. Cratty, M. Mosston, V. Vereshchagin, et al.], have expressed a particular interest to the preparation of physical education and sports teachers. They rightly point out that in order to address the above issue, in other words, to modernize teaching and theoretical/ practical experience, the preparation must include the requirement for acquisition of specialized knowledge and enhancement of communication skills. This is because vocational education necessarily implies ensuring the promptness of physical education and sports teacher's knowledge (theoretical, practical, methodology) and framing his/her professional and pedagogical activities in a dynamic, unified and comprehensive structure. In 2010, the Global Forum for Physical Education Pedagogy was held in Iowa, USA. The forum discussed a new model for the preparation of physical education and sports teachers based on modern approaches [2]. The model includes: • combining practice and theory; • full involvement-engagement in the learning process /environment; • focusing on the use of modern technologies; • expanding the learning environment, etc.

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The intensification of the teacher training process is directly linked to the development of the teacher’s personality. The self-perception at this time is based on the teacher’s professional-pedagogical reflection, which is the key to the development of a successful professional. Building professional self-awareness is of particular importance, as it guarantees the effective training of physical education and sports teachers. The preparation of physical education and sports teachers is subject to the same requirements as any other subject teachers. However, the effectiveness of their pedagogical activities largely depends on their working specifics. The specifics imply three groups of conditions, namely: • mental tension; • physical workload; • external factors [6]. Mental tension conditions, which physical education and sports teachers are exposed to, include the following: the noise created by students attending classes, significant stress to the speech apparatus and vocal cords, the need to ensure student safety (physical activities are often accompanied by a high risk of traumatization), and, not infrequently, the necessity to switch from one age group to another. All of this leads to a teacher's mental fatigue. Physical workload includes the necessity to perform physical exercises live, doing them together with students, and protecting students against trauma. When conducting outdoor classes, we should pay particular attention to the climate, as well as the sanitary-hygienic condition of the gym or playground. In the assessment of the professional readiness of the physical education and sports teacher, along with other skills (constructiveness, organization and communication skills, gnosticity), special attention is paid to his/her motor skills, which are primarily required to demonstrate practical exercises. Showing various physical activities provided for in the program certainly guarantees the effectiveness of the student's learning process. The above specialty teacher must also be aware of safety techniques and have the ability to timely repair sports equipment and gear during hikes, etc. Success in pedagogical activities also largely depends on the teacher’s authority. If students look up to the teacher, then he/she can obviously have a strong educational influence on them. The authority of physical education teachers is established in the process of teaching practice and consists mainly of the following components [6]: • professionalism, knowledge of psychology-pedagogy, physical education and training skills. The status of the teacher as a former athlete is also very important; • the teacher's authority is also defined by his or her age, seniority. The teacher always remains a senior adult for the student, a person who has more life experience than the student has; • there is also so-called official authority i.e. the status of a teacher as an educator, coupled with his or her expert knowledge and methodology skills. The listed components create a common and complete authority of the teacher. When building their authority, physical education teachers should take into consideration their own abilities, acquired skills and individual style of performing activities. Since the 1960s, physical education experts have embarked on the development of the successful teacher’s model. In developing the model of physical education and sports teachers, American scholars paid particular attention to the formation of their personality traits. Ogilvie, who is considered as the «father» of applied sports psychology, focuses on the following personality features of the teacher in general: • Firmness; • Enduring mental tension; • Independence; • Firm and realistic views; • Sustainable authority; • Willingness and aspiration to manage the learning process based on his or her views [5]. 20


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In contrast to the authoritarian model proposed by B. Ogilvie, L. Hendry believes that the PE teacher should have the following personality qualities [3]: • Openness; • Courteousness; • Emotional resilience; • Learner management skills; • Groundbreaker; • Skilfulness; • Independence in decision making. It should be noted that L. Hendry, back in 1968, identified and highlighted the basic, professionally significant personal qualities of the physical education and sports teacher, which are considered modern even today. M. Mosston argued that a PE teacher should start teaching with an authoritarian approach – «Do as you are told!» However, once all students get used to this, we may gradually put them in charge of making decisions. He believed that this approach would make students more active in physical education classes [4]. According to B. J. Cratty, the pedagogical success of PE teachers also depends on their own attitude to physical training and sports, how active they are in this respect, their specific professional knowledge and ability to build relationship with students, emotionally control them and conduct highly intellectual conversations with them, etc. [1]. The issues relating to the development of the professiogram of the physical education teacher, the formation of his/her personal qualities and personality model have ignited the interest among Russian scholars as well. The theoretical analysis revealed that two approaches are employed in the development of the professional teacher's personality: activity and personal. The activity approach has been more thoroughly explored as it implies and incorporates the knowledge and skills of physical education teachers. The personal approach is relatively less researched. O. Misin ascribes the leading role in the professional teacher’s activities to the personal willpower, which is determined by the same willpower attributes aimed at overcoming challenges encountered in the educational process. These are (mostly): • insistence; • determination; • persistence; • proactivity [7]. Scientists particularly highlight the following professional-personal qualities of the physical education teacher: • self-awareness; • self-sufficiency and self-criticism; • diligence and hard work; • self-discipline; • caring for one's own health; • healthy lifestyle; • behavior and building relationships. Consequently, the analysis of the personal model of physical education and sports teachers allows us to conclude the following: • the analysis of classification of the professional and personal characteristics of the physical education and sports teacher revealed a wide variety and number of qualities among which the authoritative traits prevail; 21


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• •

The effectiveness and theoretical justification of the personality model of physical education and sports teachers includes the specifics of their work as well as a modern educational strategy; Nowadays, modern and innovative education strategies provide for the possibility to develop a hypothetical model of the successful physical education teacher in order to enhance the quality of the teacher professional training.

References 1. Cratty, Bryant J. Psychology in contemporary sport: guidelines for coaches and athletes. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1983. 2. Edginton, C.R. «A Model for Preparing 21st Century Physical Education Teachers». A keynote presentation at the Global Forum for Physical Education Pedagogy 2010, May, Grundy Center, Iowa USA. 3. Hendry L. B. Assessment of Personality Traits in the Coach-Swimmer Relationship, and a Preliminary Examination of the Father-Figure Stereotype. Research Quarterly. American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation. Vol. 39, Iss. 3 (1968): 543-551. 4. Mosston, Muska, and Yvon L. Theroux. Teaching physical education: from command to discovery. Montréal: Université de Montréal, Département d'éducation physique, 1966. 5. Ogilvie, Bruce C., and Thomas A. Tutko. Problem athletes and how to handle them. London: Pelham, 1966. 6. Гогунов Е.Н, Мартьянов Б.И. Психология физического воспитания и спорта: Учеб. пособие для студ. высш. пед. учеб заведений, Москва: «Академия», 2000. 7. Мысин О.И. «Изучение динамики профессионального станвления личности учителя физической культуры на этапе обучения в вузе». Канд. дисс. Московский государственный университет, 2003.

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ON NON-EXISTENT OF AUDIOVISUAL TRANSLATION STUDIES IN LATVIA (ACCORDING TO MATERIAL OF SCIENTIFIC PAPER COLLECTION) Inga Milevica (inga.milevica@gmail.com) Alberta College, Riga

Abstract Nowadays audiovisual translation is a stable branch of translation science. In Latvia, however, there even isn’t a reason to talk about this science branch. The studied material of the collections of periodical scientific articles confirms the tendency: over 20 years, the interest of academic science has not been influenced by audiovisual translation trends: analyzed collections of articles contain one article at the given time period without risky methods. Keywords: audiovisual translation, translation science, Latvia

Introduction Translation science addresses the problems of translating audio-visual texts unevenly in different countries, e.g. in Spain, Italy and France, audiovisual translation is a stable branch of translation science with rich bibliography, professional and scientific associations and excellent teaching aids. In Latvia, however, there even isn’t a reason to talk about this science branch. The situation in Latvia is not unique. Many linguistic sectors in post-Soviet countries have similar situation: articles on audiovisual translation and, more broadly, audiovisual communication, tend to start with the phrase: «As far as linguists are concerned, the latter have not, for so long and with such a miraculous insistence, turned their attention to film dialogue». [2, c. 6] What are the reasons for this really amazing insistence? One of the reasons could be found in scientific tradition, according to which, the translational science is being literary-centric. An indirect proof of this is the curricula of high schools and universities: high schools do not have a list of required cinematographic texts alongside the list of required literature, and higher education translation theory and practice still include film texts marginally.

Research methodology and theoretical justification To confirm the marginal position of audiovisual translation in Latvian translation science, the available collections of the National Library of Latvia will analyze 1) collections of Latvian scholarly and specific philology articles, 2) collections of conferences of those national universities, which have either programs dedicated to translation or sections at conferences dedicated to translation. In these collections, articles dedicated to translation science were excerpted and articles on audiovisual translation were then selected. First, it must be explained what type of discourse this study will hold. It is known that scientific succession is developing in the Latvian education and science system. The system is, in many ways, the same as it was 30 or 60 years ago: in some department students are studying, one of them is being selected (with or without his/her own initiative) and addressed for doctoral studies; his/her lecturer

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works in that field, so the doctoral student deals with a close/similar topic and, over time, begins to teach within the paradigm of the same department, necessarily speaking at conferences organized by his/her institution, approbating his/her own research. Such a tradition offers both the opportunity to raise a scientific successor and to speak regularly at conferences organized by the university. In other academic circles – especially in the US, Germany – there is virtually no opportunity for one to experience the life from a student to the department chair within the same department. And, the tradition of publishing in the collections of the same department/institution, e.g., in the US, is not an indicator of good scientific practice. [1], [3] So, the discourse that comes from the conference proceedings is representative: it shows what universities do, because it is their representatives who speak at a conference organized by their institution with excellent regularity. Namely, collections of articles form a picture of priority directions in science – sometimes even irrespective of the declared priority areas of scientific activity – which also often described in the introductions, preface and annotations of the collections of articles. The discourse does not include articles published by Latvian researchers in collections of articles of other countries, which cannot be recognized as a significant limitation of the research: the principle of Latvian scientific succession obliges to speak in front of «their own people» and publish in article collections of their own educational institution. The research hypothesis: despite the translation training programs and representatives of translation science at universities, the interest of their representatives is unevenly distributed: fiction translation has the lead. And this study will confirm, by means of a statistical method, the marginal position of audiovisual translation in Latvian science, after which some conclusions and hypotheses will be made about the reasons for this situation.

Research results At the beginning, three periodicals that are not related to any particular regular scientific activity will be covered: «Akadēmiskā Dzīve» («Academic Life»), «Letonica» un «Linguistica Lettica». In the journal «Academic Life» (published since 1958) – from 2006 until 2016 none of the articles were dedicated to translation/translation science problems, not to mention audiovisual translation. Over the period of ten years, one article was dedicated to documentary film: Cane, Renate. Discourse Analysis of Communicative Functions of Latvian Soviet Documentary Cinema (2014, No. 50). «Academic Life» is a scientific publication that does not specialize in one field, but forms the whole picture of academic life in Latvia. The following magazines are specialized: they are dedicated to Latvian/Baltic philology. In magazine «Letonica» (published since 1998) from 1998 until 2017 there was no article dedicated to translation or translation science. During this period, three articles were dedicated to cinema, although, with only its historical aspect: Inga Perkone-Redovica Film Audience and Reception of Cinema Genres in Latvia during the Interwar period (2007, No. 15), Dita Rietuma Between Europe and the USA: film noir creator Boris Ingster (2012, No. 22), Julija Dibovska: Screening of Andrejs Upitis’ Works: Some Aspects of Interpretation (2012, No. 23). In the magazine «Linguistica Lettica» (published since 1997) from 1997 until 2017 several articles on translation science were published. Total number of articles in the period 1997-2017 is 412, of which 12 articles are dedicated to translation issues: 7 articles are dedicated to general issues of translation science; one article dedicated to translation of terminology; 3 articles dedicated to translation issues of fiction and folklore; 2 articles were dedicated to advertising translation and no article was dedicated to audiovisual translation. In many respects, the collections of articles from one regional university are significant: the collection of articles of the Institute of Comparative Studies of the Faculty of Humanities of the Daugavpils University. The first of these, Comparative Studies, has been published since 2008. This scientific collection contains 201 articles in 10 years, none of which are dedicated to audiovisual translation. Eight articles are dedicated to aspects of translation science, and they explicitly demonstrate the literary-centric orientation of this academic group. The second of the collection of articles of the Institute of Comparative Studies of the Faculty of Humanities of the Daugavpils University is a magazine „Komparatīvistikas almanahs («Journal of Comparative Studies»), which has been published since 2005. In the period 2005-2017 a total of 332 articles were 24


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published, none of which were dedicated to audiovisual translation. One article is dedicated to film text: Ingrida Kupsane Jewish text in the documentary of Hercz Frank. The articles dedicated to translation, once more, show the literary-centric direction at the Institute of Comparative Studies. The following collections of articles (Daugavpils University, Liepaja University and Latvian University article collections) are collections of articles of national universities published after international scientific and scientific conferences organized by these universities. This is a different type of discourse in which scientific trends and priorities will emerge not at the national level, but at the national level of Latvia can be realized in an international event. The first of these three is a collection of articles «Language in the Context of Different Cultures» (Scientific Readings of the Faculty of Philology of Daugavpils University), which has been published since 1991, but the analysis was based on article collections published since 2000 (available at the National Library of Latvia). In the period 2000-2017 a total of 1066 articles have been published, of which no article is dedicated to audiovisual translation. This collection of articles contains a number of articles on translation issues and a series of articles that unite matched/comparative linguistics and translation science by their issues. These articles confirm the literary-centric tendency in Latvian translation science. At the mentioned period, there were 58 articles on translation science issues, of which 36 were Latvian authors, 18 Lithuanian authors (7 articles on fiction, 3 articles on general translation, 1 article on legal text translation and 7 articles on publicity and advertising), two Estonian authors (both articles dedicated to fiction translation), one Russian author (article on general translation science issues) and one Italian author (translation of scientific popularization texts). The distribution of topics in this collection of articles on translation science in general is as follows (the first digit denotes the total number of articles, while the parentheses indicate only the number of Latvian authors): general translation science issues (including topics such as translation process, translator’s role, terminology, translation ethics, and criticism, lexicography) 12 (8), fiction (including matched linguistics, general issues of translation science) 29 (20), publicity and translation of advertising texts 9 (2), translation of legal texts 4 (3), science (translation of philosophy, science popularization texts) 3 (2), business text (including translation of economic texts): 1 (1). Annual conference of the University of Liepaja «Word and its Research Aspects» takes place since 1995; first collection was published in 1997. For the period 1997-2016, 973 articles were published, of which one article was dedicated to audiovisual translation: Janis Silis Film translation: Original text reproduction problems in the target language. (2006, Nr.10) The overall picture of articles dedicated to translation science over the given period is as follows: a total of 56 articles, of which 55 are Latvian authors and one Lithuanian author (the article was dedicated to fiction translation). The thematic breakdown of articles in translation science is as follows: general translation science issues (translation process, translator’s position, terminology, ethics, history, criticism, lexicography) 16 (16), fiction (including matched linguistics, general issues of translation science) 23 (22), translation of legal text 2 (2), business text, incl. translation of economic texts, military, maritime, culinary: 6 (6), technical texts 5 (5), interpretation 2 (2), internet and online text translation: 1 (1), machine translation: 1 (1). Scientific article collection of the Conference of the University of Latvia (UL) is published since 1990. In the period 1990-2017, 406 articles on philology were published, one of them dedicated to audiovisual translation in 2013, but this article is very conditional on the field of audiovisual translation: Ivars Orehovs Gränsöverskridande: ‘lagligt’ och ‘olagligt’ i Henning Mankells Hundarna i Riga (roman och film) / Crossing Borders: ‘Legal’ and ‘Illegal’ in Henning Mankell’s Dogs in Riga (novel and movie). The analysis of other articles dedicated to translation shows the result typical to previous collections of articles: fiction is a leading object in translation science research. UL collections include a total of 19 articles on translation issues, of which 18 are Latvian authors and one Estonian author with an article on fiction translation: general translation science issues (including issues of translation process, translator’s role, terminology, ethics, lexicography) 4 (4), fiction translation (including matched linguistics, general issues of translation science) 12 (11), translation of publicity and advertising texts 1 (1), science (translation of philosophy and scientific popularization texts) 1 (1), conference translation 1 (1). Results after the analysis of DU, LiePA and UL article collections shows: the total number of articles (number of Latvian authors in brackets) dedicated to translation science – 133 (109), of which 32 (24) are dedicated to general translation science issues (including issues of translation process, translator’s role, terminology, ethics, lexicography); translation of fiction (including issues of matched linguistics, general is25


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sues of translation science) 64 (54); translation of publicity and advertising texts 10 (3); translation of legal texts 6 (5); science (translation of philosophy and scientific popularization texts) 4 (3); business text, incl. translation of economic texts, military, maritime, culinary: 7 (7); translation of technical texts 5 (5); interpretation 2 (2); internet and online text translation 1 (1); machine translation 1 (1); conference interpreting 1 (1); audiovisual translation 1 (1).

Conclusion Even for its marginal position in Latvian science, audiovisual translation has not gained: one article in all reviewed articles for 20 years. The most important and visible conclusion: Latvian translation science shows literary-centric tendencies. The hypothesis is thus fully confirmed. Let us move on to outline the reasons for this situation by putting forward some hypotheses. The conducted study confirms that Latvian researcher of translation science is not ready, and even is given the conditions, to take on the risk: he or she publishes at his or her university, performs at his or her own university/ties’ conferences: scientist’s comfort zone. The studied material of the collections of periodical scientific articles confirms the tendency: over 20 years, the interest of academic science has not been influenced by audiovisual translation trends: analyzed collections of articles contain one article at the given time period without risky methods (an insight into the terminology and methodology of audiovisual translation and a very formal overview of errors in the translation of film titles). And this trend has been observed at a time when the practice of audiovisual translation has been developing very actively (90s of the 20th century), rapidly, even spontaneously and in many respects from scratch. In this respect, the question arises, regarding the issue of scientific social responsibility, the indicators and reasons for the topicality of research, as well as the risk-aversion and the comfort zone of scientific research as from the causes of scientific inertia and non-topicality of scientific research.

References 1. Caplow Theodor, McGee, Robert. The Academic Marketplace. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. 1958. 2. Горшкова, В.Е. Перевод в кино. Иркутск: ИГЛУ, 2006. 278 с. 3. Enders, Jürgen, and Christine Musselin. Back to the future? The academic professions in the 21st century. Higher education to 2030, 2008, pp. 125-150.

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DIGITALIZATION OF MARKING PROCESS USING MARK ONLINE Mikhail Shpirko (mshpirko@wiut.uz) Westminster International University in Tashkent, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Abstract I remember the days when teachers in Business Information Systems department of Westminster International University in Tashkent had been marking with using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Teachers set up marking schema in spreadsheet in the way: when certain mark is allocated, the feedback will be set automatically. The solution was quite smart and saved lot of time by refusing manual enter or writing feedback on the paper. However, the drawback was that not everyone is able to advance setup in Excel. Therefore, my initial goal was to make this process more flexible for teachers in order to save time during. The creation of the web platform https://markonline.net allowed not only to achieve initial goal, but also to go much further by providing a tool for collaborative, consistent and properly aligned marking. Current platform is widely used by academic staff members of Westminster International University in Tashkent. This article shares the details of platform development storyline and its main features overview. Keywords: online tool, efficient marking, collaborative marking, marking.

I was a fresh graduate of Business Information Systems (further BIS) course when I have join Westminster International University in Tashkent as academic staff member. I had passion of software development at that time: coding and applications development were the subject which I taught at the university, have had as a hobby and practiced on second job. I spent all my free time on trying to develop small applications that could bring benefit to me by automation of routine as well as making processed more efficient. There was an idea to create an application that makes the process of marking efficient by allowing teachers to define marking schema with feedback and mark students electronically. I decided to try out this idea and as a result developed the application that currently helps to achieve the defined goal. This application evolved from just being a software where teachers could mark students’ assessments to the collaborative platform that supports alignment in teaching and facilitates students’ learning. I started with chronological order of how teachers perform marking which is based on my own practice and observation at the university. First, the marking schema with assessment criteria and rubrics are defined for the assessment. Teachers can create an assessment, set it up as individual or group work assignment and define number of students in a group. Assessment criteria should be defined further whereas each criterion can include dedicated rubrics. Weighing for criteria and rubrics is percentage-based and specified within range 0 to 100. Upon development of this part I identified the following use-case. Taking into consideration that each teacher may have multiple assessments for the subject yearly, soon user might find difficulties in navigation through created assessments. Therefore, I decided to add categorization for the assessments. Inspired by Google Drive [2] and Windows File Explorer [4] software,

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additional feature was implemented to create folders and allocate assessments in a way suitable for them. I noticed that teachers follow the pattern for categorization: create folder for each academic year, then folder for each subject and then create assessment. Additionally, it was found that assessments for the same module might be quite similar so that there is no need to create a marking schema from scratch. Consequently, the feature to duplicate any existing assessment was implemented.

Figure 1. Assessment design page – teacher can define assessment criteria and rubrics

Having the assessment defined, teachers move to marking process. Taking into the consideration that each subject may have a team of teachers that delivers it, I was thinking how to create an opportunity for collaborative marking using my software. I came up with option to share marking schema with other users of the software, all needed it to enter the email of person with whom you would like to share assessment for marking. This makes the process of marking transparent from managerial perspective as teachers may track the progress of their colleagues live.

Figure 2. Assessment sharing

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Turning to the marking process, the way how BIS colleagues were marking assessments was taken as an implementation scenario. Usually, teachers created Microsoft Excel [3] workbook with formulas and functions that calculates total mark and set feedback according to the mark entered. Overall, teachers just enter mark for any section of the assessment, while total mark with corresponding feedback for all sections of the assessment is calculated automatically. The marking in the project was developed in the same way initially.

Figure 3. Marking page – teacher can type the feedback and marks manually

However, it was identified that the process is completely wrong after piloting of the system on Academic English teachers. The way how they mark work is completely different. Teachers want to select assessment criteria from the rubrics and the mark to be calculated automatically. Therefore, the proper process of marking was completely vice versa. The marking procedure in the project was adjusted towards the needs of the colleagues.

Figure 4. Feedback selection – teacher can select sentences from rubrics; mark will be calculated automatically

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As a final point of development, various reports and export methods were implemented. Teachers may export marks and feedback both for each student separately and for the assessment as a whole. This makes distribution of feedback more efficient and digitalized. Additionally, the option to copy feedback as a text was added due to the need to upload feedback to the university’s student record system.

Figure 5. Overall marking page with options

At this stage you might ask a question, what makes Mark Online different from Turnitin [6] and Blackboard [1]? There is already marking option embed there apart from various other utilities. According to the feedback from representatives of Academic English department teachers from both Westminster International University in Tashkent and University of Westminster in London, both platforms do not provide the required level of flexibility. Usually the rubrics for the criteria might contain multiple entries for the mark range, and the services allow to select the whole set of rubrics for the mark range. However, the common case is that student’s work might contain rubrics for different mark ranges. Using Turnitin or Blackboard makes feedback confusing and less reliable in those cases as it provides not realistic feedback. Mark Online provides opportunity to select rubrics from different ranges by entry, while the mark will be automatically calculated. This is main core competence of proposed software in terms of marking functionality. Nevertheless, Turnitin is a great tool for plagiarism check and Blackboard is a good learning management system. In conclusion, I would like to list of future plans for the project. At this stage, there are two major pathways for the development in mind: integration with other services and enhancement of marking by applying machine learning. Allowing other services to integrate with the project will add more flexibility to existing platforms that would like to use the marking engine proposed. Application of machine learning should optimize the process of marking as the software will suggest the mark for the teacher upon marking. Primarily, the feature will be developed due to my research interest to check if fairness principle [5] of the assessment will be achieved by application of the machine learning and would help to answer the fundamental question – if machine will be able to adequately help teacher in marking.

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References 1. Tierney, R. D. (2016). Fairness in educational assessment. In M. A. Peters (Ed.), Encyclopedia of 2. Educational Philosophy and Theory. Singapore: Springer Science+Business Media. DOI 10.1007/ 978-981-287-532-7_400-1 3. Blackboard Inc. About us [Online source]. – URL: https://www.blackboard.com/about-us (Accessed November 20, 2019) 4. Google. Meet Drive [Online source]. URL: https://www.google.com/drive/ (Accessed November 20, 2019) 5. Microsoft. Microsoft Excel [Online source]. – URL: https://products.office.com/en/excel (Accessed November 20, 2019) 6. Microsoft. What’s changed in File Explorer [Online source]. – URL: https://support.microsoft.com/ en-us/help/17217/windows-10-whats-changed-in-file-explorer (Accessed November 20, 2019) 7. Tierney, R. D. Fairness in educational assessment / In M. A. Peters (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Philosophy and Theory // Singapore: Springer Science+Business Media. DOI 10.1007/978-981-287532-7_400-1, 2016 [Online source]. – URL : https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Robin_Tierney/ publication/304999512_Fairness_in_Educational_Assessment/links/5a6277caaca272a158199d67/ Fairness-in-Educational-Assessment.pdf (Accessed November 20, 2019) 8. Turnitin. About us [Online source]. – URL: https://www.turnitin.com/about (Accessed November 20, 2019)

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PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS AND THE IMPORTANCE OF THE UZBEK LANGUAGE Shahlo Shukurlaevna Yuldasheva, PhD on Pedagogics (mamura2010@umail.uz), Gulara Ataxanovna Yusupova (Guli0805@umail.uz), Durdona Satimovna Kabulova (durdonakabulova@umail.uz) Nukus State Pedagogical Institute (Nukus SPI), Uzbekistan

Abstract Abstract. The article gives some information about the results of observation and investigation of teaching and learning of the Uzbek language in higher educational establishments in Uzbekistan and especially at Nukus State Pedagogical Institute. The objective of the article consists of the following points: to learn the reason of using differential approach, suggested in the syllabus of the subject which takes into account the peculiarities of relative and non-relative languages; to suggest the usage of alternative course-books and manuals; to apply some ways of preparing pre-service teachers of the Uzbek language into daily, scientific and professional life. The authors suggest the ways of developing Uzbek learners’ linguistic competence, ways of teaching the Uzbek language to the representatives of the same language system, as well as to the representatives of other language systems, and also they deal with the issues on the content of the subject «Uzbek language» and supplying the subject with the literature. Keywords: higher education, Uzbek language, state language, competence, professional competence, curriculum, syllabus, speech competence, linguistic competence, course book, e-books, mobile application.

Introduction The Uzbek language is taught as a subject in all higher educational establishments as it considered the state language in the country [3]. The Uzbek language is taught as the state language in Russian groups of bachelor degree in all higher educational institutions in Uzbekistan and in Russian and Turkic groups (groups where Karakalpak, Kazakh and Turkmen students study) in Karakalpakstan. In the Constitution of the Karakalpak Republic there pointed out that «the state language in Karakalpakstan is Karakalpak and Uzbek languages» [4] It is the task of the subject of the Uzbek language to teach that «knowing his state language, learning it is the sign of high spirituality, the sign of loyalty to his motherland and nation » According to «The concept of development of higher education system of the Republic of Uzbekistan until 2030» [1] there put forward tasks on «implementing digital technologies and modern methods into the education process», as one of the main directions in the development of higher education system. The Presidential Decree – 5850 «On measures to radically increase the role and authority of the Uzbek language as the state language» [2] put forward the tasks on teaching of the state language and developing its assessment system in educational institutions, on designing the computer programs in the Uzbek language, on developing electronic programs and course books for foreigners and for the Uzbek people who live abroad and want to learn the Uzbek language. 32

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Taking into account the desire of the representatives of other nations to learning the Uzbek language as the state language, we think it is high time to improve the methods of teaching the Uzbek language. It is quite clear that learners will show great interest to learning the language if they know that their knowledge, skills and abilities in this language will be important in their professional field. The students of the higher educational institutions know the importance of the subject «Uzbek language» in understanding the literary works in Uzbek, in taking part in conferences and forums and sharing ideas with others, and also in writing the results of their research works in Uzbek scientific language. So, the subject «Uzbek language» has a task to arouse interest and respect of learners to the state language, to value the language as a necessity in their future profession. In our case (we mean pedagogical institutes) the subject should pay attention to the ways of preparing pre-service teachers to use the language in their everyday life, as well as in their future scientific and professional field. The article analyses the current situation of modernizing the teaching conditions, the readiness of teachers and students to the coming improvements, the motivation of students to the learning of the Uzbek language

The main part In order to define the necessity of professional Uzbek language for future teachers it is important to analyse the learning process and to improve the learning content. Following the points of many researches [2] that the effectiveness of learning the subject is identified by the analysis of its learning process we analysed the process of teaching the Uzbek language in local context, paying attention to the participants of the learning process, to the content of the subject, to learned materials and normative-legislative documents of the subject. We did observations, conducted interviews and questionnaires among Uzbek language teachers and students. Students are asked about their knowledge, skills and competences acquired during learning the subject, their future needs and interests, their attitude to using e-literature in a foreign language, their readiness to use electronic books and apps in learning the Uzbek language. The results of the observations, interviews and questionnaires gave us opportunity to identify the motivation of students to learning the Uzbek and foreign languages, their points on the importance of the Uzbek language as the state language and its necessity in their future professional sphere. We learned that 37% of participant-students think that their future professional life is closely connected with the Uzbek language, while 63% of the respondents connect it with the foreign languages. The results of questionnaires about course books, e-literature, e-resources, mobile apps gave us the following facts: most of the 230 first year students-respondents use telegram messengers to search and send the necessary information from computers and other gadgets. They find difficult to use internet in their computers and to redesign the information. 65% of respondents prefer teacher-made materials to the printed course books (35%). The results of the investigation showed us that above mentioned facts confront to the development of student motivation to the Uzbek language, as well as to the development of learner competence. During our investigation we find some problems and classified them in the following way: 1. Problems connected with the teaching of the subject «Uzbek language»: а) curriculum-based problems; б) nonconformance of learning objectives and indicative content; в) inappropriateness of some topics to XXI century competences; г) problems with teaching the Uzbek language grammar; д) teacher competence. 2. Problems connected with students: а) few knowledge of the language, the lack of skills and competences; б) preference to foreign languages rather than the state language. 3. Problems connected with the teaching of the Uzbek language and learning materials: а) lack of learning materials; б) nonsupport in using computer technologies. Further we’ll discuss some of these problems briefly. 33


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The curriculum of the bachelor degree students gives 90 hours a year to the learning of the Uzbek language, but in Karakalpak, Kazakh groups these hours are divided between two subjects; Uzbek and Russian(in HEIs of Karakalpakstan). As a result only half of the topics in the syllabus can be learned. This is presented in Table 1. Table 1. The teaching condition of the uzbek language in Turkic classes in Karakalpakstan

#.

HEIs

year, semester

language

hours notes

class

1

Nukus State Pedagogical Institute

1-year 1-or 2-semester

karakalpak, kazakh, turkman

54

36

2

Karakalpak State University

1-year, 1-2-semesters

karakalpak, kazakh, turkman

54

36

3

Navoi State Pedagogical Institute

1-year, 1-2-semesters

karakalpak, kazakh,

90

60

Independent study

According to curriculum 90/60

The situation is more problematic in other regions. At Tashkent State Pedagogical Institute (Kazakh groups), Chirchik State Pedagogical Institute (Kazakh groups), Gulistan State University (Kazakh groups) Turkic groups are not learning the Uzbek language as the state language, but it is placed into the section of common-professional subjects and hours are given to the Russian language. According to the syllabus designed at the Uzbekistan National University [9] students are to learn 45 topics during the course. The mentioned syllabus (as well as the previous syllabuses) is used both in the Russian groups and in the Turkic groups and this is the issue of discussion among professionals, as Uzbek, Karakalpak, Kazakh and Turkmen languages are relative languages and we think there should be a special syllabus and course books for these language groups in learning the Uzbek language. The next problem we are going to discuss is that «the existed syllabuses, teaching methods allow to consider the learning Uzbek language to direct just as a means of oral communication, they do not consider the Uzbek language to be learned as the state language, which can be used by any citizen of Uzbekistan in different spheres of life, in government and management system. This is also a topic of discussion among professionals [12]. Our observations show that in many cases teachers pay attention mostly to learning the topics, they do not pay attention to teaching lexical and grammatical peculiarities of the language by integrating them with the content. Teachers do not give tasks on working with the dictionaries or other literature besides course books, tasks to look for the meaning of the word. The professionals mentioned, [13, 5224 -5226] that the existing manuals, bilingual, trilingual dictionaries, conversational phrasebooks did not take into account the development of linguistic competences and usage of modern methods, these literature do not give opportunity to learn the Uzbek language independently, intensively and continuously. We can say that the linguistic competence should be developed during the learning of the language. Before beginning the course we usually have our first year students do written tasks (writing dictations, essays). The results showed us that most of students’ level of Uzbek language was lower than the required level which arouses difficulty in fulfilling the tasks put forward before the subject in giving knowledge and developing learners skills and competence. In the globalization period, at the time of information technologies students’ interest to learning English, as the language of internet, science and mass media is increasing day by day. And this phenomenon is considered as a negative one by the teachers of the native languages, but not we, who think to take advantage of this interest to learning language at our Uzbek classes in developing learner awareness, skills and competences. 34


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Integration of subjects, learning by comparing the native and foreign languages can be one of the factors of developing learner motivation to learning languages. Supplying methodological basis for the subject «the Uzbek language», especially tools and techniques for practical classes are the problematic issues of today in our local context. But the latest syllabus is suggesting some new native and foreign literature for the subject which are approved by teachers and learned with great pleasure. We are designing some course books, manuals, didactic materials for our Karakalpak learners ourselves. For a long time we used only teacher-generated materials for these groups as we were lack of specially published course books. The course book for the higher education students was first published in 2012 [16]. Though the suggested course book does not fully meet the needs of the subject, the teachers are using them nowadays. In 2013 there published a manual «The Uzbek language» for the Karakalpak students, which includes all the language and speech materials and useful for the learners [20]. The manual consisting of 24 topics, aims to improve learner knowledge, skills and competences in Uzbek language, to learn the state language for the use of their professional field, to enlarge their vocabulary with the professional terms. So, the manual was republished in 2016 with some improvements and changes [19] and suggested as the main course book for the subject «the Uzbek language». But the novelties in science, new innovations in the spheres should be included into the learning materials regularly, which is difficult in the case of printed materials. That’s why it is time to think about implementing e-materials into the learning process, which is the requirement of the time. It is high time to change the format of learning tools into new, contemporary one. Though the researches on developing new, modern syllabuses, course books, learning and teaching materials, multimedia resources, on changing the formats of course books have already began, we still have no suggestions on using the exact language structure or topic. The results of the questionnaire taken from the teachers of higher education show that using the same syllabus both in Russian and Turkic groups make some problems in learning the Uzbek language. The results of questionnaires and interviews among students show us that they are interested in reading professional and scientific Uzbek texts, have problems in listening Uzbek speech, they sometimes break rules of Uzbek orphoepics during discussions and debates due to local pronunciation and local speech, they sometimes use the mixture of Uzbek, Karakalpak and Kazakh languages in their speech. Taking into account all above mentioned facts we think that it is desirable to develop the conception of using special methodology of teaching the Uzbek language to Turkic students, to design alternative course books, printed manuals and multimedia apps, to experiment the necessary content designed for this subject.

Conclusion The observations and the results of inquiries gave the following facts: we do not use a differential approach in preparing students for future professions at the Uzbek classes taking into consideration the peculiarities of relative and non-relative language, we do not use authentic materials as we accustomed to use one course book for the subject, which confronts the desired results, which influence on the quality and effectiveness of education. That’s why, we should analyse the approaches to teaching the Uzbek language to the representatives of relative and non-relative languages, the ways of using the Uzbek language in everyday life, scientific speech and professional field of pre-service teachers. Though there exists a great number of books on teaching the Uzbek language to the learners of other languages [6,10,16,17,18] (dissertations, scientific articles, monographs, manuals), still we need some researches on suggesting the unique common concept on this issue. The changing world, the changing education forms, innovations put forward before the subject «Uzbek language» a serious task, as learning the state language is one of the ways to show the culture of the representatives of a nation.

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References 1. Presidential Decree -5847 on «The concept of development of higher education system of the Republic of Uzbekistan until 2030» 2019, October 8. https://lex.uz/docs/4545884 2. The Presidential Decree – 5850 «On measures to radically increase the role and authority of the Uzbek language as the state language » 2019, October 21. https://lex.uz/docs/4561730 3. Uzbekistan Republic «Law on the State Language (new edition) (1989, 1991) Reference of Uzbekistan Republic Oliy Kengash, number 26-28, article 453; number11, article 273. 4. The Constitution of the Republic of Karakalpakstan. (1996) Nokis: Qaraqalpaqstan. 5. Karimov I. A. (1997) Harmoniously developed generation is the basis of the progress of Uzbekistan. Toshkent: Sharq. p. 9. 6. Adilova S. (2004) Organising Uzbek lessons with the help of computer technologies (in Russian groups of higher education): dissertation. Toshkent: 160 p. 7. Adilova S., To‘xtamirzayev M. (2007) The Uzbek language. A manual for the students of Russian groups in all bachelor degrees. Tashkent: TDPU. 167 p. 8. Ahmedova G.T., Karimjonova V.A. (2001). The Uzbek language. Tashkent: Ijod dunyosi NU. 9. Husanov N., Adurahmonova M., Lafasov U., Asilova G. (2017) The Uzbek language. The syllabus (for all bachelor degrees students). Tashkent. 10. Incheon Declaration: Education 2030: Towards inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning for all. World Education Forum, Incheon, Korea R, 2015. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ ark:/48223/pf0000233813 11. Mirzayev I., Boltayev M. (2004) The Uzbek language. A course book for the students of Russian groups in all bachelor degrees. Tashkent: Xalq merosi publishing house. 12. Muhitdinova X. (2013). Discussions on teaching the uzbek language as the state language. http:// fikr.uz/blog/talim_fan_taraqqiyoti/11531.html 13. Mukhitdinova K., Asilova G., Salisheva Z., Rakhmatullaeva M. (2019). Current Issues of Creating Educational Material for Intensive Teaching to the Uzbek Language of Foreigners. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT). ISSN: 2249 – 8958, Volume-9 Issue-1, October. DOI: 10.35940/ijeat.A2945.109119. 5224 -5226. 14. Rasulov R., Mirazizоv A. (2005) The Uzbek language. A course book for the students of Russian groups of all bachelor degrees in higher education. Tashkent: Aloqachi. 228 b. 15. The right for education. (2016). Materials of 71 session of UNESCO. 2016. august 29. https://undocs.org/pdf?symbol=ru/A/71/358 16. To‘xliev B., Qurboniyozov G. (2012). The Uzbek language. (For the students of Karakalpak groups of higher education). Tashkent: Uzbekistan National library publication house named after A.Navoiy. 17. Umarova N.Z. (2007). The methods of using modern technologies in developing students written language (for the students of Russian groups of technical higher education): Dissertation. Tashkent. 18. Vsemirniy doklad po monitoringu ODV. (2012) UNESCO. http://www.intelros.ru/pdf/doklad_ yunesko_2012_molodejz_i_naviki.pdf; 19. Yuldasheva Sh., Kabulova D. (2016). The Uzbek language. Tashkent, Mumtoz so‘z. 20. Yuldasheva Sh., Kabulova D., Sabirova M. (2013). The Uzbek language. Nukus, Bilim.

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TEACHING THE UZBEK LITERATURE IN THE KARAKALPAK HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS Shakhlo Shukurlaevna Yuldasheva, PhD on Pedagogics, Associate Professor (mamura2010@umail.uz) Muhabbat Tajimuratovna Hudayarova, PhD in philology (muxa_7676@mail.ru) Shakhista Menglibaevna Buranova, PhD on Pedagogics (s.buranova@ndpi.uz) Gulara Atakhanovna Yusupova (Guli0805@umail.uz) Durdona Satimovna Kabulova (durdonakabulova@umail.uz)

Nukus State Pedagogical Institute named after Ajiniyaz (Nukus SPI), Uzbekistan

Abstract The globalization in the world, internal and external migration process is influencing on the principles, goals and objectives of teaching the state language. This process is noticed in the selection of teaching materials for specific groups with different levels of Uzbek language. The purpose of the article is to highlight the pedagogical and didactic peculiarities of the selection of teaching material for students of different cultural backgrounds and different levels of language in teaching the written monuments of the Uzbek literature in Higher educational institutions of the Karakalpakstan. Materials and methods. In order to fulfil the tasks put forward before the article, the authors analyzed and summarized some works on the issue written by local and foreign scholars and experiences of local teachers, there also used empirical data collection methods: observation, interviews, questionnaires, data processing and teaching experiences, selection of language and speech materials. Results of the study. The article extends the existing ideas on updating methodological support for teaching the Uzbek literature in the subject «the Uzbek language». There given some recommendations on the content of the subject, the selection of literary works and ideas on taking into account the peculiarities of relative languages in teaching the Uzbek literature. There used some ways of teaching Uzbek literature in Russian groups in the region and the authors suggest a concept of using a special method in teaching the Uzbek literature in the subject «Uzbek language» in Turkic groups. Discussions and conclusions. The published material on the ‘methodology of selecting Uzbek-language learning materials and teaching samples of Uzbek literary works in groups of students with different level of knowledge, with different cultural backgrounds was welcomed by the teachers of Karakalpak higher educational institutions and aroused students’ motivation for learning the Uzbek language during the first phase of the experimenting. The results of the first stage are not enough to give the exact conclusion, as the multicity of the problem needs the further development of the research, expanding the scope of research based on local and international experiences. Keywords: Uzbek language, the State language, different cultural backgrounds, different levels of knowledge, literature, Uzbek literature, discussion, value of the language, Turkic groups, Kazakh, Karakalpak, Turkmen, relative languages.

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Introduction The Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan -5850 [1] aims to prepare a new edition of the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan «On the State Language». For over 30 years, the Uzbek language, which has the status of the state language, is being implemented in every possible way. In fact, globalization on the world and internal migration are influencing on the status of the state language and its principles, goals and objectives. The existence of classrooms / groups with different cultural backgrounds and with different levels of knowledge at schools, secondary special education and higher education requires a change in the content and methodology of teaching the Uzbek language as the state language. The purpose of the article is to highlight the pedagogical and didactic peculiarities of the selection of teaching material for students of different cultural backgrounds and different levels of language in teaching the written monuments of the Uzbek literature in Higher educational institutions of the Karakalpakstan. The ideas suggested are helpful for enlarging the value of the Uzbek language as the state language during the widespread reforms of building a new Uzbekistan.

Literature Review The reforms undertaken in the Republic of Uzbekistan are aimed at raising the spiritual and intellectual potential, mentality and outlook of the younger generation, enhancing the sense of love and devotion to our motherland and people, and raising the literature reading skills, which play a valuable role in the education of a person. The issue of developing interest to reading literature has been one of the government policies, and this attitude is increasing young people’s interest to reading. This, in turn, contributes to the improvement of the quality of language and literature teaching. It is known that listening to songs in the learning language, memorizing proverbs and sayings, reading fiction, and watching movies is valuable in learning the language. Of course, it is natural to have questions concerning the types of literary texts for learning in the classes with few hours of study: folklore, historical works, or examples of classic and modern literature; questions on the quantity of materials and ways of teaching them. A great number of studies have been written on the formation and development of reading skills of students in teaching language as a native language, as a second language, as a foreign language, in particular, teaching the literary works in the learned language and there offered some suggestions on the issue [8,11,15,19, 20] Therefore, reading is considered as an important skill to develop in the methodology of language teaching. Reading is a part of human social activity and one of the forms of communication. The purpose of reading is to receive the information and produce a communicative act. The Uzbek scholars analyzes various aspects of teaching the works of Uzbek writers in the Uzbek language subject at different stages of education, and there are a great number of works on the selection of literary texts. Though there existed studies on language teaching for the representatives of other nations concerning to different aspects of the issue, the study of literature as a subject and the object of the subject has been discussed after the independence of the country [6,13,14,16,17,18,21]. Their scientific theories and practical recommendations made a significant contribution to the teaching of Uzbek literature in the Uzbek language subject. It is a fact that few hours are allocated to the subject «uzbek language» (2 hours a week at secondary schools, 56 – 90 hours in high schools) and it is natural to face a problem of teaching the literature, while these hours are not enough to learn the language issues. And it is also essential to, «know the learner level before deciding what to teach or defining the learning content» [12, p.62]. In other words, it is necessary to take into account the language environment and the learner awareness. It is not accidental that in some countries like ours there exist learning materials for mixed-ability groups with A2, B1 and B2 level learners [7,9]. It is worthwhile to apply this experience into the Uzbek language education today. We analysed the situation on the example of higher education institutions of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, it may provide sufficient theoretical, methodological, scientific and practical information on improving the ways of teaching the Uzbek language. 38


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Materials and methods In order to identify this problem we reviewed the theoretical literature and analyzed teaching experiences, collected empirical data by observing, interviewing, using questionnaires, processing data and reporting results. As mentioned above, the Uzbek language is taught as the state language in Uzbekistan, including Karakalpakstan as a special subject at secondary schools, secondary special and higher education. In the 2019-2020 academic year, 27,795 students studying in Karakalpakstan universities learn the language in their first year of study (higher education students). That is, about 6,000 students learn Uzbek as the state language. In the nine universities in Karakalpakstan (most of which have started their activities in the last 10 years, two institutions – in the last 2 years), the majority of students are from four ethnicities (Karakalpak, Uzbek, Kazakh, Turkmen). It should be noted that in 4 educational institutions there study students from other countries (about 200). They are also mainly Uzbek, Karakalpak, Turkmen, learning Uzbek as a second language and studying in a group with local students. Almost all universities of the Republic of Karakalpakstan are located in the capital, Nukus. The country currently has more than 1 million 869.7 thousand people. The population of Karakalpakstan is 36.9% (690.4 thousand), Uzbeks – 40.1% (751 thousand), Kazakhs – 15.7% (293.7 thousand), Turkmen – 5, 3% (99.9 thousand people). The remaining 2 percent are Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Azerbaijani, Kyrgyz, Tajik, Tatar, Korean and other nationalities. At present, the Uzbek, Karakalpak and other languages are mixed and operate in all cities and districts of the region. Karakalpak, Kazakh students from districts such as Muynak, Takhtakupir, Karauzyak, Chimboy, have a low level of Uzbek language, they are not fluent in Uzbek. But they are learning the uzbek language with great interest, they are reading not only modern literature, but also classical poetry: ghazal, rubai, hoof and others, showing great respect to the Uzbek language, Uzbek literature, culture and traditions. In this way, representatives of other nationalities living in the country developing with a rich literary heritage of Uzbek literature, close acquaintance with Uzbek customs, national and spiritual values, peculiarities of the nation, contributing to interethnic harmony and, ultimately to the development of our state. However, it should be noted that students’ knowledge of the Uzbek language varies greatly. The students who are fluent in Uzbek are studying in the groups where the knowledge is given in Karakalpak or Russian languages. Though according to Article 6 of the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the State Language they have the right to choose the language of education. Due to the questionnaires taken from the experimental and control groups students we collected their impressions on the experiments conducted, about their awareness on the learned language, and information about their nationality. The results were summarized on the results of two universities: Nukus State Pedagogical Institute named after Ajiniyaz and Karakalpak State University named after Berdakh. (Table 1). Table 1. Information on the national composition of students in the Turkic groups where the Uzbek language is taught as the state language.

Number of students

Karakalpak

Uzbek

Kazakh

Turkmen

Other languages

Nukus SPI

271

175

32

59

5

51

KSU

289

181

52

19

37

34

560

356

84

78

42

85

HEIs

The table shows that 15% of students in the Karakalpak, Kazakh, and Turkmen groups are Uzbek students with B2 level, they learned the Uzbek as their mother tongue at secondary schools. This is particularly noticeable in Karakalpak groups. They require a high level of education content. But foreign students enrolled into Kazakh or Turkmen groups did not learn Uzbek as a subject before entering the higher educational establishment. However, interviews with students revealed the fact that they regularly watch and listen to Uzbek television channels. Therefore, they understand the Uzbek speech and because of the same 39


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letters in alphabet they can read Uzbek texts easily. They only have difficulty in oral communication and in writing their ideas. This means that they speak Uzbek at A1 and some at A2 level. Thus, taking into account the results of statistics on nationality in each group, the level of students’ knowledge of the Uzbek language we consider that there is a need to teach the literary works of the Uzbek writers continuously and consistently, developing learners reading skills. Currently, there isn’t any ideas on teaching the Uzbek literature as a separate subject in higher education in Karakalpak, Kazakh, and Turkmen groups, not saying about giving hours to it. Observations show that the teachers of the subject do not have any records on learning a particular literary work in the syllabus, and they experiment different ways of teaching pieces of literary work as one of the ways of motivating learners into learning the language. But unfortunately this is not used systematically. This indicates that learning the Uzbek language in higher education is just relearning the topics, students have acquired at their secondary schools [12, p. 31]. During our research we chose several works of Uzbek representatives of literature and suggested them for reading in language learning classes. Below we listed these works. They are: «Uzbekistan» by H.Olimjon, «Uzbekistan» by Oybek, «Onaginam» by Myrtemir, «Navoi» by Oybek, «The Past Days» by A.Kodiriy, «Literature Teacher» by A.Kahhor, «My thief son» by G.Gulam, «Uzbeks» by Sh.Kolmirzaev, «Toshkentstory« by M.Shaykhzoda, «Teacher» by Parda Tursun, «The value of the word» by Erkin Vokhidov, «Stars shine forever» by T.Murod, Sultonov’s «Coast of Happiness», U.Hashimov’s, A.Avloni’s stories, Navoi’s «Muhokamatullugatayn», Ataighazals, Rabghuzi’s «Rabghuzi’s story», «Alpomish», «Ravshan» poems, Said Ahmad, Tahir Malik, Halima Khudoyberdieva, Tursunoy Sodiqova, Nosir Fozilov, Shukur Kholmirzaev, Togay Murod, Nazar Eshonkul’s works. While choosing these pieces of work we did not always follow the principle of «choosing a work, not a writer» [10, p.6-7]. The reason is that (without degrading other creators, of course), the works of the above-mentioned authors reflect the common customs, culture and language features of the Turkic peoples. This allows students to compare the characteristics of their people, their language, their literature, and their interest in Uzbek literature. In this way we can have the reader of the uzbek literature among the students of the other languages. In short, our aim in conducting the subject is to develop learners interest to the Uzbek literature following the «requirements to the content and volume of the selected works and the principles of adaptation of literary works recommended to students» [14, p.15-16]. It is not enough to know «the famous characters of the Uzbek literature only through films» [14, p.18] (most of the lessons observed held discussions on the basis of the film about a particular work). Instead we suggest to use not only uzbek people’s literature, but other nations’ literature translated into uzbek. In this way students get acquainted with Kazakh characters like Abay in M.Avezov’s «Abay’s Way», with Kozy Korpesh, Bayan Suluw in «Kozy Korpesh and Bayan Suluw» epos, karakalpak personages Jumagul in T.Kaipbergenov’s «Karakalpak daughter», Ernazarbiy from T. Kaipbergenov’s «Fools», Oydosbiy from T.Kaipbergenov’s «Lucky», Mamanbiy in «Mamanbiy myth», Toresh in N.Davgaraev’ «In the Boarding House», Jamila from K.Sultonov’s «Akdarya», Turkmen people’s characters Ortiq, Oyna from B.Kerbabaev’s «Courageous Step», Berdi, Uzukjemal in X.Deryaev’s «Fortune». Learning the life of these personages they will be able to compare the lives of relative nations, try to understand their sufferings and in this way love the literary works. It is important to lead students to value the literary works, their influence on human being, on his cognition and outlook. There are several ways to teach reading and comprehension of literature: 1. The first acquaintance with the text. In this stage there can be asked some questions to the content of the text in order to know students comprehension. Students will give a brief confirmation or a rejection response. We can use only Yes/No or True/False questions (We used them in the learning of above recommended works). 2. Activities on learning a particular part of the text. In this part, students read the dialogues in the text and at the same time fill in the missing spaces with necessary words. It is desirable that the teacher prepares the correct answers beforehand. This will save the time. (We suggested this kind of tasks while learning H.Olimjon’s poem «Uzbekistan» and «Alpomysh» poem). 3. Students are offered texts without headings. It is required to find a suitable title to the texts, or to select one of the options suggested (most of the passages are presented without the title). 40


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4. Organizing discussions on their impressions after watching a particular part of a film or cartoon based on a literary work (We used a new version of A.Kadyri’s novel «The Past Days»). 5. Discussions or debates with students on the works recommended for reading (We chose «The story of the Uzbeks» by Sh. Kholmirzaev). While using these techniques we also paid a special emphasis on reading aloud, as we consider it to be the most important step towards understanding of the text. Results of the study. As can be seen from the above analysis, the Uzbek Language as a subject [4] needs to be improved. Improvement of this program revealed the need for alternative curricula and related teaching materials and textbooks, including national composition of students, their level of the Uzbek language. Based on the results of surveys, questionnaires and observations, the hypotheses in the study were confirmed. Based on the initial solution of the problem, existing ideas on updating methodological support of teaching Uzbek literature in the Uzbek language were developed by us. Recommendations on the selection of literary works, content of education, taking into account the peculiarities of relative languages in teaching the Uzbek literature, its pedagogic and didactic requirements were identified. There published a methodological guide on teaching the Uzbek literature in Turkic groups. Discussions and conclusions. So learning the language through literature develops learners ability to feel the beauty of the Uzbek language, to express their opinion in the state language, to express feelings and subtle meanings, to create a meaningful, fluent speech and to become a real speaker. This, in turn, will help to develop students’ communicative competence. The process of learning a language can be more effective when the learners read literary works, watch cartoons, films, and plays. However, relying only on students’ impressions of films does not give the expected results on learning the literature. As experienced teachers mentioned in our data collection process, watching films based on the best works of Uzbek writers can motivate learners to read the work itself, which is the great achievement of the teacher. The materials on using the Uzbek language by the examples of the Uzbek literary works in groups with different cultural backgrounds, with different language level are welcomed by the teachers and aroused students’ motivation to Uzbek language learning during the first stage of the experiment. The results of the first stage do not allow for definite conclusions, as the multicity of the problem demands further development of research, expanding the scope of research based on local and international experiences.

References 1. O‘zbekiston Respublikasi Prezidentining 2017-yil 13-sentabrdagi «Kitob mahsulotlarini nashr etish va tarqatish tizimini rivojlantirish, kitob mutolaasi va kitobxonlik madaniyatini oshirish hamda targ‘ib qilish bo‘yicha kompleks chora-tadbirlar dasturi to‘g‘risida»giPQ-3271-son qarori. https:// lex.uz/docs/-3338600 2. O‘zbekiston Respublikasi Prezidentining 2019-yil 21-oktabrdagi «O‘zbek tilining davlat tili sifatidagi nufuzi va mavqeini tubdan oshirish chora-tadbirlari to‘g‘risida»gi PF-5850-sonli farmoni.https:// lex.uz/docs/4561730 3. O‘zbekiston Respublikasi Prezidentining 2018-yil 12-maydagi «Buyuk allomalar, adib va mutafakkirlarimiz ijodiy merosini keng o‘rganish va targ‘ib qilish maqsadida yoshlar o‘rtasida kitobxonlik tanlovlarini tashkil etish to‘g‘risida»gi PQ-3721-son qarori.https://nrm.uz 4. Husanov N., Adurahmonova M., Lafasov U., Asilova G. (2017) O‘zbek tili. Fan dasturi (barcha bakalavriat ta’lim yo‘nalishlari uchun). Toshkent. 5. Yo‘ldoshev M., Isoqov Z., Haydarov Sh. (2010) Badiiy matnning lisoniy tahlili. Toshkent: Alisher Navoiy nomidagi O‘zbekiston Milliy kutubxonasi. 6. Абдувалитов Е.Б. (2012) Таълим қозоқ тилида олиб бориладиган мактабларнинг V-IX синфларида ўзбек адабиётини тил таркибида ўқитиш асослари: пед. фан. номз. ...дис. Тошкент. 138 б. 41


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7. Алликметс К., Стренгель-Кямпер А. (2010) Методические принципы учебного пособия по чтению «Одна жизнь – две культуры». Материалы международной конференции «Функционирование русского языка в двуязычном образовательном пространстве». Санкт-Петербург. 8. Андреева О.С. (2019) Обучение учащихся текстовой деятельности на уроках русского языка в условиях поликультурного образовательного пространства. //Педагогика. Вопросы теории и практики. Т.4. выпуск 3. 23-28. https://doi.org/10.30853/pedaqoqy.2019.3.4 9. Аяпова Т.Т. (1998) Қазақ тiлi. Муғаллим китабы. Алматы: Ғылым. 10. Йўлдошев Қ. (1997) Ўқитувчи китоби. Методик қўлланма (7-синф адабиёти учун). Тошкент: Ўқитувчи. 11. Лолуа В.В. (2012) Формирование культуры речи школьников в процессе лингвоэстетического анализа художественного текста. Москва. 12. Мухитдинова. (2011) Таълим босқичларида ўзбек тили ўқитилиши узлуксизлигини таъминлашнинг илмий-методик асосларини такомиллаштириш. Пед. фан. д.ри … дисс. Тошкент. –Б.390. 13. Ниёзметова P. (2007) Узлуксиз таълим тизимида ўзбек адабиётини ўрганишнинг назарий ва методик асослари (рус гуруҳлари мисолида). Пед. фан. д.ри … дисс. – Тошкент. –Б.242; 14. Ниёзметова Р.Х. (2000) Таълим рус тилида олиб бориладиган мактабларда ХХ аср ўзбек адабиётини ўқитиш мазмунини белгилашнинг назарий-методик асослари /ўзбек тили дарслари таркибида/: пед.фан. номз. ... дис. Тошкент. -158 б. 15. Соляник О.Е. (2016) Использование литературных и фольклорных текстов на занятиях по русскому языку как иностранному в техническом вузе. // Крымский научный вестник. №5 (11). 16. Тошхўжаева Д. (1999) Ўзбек тили дарсларида матнни қайта ҳикоялаш орқали ўқувчи нутқини ўстириш // Тил ва адабиёт таълими. – Тошкент. № 1. – Б.11-15. 17. Тўхлиев Б. (2012) Адабиёт ўқитиш методикаси. – Тошкент: Алишер Навоий номидаги Ўзбекистон миллий кутубхонаси.. –Б.144. 18. Ўзбек мумтоз адабиётидан материаллар: таълим бошқа тилларда олиб бориладиган мактаблар учун. (1995) Тузувчи Қ.Ҳусанбоева. – Т.: ЎзПФИТИ. – 27 б. 19. Филиппова Л.В. (2014) Роль художественного текста в обучении русскому языку детейбилингвов. Публикация выполнена в рамках III Международной научной конференции «Взаимодействиеязыков и культур» 24 – 27 апреля 2014.// Вестник Череповецкого государственного университета. 2014. №3 20. Хабарова К.В., Тимофеева Н.А., Малышева Н.А. (2017) Преподавание русской литературы в системе РКИ как фактор интеграции иностранных учащихся в российское социокультурное пространство. // Международный научный журнал «Символ науки» № 02-1/2017 2410-700Х. https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/prepodavanie-russkoy-literatury-v-sisteme-rki-kak-faktor-integratsii-inostrannyh-uchaschihsya-v-rossiyskoe-sotsiokulturnoe 21. Ҳусанбоева Қ. (1997) Ўзбек адабиётини таълим давлат тилидан бошқа тилларда олиб бориладиган мактабларда ўқитишнинг илмий-методик асослари: пед. фан. номз. ...дис. автореф. – Тошкент. – 24 б.

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ON THE ISSUE OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF A UNIVERSITY TEACHER AND ITS ASSESSMENT Zhumagulova N.S. A. Myrzakhmetov Kokshetau University, Kazakhstan Akhrieva L.A., Zhumagulova E.V. Sh. Ualikhanov Kokshetau State University, Kazakhstan

Higher education institutions are today not only educational institutions, but also scientific and cultural centers. The university teacher is a key figure in the educational process, it is, first of all, a personality, a person who arouses the interest of the student, encourages deep study of the discipline, which is for the student in a sense an ideal. A university teacher is a specialist who has the professional knowledge and competencies necessary to prepare employees who are in demand on the modern labor market. Modern society demands from a university teacher more than ever before the availability of highly professional special knowledge and skills, as well as extensive socio-psychological competencies that ensure the training and release to the labor market of competitive specialists with higher professional education. This significantly increases the rating of the university itself in the competition for obtaining a state order for the training of relevant specialists. Modernization of the professional activity of a university teacher should begin not with monitoring his competence as a specialist, but with determining his status in the education system in Kazakhstan. At present, there is a paradoxical situation: on the one hand, Kazakhstan is modernizing higher education, which is accompanied by an increase in the requirements for the effectiveness of the educational process at the university, the society’s claims to the quality of professional activity of university teachers are discussed. On the other hand, teachers and universities do not have scientifically based information about the criteria for evaluating their professional activities due to the lack of modern organizational and methodological support for evaluating the professional activities of a university teacher. Pedagogical activity of a university teacher in the XXI century, in the era of large-scale scientific and technical revolution and globalization, is complex and multidimensional. The leading components of the effectiveness of pedagogical activity of University teaching staff are: • educational work: teaching the subject using modern technologies, stimulating the interest and motivation of students, development and use of author’s methods; • methodological work: development of educational and methodical complexes, participation in the development of elective disciplines, development and publication of textbooks, electronic textbooks; • scientific and publication activity: participation in research work, publications in collections of national, international conferences, domestic and foreign publications with a high citation factor, preparation and publication of monographs, etc. • educational work by means of the taught discipline. In addition, the teacher directs the research work of students, undergraduates, doctoral students; conducts open classes; participates in career guidance work-visits schools, enterprises; participates in the work of admission and examination commissions; participates in city events, city and regional olympiads of students, commissions, juries, etc. The question of professional competence of a university teacher is relevant for many States in the postSoviet space. The academic community is not satisfied with the outdated criteria for evaluating the professional activity of a university teacher, increasing requirements for his professional

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competence and personal qualities, while the teachers themselves are in the process of «burnout», dissatisfaction with the endless reforms and transformations in the field of higher professional education. Thus, in Russia, there is also a discussion of criteria for ranking indicators that determine the professionalism of a university teacher. E.V. Borisova believes that it is necessary to monitor both the general competence of teachers and the level of implementation of their competence approach in teaching students, as an indicator of the quality of education.[1] The main criteria in this case, E.V. Borisova considers scientific publications on education published in peer-reviewed collections, according to the list of Russian citation index and higher attestation commission; practice-oriented publications on educational methods, and technologies, evaluation funds, as well as ways of their implementation in the educational process; participation in scientific-practical and methodological seminars, conferences of different levels; knowledge of the innovative component in pedagogy; practical application of modern teaching methods; research-based author’s pedagogical development of methods, and technologies, evaluation tools; results of pedagogical experiments on the introduction of innovations in the educational process; replication and popularization of proven effective author’s developments among teachers both within the department and among other departments and faculties.[1] We see how high the requirements for the level of knowledge and skills of a university teacher are. In fact, these requirements are hardly feasible. Ryabova T.M. offers a new system of indicators of professional teaching activity in higher education, which allows to evaluate the activity of the teacher in the conditions of modernization of higher education. On the basis of this system of indicators, she developed a methodology for assessing the professional activity of the teaching staff of the university, consisting of three levels: • «qualification» rating of the teacher in relation to permanent indicators that characterize the qualification potential of the teacher, accumulated over the entire period of work (such as: work experience, academic degree and title, membership in academies, the presence of honorary titles and other distinctions, etc.); • «current» rating, reflecting the achievements of the teacher for this academic year, his professional activity; • rating «dynamics of development, activity», reflecting the achievements of the teacher, his professional activities over the past three years. [2] Nekhvyadovich E.A., Kosinov, E.P., Parfenov Yu.A., Belov V.G., I.M. Gibov emphasize that the existing system of evaluation of teachers has a number of drawbacks, namely the contradiction between the high requirements of its current functions to the success of pedagogical activity and the existing level of organizational-methodological and information support for its evaluation and improvement. They believe that in addition to independent experts, students themselves should be the subjects of evaluating the effectiveness of professional activities of the University’s teaching staff. [3] Below we present some data from the Minutes of the meeting of the industry Commission of the Ministry of education and science of Kazakhstan on social partnership and regulation of social and labor relations in the field of education and science. The purpose of the industry Commission of the sphere «Education» is to formulate a description of the skill levels recognized in the industry, the requirements for existing qualifications on the basis of the National qualifications framework, taking into account the prospects, priorities of economic development and education strategy, as well as to describe the profession by level of qualifications, indicating inter-sectoral competencies and related activities [4] The document is intended to improve the quality and continuity of professional development of teachers, encouraging teachers to acquire qualification degrees in methodology, pedagogy and psychology. The document emphasizes that a sign of true democracy in education is considered to be: • unity of action and broad communication in all structural elements of the educational institution; • partnership of the teacher and students; • democratic style and norms of human relations; • instead of uniformity and responsibility-freedom of choice for students; • optimistic mood, general atmosphere of enthusiasm for learning; • a common desire to provide mutual assistance, tolerance for each other; 44


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• •

close contacts with the social sphere; wide use of democratic principles, self-government, self-education, education in the spirit of community and social responsibility, etc. [4]

Since the second half of 2018, the boundaries of academic and managerial independence of higher education institutions in Kazakhstan have been expanded. Granting independence to universities has become a natural response to the needs of the new economy and «academic globalization», since universities need to constantly respond to the challenges of the labor market and compete for teachers, students, research grants and other resources. In the conditions of such competition, it is extremely important for universities to be independent in the implementation of their activities in order to adequately respond to global challenges in international education and to the needs of consumers of education. There is an opinion that when appointing a teacher, the university management should resort to the assessment of their professional activities by independent experts. However, it is impossible to do this today in Kazakhstan’s higher education for a number of reasons. First, there are not enough teachers with academic degrees in higher education. In 2018, 18,472 teachers with academic degrees worked at universities. 2,157 teachers are PhD doctors. Teaching activities are also carried out by 27% of masters. More than half of the teachers working at universities do not have a degree. When evaluating the activities of the teacher by independent experts, the percentage of settling down may decrease. Secondly, this is the aging of personnel with academic degrees – in universities, 28.5% of settled teachers have a retirement age. So, in terms of expanding academic, managerial and financial independence of universities, the teacher of the Kazakh University is responsible for the quality of training in all aspects. Especially it should be emphasized the large volume of duties that must be performed by candidates of science, doctors. It is they who conduct scientific work with undergraduates, doctoral students, develop educational programs, etc. It is obvious that it is necessary to change the conditions of their professional activity and its assessment. We believe that the Ministry of education and science and all those interested in high-quality higher education in Kazakhstan should guarantee the university teacher: • professional development at the expense of the state every 4 years; • reduce the educational and methodological load of the teacher, thus creating conditions for his personal and professional growth; • reduce the number of publications with impact factor, national and international as an indicator of professional activity and competence of teaching staff; • significantly increase the teacher’s salary. If our society takes this into account, then young teachers will come to higher education who are interested in this profession, capable of research activities, training and education of personnel necessary for the country.

References 1. Borisova E.V. Professional development of the teaching staff as a tool for quality management in the higher education system// [electronic resource] https://sovman.ru/article/7205/ 2. Ryabova T.M. Assessment of professional activity of the teaching staff of universities in the conditions of modernization of higher education// [electronic resource] https://www.dissercat.com/ content/otsenka-professionalnoi-deyatelnosti-professorsko-prepodavatelskogo-sostava-vuzov-vusloviya 3. Nekhvyadovich E.A., Kosinova E.P., Parfenov Yu.А., Belov V.G., Gibova I.M. Modernization of the system for evaluating the effectiveness of professional activity of the teaching staff as a factor of competitiveness of the university in the modern market economy//Fundamental research. – 45


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

2015. – № 2-21. – pp. 4770-4774// [electronic resource] http://fundamental-research.ru/ru/article/ view?id=38067 4. Minutes of the meeting of the committees of the Ministry of education on social partnership and regulation of social and labor relations in the sphere of education and science on approval of the project «Sectoral qualifications framework for the sector «Education”.

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute โ ข The Kingdom of Belgium

Modern Education and Research Institute Square de Meeรปs 38-40, 1000 Brussels, Belgium +32488866865 online@moderneducationinstitute.com http://moderneducationinstitute.com

Editorial Board

Ekaterina Tsaranok Director for Educational Programmes Modern Education & Research Institute Design by

Ksenia Kolosova froonzick@mail.ru

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