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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

15 September 2018 Brussels, Belgium

Scientific Journal

of the Modern Education

& Research Institute

ISSN 2506-8040

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

In cooperation with our members:

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

«Technology has forever changed the world we live in» James Comey The modern model of education is built on the Cartesian understanding of learning, which can be described by the phrase «I think, therefore I exist». It implies linearity in the transfer of knowledge from a teacher to a student. This paradigm is not entirely appropriate for the present moment when due to the use of innovation and technology we are faced with questions that require unique answers that that not provided in any source of information. The answers to such questions shall be discovered through the participation of all the actors of the educational process in the creation of knowledge. Here we come to the social point of view on learning: «we participate, therefore we exist».

The President of Harvard initiated a study that lasted one year and should have determined what factors influenced the academic success of the students at Harvard. The research team came to a very unexpected conclusion. It turned out that the most important predictor of a student’s success in learning was his or her willingness to form or join a research group. The second example comes from the company Hewlett-Packard. Their experts found out that those employees who showed leadership skills in the work of a research group were more likely to become good leaders at the company level. These examples show that our task as educators is to give our student an active role in the learning process as well as the opportunity to look for the answer to the questions, which means - to create knowledge. We are talking about entrepreneurial thinking in gaining knowledge. The word entrepreneurial means in this sense the ability and interest to constantly look for new approaches, new resources that will lead to acquiring new knowledge. At this very point, the innovative technologies become indispensable assistants to educators. Due to the digital culture, access to information and new ideas has become almost unlimited. Our student is not only homo sapiens: a person who thinks. He is also a homo faber: a person who creates. We always understood homo faber as a person who creates new things. In a learning environment, it means creating new content. But the digital culture has brought about significant changes. Due to the available technologies, homo faber can create a new context. Changing the context he can change the meaning. Here is a simple but vivid example. When a person writes a text and sends it to the editor of a magazine, the text gets approved, edited and later published. This is called an article. The same person posts the same text in his blog. Readers instantly share the link with each other, comment on this post and their comments are always relevant and authentic. This is already a conversation. And this conversation is going on all over the world. This is how a completely different context is created. We change the content, context, meaning and start the game. Homo ludens comes on stage - a person who plays. A person who is allowed to «play» with information, try different approaches, concepts, tools, make mistakes, start over again. If we manage to create a balance of these three roles at our classes, we will get the most talented, the happiest and most grateful students. This is what I wish to all of us!

Ekaterina Tsaranok Director

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

CONTENT I. Conference «Modernization of the teacher’s profession: approaches, best practices, challenges» 20.06.2018 1. Key-note presentation. Alexandre Olga Des odeurs pour la prévention du burn-out. Research laboratory «Konsole-Lux» Luxembourg...................................................................................................................................................... 10 2. Iskakova Maryam, Solovyova E.A., Kuvatbaeva U.A., Batyrbayeva D.Z. RESEARCH AT DEVELOPMENT OF STOMATOLOGICAL FILM WITH ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIONS S.D.Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University, Almaty.............................................................. 17 3. Osmonbaeva Zhypargul Elements of Reasoning improves the quality of students’ thinking Osh State University, Osh.............................................................................................................................. 21 4. Ryskulova Alma-Gul, Yulia Akhmetova, Assel Markabayeva, Alma Shmygaleva Evaluation of the effectiveness of the «flipped class» based on the online «Edmodo» system Kazakh Medical University of continuing education, Almaty................................................................. 29 5. Sadyrbayeva A.S., Bondarenko V.P., Kozibaev E.S., Rud Y.A. cluster approach to the creation of the corporate structure of the University M. Auezov South Kazakhstan State University, Shymkent........................................................................ 33 6. Saidullayeva N.S., A.B. Oralbayev, K.Sh. Abdiramanova, A.O. Kalikulova FORMATIONS OF RESEARCH SKILLS AT SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SECTIONS ELECTROMAGNETISM AND ELECTRODYNAMICS South Kazakhstan State university named after M. Auezov, Shymkent................................................... 37 7. Sarybayeva А.K., M.O. Berkinbayev, S.Z. Ramankulov, A.S. Baimakhanova Characteristics of the formation of creativity of future teachers in the university H.A.Yassawi International Kazakh-Turkish University, Тurkestan.......................................................... 44 8.

Zhussupova Zhanna PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCE AND PRACTICE AS A SINGLE SYSTEM Aktobe Regional State University named after K. Zhubanov, Aktobe..................................................... 50

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

II. Members of the Modern Education & Research Institute 9.

Polyakova I.M., Dubinin A.A. HEATING WITH THE USE OF ICE Kazakh Leading Academy of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Almaty............................................ 57

10. Sayakova Galiya, Kamalidin Sharipov, Akzhonas Khamitova Analysis of native plant raw materials of Red clover (Trifoliumpraténse) for the creation of new phytopreparations Kazakh National Medical University named after S.D. Asfendiyarov, Almaty........................................ 63 11. Sayakova G.M, Z. Olataeva, G.B. Kiyakova To the problem of standardization of the onion peel Kazakh National Medical University named after S.D. Asfendiyarov, Almaty...................................... 67 12. Sharipov Kamalidin, Konstantin Bulygin, Kulshat Omirsakova, Dinara Zhetpisbay THE ROLE OF THE METHOD OF TEACHING IN THE EVALUATION OF MIDTERM Kazakh National Medical University named after S.D. Asfendiyarov, Almaty....................................... 71 13. Solonenko Vladimir, Narzankul Makhmetova, Janat Musayev THE METHOD OF LIMITING SPEED WHEN PASSING TURNOUTS OF RAILWAY VEHICLES WITH BOGIES OF MODEL ZK1 Kazakh Academy of Transport and Communications, Almaty................................................................ 74

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

I. Conference «Modernization of the teacher’s profession: approaches, best practices, challenges»

20.06.2018

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

Des odeurs pour la prévention du burn-out Dr. Olga Alexandre

Docteur en neuropsychiatrie, spécialiste en biochimie fine, experte en olfaction, olfactothérapeute, créatrice de la méthode en coaching et thérapie olfactifs «OSTMR», directrice du projet« Parfum des anges », directrice du laboratoire «Kansole Lux», professeur à l’École Supérieure du Parfum Paris/Grasse, maître de conférences en Modern Education & Research Institute

Le Burn-out est une maladie très contemporaine, aussi connue sous le nom de syndrome d’épuisement professionnel. Il s’agit d’une forme de fatigue généralisée, physique et/ou morale, causée par le stress et l’anxiété consécutifs à un travail vécu comme excessif ou trop difficile. Un cadre sur 5 présente un risque élevé et 15,8 % de la population européenne active serait en burn-out (étude de Securex 2016, Tecnologia 2014). Olga Alexandre, olfactothérapeute diplômée en neuropsychiatrie et biochimie fine, a dirigé une étude pour prouver l’efficacité de la stimulation olfactive dans le cadre de la prévention du burn-out et de la diminution de la perception du stress lié au travail. L’étude à été réalisée par le laboratoire Kansole Lux (Luxembourg), en partenariat avec la promotion Iris 2019 de l’École Supérieure du Parfum (Paris/ Grasse).

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

Introduction Le burn-out, ou syndrome d’épuisement professionnel, est une fatigue à la fois morale et physique, provoquée par le stress et le surmenage au travail. Il résulte d’un déséquilibre durable entre les contraintes extérieures (charge de travail, environnement de travail) et ce que l’individu peut absorber, amenant celui-ci à épuiser progressivement ses réserves. Celui-ci passe alors par plusieurs stades avant d’atteindre le burn-out. Les termes anglo-saxons «to burn out» signifiant se consumer, s’éteindre comme une bougie, expriment bien cette progression du stress jusqu’à l’épuisement. C’est cette métaphore que le Dr  Freundeberger a utilisé en 1974 dans un article scientifique qui constitue la première approche théorique sur le sujet. En tant que directeur d’un centre d’accueil de jour pour toxicomanes à New York, il avait observé une perte d’énergie et de motivation au sein du personnel, en particulier des aide-soignants, avec l’apparition de symptômes physiques et émotionnels. Pour les personnes atteintes, le travail semblait perdre tout son sens alors qu’il était important pour elles auparavant. [1] Si le terme n’est pas récent, la maladie est encore peu reconnue et peu diagnostiquée en Europe. Les symptômes sont nombreux et peuvent être de 3 types: Symptômes psychiques: problèmes de concentration, troubles de la mémoire,mauvaise image de soi, sentiment de persécution,climat constant d’irritation, d’anxiété, épuisement émotionnel, perte de motivation, d’entrain au travail et sensation que tout est difficile, voire insurmontable. Symptômes comportementaux: diminution de la performance, dépendance à des substances, attitude négative vis à vis des interlocuteurs (collègues, patients, clients…), évitement des contacts sociaux, repli sur soi, tensions dans le couple et difficulté à dissocier vie professionnelle et vie privée. Symptômes physiques: fatigue importante, insomnie, douleurs physiques, problèmes de digestion, manque d’appétit, vulnérabilité accrue aux maladies, symptômes associés au stress comme des palpitations cardiaques, un taux de cholestérol et une pression artérielle élevés. En règle générale, le burn-out n’a pas une seule cause mais plusieurs, dont les plus importantes sont: le sentiment d’être trop sollicité et de manquer d’influence sur le processus de travail, l’impression de manquer de reconnaissance malgré une grande implication, ou encore de manquer de soutien de la part de la hiérarchie, voire de l’entourage personnel.

Enjeu d’importance pour les entreprises Certains pays, comme le Danemark ou la Belgique, le reconnaissent déjà comme maladie professionnelle. Ce n’est pas le cas en France, où il ne figure pas au tableau des maladies professionnelles. Néanmoins, il fait partie des risques psychosociaux et doit donc être traité comme tel par les entreprises, responsables de la santé et de la sécurité de leurs salariés. D’autant plus qu’un burn-out peut être très dommageable pour une entreprise en termes de perte de performance, d’absentéisme et de durabilité de l’emploi de la personne atteinte. Le stress est en effet l’une des causes majeures des absentéismes de longue durée. [2] En 2010, l’agence européenne pour la sécurité et la santé au travail a réalisé une enquête auprès d’entreprises européennes sur les risques nouveaux et émergents. 8 employeurs sur 10 disaient accorder de l’importance au stress au travail, mais seuls 25% d’entre eux (34% en 2017) avaient mis en place un plan d’action pour y remédier. La même année, 20% des travailleurs luxembourgeois déclaraient souffrir du burn-out. En 2012, 12% des travailleurs néerlandais ressentent un épuisement émotionnel. Tandis qu’en 2013, 9,6% des travailleurs et 10,2% des indépendants de Flandre présentent de graves problèmes de fatigue psychique. [2] 12% des travailleurs en France sont touchés. [3]

Objectif de l’étude • •

Prouver l’efficacité de la stimulation olfactive quant à l’amélioration du bien-être au travail. Amélioration de la concentration, augmentation de l’efficacité, diminution du ressenti de stress, augmentation de l’estime de soi, dissociation de la vie professionnelle et privée. 11


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

Matériel et méthode Pendant l’étude, les sujets ont inhalé les stimuli olfactifs selon la méthode OSTMR (l’Olfactory Stimulation Therapy and Memory Reconstruction). Les intérêts d’utiliser l’olfaction sont multiples. C’est d’abord une caractéristique sensorielle qui n’est pas soumise à la volonté humaine [4] : elle est associé à la respiration, qui est vitale. L’odorat est lié directement au système limbique[5], centre des émotions et du souvenir. On peut donc utiliser des stimuli olfactifs afin de provoquer l’état comportemental voulu. Les stimuli sont des produits de traitement en thérapie olfactive conçus pour une inhalation ponctuelle (3-5 minutes). La réponse est à la fois rapide et durable puisque les effets sont ressentis en moins de dix secondes et durent plus de 2 heures. Les volontaires sont passés par une phase de sélection: un test de 24 questions tirées du Maslach Burn Out Inventory (MBI) et touchant à divers domaines, couvrant ainsi tant les questions sur l’épuisement émotionnel que celle sur la dépersonnalisation ou l’accomplissement personnel. Pour l’étude, nous avons choisi des sujets à un stade de stress avancé, mais pas encore atteints de la maladie. Les critères d’inclusion à l’étude furent les suivants: • manque de motivation avant le travail • manque de confiance en soi • troubles alimentaires ; • mauvaise dissociation entre vie professionnelle et personnelle • manque de vie sociale ou d’intégration au sein de son équipe de travail • signes d’immunodépression • manque de sommeil • sentiment d’être surmené • manque de projets futurs ou de loisirs. Après sélection, le panel d’étude était constitué de 50 sujets exerçant dans les secteurs suivants: • Médical / Pharmacologie (14 femmes / 7 hommes) • Banque / Assurance (16 femmes / 6 hommes) • CEO /cadres supérieurs ( 3 femmes / 5 hommes) La moyenne d’âge est de 47 ans. Le questionnaire d’auto-évaluation a permis de suivre l’évolution d’une personne selon différents critères pertinents par rapport à la pathologie : l’appétit, le sommeil, la motivation avant le travail, la confiance en soi, la dissociation entre vie professionnelle et vie sociale, les relations aux autres, la fréquence à laquelle la personne tombe malade, le stress, la prévision de projets futurs. Les volontaires ont remplis ce questionnaire au 1er et au 21e jour de l’étude. Des échelles de cotation de 0 à 10 ont permis aux volontaires d’évaluer leurs ressentis pour chaque critère. Les lectures de données ont été faites pour chaque produit. Le questionnaire est disponible à l’url suivant: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1zD4tO9b1TjSA6_gOt4juR8-2URpSP0dj_jkC2dKovkA/ edit?usp=sharing Les résultats ont été recueillis après 21 jours d’utilisation (auto-évaluation et objectivation par les experts). Les stimuli ont été formulés en se basant sur la propriété biochimique des matières premières et sur les connaissance des dominantes olfactives connotées positivement au sein de populations données. Douze stimuli olfactifs ont été formulés, ils sont répartis équitablement selon trois axes de stimulation : A – dynamisme / énergie; B – concentration / équilibre; C – déconnexion / relaxation. 12


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

Pour faciliter le travail, nous avons procédé à des associations visio-olfactives: • Les produits A, B et C ont été gracieusement offerts aux volontaires qui présentaient des signes d’épuisement. • Les sujets se sont exposé à la stimulation olfactive 3 fois par jours durant trois semaines consécutives: A le matin, B après la pause déjeuner et C le soir. Ils ont suivi les instructions conformément au protocole.

Résultats Les résultats recueillis à l’aide du questionnaire ont montré une amélioration significative vis-à-vis des critères suivants: • Dissociation entre vie professionnelle et vie privée. 24 participants ont constaté une très bonne amélioration suite à l’étude, 21participants ont trouvé le résultat satisfaisant et 6 participants ont constaté de faibles changements. • Stress 20 participants ont signalé une nette diminution de la perception du stress, 21 participants sont satisfaits du résultats et 9 personnes n’ont pas constaté des changement significatif. • Sommeil 17 participants ont perçu une amélioration de leur qualité de sommeil, 27 ont signalé que l’endormissement était plus facile et qu’ils se sont moins réveillés pendant la nuit, 6 participants ont continué à éprouver des difficultés à s’endormir. • Estime de soi 15 participants ont retrouvé leurs confiance en soi et 27 participants ont signalé des changements significatifs • Motivation avant la journée de travail 21 volontaires ont constaté une meilleure motivation et 18 ont dit que les débuts de journée étaient moins «lourds», 11 participants n’ont pas vu de grand changement au niveaux de leur motivation. Voir le graphique 1

Quant au ressentis de l’énergie et de dynamisme, les participants ont constaté une amélioration, en moyenne, de 48 %

Les représentants du secteurs médical ont observé les changement le plus significatifs. 13


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

Voir graphique 2

Énergie/dynamisme améliorés, en moyenne, de 48 %

La capacité de rester concentré a augmenté, en moyenne, de 50,09 %. Les participants du secteur bancaire et de l’assurance ont vu leurs performances augmentées grâce à l’amélioration de leur concentration et de leur capacité à rester en « équilibre ». Les volontaires du secteurs médical ont souligné que leur tâches leur ont semblé moins pénibles. Certains participants ont recommencé à éprouver de la satisfaction pendant leur travail. Voir graphique 3

Concentration/ Équilibre augmentés, en moyen, de 50,09 %

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

La capacité de se déconnecter après le travail est améliorée, en moyenne, de 31 % Ce sont les participants issus du secteur médical et de la pharmacie qui ont ressenti le changement le plus remarquable. Par contre, les dirigeants d’entreprise ont eu plus de difficultés à dissocier vie professionnelle et vie privée. Voir graphique 4

Déconnexion / apaisement améliorés, en moyenne, de 31 %

Amélioration du bien-être au travail

Après l ‘étude 62% des participants ont ressenti une amélioration globale de leur bien-être. 21% ont été satisfaits des résultats de l’étude 13% ont constaté des changements positifs modérés 4% de participants n’ont pas vu de différence réelle, liée à l’étude.

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Conclusions Cette étude a permis de montrer que l’utilisation régulière des stimuli olfactifs peut permettre l’amélioration de la concentration, l’augmentation de l’efficacité, la diminution de la perception du stress, l’amélioration de l’estime de soi et une meilleure dissociation entre vie professionnelle et vie privée.

Remerciements Aux étudiants de l’École Supérieure du Parfum, promotion Iris, qui ont formulé plusieurs stimuli olfactifs, créé le protocole de sélection des volontaires et celui de l’étude incluant le questionnaire d’auto-évaluation à remplir en début (mesure contrôle) et en fin d’étude.

Sources 1. Dossier Le burnout ou syndrome d’épuisement professionnel, Journal du Conseil économique n°10 (2013) 2. Securex, Whitepaper, Stress et Burn-out, Menace pour les travailleurs... et les employeurs ? (février 2015) 3. Escal Consulting, Prévenir et soigner le burnout, 3p., [En ligne] URL: http://www.escalconsulting. com/filinfo/files/150527-stagesdeprevention.pdf [document consulté le 3 septembre 2018] 4. Fragrance : du désir au plaisir/Partie 1 : Biologie et physiologie du plaisir olfactif/Les fragrances et l’enracinement biologique du plaisir sensoriel p17/ André Holley / édition Jeanne Laffite 19 5. L’Olfaction : de la molécule au comportement/ Gérard Brand / Solal 2001

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MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH AT DEVELOPMENT OF STOMATOLOGICAL FILM WITH ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIONS Iskakova Maryam Kozbaevna (iskakova-maryam@mail.ru)., Solovyova E.A., Kuvatbaeva U.A., Batyrbayeva D.Zh. S.D.Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University (Kaznmu), Almaty

Abstract Microbiological studies of a new developed medical device were conducted: a dental film of antibacterial action in comparison with another known preparation in in vitro experiments. The high antibacterial activity of the developed film and the possibility of its use in the treatment of periodontal diseases is proved. Keywords: film, environ, antimicrobial activity, growth inhibition zone.

One of the actual problems in practical dentistry is to increase the effectiveness of treatment of inflammatory periodontal diseases and the choice of rational means and methods of local treatment. According to the generalized data of independent WHO experts, based on the latest results of epidemiological studies, intact periodontitis occurs in only 2-10% of cases, inflammatory periodontal diseases are detected in 90-95% of the adult population. In the development of periodontal diseases, the general condition of the organism takes place, the state of the oral cavity (poor oral hygiene, tooth decay and its complications, dental deposits, anomalies of the location of the teeth, etc.). A number of authors believe that the main etiological factor in the development of periodontal diseases are microorganisms, their associates and the products of vital activity of microorganisms [1, 2, 3]. According to modern ideas, bacterial aggression,

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being one of the initiating factor of the occurrence of periodontal diseases, causes the development of various forms of lesion of the periodontal complex, depending on the nature and intensity of the response of the organism caused by it [4, 5, 6]. In a highly competitive environment, especially in the pharmaceutical sector, there is a great need for innovative ideas for the production of various drugs and medical products. Innovative ideas are aimed at obtaining high-quality products, improving or intensifying their production technologies, which leads to the creation of efficient economic production. The great interest of scientists is aimed at the creation of new tools that provide usability and direct therapeutic effect. Particular attention deserves dental films, which include effective medicinal substances and excipients. The use of microbiological research is an integral part of experimental research in the development of composition, technology, quality evaluation of new dosage forms with antibacterial substances. In KazNMU named after S.D. Asfendiyarov the dental films are developed based on the composition of polymers with hyaluronic acid for the treatment of inflammatory and inflammatory-destructive periodontal diseases. In the composition of dental films, active components such as chlorhexidine bigluconate (20%), metronidazole, hyaluronic acid, ethereal Ziziphora Bunge ether were introduced. In the development of dental films containing antibacterial component, the study of antimicrobial activity in experiments in vitro was very important [7]. Microbiological studies were conducted based on the clinical diagnostic laboratory of KazNMU named after S.D. Asfendiyarov and the antimicrobial activity of dental films based on polymer compositions with hyaluronic acid was studied in in vitro experiments. The purpose of the study: To study the antimicrobial activity and to evaluate the effectiveness of dental films based on polymer compositions with hyaluronic acid.

Research methods: Research conditions: air temperature 18-23° С, relative humidity 40-44%.

Materials: 1. As test cultures used: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Esherichia coli ATCC25922, Staph. epiderm, Streptococcus viridans, Candida albicans (wild strains). 2. Petri dishes with Müller-Hinton agar and Saburo agar 3. Sterile saline solution (0,85%) 4. McFarland turbidity standard (0,5°C turbidity) 5. Dental films containing antibacterial components: chlorhexidine, metronidazole (experimental group). As a comparison, a dental X film with a chlorhexidine content (comparison group) was used.

The study of antimicrobial activity by diffusion The definition of the antimicrobial activity of dental films is based on their ability to inhibit the growth of microorganisms. The determination was carried out by diffusion to agar on a dense nutrient medium by comparing the sizes of growth inhibition zones of test microbes formed in testing solutions of certain concentrations. 20 ml of nutrient agar was poured into sterile Petri dishes. The thickness of the agar layer affects the results of the determination, therefore, the specified amount of the nutrient medium was strictly observed. As media, Miiller-Hinton and Saburo agar media were used. For the production of lawns, a homogeneous suspension of bacterial cells was prepared in physiological saline corresponding to the 0,5 McFarland haze standard. The bacterial suspension was applied with a sterile swab on the surface of the agar in three different directions. Five to ten minutes after the inoculation, antimicrobial films were applied to the dried surface of the agar. The dishes were allowed to stand at room temperature for 30 minutes and then incubated in a thermostat at a temperature of 28-37°C for 24-48 hours without turning over up to 5 days. The zones of oppression of microbial growth were measured by a millimeter ruler [8, 9, 10]. 18


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

Results of the study: The study involved 2 samples of dental films (Table 1). The study included museum strains of the bacterium E. coli ATCC25922, S. aureus ATCC29213, Staph.epid., Str. viridans and wild strains of C. albicans microorganisms. In the experimental group of samples of a dental film based on hyaluronic acid with metronidazole and chlorhexidine, the inhibition zone for E. coli was 17,3 mm., S. aureus 16,3 mm., Staph. epid.– 20 mm., Str. viridans 37,75 mm., C. albicans 14 mm (figure 1,3,5,7,9) . In the comparison group of dental films based on chlorhexidine, the growth retardation zone was in the ratio of E. coli-7,3 mm., S. aureus– 11,3 mm., Staph.epid.– 12 mm., Str. viridans 19,25 mm., C. albicans inhibition zone was absent (Figure 2,4,6,8,10). It should be considered that it the microbiological studies are an important and integral part for the purpose of assessing the quality of medicines containing an antibacterial component. These studies made it possible to determine the spectrum and strength of the antibacterial activity of dental films during their manufacture, study and storage. Table 1. Study of antimicrobial activity by the diffusion method

Test material

E. сoli АТСС25922

S. aureus АТСС29213

Staph. epid.

C. albicans

Str. viridans

1,2,3 (experimental group)

17,3±0,4mm

16,3±0,08мм

20±1,2 mm

14±0,5 mm

37,75±0,08 mm

1Х, 2Х, 3Х (comparison group)

7,3±0,33mm

11,3±0,06mm

12±0,5 mm

0

19,25±0,04 mm

Thus, all dental films studied had an antibacterial effect against the museum strain E. coli ATCC25922 and the wild C. albicans strain; In this case, the most active (with a larger growth retardation zone) bacteria on the studied museum and wild bacterial strains were films based on polymer compositions with hyaluronic acid (main group). The conducted research proves the great antimicrobial effectiveness of dental films based on polymer compositions with hyaluronic acid and their further practical use in the treatment of periodontal diseases.

References 1. Grudyanov A.I. Prevention of inflammatory periodontal diseases / A.I. Grudyanov, V.V. Ovchinnikov. – M .: Medical news agency, 2007. – 80 p. 2. Grigoryan A.S. Morphofunctional Foundations of Clinical Symptoms of Periodontal Inflammatory Diseases / A.S. Grigoryan, OA Frolova // Stomatology. – 2006. – №3. – P. 11-17. 3. Borovsky EV, Ivanov VS, Maksimovsky Yu.M. and others. Therapeutic stomatology: a textbook. – M .: Medicine. 2011.-736 pp. 4. Botasheva, B.C. Effect of the drug «Mexidol» on periodontal tissue in the treatment of generalized periodontitis / B.C. Botasheva, K.G. Karakov, A.V. Oganyan // Actual issues of clinical dentistry: coll. sci. slave. Stavropol, 2010. – P. 50-54. 5. Karakov, K.G. The doctor-periodontist in the network of the dental service / К.Г. Karakov, TN. Vlasova, A.V. Oganyan, E.V. Sokolova // Dental-South 2009. – No. 11. – P. 50. 6. Slonova V.М. Complex treatment of periodontitis with application of magneto-laser therapy and automated computer system «Diast» / V.M. Slonova, M.M. Pozharitskaya, A.A. Prokhonchukov et al. // Parodontology. 2004, No. 1. – P. 55-60. 19


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7. Autina N.V. Microbiological studies in the development of a dental film of antibacterial action / Autina NV, Pankrusheva TA, Avtina TV, Spichak IV // Bulletin of New Medical Technologies – 2010 – T. XVII, No. 1 – P. 120-121. 8. State Pharmacopoeia of the Republic of Kazakhstan 1st edition, volume 2 Astana: 2009. – 803 p. 9. Sanitary rules № 338 from 15.04.2015. «Sanitary-epidemiological requirements for laboratories using potentially hazardous chemical and biological substances». 10. Sanitary rules № 127 from 24.02.2015. «Sanitary-epidemiological requirements for health facilities».

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Elements of Reasoning improves the quality of students’ thinking Osmonbaeva Zhypargul Akunbaevna (jypar2006 @rambler.ru) Senior instructor of the chair of English teaching methods, Faculty of World languages and Cultures of Osh State University

Abstract Last few years have been significant changes in the system of higher Education in Kyrgyzstan. The higher Education system has changed from 5 year of study to the 4 year study of Bachelor of Education. Students who study in Bachelor of Education are required to follow the common European system of Education, because they should have a chance to continue their study in European Universities and exchange their learning experiences over there. Therefore, students need to change their way of learning skills of study according to the rules of international education.To change student’s learning from memorization to higher order thinking, the paper addresses of the using of elements of reasoning in analyzing the text in the 4th year 11 students’ classroom and see its influence on the result of students’ learning. There was not done a big research study; however, the data was taken from every day classroom teaching. Small action research was carried out to get a result from the given task. Task was based on the students’ oral answers on the text analyses. The experiment reveals the effect of reasoning to develop students’ thinking skills. The result of study shows that there was a significant change on students’ logical thinking of reasoning in the given tasks. Keywords: reasoning, mother robin, Polly parrot, memorization, inferences.

INTRODUCTION Teaching and learning are interrelated on each other, because both can play in the learning of our students’ life and they cannot be separated from each other. The question is to be asked here that how those roles can come together during teaching and learning process. In the light of my teaching experience we, teachers do so that our students have to gain think deeply and can be able to reason their thoughts. However, when the effect of most teaching is vice-versa. In most cases students’ intended outcome shows that they gained just superficial, memorized knowledge. When students are asked to recall gained knowledge they forget easily and cannot explain in their own words or cannot prove their thoughts deeply. For that reason, the article deals with the significance of the study of the issue above given, related literature review, experiences done during the reading assignment, the kind of teaching problems and the solutions of those problems. Secondly, the purpose of choosing this topic is that new group that I taught had problems in speaking and they used to learn by heart the given tasks. Whenever questions were asked related to the task they cannot answer to the given questions. Therefore, I decided students to be motivated to speak and to discuss on the given task. Another reason of choosing the topic was that would like to use my gained knowledge from critical thinking seminars in my teaching practice and would like to observe the results effect on students’ learning.

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Significance of the study This small scale will be important to several people, and will assist in my role as a teacher. As an English language teacher this study is significant, which can guide me to use appropriate methodology further in my teaching context. The knowledge and experience that I hope to gain from this study will help not only to me but will help to my colleagues’ further teaching practice and my students whom I teach.

LITERTURE REVIEW The problem is here in most cases we, teachers used to do almost tasks ourselves, speak more than our students. Similarly, R. Paul (1995) calls this part of the problem «mother robin» teaching. As it was said above that as in the robin fashion we try to mentally prepare everything for our students so we put it into their intellectual beaks to swallow. Thus, our students is compared with parrot and was slightly mix metaphor used as «Polly parrot» learners seem not to understand anything unless teacher tell and show them exactly how and what to say and think. It appears to me that students believe and think their teachers have to do everything for them and they feel that it is teacher’s responsibility. They have an idea of following their teachers. As a result, in practice they cannot do anything except repeating as Polly parrot teacher’s view or the textbook say. Students in one of my group can not be able to express their opinions freely. Actually, in my experience of teaching some students learn content by memorizing and this type of knowledge cannot stay in their mind for a long time. Having read related materials and participating in different courses of concerning thinking before speaking made me reflect on my teaching and go back to my own learning. Similarly to above example, I realized that when I was a school girl and was a student at the university I was also taught and used to memorize the content to get positive marks. For instance, in physics I used to learn the texts and to tell the teachers without explaining and without to be asked questions. Because of that, in practical part on solving the problem I used to fail. Later, I learned terms by heart and swotted up English words. Because we had an idea that we needed to learn English just for getting diploma and for teaching pupils, but not to use in conversation. It was clear that during that time there were not any English speaking environment and native speakers of English for correct conversing. We just used to fulfill the required tasks for us from the side of our teachers. Our teachers didn’t demand us make a question and think much and could not give us questions which could make us think. It reveals that we used to learn content through memorizing without discussing and thinking deeply. So we couldn’t converse in English as it was required to speak. Practically, we had no right to express our ideas that or this issue. Similarly, the article in http:www .critical thinking org.pages the type of (memorization) learning called pseudo learning. Pseudo learning defines as mimics genuine learning. The article gives the example that students have not really learned why the earth spins on it axis and they believe that earth does because their teacher said. So they believe their teachers know everything and teachers are always right. However, students cannot ask questions why and how earth spins on its axis. At the result, neither do they understand because they memorized, there were no any experiment and proof done so they cannot prove their given answer. They just learned through memorization. Victoria, N. & Guralnic , D.B. (1997) called memorization is learning by heart smth. It is a product of understanding which get by thinking one’s way through a question. Similarly, experience shows that our 22


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students never ask questions right after the lesson or lecture. It indicates if students cannot ask proper questions, they are not thinking well enough to have any questions right after the lecture. Here, the issue is that teachers cannot teach students to ask questions or cannot think themselves as well. Paul, R. (1995) mentions that another important issue here even most teachers are not aware of importance of reasoning. He suggested in the first place, it is important for teachers need to learn how to argument their thoughts and give positive, reasonable sound while they were speaking or discussing the content. We, teachers need to our students how to reason their ideas well. Therefore, students need to be taught to set questions, write down and submit questions to the teacher at the end or at the beginning of class. Students need to be taught to respect and love the question for what it is; the beginning and perhaps the end of the lesson. According to Paul students can understand well if they think themselves, able to prove their thought through doing experiment individually. Again here the role of teacher is big, because teacher is the person who can arrange circumstances and design activities for students to facilitate the process of thinking through analyzing, synthesizing. Nowadays, it is observed that instruction of the teaching needed to be changed accordingly. Webster’ s New World College dictionary (1997) defines thinking is that thinks or can think, thought, reflective and phrase , «to put on one’s thinking cap» means to begin carefully thinking about problem.[1391p]. The purpose of specifically teaching thinking in the discipline of English is to improve the thinking skills of students through the related context and thus better prepare them to succeed in the future life. Sparapani E.F (1998) defines thinking, on the other hand, takes time for reflection, for discussion and interaction, question posing and responding. Steven D. Schaferdman (1991) in www.freeinquiry.com/critical-thinking html said that education can be transmitted students two different things: 1. The subject or discipline content of the course (what to think) 2. The correct way to understand and evaluate this subject (How to think) As he mentioned that we need urgently to teach students how to think over this or that issue. While students answer to the topic they have to use words from the text carefully as « evidence» that must be taken into account in interpreting what the text» means. Victoria, N. & Guralnic , D.B. (1997) defines Reasoning means the drawing of inferences or conclusions from known or assumed facts, proofs or reasons resulting from this [1119p]. As thinking which attempts in some intelligible way to figure smth out, reasoning is helpful to concentrate on can be called «the elements of reasoning». Paul and Elder (1997) said that the elements of reasoning enable teachers to analyze their thoughts. They advice us using the following elements of reasoning activities in our lessons to help students to develop their thinking.

All reasoning: • • • • • • • •

Has a purpose has an attempt to answer questions, or solve the problems Is based on assumptions Is framed by a specific point of view Is dependent on information, data and evidence Contains inferences, or interpretations, that lead to conclusions Is expressed through concepts and ideas Has implications and consequences

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EXPERIENCE OF USING ELEMENTS OF REASONING IN THE READING ASSIGNMENT In most of the cases, it was noticed that many of my students were not ready for reading tasks, especially when they were given texts to analyze. When I discussed the issue with them they reply that they had difficulties in reading the tasks, because the vocabulary and content of texts were complicated for them to digest. Students were used to describe and to comment on the text in junior years of the study. When I was given new group it was not easy for me to explain students new task and to make them comprehend the text. Then I decided to use simple texts for reading and asked them first to read and then give the main idea of the text. It was seen that some students learnt by heart some words of the text and used to speak, however, if I asked questions they cannot answer at all. To fulfill the purpose of doing the experiment I used the action research. Fundamental aim of action research is to improve practice rather than to produce the knowledge. [Elliot, p49] Elliot discusses whether teaching process influences the development of students’ intellectual powers then it must manifest such qualities openness to their questions, ideas and ways of thinking. Elliot also indicates that the quality of learning depends on the teaching, [Elliot, 50] Taking account students’ feelings about the task I used the following 2 quite distinct patterns of information that Elliot gives for using in the classroom. 1. Read – understand – discuss 2. Read-discuss – understand. [ 2. p19] When I used these two patterns, some students testified the first and some found right second pattern. It is a natural that each student’s perception of information is different. Action research is defined as ‘the study of social situation with a view to improving the quality of action within it. It is indicated through practice. Kurt Lewin first coined the term «action research». He involves a «spiral of cycles»[ 2, 68]p

Analyzing the logic of an article I used the following template below for the 4th year students for analyzing the reading assignment text entitled «Ragtime» [1,118]p For analyzing the text the following questions were given. After reading the text students have to answer the given questions. The main purpose of the task was to comprehend the text through analyzing. For making students learning outcomes objective I use tables of Appendix A and B. I gave criteria how to get each mark. So it was clear for them what to do . Actually, it worked well. Students could see their own achievements and drawbacks at the end of the lesson. The idea was welcomed well by the students. Purpose:

What I trying to accomplish through reading the text? What is my purpose of reading the text?

Questions:

What question am I raise while I read? Am I considering the complexities in the question?

Information:

What information am I using in coming to that conclusion? What experiences have I had to support this claim? What information do I need to settle the question?

Inferences:

How did I reach to conclusion?

Conclusion:

Is there another way to interpret information?

Concepts:

What is the main idea here? Can I explain this idea?

Assumptions: What am I taking granted? What assumption has led me to that conclusion? 24


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Consequences: If someone accepts my position, what would be the implications? What am I implying? Points of view: From what point of view am I looking at the issue? Is there another point of view I should consider?

[Paul, P & Elder, L. 2010].

The questions above seemed hard for students and they needed support and asked many questions concerning the task. Those hints and examples were given to the students to encourage their answers on the given task.

Analyses of findings There were 11 students got the task. Among 11 students 7 students did the task well. I used letters (A, B, C.) for students’ name for the purpose of not to make students be ashamed in front of the class. First day students were reluctant to do the task. They said that they couldn’t answer, because they did not read the text. It seemed that they did not understand the task well. The second day some students did the task, some of them read the text and understood to some extent, but not completed. The third day they were warned if the task might effect on the result of their credit. For making easy for students during the class even I divided the text into small paragraphs and divided the class into groups. Students read the text in the respected groups. In fact; they seemed to be interested in learning the meaning of the text well. In analyzing the 1st question almost students answered they want to accomplish to learn new words, improve 4 skills (writing, reading, speaking, listening). Student E said that she wants to share ideas, analyze, clarify and think before doing smth. She knows why she is learning, but she is reluctant to work on her own learning. Student –D answered on question 2 when he reads the text he puts himself in the place of characters and ask the following question; «What would be if he was in that situation»? This indicates that he can personalize, create his own thought out of the idea in the text. She was one of the best students in the class comparing with other students who are quiet. Student– A answered to the 1st question that she does her task for the sake of conveying her ideas to the class. Unfortunately, the rest of the students could not answer completely to all questions. Student –E could give the following that Coalhouse was not nonchalant towards his baby , because he wanted to be again with Sarah and child. The result showed that students cannot give their own points but depended the words of the text. The study showed that there many factors which inhibit students’ thinking and speaking. The students’ background knowledge, own style of learning, lack of understanding the meaning of the text, no opportunities and no responsibilities of self learning and self evaluation can cause many problems in their learning. However, responses regarding the students’ written and oral work suggested that students put their effort on thinking freely and they like to share their opinions differently from their peers. The main learned experience was that we, teachers should give students task which make them think deeply and find solutions themselves what they think. Students learn best when they were guided properly and above guided questions also help learners to concentrate on the content and help them to speak. Students need to be motivated that each of their ideas is valued and unique. It was shown that through many times practices students could be able to build confidence and there was a big change in their way of thinking. The result have stimulated a great deal of students to work more and expanded their own responsibility to learning.

Conclusion In conclusion, the experience showed that both teaching and learning today are desperately in need of restructructering. Using the elements of reasoning in the lesson could push to move and promote students’ think better. We, teachers have to set a specific objective, and with it plan exactly what we will do for result. What needs to be done is practice reasoning in classrooms regularly. We, teachers should give more problematic questions to the students and make them solve and make conclusions. Students need to be encour25


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aged to express logical and reasonable support for their opinions during discussions. Have students give reasons and examples that supported their ideas and they could learn to support their arguments naturally. Finally, the article suggested that teachers need to be changed themselves from not being Mother Robin teachers, but should give students the tasks to chew and to digest themselves.

References 1. Aракин В.Д. Практический курс английского языка. 4курс учебник для вузов. Под редакцией Аракина 5-ое издание, Москва. Владос, 2006.-[118-121c] 2. John Elliott Action Research for Educational Change. Developing Teachers and Teaching. Open University Press. Milton Keynes. Philadelphia 1991. [19p] 3. Paul, R. (1995). Critical Thinking: How to prepare students’ for a rapidly changing world. Dillon Beach, US. 4. Paul,R & Elder, L. (1997). The Elements of Reasoning and Foundations for Critical Thinking. (intellectual standard) online at website; www.cr.org 5. Paul, P & Elder, L. (2010). The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools. Dillion Beach. Foundation for critical Thinking Press 6. Sparapani E.F (1998). Encouraging thinking in high schools and middle school constraints and possibilities. Clearing house v 71 5 [p274-76] 7. Steven D. Schafer man (1991). in www.freeinquiry.com/critical-thinking 8. Victoria Neufeldt & David B. Guralnic (1997). Webster’s New World College Dictionary.[(1391p]. Macmillian US

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Appendix A Checklist for evaluating student’s logical thinking on the text comprehension Student’s name :__________________ Group: __________________________ Use tick If student’s answer meet requirements Use ( – ) if student cannot answer to the questions 1.Purpose

Points

Students’ accomplishment on thinking

5p

4p

3p

2p

Note:

1. How student defined his/her central aim and purpose II. Information 1. The way of using information to come to conclusion 2. Experiences his/her had to support the claim III. Inferences and Conclusions 1. How student reached to conclusion 2. Ways of interpreting the information IV. Concepts 1. Defining the main idea 2. The way of explaining the main idea V. Assumptions 1. What s/he takes for granted? 2. Her/his assumptions has lead them to come to the conclusion VI. Implications /consequences 1. What she/he implies for the implications of the task VII. Point of View 1. Her/his point of view to the problem VIII. Questions 1. Questions she/he raised on the issue Question she/he addresses Adapted from Richard Paul’s «Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking» [5]

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Appendix B Assessment reasoning abilities of a test Name ________________________________ Score________________ date_____________

A-5score (High structure) (25p-30p)

Can handle responses that differ from standard responses, in varying degrees. Responses that are radically different is well defended, receive full credit. Can provide evidence and can analyze, reason effectively, identify strong argument for conflicting positions in reasoning

B-4score (Medium structure) (15p-20p)

Providing an argument actively and requesting argumentative response to the task and defense without specifying the organization of the response.

C-3score (Minimal structure) (8p-15p)

Can be further reduced by providing only a question to be answered or issue to be addressed

Created by the senior instructor of the chair of teaching English methodology, Zh. A. Osmonbaeva Ideas were taken from Barbara Gross Davis, University of California, Berkeley (1999). Tools for Teaching. Copyright by Jossey– Bass. Note: Grader must be proficient in Critical Thinking

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Evaluation of the effectiveness of the «flipped class» based on the online «Edmodo» system Ryskulova Alma-Gul (r.alma@bk.ru), Yulia Akhmetova (yuliyaakhmetova@inbox.ru), Assel Markabayeva (as.markabaeva@mail.ru), Alma Shmygaleva (3654422@gmail.com) Kazakh Medical University of continuing education (KazMUCE), Almaty

Abstract Modern education, which is a process in constant dynamic development. At this stage of its development, the introduction of training using the capabilities of the worldwide Internet (e learning) and modern gadgets began. All this should positively affect, both on the quality of teaching, on the increase of interest in learning and teaching, and on the facilitation of the process itself for students and teachers. E learning is a system of learning, knowledge sharing and management of the learning process using the latest information and telecommunication technologies. In the process of e-learning, interactive electronic means of information delivery, primarily Internet and corporate networks of companies are used, but other methods, such as CDs, are also possible. The elearning system includes software and hardware solutions. It assumes the availability of a special database, which contains educational content and training monitoring systems. In our research, we studied the effectiveness of training in the «flipped class» system using the Edmodo electronic network in the cycle «Therapy with the basics of the electrocardiogram (further ECG)», the topic «Basics of the ECG using the flipped class method». The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of e learning in the form of an «inverted class» using the resources of the Edmodo network. The study was in a private university in the Almaty region. Participants were 24 students, of which, 12 of them was a control group. In this study we used, a quantitative method of data analysis. The result obtained from the analysis confirms that the effectiveness of training with the «inverted class» method using the Edmodo network turned out to be higher than the control group trained by the standard scheme. The results of this study can inspire teachers to reassess how they conduct their studies. Keywords: online training, inverted class, e learning, flipped class, flipped learning, Edmodo 29

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Literature review: The traditional scheme of teaching in all educational institutions was that students study materials at home (read textbooks, do homework), and at the school, listen to lectures and perform tests (Nwosisi, Ferreira, Rosenberg, and Walsh 2016). Now, the rapid turnover in terms of efficiency and frequency of application is gaining the «flipped class» or «flipped training» technique and the online learning system «Edmodo», which allows real-time and round-the-clock accessibility, to study the material on the topic (Haygood, Garner, & Johnson, 2012). Flipped class or inverted learning (flipped learning) is one of the forms of modern learning that allows you to «flip» the training. In the following way: when instead of homework students watch short video lectures on the network – they themselves go through theoretical material (viewing video materials (video lectures), reading of the proposed texts, studying explanatory images, passing tests), and all classroom time is used for joint practical assignments with the teacher (Bergmann, Sams, 2 012). Educational social site Edmodo is a free and secure network that integrates the work of teachers and trainees, as well as the parents of students (this is more about schoolchildren) developed by Jeff O’Hara and Nick Borg in 2008 and is available at www.edmodo.com ( Chada Kongcham, 2013). To work with this system you can use stationary computers, laptops, laptops, netbooks, mobile devices with iOS and Android and other gadgets. To access this resource, a user of any of the above categories only needs to go through a free registration on the site. This procedure as simplified as much as possible: for example, there is no need to specify a mobile phone number and date of birth. Teachers will simply enter their name, surname, email address, and come up with a password. Students and their parents will additionally need to indicate the registration code that they give by the teacher. In 2011, Edmodo was recognized as one of the best educational networks in the category «Social Networks and Communications». It contributes to the improvement of the quality of education and the introduction of innovations (Habley, 2011). Edmodo uses more than 6.5 million users, as well as on this basis an online conference called Edmodo on in which thousands of participants are hosted (Flanigan, 2011). In Edmodo, each user has his own profile page, can join groups and communities. Users can upload a profile image and share links and videos (via YouTube) on their page. They can access libraries, training materials and their pages around the world (when at home, at school and on travel) through Edmodo (Trust, 2012)

Research methodology: This is a quantitative analysis, the evaluation of the results of which based on the results of testing at the end of the training. By automatic calculation of the results. Participants in this study were 24 students, the cycle «Therapy with the basics of ECG.» Baseline: A novice in identifying the normal and pathological rhythm of the heart on an ECG simulator. End Level: A specialist in identifying the normal and pathological rhythm of the heart on an ECG simulator. Number of students – 15 (non-attendance among students, in general, from two groups (22 people) was seven people). Duration 9 hours: Practical lessons – 6 hours. Self-study work (e-learning) – 3 hours The purpose of the course «Basics of ECG» – Formation of basic skills of identification of normal and pathological rhythms of the heart with the help of an ECG simulator Tasks after graduation: Students will be able to explain the signs of a normal and abnormal ECG rhythm. Trainees will be able to identify pathological rhythms on the ECG simulator. Control form – Current monitoring Evaluation method – Testing (MCQ with ECG tapes, 80% efficiency evaluation). CIS-ECG tape (installed simulator in the program – Edmodo, with automatic calculation of the percentage of correct answers) on the ECG simulator; Training: Form of the training: Distance learning – Independent work of the student at home under the Edmodo program (Inverted class). Practical work – Solution of situational tasks. Method of teaching – Electronic methods of teaching using the program Edmodo. Evaluation criteria – Test tasks set in the Edmodo program. Assessment of learning effectiveness – ECG tape (installed simulator in the program – Edmodo, with automatic calculation of the percentage of correct answers) on the ECG simulator; 30


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Data analysis The results obtained during the study reflected in Table 1 and Table 2. Table 1. Results of the final testing in the group learning by the «inverted class» system, educational platform Edmodo

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Total

Individual test 96 96 96 96 63 52 72 49 25

Group test 100 100 100 100 98,2 98,2 98,2 98,2 98,2

Objective 100 100 100 100 90 90 90 90 90

Total 98,7 98,7 98,7 98,7 83,7 80,1 86,7 79,0 71,1 88,4

Only 12 people. Three people – absent Table 2. Results of the final testing of the participants of the second group of students by the classical method

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Total:

Individual test 68 58 49 63 65 70 60 52

Group test 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Objective 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90

Total 86 82,7 79,7 84,3 85 86,7 83,3 80,7 83,55

Only 12 people. 4 people – absent Based on the results of the final testing, the group # 1 showed higher results of the final testing, which may indicate a higher learning efficiency, mastering of the material passed, if the «flipped class» method used based on the online «Edmodo» system.

Conclusion This study has shown its effectiveness in the learning process and the ability to use online platforms and the «flipped class» training in programs. Edmodo as a learning platform that has sufficient advantages over traditional forms of learning. The advantages are that Edmodo can facilitate the pooling of knowledge, free and full access to information online at any time, the full informational richness of the course program, the opportunity to communicate with the teacher via chat, online testing. We assume that the introduction of this training system in the constant practical activities of teachers will increase the effectiveness of training and as a result will allow the production of highly qualified specialists. 31


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References 1. Bergmann, J., Sams, A. (2012). Flip Your Classroom. Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day. ASCD, ISTE, 2012 2. Flanigan, R. (2011). Professional learning networks taking off. Education Week. 3. Habley, J. (2011) AASL announces 2011 best websites for teaching and learning 4. Haygood, E., Garner, R., & Johnson, S. (2012). Blended Learning: Using Web2.0S to Enhance Classroom Instruction. Interlink Alliance. Retrieved October 10, 2013, from http://www.cehs.ohio.edu/ 5. Nwosisi, C., Ferreira, A., Rosenberg, W., Walsh, K., (2016) A Study of the Flipped Classroom and Its Effectiveness in the Flipping Thirty Percent of the Course Content. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 6, No. 5 6. Trust, T., (2012) Professional learning networks designed for teacher learning. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 28 (4), 133-138.

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cluster approach to the creation of the corporate structure of the University Bondarenko V.P. (vbond2011@mail.ru), Kozibaev E.Sh., Sadyrbayeva A.S. (a.sadyrbaeva@mail.ru), Rud Y.A. (Rud.Yelena@yandex.kz) M. Auezov South Kazakhstan State University, Shymkent

Abstract The article discusses the problems of the formation of new management approaches in the corporate policy of universities, building an organizational culture that promotes innovation, which should be based on the knowledge of values and motivation of people who are prone to innovation. It is revealed that the activity of innovative universities allows to take, both at the Federal and regional levels, measures to create conditions for the development of economic, educational and social sectors, taking into account the competitive advantages of each region. As an example of the formation and development of a new model of innovative interaction between the government, economy, education and business, the mechanisms of creation of regional scientific and innovative clusters are described. Discusses the place, role and function of cluster components: regional authorities, Universities, enterprises, business-structures etc. Also provides study of organizational culture in the South Kazakhstan stateKnowledge and awareness are the basic economic development criteria in the modern world and social/public life improvement factors. However economy transformation cannot be initiated merely by knowledge. It requires a comprehensive complex of structures and systemic actions through which knowledge is generated and personnel is trained. In this connection universities’ are deemed as agencies playing vital role in social development. They ensure advance training of scientific-education, technological, managerial and cultural elite of the country. Keywords: corporate structure, cluster, research, university, innovation, accreditation, benchmarking. Cardinal changes in the modern world require from the knowledge system deeper understanding of topical problems of humanity. With regard to topical problems teachers/professors and students cannot sit idle. It is not a simple task to graduate demanded specialists in the progressive innovative social modernization all the while positively effect on youth through decent ideal approaches. Correctly selected university strategy as well as development of corporate culture is that what help to accomplish the task. What is university of the future? This question is in concern not only of academic society but whole intellectual social corp. Not by coincidence State Education Development Program of the Republic of Kazakhstan 2011-2020 [3] strongly emphasizes on establishment of research universities based on corporate management model. Now universities have a specific status entitled them to develop own educational programmes. It has become possible to create partnership with business structures, commercialize innovations and develop state/private cooperation. Corporate culture of any organization plays a key role in its management structure and represents a complex of opinions, anticipations, values, relations and staff policy.

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For example, American universities applied a synthesis of democratic traditions brought by early medieval universities and pragmatism of German university school [1-2]. The American approach to higher education initially differed by academic freedom and was oriented to society. Therefore leading American universities in the middle of 20century turned in powerful educational, research and scientific/production corporations closely connected with business, industry and management systems. Nowadays world research universities are not simply  higher  institutions of quality education, intellectual and cultural development, but subjects of pride as countries consider their own educational status in comparison with others and base on competitive human assets. Research status of universities is an adequate form of integration of science and education into the current production process; it has been strengthened all over the world thus increasing number of such universities. In USA there are already over 100 research higher institutions and more than 70 in Great Britain and Germany. China has commenced program on establishment of 100 research universities with the annual budget of each in $1bln. To meet such objective Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan initiated democratic manner of management through corporate structuring of higher institutions.  It well corresponds with our strategic objectives in higher institutions to prepare demanded graduates. To this extent a number of serious reforms are planned at the Southern Kazakhstan State University after M. Auezov (hereinafter UKGU). Being the largest multidisciplinary institution in higher education in the country the university is in the top of national ranking, positioning itself as well-known brand in sphere of higher education in Kazakhstan. The university has passed institutional accreditation in MoE&S, RK; 13 educational chemical and technological programs are accredited by ASIIN (Germany). 4 bachelor chemistry and chemical technology specialties of the university is entitled for Euro-bachelor award assigned by ECTNA European Association [4-5]. The university is 2nd in the General ranking of Independent Kazakhstan Agency on education quality insurance (NKAOKO). All the above said attracts more students, increasing number of undergraduates and doctoral candidates. We tend to involve into scientific and educational process top management of large companies, leading scientists and experts thus transferring the university itself into main production process representing this or that scientific field. At present UKGU are proud of those top managers and leaders who graduated from the university and are employed by well- known national chemical and petrochemical companies Perspective development of education system depends on integration into the world educational space. UKGU achieved 98 Agreements on international cooperation through international scientific and technical cooperation and foreign economic affairs. The university is the member of such international agencies as European Association of institutions in higher  education (EURASHE); International Academy of Education Sciences; TEMPUS Universities Consortium; Eurasian Universities Association  ; Board of CIS Network University ; European Association of Universities of hospitality (EURHODIP); signatory of the Magna Charta of Universitatum; is the one the Basic higher  institution of SCO universities alliance [6].  34


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Above said achievements constitute recognizable brand of the university, its acknowledgement in academic field and demonstrate its importance to the society. Annually over 100 people are sent for training abroad under study exchange programmes, i.e. IAESTE, AIREX, DAAD (German academic exchanges unit), British Council, American Board of American Education Council. Participating in different grants and programs, young teachers strengthen image of the university thus leading to Intellectual nation concept [7-8]. The university in course of future corporate structure forms its budget not only out of public funds; it attracts finance from different organizations and business structures. The research component of the university is developed at the expense of grant financing. Under NATO Science Program for Peace and Security the university in association with scientists from Norway, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan commenced international Project ESP.EAP.SFPP 983945 on Assessment of contaminated transboundary water basins in Central Asia. Today yet there is no uniform comprehensive approach or magic formula for «manufacturing» world-class university. National features and institutional models are highly variable. Among these different development ways each country can choose the strategy which is mostly corresponds to its capability and resources. For this reason, applying the best practice (benchmarking) UKGU develops principle ways for establishment of corporate culture purposed to create a model of successful organization. In achieving this we have planned new mission, policy and strategy for university development based on partnership with main region authorities and justified the transition of university to innovative business – structure management. UKGU development strategic plan 2011-2015 is based on an approach that represents a university as alliance aimed on education, the scale within which its faculty and students share common ideas; work jointly over uniformity of education and research and integrate possessed knowledge into students’ seculareducation. In the light hereof we consider higher institution as an open, fair, orderly alliance adhered cultural traditions; it is the area wherein specific training and worldview are effectively united into holistic philosophy. We are forming an academic field for development of intellectual, social and physical competence. As the result a student learns how to control emotions, understands its independence, individuality, sense of purpose, to be tolerant. Through early involvement of students into scientific process we knowingly define their interests, intentions and preferences and create conditions for development of personal system of values and encourage their innovative initiatives. Main vectors of the strategy are oriented to modernization of top management system applying international standards of corporate management, as well as to high quality skills and university’s self-dependency. Innovative technologies became usual techniques in everyday training reflected in increased teaching in English, academic and scientific mobility of students and faculty. It is common for ideal agencies to perform comprehensive measurements of their work. To remain valuable for consumers of education services, its clients and society is the main priority in UKGU policy and strategy. The university is oriented to individual way of study process, selectivity of education programs, courses and teachers, and to most transparent educational process. We work making programs unique corresponding to three rules Just in time, Just enough, Just for me.  By virtue of e-learning students and undergraduates conduct independent work and research using advanced software and IT technologies. Established Institute of distance learning effectively provides with full range of education services in form of on-line interactive information.  Today’s training cannot be beyond a focus on a consumer; life-long learning can be achieved by an integral approach. Towards improvement of students’ skills we have established partnership with such wellknown companies as PetroKazakhstan Oil Products LLP, Kazfosfat LLP, Yuzhpolimetal JSC , South-West Scientific Research Institute of plant growing and animal husbandry, Agroinnovatsiya JSC , Ontustik Munay Gaz LLP, Avtobusservice LLP, Kazakhstan Temir Zholy NC etc. UKGU cooperation with industrial sector /companies indicated that in addition to traditional engineering staff there is a need in multiple-purpose professions, such as engineers – managers, experts of innovative projects as well as in international marketing, patent law, risks assessment experts for innovative projects. Taking into such demands educational programs were developed complying with research university status. We have created institutional background for integration into the world education space and for the complete incorporation into Bologna Process.  Programs, projects, ideas and services rendered by UKGU are the components of corporate structure and oriented to needs of the region. Scientists of the university fulfilled a complex analysis of social and economic development of the Southern Kazakhstan area for the last 10 years. It has allowed to define not only 35


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priorities of scientific and technical development but also to assess level of competitiveness of the region, to arrange partnership of those have been involved  into innovative process, to develop targets for manufacturing of products taking into account both internal and external market demands.   UKGU performed monitoring to assess current condition within the region. Future development was viewed from different sides and defined sectors of priority such as agro-industrial complex for food security; industrial economy sector and its numerous advanced technologies applied to make a breakthrough in innovation-technological field; tourist cluster and its obligatory adherence of cultural traditions and natural specifics of the region. During the meeting held by Oblast Akim jointly with all managerial sectorial agencies it was  noted that the extent and intensity of innovative targets within the region depend on close relations open by state, business, education, science and industry. It has been concluded to amend South Kazakhstan Development Programme 2011-2015. In his Letter d/d January27, 2012 Social and economic modernization is the key vector of Kazakhstan development, N. Nazarbayev, RK President has defined a number of new projects development focus on industry and infrastructure. UKGU have created innovative infrastructure to involve entirely scientists into modernization of national economy. We are cofounding South Kazakhstan regional science park where new laboratory devices are centered and a basis for trial industrial tests is established, business incubator, design and planning divisions are functioning. The science park is the solely one center within South Kazakhstan where a technological transfer is arranged. Conclusion. Corporate culture of higher institution forms human assets and improvement hereof defines knowledge economy. Corporate university must have high-ranking officials and donors in the name of known businessmen, companies’ top management who are ready to support university in implementation of its mission. We have established a Trust Board entered by top management of leading national and transnational companies, businessmen and South Kazakhstan Oblast administration. We have been worked over establishment of an endowment using outsourcing and fundraising. Meantime the main management resources are not represented by finance and other traditional means but intelligence of  professors/teachers and young scientists who are business -tenanted and possess leadership practices are attracted.  

References 1. Арапова Г.М. Кластерный подход в системе высшего образования по подготовке кадров индустрии туризма, гостеприимства и сервиса // Научные труды ЮКГУ им. М.Ауэзова. – 2016. – №2 (37). – С. 140. 2. Государственная программа развития образования и науки Республики Казахстанна 2016 – 2019 годы. http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/U1600000205#z8, дата обращения: 17.09.2017г. 3. Назарбаев Н.А. Взгляд в будущее: модернизация общественного сознания (12 апреля 2017 г.). http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=36155529, дата обращения: 17.09.2017г. 4. Послание Президента Республики Казахстан – Лидера нации Н.А.Назарбаева народу Казахстана «Стратегия «Казахстан-2050»: новый политический курс состоявшегося государства// Казахстанская правда. – 15.12.2012 г., № 437-438. 5. Y.G. Vodichev, «Research» universities of USA and Russian university system, experience in comparative analуsis, Novosibirsk, 21.03.2001. http://www.prof.msu.ru/PC/omsk/2_02.htm 6. The European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning. – Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2008. 7. Tuning Educational Structures in Europe. http://tuning.unidtusto.org/ 8. Формирование квалификационной структуры в системе высшего образования казахстана на основе компетентностного подхода и инновационного обучения, ориентированного на результат//Отчет о научно-исовательской работе. – 2012. – Шымкент. 76с.

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FORMATIONS OF RESEARCH SKILLS AT SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SECTIONS ELECTROMAGNETISM AND ELECTRODYNAMICS N.S. Saidullayeva, A.B. Oralbayev, K.Sh. Abdiramanova, A.O. Kalikulova South Kazakhstan State university named after M. Auezov, Shymkent, Kazakhstan

Abstract The significance and practical value of scientific projects of school students on electromagnetism and electrodynamics is shown in this article, which is necessary for future experts to be rich with incentive on cognitive activity and on formations of research skills and improvement of knowledge of natural objects. Along with it, here are considered the operating principles of different accelerators, in addition, have been analyzed the physical processes occurring in these accelerators. Keywords: modern physics, standard model, the accelerator of charged particles, a research on the Large Hadron Collider, Higgs Boson, nuclear physics, the electromagnetic field, physics of elementary particles, electrodynamics, the electromagnetic theory of Maxwell.

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Presently in a century of computer development, the Internet and scientific and technical process, active attention is paid to scientific projects in educational institutions as these projects are necessary for formation of research skills of school students. The person who is simply able to conduct scientific research deal, will be capable to apply and develop them in various spheres of activity. For pupils who have this skills is a adjunct at entering higher educational institutions, as well as in participating in scientific conferences, seminars, the Olympic Games. However, unfortunately, experience shows that not all school students own skills of research approach in the solution of various questions, many aren't able to write papers, reports, projects, to make theses, etc. A task of teachers highly includes the task to give certain skills and abilities in this direction. The research activity applying technique constitutes an ability to own experimental methods and assumes stage-by-stage, purposeful formation of all components of scientific-research culture of school student, even taking into consideration the age abilities of a pupil: • Thinking faculties (analysis and allocation of the main thing; comparison; generalization and systematization; definition explanation of concepts, specification; proof and denial; ability to see a contradiction); • Skills to work with book and other information sources; • Skills connected with the manners of written and spoken language; • Special and specific research skills. All these skills of research activity form use and processing of a technique of the scientific analysis of pupils. The purpose of being skillful appears in being able to formulate or point out the most important problem from the large volume of information, also, the purpose reveals the systematization and specification of selected task on consultations in the process of project preparation and implementation. School students will coordinate a subject of the scientific project with the project leader, then formulate the purposes and tasks for the solution of specific problems. Studying the theoretical material, experimental results, and other school projects on the chosen experimental task provide children and teacher with chance to carry out an interesting and fascinating scientific project. The method of projects is the pedagogical technology focused not on integration of the actual knowledge, but on their use and acquisition of new knowledge. Active inclusion of the school student in creation of these or those projects gives him the chance to master new ways of human activity in the scientific environment. The method of the project is one of the personal focused technologies which cornerstone the development of informative cognitive skills of pupils, abilities to independently design their knowledge, to become information space focused, and on developing critical and creative thinking. The modern science, as a rule, can not tolerate the amateur relations and interests. Its front step line is so far that to it is necessary to go for years of training. On the other hand, experience of research projects which are being carried out by our school students and students ,or, which are being tried to be done, shows that such questions nevertheless exist so far. Other question is that how far and deep can be get in if not to be an expert [1-3]. How the school student is able to perform research work. How to be prepared for a scientific conference. By carrying out scientific research, school students gain skills of independent creativity which will be favorable for them in any field of professional activity even if it will be not a science. However in the modern world it is extremely important to have skills of independently obtaining new knowledge, information and their practical application. The person who has received skills of creativity will be able to find himself in any business. By performing research, the school student is likely to find a preferable business , understand what is required to him for further education. Having conducted a research the pupil will be able to participate in a scientific conference among school students, to get acquainted and make friends with the talented peers and to visit interesting places. Before the research it is necessary to decide on what it would like to study, that is with area of a research (physics, mathematics, etc.). It is necessary to estimate the resources which are available for him: who will be his project supervisor and where he will find information necessary to him (access to books, 38


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the Internet) what equipment and computer facilities he has. Then the pupil needs to choose a research subject. What is the prior thing at the choice of a subject topic? The choice of a subject is a prerogative of project supervisor, You just might be offered it. The research supervisor understands that what subject will turn out for that time which you utilize. But be not too lazy to look attentively at examples of works of school students which are available on the websites of school conferences and on this website: having learned what your age-mates could make, you will understand better what will be on forces to you [1,3,5]. The deep delusion extended among school students is the opinion that the «real» work is that where there are a lot of difficult formulas, obscure definitions. Or that it has to be executed «on the very brink of modern science». The objectives and tasks of project– research method. A main objective of this method is development of the independent creative personality of the child which is defined by tasks of development and tasks of research activity of children. • formation of prerequisites of search activity and intellectual initiative; • development of ability to define possible methods of identifying solutions to problems with adult assist; • creating the ability to apply these methods promoting the solution of an objective using various options; • improving the intensions to use special terminology, and conducting a constructive conversation in the course of joint research activity so far. The program in a method of projects is under construction as a series of the interconnected moments following from these or those tasks. School students have to learn to build their activity together with other children, to find, get knowledge necessary for implementation of this or that project, thus, resolving the vital tasks, a relation system with each other, learning life, children gain knowledge, necessary for this life, and independently, or together with others in group, concentrating on live and vital material, learning to understand the realities of life by tests and trials [1-3]. The technique of the organization of scientific activity of the school student is defined by the clearness and concreteness of statement of the purpose, allocation of the planned results, ascertaining of basic data. At implementation of the project the role of the teacher and listener qualitatively changes. They are various at different projecting stages. The most difficult for the teacher during project work is handling the role of independent adviser. It is important during consultations only to answer the questions arising from school students, it is correct to set a specific goal in the work and to strive strictly for this goal. The modern youth already has a certain knowledge base on the nature, on laws of physics, on the processes happening in a microcosm on elementary particles. We will try to consider concerns of electrodynamics and electromagnetism, and issues on physics of elementary particles on the phase of modern researches on the Large Hadron Collider. Nowadays pupils are rewardingly interested in questions of origin of the Universe, physical processes of a microcosm, application of laws of electrodynamics to processes occurring in installation as well. In this regard possibly we are to note the following circumstances so penetrate more deeply into questions of researches on the Large Hadron Collider. Students, School children and youth are of certainly requirements on powerful knowledge in modern physics, in physics of elementary particles, of accelerators, of laws of electrodynamics and electromagnetism. Hence studying of matters of electrodynamics and electromagnetism means it is necessary for pupils for the detailed analysis of the physical processes happening on the accelerator and for research on particles collision on the Large Hadron Collider. Detailed discussion on a subject of collision and interaction of particles on workshops gives huge theoretical material from elementary particles physics, from modern physics, about cosmology, about standard model, about the theory of gravitation and other sections of physics. Important confirmation of the theory of the Big Bang of the Universe follows from comparison of observed prevalence of chemical elements with that ratio between amount of helium and water childbirth which has arisen during primary thermonuclear synthesis [2,4]. As a result of a research on Large Hardon Collider great physicists from around the world looked for so-called Higgs boson. 39


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I will take the chance remind that Higgs boson is an elementary particle. Physicists across the world dreamed to find it for several decades. And exactly the one was not enough only for a eventual celebration of Standard model – the theory which quite harmoniously explains the device of the world around and its matter. According to this theory the particle of God allocates with weight substance in the Universe – makes all other particles «powerful». For identification of Higgs boson the cyclopean annular accelerator – the Large Hardon Collider (LHC) has been constructed. Scientists called Higgs boson as God's particle, looked for a particle of God, pushing together and smashing the protons rushing almost with velocity of light at each other. Thereby shook the socalled field of Higgs which quanta are those Higgs bosons. Also have shaken out them eventually. Scientists of the European organization of nuclear researches (CERN) declared sensational opening on July 4, 2012. And personally Higgs was invited – Peter Higgs who has already in 1964 predicted existence of the boson which later was called by his name. Entertainingly, but Stephen Hawking didn't believe that Higgs boson will be found – at least in experiments on the LHC. So such large opening of physics in the twenty first century have to strongly attract and interest the youth, cultivate at them interest in science, specifically to physics. First of all school students, students have to be interested in the physical processes happening on the accelerator in the principle of operation of the accelerator and prospect of further researches in physics of elementary particles. Now we will consider more deeply the resonant accelerators action principle which is so necessary for pupils preparing scientific projects. In the resonant accelerator continuous acceleration happens thanks to the fact that in the accelerating electrodes the particle gets to the accelerating field phase all the time (i.e. when electric field is directed towards the movement of particles). Ideal, so-called equilibrium, the particle gets to the same phase all the time – an equilibrium phase. As it is known from an electrodynamics course, charged particle in magnetic field moves on a circular orbit, charged particle in magnetic field is affected by Lorentz force [1-3]. In the cyclic accelerator the particle T cycle time on an orbit is connected with the average radius <R> of an orbit with ratio: Т=    

(1)

– total relativistic energy of mass particle m is defined by formula Е = mc2 

(2)

it equals to the sum of energy of rest of a particle of E0 = m0c2 and its kinetic energy of W (m0 – the mass of rest of a particle, with – velocity of light), е – a particle charge, <In> – average value of induction of magnetic field; therefore the cycle time is connected with particle speed on ratio: Т=

=   

(3)

For an equilibrium particle the cycle time is equal or multiple to the period of Ту of the accelerating field. To the fixed values of a cycle time and induction of magnetic field there correspond the particles which are quite certain equilibrium energy and equilibrium radius of its orbit [1-3]. In cyclic accelerators length of the way passed by a particle reaches tens and hundreds of thousands of km. With so big length of way for successful operation of the accelerator it is necessary to provide stability of the equilibrium movement: small deviations of a particle on a phase, on energy, on radius and down and also small initial speeds in the directions, perpendicular to an orbit, shouldn't lead to a strong deviation of a particle from an equilibrium orbit – the particle has to make oscillating motion about an equilibrium particle. Now we will consider cyclic accelerator process. At first we will sort the basic principle of acceleration of charged particles which is used in cyclic accelerators. We already discussed that the charged particle moving in magnetic field is affected by Lorentz force. Here I will only remind that Lorentz force is always 40


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perpendicular to lines of induction of magnetic field. It leads to the fact that the linear trajectory of the movement of charged particle in magnetic field changes on cyclic (circular). The particle moving on a circular trajectory is affected by two forces which counterbalance each other: centrifugal force and Lorentz force, i.e. (4)

According to the last ratio notable that at the invariable size of magnetic field (B = const) and a specific charge of a particle (q/m) the radius of its trajectory linearly depends on the speed of the movement and vice versa. The period, i.e. time of one complete revolution, there is the relation way to particle speed. In its turn, the way passed by a particle for one turn is circle length Т=

=

with account (4)

hit Т=

=

(5)

If to consider the size of magnetic field invariable (B = by const), then the cycle time of a particle is a constant, i.e. T = const. This property is also put in a basis of the principle of acceleration of charged particles in cyclic accelerators. It is enough to give to a moving particle some acceleration (to increase speed) as the radius of its trajectory will grow, but the period at the same time remains invariable. Therefore, to pass a bigger way for the same time, the particle needs to move with greater speed. And the further growth of speed will lead to increase in radius of a trajectory and growth of speed again. Somehow, this process reminds a self-acceleration. It means that it is enough to give to a particle some initial acceleration and how it will continue to accelerate further it depends on itself [2,3]. The simplest cyclic accelerator – the betatron is based on this principle. Betatron. By means of magnets magnetic field (B) is created in which expedited moving charged particle (fig. of 1 a) is located

Fig. 1. Cyclic accelerators: a) betatron and b) cyclotron

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Under action of Lorentz force the trajectory of the movement of a particle twists in a spiral whose radius increases in process of particle speed growth. During t ~ 10–3 with a particle N ~ makes 1 million revolutions, having increased trajectory radius, leaves the accelerator. If the speed of a particle is strictly that the plane of rotation of perpendicular to the direction of induction of magnetic field a particle to lie between magnets, but at the slightest violation of perpendicularity the particle already through 10–3 with will make 1 million revolutions and it will appear on a magnet pole (see fig. 9.1, c). In order to avoid such problem, electromagnets are used, i.e. coils with the conductor through which there passes alternating electric current. Such coil is a magnet whose polarity changes with the same frequency, as electric current in it. Hence, if the perpendicularity of the plane of rotation of charged particle and the direction of magnetic field is broken, then the plane of rotation of a particle will only fluctuate with a frequency set by current between magnet poles. At the end of a cycle of acceleration additional magnetic field which rejects a moving particle and directs it to a target joins. Means to cyclic accelerators it is necessary to know the following formulas of centrifugal force, frequency and tension at Hall's effect:

(7) (8) Betatrons are used mainly for acceleration of electrons to energiya of 10 – 100 MEV (at most the energy of 300 MEV reached in the betatron }. For the first time the betatron has been developed in 1928, however the first reliably working betatron has been created only in 1940 – 1941 in the USA. In general, if to make the short conclusion, researches on the Large Hadron Collider are very interesting, at the same time difficult science which demands a thorough and prudent research. The most important, from this material on the Large Hadron Collider the pupil or students of HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION can obtain a lot of information on modern physics, on physics of elementary particles, on astronomy, on the electromagnetic theory, about electrodynamics. These valuable research information on the Large Hadron Collider stimulate youth to be interested in science, provoke in them willing in theoretical researches about elementary particles, also strengthening the future experts knowledge[1,4,5]. The main objective of group of theoretical physicists and experimenters working at the Large Hadron Collider consists in constructing the closed and consistent theory within which it would be possible to explain and predict a certain circle of the natural phenomena. For example, all magnetic and electric phenomena in the nature are considered within the electromagnetic theory of Maxwell, all processes of the movement and interaction of elementary particles (an electron, a proton, a neutron) and their associations (molecules, atoms, etc.) in scales of speeds much more smaller velocity of light, are considered in quantum mechanics (the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics). On the basis of such complete theories modern engineers and physicists develop the most difficult technical devices which become an integral part of our life: cellular communication, lasers, television, computers, nuclear reactors, etc. Meanwhile there is a number of the physical phenomena for an explanation for which it is necessary to create the ultimate theory, these are the directions in which currently pilot and theoretical studies are actively being conducted. One of such directions is physics of elementary particles, interaction of elementary particles among themselves, mutual transformations of particles.

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References 1. E.P. Levitan The evolving Universe. – M.: Education (Prosvesheniye) , 1993. – 124 pages. 2. I. P. Norenkov, A.M. Zimin Information technologies in education. – M.: MSTU by N.E. Bauman, 2004. – 48 pages. 3. T.Ya. Dubnishcheva Concept of modern natural sciences. – Novosibirsk, EKEA, 2005. – 77 pages. 4. A.A. Gorelov Concept of modern natural sciences. – Moscow, «Center», 2006. – 86 pages. 5. A.I. Akhiyezer, M. P. Rekalo Modern physical picture of the world. – M.: Knowledge, 2010. – 64 pages.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FORMATION OF CREATIVITY OF FUTURE TEACHERS IN THE UNIVERSITY А.K. Sarybayeva ( aliya_sar65 @mail.ru), M.O. Berkinbayev (meirambek_ktl@mail.ru), S.Z. Ramankulov (shery_roma@mail.ru), A.S. Baimakhanova (baika_89@mail.ru) H.A.Yassawi International Kazakh-Turkish university, Тurkestan, Kazakhstan

Abstract The article examines the characteristics of creativity formation of future teachers at the university. The creative potentials of the future teacher, and their components are determined: creative literacy, creative skills, creative ability, critical orientation. Indicators, levels, criteria for assessing the levels of creativity formation of future physics teachers are given. Keywords: future teachers, creativity, creative potential, creative literacy, creative skills, creative ability, critical orientation.

The direction «Creative pedagogy and psychology» developed by A.V.Morozov and D.V.Chernilevsky[1] is of particular importance in psychological and pedagogical literature. On the basis of conceptual study the author analyzes the process of training a graduate with social experience for teaching at a higher educational institution. This direction is developed for future teachers of physics, as well as for students of higher educational institutions studying in pedagogical and physical specialties. The textbook of the same name covers issues related to creativity: motivation of knowledge, learning and creativity; creativity and its diagnosis; methods of solving creative problems; personal and professional self-development as a facet of creative pedagogy; didactic game as an important element of creative pedagogy and psychology; Genesis of creative-psychological and pedagogical technologies. According to A.Yu. Glukhova [2], the development of creativity is possible in the process of controlling the knowledge and skills of students. She developed a certification and pedagogical complex for the development of creativity. According to the researcher, «creativity is formed on the basis of integration of didactic control apparatus, organization of control and its methods. The implementation of the complex lies in a focused and consistent application of complex open tasks in the standardized control of complex creative works in Rubizhne control and routing of offset in segment control of knowledge and skills. Certification and pedagogical complex of development of creativity introduced in the study of the discipline «Atomic physics» with students of physical specialties. In the study «Pedagogical monitoring of students’ creativity in the educational process of the University « N.N. Popova[3] developed «the conceptual idea of the development of students’ creativity as a component of their innovative experience, which justified the scientific understanding of its phenomenology, structure, ethnic, gender and personal components, identified the basic components of the personal identity of students – carriers of the ethnic group, which depend on belonging to an ethnic group.» The Study Of N.N. Popova differs from others in that it proves the impact of socio-cultural factors and mechanisms on the development of creativity. One of the directions of the second approach is the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ). G.S. Altshuller developed a field of knowledge that explores the mechanisms of development of technical systems in order to create practical methods of inventive problems – TRIZ. The 44

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purpose of TRIZ is to improve the quality and increase the level of inventions by removing psychological inertia and enhance creative imagination. The main functions of TRIZ are: solving inventive problems of any complexity and direction; forecasting the development of technical systems; awakening, training and competent use of natural abilities of the person in inventive activity (first of all figurative imagination and system thinking); improvement of collectives (including creative) towards their ideal (when tasks are carried out, but it does not require any expenses). As a result of its development TRIZ in addition to the technical field is used in other areas (literature, pedagogy, politics, etc.). In the context of TRIZ, an ARIZ algorithm for solving inventive problems has been developed. In fact, this algorithm is an algorithm of problem situations that requires system thinking, special knowledge about methods and tools. TRIZ does not guarantee the solution of inventive tasks, but «form the ability of future engineers to see in technical systems the contradictions that hinder their development, and to eliminate these contradictions, to solve engineering problems on the basis of multi-screen, i.e. to perceive any object, the problem comprehensively»[ 4]. The creative potential of the person in psychological and pedagogical literature is considered as an integrative quality of the person reflecting a measure of opportunities, set of creative forces; defines readiness and opportunity for creative self-realization and selfdevelopment; expresses the relation (positions, installation, orientation) of the person to creativity; provides effective interaction of the person with other people and productivity of its activity. N.V. Martishina[5, p. 5] defines creativity as a component of teacher personal and professional potential, which tends to accumulate and grow throughout life, as the totality of its possibilities for innovative solutions to diverse tasks related to the development of students (pupils), the organization of the educational process, professional cooperation. G. M. Mardanova [6, p. 42] notes that the creative potential of personality is the highest form of human mental activity. The person possessing high creative potential differs from others in that: is creative and intellectually initiative, active; possesses originality; goes beyond templates and thinks creatively, solves the arisen contradictions; is capable to construct result of the activity; to the creative person the original approach to the solution of the problem situation which arose in educational process is inherent; creativity of the person helps it to develop in the conditions of self-regulation of the educational opportunities; the research requirement that allows it to be in a condition of continuous search of the unknown is characteristic for the creative person. Exploring the problem of «development of the creative potential of the future designer», O. P. Tarasova [7, p. 96] claims that creative potential is an integrative quality of personality, characterized by a willingness to highly artistic design and technological solution of the task of designing aesthetically expressive clothing, printing and promotional products, image, satisfying social, cultural and utilitarian demands of customers and consumers. Having refracted the definition of creative potential through the prism of the problem we study, we propose to consider the creative potential of the teacher as an integrative property of the individual, characterized by the ability to generate new pedagogical ideas, to search for practical solutions to original, non-standard pedagogical tasks, to choose the most productive strategies of creative pedagogical activity. L.K. Grebenkina, N.S. Antsiferova [8, p. 55], consider that the creative teacher is, first of all, the researcher possessing the following personal qualities: scientific psychological and pedagogical thinking, high level of pedagogical skill, certain research courage, developed pedagogical flair and intuition, critical analysis, need for professional self – education and reasonable use of advanced pedagogical experience. Creative personality of the teacher is characterized by the following components: scientific thinking, creative attitude, the desire for self-realization, etc. 45


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N.D. Nikandrov and V.A. Kan-Kalik, there are three field of creative activity of the teacher: creative self-education, methodical and communicative creativity [9, pp. 34-35]. According to P.I. Pitkasilta, pedagogical creativity consists of the following components: motivation to work; vocational and personal characteristics of a teacher, professional competence [10, p.23]. The structure of creative potential is represented in the scientific literature as a set of the following components: • motivational component (emotional and positive attitude to the content and process of creative activity, focus on creativity, the desire for creative achievements); content component (meaningfulness, depth and strength of knowledge, criticality, independence and proof in the process of their perception, the constant interaction of old and new knowledge, the creation of a knowledge system, their use in new conditions); operational component (formation of skills necessary for creative activity, mastery of ways of mental activity, techniques, procedures, mechanisms of creative educational and cognitive activity) (E. A. Glukhovskaya) [11, p. 14]; •

actually-a potential component (individual mental processes, abilities); motivational component (beliefs, readiness, as an internal structure, a mechanism that ensures the actualization of the ability and socio-psychological setting for the deployment of the essential forces of the individual – needs, value orientations, motives); cognitive component (acquired as a result of education, creative activity, inclusion in the process of socialization of knowledge, skills, attitudes, ways of activity and expression) (V. G. Ryndak) [ 12, p.17].

We will reveal the content of the characteristics of creative potential. These characteristics are presented as components of the structure of the creative potential of the teacher. The dictionary structure is defined as «the consistency, the relative positions and relationship of the main parts of something» [13, p. 295]. Structural components can be allocated on different bases. Paying attention to pedagogical activity, V.A. Slastenin claimed that the framework around which the main professionally significant qualities of the personality of the teacher are built, the pedagogical orientation is considered (system of the dominating motives inducing to professional activity [ 14, page 27]). Along with this, an important requirement for teacher signified the presence of pedagogical abilities [15, p. 425]. Of course, a necessary condition for the manifestation of the creative professional activity of the teacher is a certain amount of knowledge and the ability to apply it. Based on these provisions, we will combine into four groups the characteristics of the creative teacher: creative orientation, creative literacy, creative skills, creative abilities. We reveal the content of these concepts. Under the creative orientation of the teacher refers to the property of the individual, which is based on a set of motives, professional and value orientations, the teacher’s attitudes to a professional position, encouraging creative professional activity. Using the meaning of the word «literacy «[16] as» possession of the necessary knowledge, information in any field», we define that creative literacy is awareness of the essence of creative potential, its structure and development process, modern creative learning technologies, methods of self-development of creative potential. The creative skills of the teacher include: the ability to plan and organize their teaching activities on the basis of General and integrative knowledge of creative learning technologies, methods of self-development of creative potential; the ability to produce reflection and self-assessment of creativity of teaching activities; the ability to adjust activities based on the results of self-assessment. Creative abilities of the teacher are characterized by forecasting, fluency, flexibility (ability to apply various strategies in solving problems), originality and development. We give a brief description of each of these elements. Fluency-the ability to produce a large number of ideas, switch from one task to another. Flexibility-the ability to apply a variety of strategies to solve problems. Originality-the ability to produce unusual, non-standard ideas. Development-the ability to develop ideas in detail. Forecasting is a phenomenon of the highest forms of advanced reflection of the process of thinking as a prediction of the expected future on the basis of the predicted dynamics of the phenomenon [ 17, p. 50]. Revealing the content of each function of the teacher (communicative, educational, organizational, etc.), a number of researchers (N.F. Gonobolin, E. F. Zeer, V. A. Kan-Kalik, etc.) proved the necessity of 46


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prognostic skills and abilities for its implementation. Based on the point of View of L. A. Regush that «...the transmission of information without forecast features her learning that occurs in students errors and difficulties, no prediction of the effectiveness of methods of information transfer inefficient» [17, p. 124], we allocate a structural component of the creative abilities of the teacher – prediction. In pedagogy, forecasting refers to the process of obtaining advanced information about an object, based on scientifically based provisions and methods. The objects are students, knowledge, relationships, etc. Thus, the creativity of future teachers of physics integrates such characteristics, which are the basis for further successful creative professional activity, so they need to be developed in students studying at the University (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. The structure of creativity of future teachers of physics

These components of the structure of creativity of future teachers of physics are indicators of the level of its development (table. 1). In table 2 we have identified three levels of formation of creativity of future teachers of physics. Under the level of formation understand «the degree of magnitude, significance of something» [18, p. 826]. There are various interpretations of the levels of development, but still, most often used a classic approach that determines the high, medium, low levels. Table 1. Indicators, levels, criteria for assessing levels formation of creativity of future teachers of physics

№ p/n

1.

Indicators of creativity of future teachers of physics

Creative direction of the teacher

Criteria for assessing the level of development of indicators formation of creativity of future physics teachers

high

Dominated by achievement motivation (striving for success); The desire for constant self-development; The need for self-realization; He has a steady, conscious interest in the development of his creative potential.

average

Intermittent motive of achievement of success; Unconscious and spontaneous desire for self-development; Partial need camorali of the organization; Interest in the development of their creative-tion is unstable, often manifests itself under the pedagogical influence.

low

The motivation to avoid failure prevails; Does not strive for self-development; does not strive for self-realization; No need to develop their creative potential.

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high

2.

3.

4.

Teacher's creative literacy

Teacher's creative skills

Teacher's creative abilities

average

Has some knowledge about the essence of the concepts of «potential», «creative potential», «creative potential», etc.; Has not an accurate idea of the content and structure of the «creative potential of the teacher»; Familiar with some of today's creative learning technologies; Partially familiar with the diagnostics of creative potential.

low

Does not know the concepts of «potential», «creative potential», «creative potential», etc. (not heard/does not consider important); Has no idea about the content and structure of the «creative potential of the teacher»; Not familiar with a modern, creative learning technologies; Not familiar with the diagnostics of creative potential.

high

He is able to plan his pedagogical activity on the basis of General knowledge and knowledge about creative activity; Able to independently, originally, unconventionally organize their teaching activities, choose the most productive strategy of its development; Able to independently produce self-assessment of the results of creative teaching; He is able to produce reflection, to correct his creative pedagogical activity.

average

Not always able to plan their own teaching activities on the application of General knowledge and knowledge of creative activity (sometimes with someone's help); Not always able to independently original, unconventional to organize their teaching activities, to select the most productive strategies for its development; Not always able to self-assess the results of creative teaching; Not always able to produce reflection, adjust their activities.

low

It is difficult to plan their pedagogical activity; It is difficult to independently organize one's pedagogical activity, to choose the most productive strategies of its development; It is difficult to make a self-assessment of the results of creative teaching activities; It is difficult to produce a reflection, to adjust their activities.

high

Forecasting at a high level (anticipates the expected result); Fluency at a high level (able to produce a large number of ideas); Flexibility at a high level (able to apply a variety of strategies to solve problems); Originality at a high level (able to produce unusual, non-standard ideas); Development at a high level (able to develop ideas in detail).

average

Not always anticipates the expected result; Not always able to produce a large number of ideas; Not always able to apply a variety of strategies to solve problems; Not always able to produce unusual, unconventional ideas; Not always in detail to develop the arisen ideas.

low

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Has knowledge of the essence of the concepts of «potential», «creative potential», «creative potential», etc.; Has knowledge of the content and structure of the teacher's «creative potential»; I am familiar in detail with the majority of modern creative learning technologies; I am familiar with the diagnostic methods of creative potential in detail.

Does not foresee the expected result; Not capable of producing a large number of ideas Unable to apply a variety of strategies to solve problems; Not able to produce unusual, unconventional ideas; Not able to develop the resulting ideas.


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The four indicators listed in the table are interrelated and interdependent, and their totality is the formation of creativity of future teachers of physics. Diagnostic tools provide diagnosis of the level of development of each of the indicators Proposed indicators of development of creative potential do not belong to comprehensive. However, in the context of our study are necessary and sufficient.

References 1. Morozov, A.V. Creative pedagogy and psychology: textbook / – M.: Academic Project. 2004. 2nd ed., ISPR. and DOP. – 560 p. 2. Glukhova A. Y. Certification-pedagogical complex development of students ' creativity in the process of professional training: dis. ... kand. PED. sciences'. – Magnitogorsk, 2006. – 154 p. 3. Popova, N. N. Pedagogical monitoring of students ' creativity in the educational process of the University: author. dis. ... kand. PED. Sciences: 13.00.01-Chita, 2013. -23 p. 4. Altshuller, G. S., Introduction to TRIZ. Basic concepts and approaches [Electronic resource] / – access Mode : http://www.triz-ri.ru/triz/triz02.asp mmm. 5. Martishina, N.V. the creative potential of the teacher: the essence, structure, development / Scientific and methodological journal «Pedagogical education and science». – 2012. – No. 4. – P. 83-86. 6. Mardanova, G. M. Technology of development of creative potential of pupils of comprehensive school of art: autoref. dis. . kand. PED. Sciences – Izhevsk : Publishing house GOU VPO «Udmurt state University», 2005. – 22 p. 7. Tarasova, O. P. Development of creative potential of the future designer: author. dis. ... kand. PED. Sciences: protected 17.03.2010 / -Orenburg : publishing Orenburg. state UN-TA, 2010. – 23 p. 8. Grebenkina L. K., Antsiferova N. S. Technology management activities of the Deputy Director of the school / – M.: center «Pedagogical search», 2000. 9. Kan-Kalik, V. A. [I. D. Pedagogical creativity. – M., 1990. – 144 p. 10. Pidkasistyj, P. I. to Prepare students for creative pedagogical activity : teaching manual / – M. : PED. about-in Russia, 2007. – 192 p. 11. Glukhovskaya, E. A. development of creative potential of the senior school student in educational activity (on the example of social science disciplines) [Electronic resource]: dis. ... kand. PED. Sciences / – Orenburg. – 1997. Mode of access: http://nauka-pedagogika.com/viewer/242/ d?#?page=1 (accessed 02.07.2012). 12. Ryndak, V. G. Continuous education and development of teacher's creative potential (theory of interaction). : monograph / – M.: «pedagogical Bulletin», 1997. – 244 p. 13. Large explanatory dictionary of Russian nouns: Ideographic description. Synonyms. Antonyms / edited by L. G. Babenko. – 2nd ed., erased. – M.: AST-PRESS BOOK. 1999. – 864 p. – (Fundamental dictionaries). 14. Slastenin, V. A. Pedagogika : ucheb. textbook for students. higher. PED. studies'. institutions / – M.: Publishing center «Academy», 2002. 15. Podlasie, I. P. Pedagogy of primary schools: textbook for students of PED. schools and colleges, students in the group of specialties «Education»/ – M.: Humanitar. ed. center VLADOS, 2008. – 464 p. 16. The largest collection of online dictionaries [electronic resource] access Mode: www.onlinedics.ru/ slovar/inyaz/t/texnologija.html mmm. 17. Ragus, L. A. Psychology prediction: progress in the knowledge of the future – SPb., Speech, 2003. – 352 p. 18. Ozhegov, S. I. dictionary of the Russian language: about 80,000 words and phraseological expressions/ ed.-Corr. USSR ACADEMY OF SCIENCES N. Shvedova. Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian culture Fund: – 2nd ed., ISPR. and DOP. – M.: AZ, 1994. – 928 p.

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PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCE AND PRACTICE AS A SINGLE SYSTEM Zhussupova Zhanna Azatovna (zhanna.zhusupova@inbox.ru) Aktobe Regional State University named after K. Zhubanov (ARSU)

Abstract The paper discusses the interaction of pedagogical science and practice, submitted in the form of bilateral evolving dynamic system. It is shown that the connection between them has an open spiral structure. The authors prove that the optimal course of development of the education sector of mankind is possible only when complete identifying its true subject. One way to do this may be the need to recognize a lifetime formation of biosocial organ of Intelligence in each person and its active functioning throughout human life and the recognition of the fact that with this body of Intelligence the people solve all the problems of the coexistence, development, science, etc. Keywords: the science and practice of education, intelligence, social codes and channels of a circulation of information, the developing potential and the pedagogical creativity of a scientist and a teacher, modern theories of education and advanced pedagogical experience.

The fundamental thesis of the materialist theory of knowledge of the unity of science and practice, among other things, covers pedagogical reality. The relationship of pedagogical science and pedagogical practice is the widest of the dialectical materialist position from which we need to consider the place and importance of any pedagogical concept, including various approaches and technologies of education. We all say that science reflects the practice. But besides this, science aims to stay ahead and illuminate the way of further progress of the practice. In the process of reflection of teaching practice scientists distinguish certain stages. This reflection starts with observation and description of what is seen. But simple observation over the pedagogical phenomenon may not reflect its deep layers and reveal the natural connections and relationships that are manifested in it. Therefore, to test some of those that have appeared in the course of monitoring of the pedagogical phenomenon of ideas and theoretical principles experiments are conducted. Subsequent analysis of the material, description of the experimental results derived on the basis of their conclusions should help the autopsy pedagogical effect of reflected fragment of pedagogic reality. 50

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Having passed this way from practice to science, it is necessary to track its feedback: how do scientific principles or knowledge of the laws affect existing practices? The success of the educational process depends on two things: the depth of knowledge of the properties and relations of pedagogic reality, and how the known properties are used by the organizers of this process. This connection is straightforward, so the underlined aspects of pedagogical reality should be viewed as a single system. The basis of this system, of course, is the current teachers ' practice, which historically has always been the primary one. Its relevance and importance to science is in no way diminished today. First of all, it should be noted that education was not given to our ancestors in the finished and perfect form. The education sector emerged in the process of life gradually, in a series of generations, how the external social phenomenon. So we can say that the development of educational practice and pedagogy as a science and the subsequent development of their relationship are socio-historical in nature. Indeed, at the dawn of human story understanding of labor skills (including those associated with the education of the younger generation), empirical generalizations of the results of different operations and observations, stories and variation, real and fantastic reflection of social being was not a logically coherent system of concepts and a scientific reproduction of the objective laws of reality. At that time primary and the only form of existence of any knowledge was the generalized, undifferentiated «everyday consciousness». But the relationship between «science» and practice was very full because it was directly «interwoven» into people's lives. Gradually, with the division of labor into mental and physical, pedagogical science and pedagogical practice have diverged on different social poles. Continuing to interact and depend on each other, they became relatively independent forms of social activities. But ordinary consciousness was also divided, that’s why none of the forms of pedagogical reality became free from it. From all discussed above we can draw two conclusions. On the one hand, the sphere of education, thanks to which our ancestors separated from animals and turned into Homo sapiens, is objective, and its subject may not change in favor of the views of certain researchers. On the other hand, it is set historically, getting more and more precise contours due empirical development and theoretical awareness of its humanity. At the same time the subject of education as well as educational science is developing, and the methods and technologies of education are improving. At first the development of the mentioned parts of the educational sector comes spontaneously and then more or less organized, experiencing first empirical generalization, and then trying to grow to serious theoretical level. In this case we may say that the teachers of the past dealt with the same pedagogical entity, just in a different, lower phase of its historical maturity. Such point of changes the whole thing completely, because then we gain the legitimate right for logical analysis of any educational theory created decades and hundreds of years ago and for critical comparison of these theories with the actual picture of reality, viewed today from the standpoint of modern psychological and pedagogical science. The difference of the subject of pedagogical science from the objects of other Sciences should be bared in mind: the subject of our knowledge cannot be given and submitted directly in feelings and sensations. Being or becoming a body of reflection of objective reality, it is not able to reflect itself. Thanks to social codes and corresponding activities (talking, singing, music, fine art, choreography, architecture, etc.), the items of material and spiritual culture began to be fixed and accumulate externally. Such tasks as «learning», «transfer of experience», «development of culture», etc. became actual. So the achievement of humanity as social skills of encoding and decoding, and the development of abilities of the young generation for the solving the challenges of the cohabitation were marked by the subject of education. Thus the task of education of the younger generation and its subsequent objectives of social creativity were mixed up. On the one hand, such a mixed understanding of the subject of education can be justified because the social codes themselves and the ways of operating them are impossible to be mastered in an abstract way, without filling them its objective content with some empirical content of the environment. But it resulted in a tremendous amount of consequences. In particular, scientists came to the conclusion about the artificial nature of the subject of pedagogy and to the need of constructing an idealized object. In the end, the pedagogy, with all its brunches and problems became the science that studies a special kind of activity – purposeful activity on the involvement of human beings as participants of a social life. Therefore, a keynote of modern pedagogy is activity based and procedural characteristic of all pedagogical categories. Activity as a means of influencing another activity or action is studied as the object 51


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of pedagogical science and pedagogical practice. Activity, therefore, is the beginning and the end, the subject and the tool and the final result. However, any area of life deals with the category of activities and thus creates a complex situation for scientists in their differentiation. Moreover, a man himself, as a biosocial creature is the subject of study of many branches of science, which further exacerbates the problem of deciphering a biosocial unity. Further, historically developing education sector human society socially tested (discarding some of them) a great varieties of actions of the development of the up-brining of a young generation. They were grouped as a set of rules, principles, methods, organizational forms and theories. At the same time some innovations touched upon issues of social encoding and decoding, the other – sensual-figurative presentations, the third – the so-called methods of interiorization and exteriorization of knowledge, the fourth – the principles of combining renomegaly information and the methods of their processing, etc. Emerging pedagogical science originally was only the guardian of many private theories of teaching and education of young people, empirically generalizing a huge number of historical discoveries. So, a natural stage of accumulation of diverse information appeared and it was an empirical development of the practice and the question of the impact of the emerging science on the practice wasn’t so urgent. The logical conclusion is that, overall, education has a huge development potential and this potential is manifested completely only on the side of teaching practice. And it is not yet possible to share it with teaching science in a sufficient measure. This happens not because the practice is not in a hurry or do not want to transfer its impulse but because the science being still uncertain is weak and not able to take over development and indicate the way of further progress of education. On the other hand, why should a theorist strain to put pedagogical experiments and painfully analyze their results if the process of experiential development of education( a historical experiment), considerably facilitates the task, as it gradually washes out those minor features of pedagogical phenomena that were observed at the early stage of maturity, but disappeared at later stages? They say: time will tell. But the continuation of such a policy in education at present can be explained by the helplessness of science and laziness, irresponsibility of the heads of the relevant departments, the shifting of research tasks from the shoulders of a theorist onto a historical process, the pedagogical practice of teachers. Moreover, at present period of development pedagogical science took over all the fullness of the subsequent progress of education. Therefore, the authority of science in modern educational theories has been imputed and describes the prescriptive, scientific-theoretical and constructive-technical functions, capitalizing the philosophical categories of being and justice. Such situation in pedagogical science became possible due to the narrow understanding of things as a single, isolated snapshot of individual fragments of pedagogic being, not as a rich variety of activities on the formation at all times one and the same Body of Intelligence. It only means that proper awareness and meaningful differentiation of the original continuous pedagogical spheres has not occurred, and the evolving relationship becomes superficial and one-sided. Science requires, and the practice implements its directions and turns, thus, into a simple servant of science. Thus, ignoring of a developing potential of a pedagogical practice by the science is the main reason for the weakness noted above reciprocal links. It has been still only supposed by teaching science only as an initial push, with sluggish historical development and methodology and the corresponding theory of recognition, learning, synthesis, dissemination and introduction of advanced pedagogical experience of teachers which was not developed. But practical experience of teachers can be named as innovative and advanced form of the educational process, but the essence remains the same: it is, unfortunately, being systematized, generalized and shared. As for the explanation of the success of the educational process, scientists began to appeal to its structural-functional structure; the latter is issued with an explanatory principle and, automatically, the theory of education. For example, various authors offer a number of theories of the determination of its composition and structure in order to optimize the educational process by. (It is important to remember the learning theories by L. V. Zankov, Y. K. Babanskiy, M. I. Makhmutov, N.Menchinskaya, D. B. Elkonin, V. V. Davydov, P. Y. Galperin, N. F.Talyzina, R. Steiner, C. Freinet, etc). Thus, while classifying the theory of education we should dilute the issues of determination of the functioning of the educational process (its technological aspect – the success of the educational process) and the determination of the Genesis of the actual creation, formation of brain tumors as an objective phenomenon. 52


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It is often argued in the pedagogical science that the object of practical pedagogical interventions is the individual, his psyche and the object of educational research should be considered as the area of pedagogical facts, the phenomena that occur in practical implementation of pedagogical leadership. The question arises: how legitimate is division of a pedagogical sphere into pedagogical research and pedagogical impact? And why are they given such a meaning, as if one is being investigated but the effects is being produced on the other? Also you need to consider their legitimate transformation from an object of pedagogical research into the subject of pedagogical influence and vice versa. Can pedagogy, with such a vague, but still drifting the subject, analyze different pedagogical systems, theories, facts and events scattered in time and space? And is this procedure legitimate? That is, how fair is it to analyze the teachers of the past and their concepts from the point of view of today's facts, which they did not see and could not bear in mind? But if teaching science is not capable of such analysis and generalization of historical facts, then what's the point of creating? But the practice of education continues to evolve by trial and error. Unfortunately, some advanced participants of the historical process, designed to move at a faster pace, are not yet able to rise above their time, and are guided only by common sense and a superficial vision of educational problems. Also constructive solution of problems of education is not promoted with already formed humanity language. It is simultaneously a subject of study and a tool of development of the accumulated experience of mankind, including pedagogical phenomena. It is this fusion functions that leads scientists to equalize all three existing forms of reflection of pedagogical reality: spontaneous, empirical, artistic exploration and research. Therefore, some prominent scientists have concluded that with all respect to science, it cannot be assumed that science can do everything. It supposedly is only one of the forms of reflection of matter, and it would be pointless to say that scientific or any other form of reflection can be better or «above» another. The adjustment of science and ordinary consciousness happened due to the statements of the authorities of pedagogy. The historic character of development of forms of reflection of reality is being ignored; the purposes and functions of different forms of reflection, means and methods of fixation, representation and broadcasting of certain aspects of reality are being confused. This allowed to transform pedagogy in mythology, in a kind of a literary genre... The main and direct function of science that defines its entire structure and organization has been and remains the uncovering of an objective truth. Only thanks to this function, science is necessary for practical activity of people, namely: for the separation of truth from error; objective knowledge from subjective opinions; the real meaning sustainably inherent in the essence of things from an imaginary, seeming, flitting on the surface. But the dynamic nature of scientific knowledge leads us to the need of distinction of two components in the objective truth: an absolute (independent from our consciousness) and relative (revealed in parts; capable of enrichment and refinement; to release from a previously unknown, and then the detected errors, etc.). From the point of view of a teacher it’s appropriate to speak not so much about the closure of the communication cycle of pedagogical science and pedagogical practice, as about the openness of the pedagogical reality to perceive new. The fact is that the principles, forms and methods of education serve only as a guide, a general guideline for practice. While filling a specific content on the level of practice conscious or subconscious increment primary knowledge changes necessarily. Marked the accretion of knowledge constitutes the intimacy of the moment and at the methodological level and at the level of its practical implementation in the educational process. In the end, a new pedagogical reality is born, in large measure, predicted by initial principles. However, it doesn’t speak about anything, and there’s quite large variation in achieving the desired results. Overall, however, the point of view discussed is one-sided. The truth is that in search of coming into practice any pedagogical theories need a feedback mechanism between pedagogical theory and pedagogical practice. In fact this mechanism allows implementing their timely mutual adjustment, to prevent the collapse of their unity. As you can see, the relationship of pedagogical science and pedagogical practice needs to have an open spiral structure, actively functioning. It strengthens and develops in a rotational-translational movement from practice to science and back. Forward motion, unity and strengthening ties with the pedagogical science 53


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and pedagogical practice occurs at the expense of sustainable wealth circulating between information on two levels: at the level of science and at the level of practice. This factor fundamentally changes the nature of the relationship between them, eliminates discriminatory proclivities and skepticism about the practice of how to stage a simple, straightforward implementation of recommendations of pedagogical science. Recognizing the feeding of the information circulating between pedagogical theory and pedagogical practice, one only of science, we find ourselves in a methodological impasse. Practice, in this case, only needs to show how successful or unsuccessful have been feeding of other types of pedagogical knowledge patterns. But this two-level supply of information, although constructs a balance between science and practice at the opening of the pedagogical truths, doesn’t make them equal: superstructure-base relationship imposes on them its own characteristics. The best representatives of pedagogical science and pedagogical practice are looking for the pedagogical truth, but they do it in different ways, which, I must say, complement each other. Such mutual addition and the collaboration of teachers and scientists should be considered as optimal. For example, the productivity of pedagogical truths searching by a teacher-innovator is explained be the immediate «inclusion» (Marx) them into everyday practice. The recognition of feeding (enrichment) of research recommendations with practical research allows speaking about the existence of: firstly– accelerating factor – the actual process of testing the creative teachers of this new knowledge. Teachers do not wait for the time when new knowledge will attract the attention of scientists and will be involved in a scientific activity, and then, through the principles and methodical system, by doing a big circle, finally will start to participate in practical activities. Secondly, new information directly involved along with scientific recommendations into practical activities of teachers, won’t only alter the pedagogical reality, but will require new knowledge for its proper interpretation at the level of science. Thus, enriched scientific knowledge with the reflection of the latest snapshot of pedagogic reality will allow us to formulate new or refine the old principles, which, being realized at the level of practice will bring additional knowledge, creating an updated teaching practice. And so a cycle behind a cycle. To talk about advancing role of science doesn’t make sense without recognition of the fact that the need for compounding methodical system at the level of practice by the initiative of concerned teachers. There is no subject and time of advancing: science prescribed something and practice responded adequately. Where is the proactive practice of science? Of course, scientists must be aware of the pedagogical reality more than is necessary today. The mentioned ratio can and should be called a measure of the adequacy (or redundancy), but not ahead. Only when we recognize that practice has its own autonomous development, that is, when teachers, in addition to the fair implementation of the developed science methodological systems, will carry out natural concentration, be grounds for comparative analysis of development in science and practice will appear. Exposing and pointing direction, i.e. the tendency of its own motion (impulse) of the pedagogical practices of creativity of the teachers, we get the foundation of reliable prediction of the implementation measures and increase of scientific advice for today, tomorrow, etc. Advanced educational experience is the result of the implementation, methodical realization of some loyal and well-known recommendations of pedagogical science and successful methodical arrangement of other ties and relationships that has not yet realized or realized not to the end. The identification of the marked body of knowledge, which is wedged at the level of practice and reports another impulse to its development, is possible through recognition, study and generalization of advanced pedagogical experience. Thus, we can conclude that the pedagogical science can't fulfill its function-forward without the study and generalization of the advanced pedagogical experience. The basis of the relationship of pedagogical theory and teaching practice is in a ratio that provides the maximum of their development and functioning. Comparing the theory and practice of education, we often claim that life is richer than our ideas about it, and, consequently, practice is richer than theory. But we should still agree that practice is always more limited than a good theory. The fact is that the formation and functioning of the body of intellect is life itself, and it is rigidly linked to real possibilities. Therefore, the practical interaction of the subject with the object, the teacher with the students and the outside world involves overcoming the resistance of matter. The practice is limited with matter or a set of tools and the degree of their development, etc. A scientific activity, at the same time, is although not completely free, but has much more opportunities for its development, independent of specific conditions. Practice at the present time, being the second form of objectivity, is so tied to people's minds that it can in the absolute 54


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sense neither precede nor follow it. Therefore, it is the criterion of a true theory, but a genuine scientific theory is the criterion of correct practices. Summing up we can say: a teacher and a scientist are equal in the face of history. Historical is human. It is impossible that some individuals and categories of people will be dropped out of the process of historical creation on some formal basis of division of labor. The basic outline of our approach to the relationship of pedagogical science and pedagogical practice is the concept of overcoming alienation of a teacher from the progress of pedagogy.

Literature 1. Бабанский, Ю. К. Оптимизация процесса обучения / Ю. К. Бабанский. – М., 1977. –С.104106. 2. Давыдов, В. В. Проблемы развивающего обучения / В. В. Давыдов. – М., 1986. –С.21-24. 3. Занкова, Л. В. Дидактика и жизнь / Л. В. Занкова. – М., 1968.-С.32-34. 4. Краевский, В. В. Общие основы педагогики / В. В. Краевский. – М., 2003. – С.77-82. 5. Махмутов, М. И. Организация проблемного обучения / М. И. Махмутов. – М., 1977. – С. 14-20. 6. Терегулов,Ф.Ш. О соотношении обучения и развития в формирующем образовании // Сибирский педагогический журнал. – 2009. – №1. – С.127 –142

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II. Members of the Modern Education & Research Institute

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HEATING WITH THE USE OF ICE Dubinin A.A., candidate of technical sciences, associate professor DGC, KazLAACE (t-mail alex.dub777@mail.ru) Polyakova I.M., Ph.D. acad. prof. DGC, KazLAACE, (t-mail: pim8192@mail.ru) Kazakh Leading Academy of Architecture and Civil Engineering

Abstract The article deals with developments in the field of modern heating systems. One of the ways to get heat from the environment is the system of heating with ice. The aim of the research is the use of innovative projects in the field of heating systems for buildings and structures. The method, the operating principle of the innovation system and the results of the research are described. Keywords: heating, new technologies, innovative construction, renewable energy sources, use of ice. HISTORY OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF GENERAL CONSTRUCTION The origins of the faculty’s formation go back to the 1950s, when on the basis of the Kazakh Mining and Metallurgical Institute, and later the Kazakh Polytechnic Institute named after M.Sh. VI Lenin was trained specialists the oldest and necessary for the country profession – a builder. Over the long years of its history, the General Construction Department has made a great contribution to the training of highly qualified civil engineers for Kazakhstan. The faculty professors and teachers conduct scientific research of building structures taking into account the world experience in the field of designing buildings and structures. Only in the last 10 years, according to the results of scientific research, faculty members received about 140 copyright certificates for inventions, patents, published over 15 monographs and about 600 publications in various scientific collections and journals, including 12 textbooks in Kazakh and Russian, 14 manuals , 170 scientific articles, organized and conducted 15 scientific and practical conferences and participated in 10 republican student conferences. The formation and development of the faculty was greatly influenced by the largest scientific and educational centers: Moscow State Mining University. Lomonosov Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Moscow State Automobile and Road Technical University, Research Institute of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete and the Central Research Institute of Building Constructions named after VA Kucherenko (Moscow), Pridneprovskaya State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture (Ukraine), Kazakh National University named after al-Farabi, Kazakh National Research Technical University. K.I. Satpayev.

The main directions of scientific research of the faculty are: • • • •

constructive solutions of collapsible and folding metal-tent structures, investigation of the stressstrain state of thin-walled structures; improvement of methods for calculating elastic multilayer boards; designing of underground parts of structures, retaining walls, investigation of stability of slopes and slopes of soil massifs and design of the foundations of structures; research and development of optimal options for foundations and foundations on alluvial soils, etc.

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In recent years, heat pumps have taken a firm position among heating equipment. The special potential of this equipment is manifested when used in energy efficient homes and under the condition of receiving electricity from such renewable sources as wind or sun. Surplus electricity is sent to the mains. It is expected that the share of heat pumps in the market of heating equipment will continue to grow. Geothermal heat pumps use lowtemperature heat sources, transform it into heat. In traditional systems, the heat of atmospheric air, groundwater and soil is used. The new concept includes not only the above sources, but also the direct use of solar energy. Soil and groundwater are economical sources of heat. Their temperature practically does not change during the year, which ensures high performance and stability of the heat pump. Use of energy when using wells or horizontal laying of probes, i.e. After carrying out a sufficiently large volume of land works. These works, as a rule, require a lot of approvals, permits, as well as significant investments. A good source of heat is the outside air. It is sucked up by a heat pump, gives its heat in the evaporator and is blown back into the environment by the pump. Thus, there is no need to carry out expensive land works. Nevertheless, there is a problem that in the coldest days the pump can absorb not so much warm enough air, and the need for a house warm at such days increases. Therefore, to cover the peak loads, a second heat source is needed. From the very beginning of the use of heat pumps, many scientists, institutions and firms are looking for ways to reduce capital and operating costs. Looking for new low-temperature sources of renewable heat and ways to optimize the heat pump system. First of all, these developments include attempts to use solar energy by a heat pump. Already in the late 1970s, brine-water heat pumps worked together with non-glazed solar collectors to generate the necessary energy. These decisions were not very effective and did not become very popular. In addition, in winter and in the transition periods in the central band there is not enough solar energy. Looking at the operation of ground and solar heating systems, it comes to mind the possibility of combining these systems. In the market of heating technology, there are already offers for the simultaneous use of energy from the soil and the sun, but in them the system of heat accumulation from the solar system has not been realized. The possibility of accumulation of heat in the summer months from the sun and soil for the subsequent use of this energy in winter depends heavily on the geological conditions of the terrain. So, for example, when the probe passes through the water horizon, all the heat is transferred to the water and carried away by the flow. In addition, the cost of excavation is unreasonably high. An alternative to drilling wells and horizontal laying of probes are massive absorbers and so-called energy grids. Massive absorbers are concrete blocks in which the brine manifolds are arranged in an orderly manner. Concrete blocks due to their mass have a large margin of heat. The energy grid is a web of ordered pipelines with a brine without any cladding. Both systems are about one-third submerged in the ground. Thus, the ground part absorbs solar heat, and the underground part absorbs geothermal energy. To efficiently operate such a scheme on cold winter days without significant sunlight input, the system must receive most of the energy from the earth. However, it is not possible to change the surface area of ​​heat exchange between the collector and the ground in this case. It is possible to use so-called earth baskets. This is a good alternative primarily to horizontal collectors, since they require a significantly smaller area. In fact, these are wire baskets that have a cylindrical shape, or a truncated cone shape, into which brine pipe pipes are connected. They are buried to a depth of 4 meters. Such systems are very demanding for the conditions of the heat sink of the ground. Roughly speaking, an ice storage is called the power system of a heat pump, the brine circuit of which is located in a concrete bunker. In turn, the bunker receives heat from various sources. Special automation regulates the heat input to the hopper. The main sources of energy are the sun, air, and earth. Energy enters the bunker and accumulates at low temperatures, but sufficient for the operation of the heat pump. Also, to increase the efficiency of the system, the phase transition energy of the substance located in the icehouse is used.

The principle of the system: There is such a phenomenon as the energy of crystallization. It is a question of the fact that during the freezing process, water releases a sufficient amount of thermal energy-330 kJ / kg, which is 80 times more than it is released when it cools down by 1 degree. In this case, it does not actually change its temperature (about-1C) until it freezes all. [5] And this heat of the phase transition of water from liquid to solid aggregate state can and should be used. 58


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Let us analyze the components of the system (Fig. 1). • Ice storage bunker; – Heat exchanger; – Solar (air absorbers); – Heat pump; • Command controller

Fig.1. Typical scheme of the installation system

And it should be noted that in traditional solar systems, the heat of atmospheric air, soil and groundwater is used. The new system includes not only those sources that are mentioned above, but also the direct use of solar energy. Consider the principle of the system’s operation (Fig. 2). The hopper, which serves as a storage for ice, is a container in which heat exchangers are integrated. The tank is filled with water and then buried at a certain depth into the ground. Collectors (air absorbers), located on the roof, collect heat from the environment and solar radiation, then accumulate it in a tank. Including, the system absorbs heat from the earth, surrounding the capacity and receives geothermal energy of the earth. The function of the heat pump is to take out heat from the tank as needed, which is necessary for heating and DHW heating. [3]

Fig. 2. Principle of operation of the system

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In the case where the temperature in the tank falls below the freezing point of water, a latent crystallization energy is released, which is absorbed by the heat pump. [3]. The hopper is the heart of the system. Water, in turn, plays the role of an energy carrier. The specific heat of water is limited and lies in the range of 4.18 kJ / (kg K). When cooling 1 kg of water, 4.18 kJ of energy is released. [2] Thus, the heat pump takes this heat away from the water in the bunker until it has cooled it to 0 degrees (Figure 3). Further selection of heat and conversion of water into ice is justified, since additional phase heat is released during the phase transition (Fig. 4). The water temperature will remain 0 degrees, but 334 kJ / kg of energy will be released, which would be enough to heat the water from 0 to 80 degrees. The heat will also be absorbed by the heat pump. [3]

Fig. 3. Cooled water to 0 degrees

Fig. 4. Phase transition of water

Absorbers produce heat from ambient air, as well as from sunlight. They are plastic absorbers, consisting of pipes, which are installed on flat and sloping roofs, as well as facades. The controller controls the heat sources, regardless of the heat pump it or the absorbers, depending on the heat demand at the moment, the ice storage bunker. Solar-air absorbers are designed specifically for use with the ice storage system, namely for heating the hopper. Large absorber pipes make it possible to pass the heat transfer medium (brine) of the heat pump. The flow is maintained with minimal pressure losses. The absorber consists of plastic tubes resistant to ultraviolet radiation. The idea is to get heat from the environment, namely air and sun, so the system works around the clock. Solar radiation is only an additional source of heat to improve efficiency. The non-glazed solar collectors are particularly well suited for use in SolarEis-type systems, since they work extremely well in a low-temperature mode. In contrast to conventional solar panels, in such systems there is no danger of condensation of water on the glass. Such solar panels are ideal for use in SolarEis systems. But still one of the most important components of the system is a heat pump. Since in the heating period the temperature of the primary circuit lies in the range from -7 to +25 C, the cold circuit of the heat pump of the ice storage system can be somewhat optimized. Therefore, for such systems, we propose to use the Viessmann Vitocal 300-G heat pump, which operates in the brine / water mode. It can be equipped with an RCD system and an electronic expansion valve. In comparison with the pre-installed conventional expansion valve, the electronic allows more control over the operation of the system. It is controlled by a stepping motor and controls the flow of refrigerant. 60


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This valve has a large regulation range (10-100%), as well as a short opening and closing time. As a result of the precise operation of this valve, the temperature of the coolant at the outlet from the heat pump remains unchanged regardless of the corresponding state of the heat pump. As a rule, electronic expansion valves are actuators for which sensors and sensors are necessary. Wissmann, for this purpose, invented the RCD system. It tracks the main indicators of pressure and temperature in the refrigeration circuit and records them for the subsequent diagnostics of the system operation. The consumption of electricity from the grid and the amount of heat produced by the heat pump are also taken into account. Consider the sequence of the system with a water volume of 10 m3: at the beginning of the heating season, 10 m3 of water is available as an energy source. The heat pump, in turn, will take energy from the water until it reaches 0 degrees, after that, the process of phase transition to ice will occur. All the energy released during the transformation of water into ice, receives a heat pump. Thus, the heat from the ice in the ice storage is fed to the heating. When 10 m3 of water is converted into ice, an energy equal to 100 liters of fuel is released. And in order for ice to melt, regenerative heat exchangers located on the outside of the ice storage are used. The heat received by the absorbers is fed into the ice storage, therefore, the ice will melt and energy will again be released. Hence it follows that the process is closed. Water – ice – water. We will calculate. The energy of crystallization of water is at a temperature of zero degrees of about 333 kJ per kilogram. One liter of ice (approximately equal to 916 grams of ice) will give about 306 kJ of energy. This corresponds to approximately 0.085 kWh: 306 kJ = 306 kW s = 306/3600 kWh = 0.085 kWh. The combustion energy of one liter of diesel fuel is 10 kWh. Thus, 120 liters of ice «correspond» to approximately one liter of diesel fuel. The tank for 10,000 liters, and this is the minimum capacity used for individual houses, «contains» about 850 kWh of energy released during each freeze cycle. the emission of harmful substances is about 2 billion tons per year. In European countries, especially Germany, ice heating is widely used – there is an extensive portfolio of suitable facilities – both individual houses, as well as multi-apartment, office, commercial and industrial buildings. In 2014, under Hamburg, the construction of a whole microdistrict for almost 500 apartments (the world’s largest ice heating system), the central heating of which is organized with the help of ice in a capacity of 1.5 million liters of water, is coming to an end. The system can also be used in the summer period, that is, the cold accumulated in the winter is used to cool the premises. By the end of the heating period, heat exchangers for the absorbers are switched off. Ice remains in the bunker as a natural source of cooling. The heat exchanger of the heating circuit is removed and the coolant circulates through the hopper, thereby cooling itself and melting the ice in the bunker. To increase the cooling capacity, it is possible to connect active cooling units to heat pumps. With active cooling, additional heat is released, which can be stored in the hopper and used at the beginning of the heating season for heating. The system can be independent of the building, which provides seismic stability, which is undoubtedly a plus for regions with high seismic activity. The system can be used for dense urban development, since it can be located under the building.

Conclusions: 1. The use of this system will allow to completely abandon the traditional heating and use of oil, while not building new nuclear power plants. Therefore, we will be able to reduce environmental pollution, completely replacing heating systems, whose pollutant emissions amount to about 2 billion tons per year. KazGASA participates in the introduction of modern educational technologies: video presentations, methodological seminars under the guidance of academic professors, scientific seminars organized by the faculty professors or with the participation of invited scientists; • Participates in methodical conferences of the Academy where leading lecturers deliver reports on scientific directions, on methodological work and on advanced technologies for conducting classroom activities (Rover Root, Fundamental 10, Lyra 9.2, Autocad, SOFISTIK); • organizes and conducts annual international conferences on the basis of KazGASA, where questions are discussed on building structures, construction mechanics, construction technology and 61


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construction materials, construction machinery and mechanisms, electricity supply and economy in construction. An annual student conference is held on the topic «Students and Science: A Look into the Future»; participates in the innovations of the Ministry of Education and Science. For example, in longdistance Internet testing of students on the same disciplines.

References 1. The method is innovative and energy efficient, which allows implementing the most interesting projects, and bring traditional construction to a new level. 2. This publication may be of interest not only to specialists in the construction industry, but also to large investors interested in innovative solutions and technologies. 1. Nazarova V.I. Modern heating systems. – Moscow, 2011. – 26 p. 2. Vasilyev G.P. Heat and cooling supply of buildings and structures using low-potential thermal energy of surface layers of the Earth. – Moscow, 2009. – 57 p. 3. Vasiliev G.P. Khrustachev LV, Rozin AG – Guidelines for the use of heat pumps using secondary energy resources and non-traditional renewable energy sources – Moscow, 2008. – 59 p. 4. System Theory Models of Different Types of Heat Pumps – WSEAS Conference in Portoroz. – Slovenia, 2014. - 75с.

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Analysis of native plant raw materials of Red clover (Trifoliumpraténse) for the creation of new phytopreparations Galiya Sayakova, Kamalidin Sharipov, Akzhonas Khamitova Kazakh National Medical University named after S.D. Asfendiyarov, Almaty, Kazakhstan (avicenna.kz@bk.ru)

Abstract In this work, a plant widespread in Kazakhstan - the Red clover (Trifoliumpraténse) is represented. The results of pharmacological study (commodity analysis, microscopic analysis) raw ofRed clover and its biological effect depending on the chemical composition are presented. Keywords: phytotherapy, medicinal plant raw material, Red clover, biological action, flavonoids. Relevance of the work The Republic of Kazakhstan has unique stocks of medicinal plant raw materials. In this regard, in modern conditions the most promising direction of the development of the domestic pharmaceutical industry is the accelerated development of phytochemical production. Manufactured on the basis of its own plant raw materials – substances and phytopreparations are much cheaper than imported, provides access to their wide layers of the population. Advantages in the use of phytopreparations are: high degree of safety, relative cheapness, accessibility, the possibility of long-term administration [1]. There are various kinds of wild plants used in folk medicine in Kazakhstan. Favorable climate, a sufficient amount of light energy allows domestic plants to accumulate a large number of biologically active substances. One such plant is the meadow clover (Trifoliumpraténse). Currently, in Kazakhstan, the company «Eva-phyto» produces preparations from the meadow clover grass, like dietary supplements as an expectorant. And in other countries, based on the clover of meadow, such drugs as «Promensil», «Feminal», «Atheroklefit», «Detox», «Ledipan», «Calcium-Biolit». A wide range of applications of Clover is explained by the variety of its chemical composition. In many ways, preparations based on Clover are aimed at treating symptoms of menopause in women, since Red clover is a valuable source of all four kinds of natural isoflavones: genistein, daidzein, formononetine and biohainin [2]. Studies of the University of Vienna, Austria have shown that the action of red clover isoflavones contained in the «Feminale» is more in line with the effect of the hormone estrogen on the female body than that of soy isoflafones and tsimicifugi [3]. A study of 75 women who applied for medical help with complaints characteristic of climacteric syndrome, conducted by scientists of the St. Petersburg State Medical Academy.Mechnikov, showed that: «Red clover extract (Feminal)» effectively suppresses manifestations of climacteric syndrome [4]. Specialists of the Pyatigorsk Pharmaceutical Academy, as a result of the studies conducted on the model of twin hyperlipidemia in rats and experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits, found that clover extract contained in «Ateroclephite», with course preventive administration, reduces serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins (LDL ) аnd very low density (VLDL), which contributed to an increase in the content of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) [5]. For the full-fledged use of herbal preparations in medical practice, it is necessary to clearly understand that the standardization of medicinal plant material and the improvement

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of methods for monitoring the quality of phytopreparations is an important condition for their effective application. A private pharmacopoeial article on Clover meadow is available only in the American Pharmacopoeia. Therefore, at present, the study, introduction into medical practice and in the GF RK of a medicinal plant with a wide range of therapeutic effects, Clover meadow is an actual issue.

The purpose of articlе Carrying out of pharmacognostic analysis of domestic plant raw materials of meadow clover (Trifoliumpraténse), suitable for the production of phytopreparations.

Materials and methods of research The material for the study was the above-ground part (grass) of the clover meadow (Trifoliumpratense). The meadow clover (Trifoliumpraténse), a biennial but more often perennial herbaceous plant, reaches a height of 15-55 cm. Branched stems are raised. Leaves are triple, with broadly ovate fines, the leaves are solid at the edges, with delicate cilia along the edges. Inflorescences of the head are loose, globose, often sitting in pairs and often covered with two upper leaves. Corolla red, occasionally white or not colored; Calyx with ten veins. Fruit – ovoid, single-seeded bean; The seeds are roundish, sometimes angular, sometimes yellowish red, sometimes violet. BloomsinJune – September [6]. We conducted commodity analysis of raw materials. Three analytical samples were obtained by quartizing, during the determination of the impurities of the first analytical sample, 0,01% of the blackened parts of the raw material were found in the raw material of clover. The remaining types of impurities were not detected. In the second analytical sample, the moisture content of the meadow clover was determined, according to the GF RK. To do this, a 1 g sample was placed in a pre-dried and weighed bag with a lid and placed in a heated oven to 105 ° C. We weighed in 2 hours. Then they put it back in the drying cabinet. The drying was carried out to a constant mass [7]. The loss in mass during drying was 8% (according to USP no more than 12%).In the third analytical sample, a total ash and ash insoluble in 10% hydrochloric acid was determined according to the requirements of theState Pharmacopoeia of the Republic of Kazakhstan. In a pre-calcined porcelain crucible, a 2 g sample was used to determine the total ash and 5 g to determine the ash insoluble in 10% hydrochloric acid. The raw material in the crucible was gently charred over the weak flame of the gas burner, after complete charring of the raw material, the crucible was transferred to a muffle furnace and calcined at a temperature of 5500C. At the end of the calcination, the crucible was cooled for 2 hours, then placed in a desiccator, at the bottom of which anhydrous calcium chloride was placed, cooled and weighed. Total ash was 5% (according to the USP no more than 10%). To determine the ash content, insoluble in a 10% solution of hydrochloric acid, 5 ml of 10% hydrochloric acid solution was added to the crucible with total ash. The crucible was covered with a watch glass and heated in a boiling water bath for 10 minutes. Then, after cooling down the crucible, the contents were filtered through an ashless filter. The crucible, the watch glass and the filter were washed with purified water until the turbidity in the wash water ceased from a drop of a 2% solution of silver nitrate. The filter was placed in a crucible, dried, gently burned, after which the crucible was calcined to a constant mass of the residue. The content of the ash insoluble in 10% hydrochloric acid was 0.8 times according to our results, carried out three times (according to USP no more than 2%) [8]. We also conducted a microscopic analysis of raw clover meadow (Trifoliumpraténse). For this, dry plant raw materials-leaves and flowers before work were softened. The flowers were softened by submerging in hot water for 5 minutes, and the leaves were boiled in a 5% solution of sodium hydroxide for 5 minutes. Afterwashingwithwaterpurifiedthreetimes.

Preparation of temporary micropreparations The clover leaves of the meadow dissecting needle were placed on a slide. A piece of leaf blade was cut into two parts with a scalpel on a slide; One part was carefully turned over and placed both parts side by side so that there were sheet data from both sides. Each drop of the plate was dripped dropwise with a drop of glycerol solution and covered with coverslips [7]. 64


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Preparations of flowers for microscopic analysis were prepared from individual parts of the inflorescence. The micro-preparations were heated over the small flame of the burner, keeping it inclined, at an angle of 10-15 °, so that the object was better removed, forming air bubbles.

Pic.1 Microscopy of a leaf of a meadow clover

As a result of microscopic analysis of the leaf of the meadow clover, the lower epidermis with sinuous and wavy walls was clearly visible; anomocytic stomata type on both surfaces, but more often on the lower surface; abundant trichome coating on both surfaces and in the fields; fibrovascular veins surrounded by a crystalline shell containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.

Pic.2 Microscopy of the flower of the meadow clover

As a result of the microscopic analysis of the Clover flower, epidermal cells of the corolla, papillose on the tip, elongated with slightly wavy walls and strongly striated cuticle were identified; vascular filaments of the corolla and calyx are surrounded by a crystalline shell containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Also present: a fibrous layer of anthers; subsurface pollen grains. Conclusions. So, clover meadow has a rich chemical composition: flavonoids (formmononein, trifolin, genistein, biokhanin, kaempferol, quercetin), trifolin and isotripolin glycosides, essential oil, fatty oil, coumarins (couestrol, coumarinic acid), trifolysin (having fungicidal activity), vitamins (ascorbic acid, carotene, vitamin E, B vitamins), mineral elements such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, silicon, iron, selenium. By virtue of which it has a wide range of pharmacological effect. The study of such a plant and the creation of preparations on its basis will expand the medicinal form of Kazakhstan. A general information review on the medicinal plant raw material «Clover meadow» and the main macro and micro diagnostic features of the raw materials under investigation was carried out. Further research will be aimed at obtaining a thick extract from the raw material of the meadow clover by the method of CO2 extraction and analysis of the chemical composition of raw materials with a thick extract for the use of chromatography and spectrophotometry. Carrying out the quality specification of the meadow clover will be a great development in the pharmaceutical industry to create new phytopreparations based on it. 65


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References 1. The magazine «Global International Scientific Analytical project» article «Problems and ways of development of the pharmaceutical industry in Kazakhstan», B. Kazybekov, Zh. Kazybekova. – KazNMU. Al-Farabi, Рр.323-360. 2. B. Beck, W. Roi, A. Jungbauer / «Phytoestrogens derived from red clover: an alternative to hormone replacement therapy» / Biochemistry of steroids and molecular biology, 2005, р 67. 3. L. Hidalgo, P. Sheraoui and co-authors / «Influence of Red Clover Isoflavones on the Symptoms of Menopause» / Gynecological Endocrinology, 2005. Рр.243 -268. 4. Brueggemeier R.W., Gu X., Mobley J.A., Joomprabutra S., Bbar A. S., WhetstoneJ.L. The effect of phytoestagens and synthetic combinatorial libraries on aromatase, Estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. V. No. 948 (2001). Pp. 51-66. 5. Legislation on preparations based on medicinal plants. Survey of world practice (continued): Per. With the English. O. Sotnikova // The pharmacist, – 2002.-№ 17. 6. State Pharmacopoeia of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The second edition. Volume I. (2008) 7. USP 32 – NF 27 United States Pharmacopoeia, 2009.Рр. 89-98. 8. Medicinal vegetable raw materials. Pharmacognosy: Proc. Allowance / Ed. T.P. Yakovleva and K.F. Blinovoi .-SPb .: SpecLit, 2004.– 765 p.

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To the problem of standardization of the onion peel G. M Sayakova, Z. Olataeva, G.B. Kiyakova Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University Kazakh National Medical University named after SD Asfendiyarov

Abstract Currently, one of the most important sources for the creation of medicines is medicinal plant raw materials (MPRM). Obligatory conditions for the use of MPRM, both cultivated and wild, is its corresponding quality and proven pharmacological activity. The quality of medicinal plant raw materials in Kazakhstan is regulated in the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia of the Republic of Kazakhstan, while being guided by the modern requirements of Pharmacopoeia of near and far abroad (Br, EF, etc.). However, due to lack of standardization, local producers and consumers may lose a large amount of popular herbal medicinal raw materials in Kazakhstan. To such types of raw material the peels of onion are used, which has long been used in ethnoscience and is popular among the local population. Therefore, for this plant, an urgent issue is the development of national regulatory documentation. But at the same time we necessarily took into account the world experience of studying this type of MPRM. This is primarily the requirements of the World Health Organization, the requirements of Pharmacopoeia (British, American, German, French, etc.). Therefore, the development of regulatory documentation for onion peel for inclusion in the State Pharmacopoeia of the Republic of Kazakhstan remains as an urgent problem. We first studied the anatomical structure of the onion peels for the purpose of developing the relevant section of the regulatory documentation of the State Pharmacopoeia of the Republic of Kazakhstan «The Onion Peels»? and then the search for and collection of material for survey information is still ongoing. Keywords: onion, onion peel, phytopreparations. Relevance Preparations made on the basis of plant raw materials are now widely used for the treatment and prevention of many diseases. Each year their range is expanded and the amount of phytopreparations increases [1]. At present, the pharmaceutical industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan focuses on ensuring an annual increase in the range of phytopreparations of domestic production and import substitution. It is known that the use of herbal products is primarily due to their high biological activity, mild therapeutic effect, low toxicity, economic accessibility and thus are advantages over their synthetic counterparts, and make them the drugs of choice in the therapy of many diseases. The onion peel, which is widespread in Kazakhstan and has experience in ethnoscience not only as an antioxidant, but also for many other diseases, is no exception. To our great regret,

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

more than 500,000 tons of onion waste are being throwing away in the countries of the world every year. Basically, the waste includes a dry brown peel and the top layers of the bulb. Application of the onion peel as a medicinal plant raw material is cost-effective, as this raw material is rich in macro and trace elements, it has a wide spectrum of biologically active substances. The purpose of this work is to review and analyze the status of the use of onion peel, which grows in the Republic of Kazakhstan, suitable for use as medicinal plant material in medical and pharmaceutical practice.

Materials and methods For anatomical studies, a fresh, fixed mixture of ethanol-glycerol-water (1: 1: 1), onion, harvested in the territory of Almaty city of the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2015-2017 was used. Micro-preparations were prepared according to generally accepted procedures. Temporary micropreparations were prepared by hand. As an antireflection liquid, chloral hydrate-water-glycerin mixtures were used, and another mixture of sodium hydroxide solution 10% was also used. The drugs were studied under a light microscope «Primo Star», first with a small, then at a greater magnification of 400 times. The work on the study of microscopic analysis is currently continuing.

Results and its discussion At the same time, information on the scientific study of the onion peel were also been continued. Onion is the fruit of a herbaceous plant, widely known for many years of vegetable culture. Bulbs are a filmy structure, the top layers are white or yellow in color, the inner layers are white or greenish. The leaves of the fetus are tubular in green. Taste – depends on the variety, can be as sharp, semi-acute and sweet. The birthplace of the onion – Afghanistan, Iran, the mountainous regions of Turkmenistan. In culture, the onion is known for a long time – over four thousand years. Forming in the conditions of mountain climate on a small layer of land formed as a result of the destruction of rocks, the onion plant formed a string-shaped, shallow root system that went into the soil and developed a property with a lack of moisture to go to a state of rest before the favorable conditions, «dressing» in a dry shirt. We use this property of onions, cultivating it in culture. Nowadays there are about 400 kinds of onions. Common varieties of onions are: white onions, red onions, yellow onions, shallots, leeks, onion nets. The most common species is the white onion that grows in Kazakhstan. It is distinguished first of all by the peel of white color. The taste and smell of white onions sharp and sharp – confusing with something very difficult. Medicinal plant raw materials have a dense bulb of white color, which has an almost perfect shape. The taste of this plant is not so sharp and it has a bright aroma. In Central Asia, Mexico and Italy, the white onion takes a leading position. Red onion differs according to the peels of red color. The taste is much softer than white. The birthplace of red onions is Central Asia, although after breeding in the Nikitsky Botanical Garden, the collection was replenished with southern species. It is the Crimean red onion, grown on the territory between Yalta and Alushta, is considered a delicious variety. In the Kazakhstan market almost everywhere now is used shallot, which does not differ in any way from the standard bulb externally. In the flesh of the shallot, a lot of ascorbic acid, it is less burning, and considered a universal seasoning. However, when cooking, it changes its taste. Leek is the most beautiful variety of onions. It grows not in the form of solid heads, but in the form of an overgrown root, from what the flat and hard leaves leave. Often leeks are used in preparing dishes for the purpose of aesthetic decoration, but it also has a therapeutic effect, since leeks contain a lot of protein, iron, and trace elements. It has an excellent taste, a spicy aroma [2]. Onions and varieties of it are widely used not only in cooking, but also used in other areas. However, the healing properties of onion peels people discovered relatively recently. The onion bulb is used, as a rule, for coloring Easter eggs (as a natural dye), for rinsing hair. In addition, the onion peel is highly valued 68


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

and as a fertilizer, or an effective tool for controlling pests of garden and garden plants. However, recently, interest in the onion peels has increased significantly, as an effective medicine, which helps to get rid of a number of diseases. In fact, the method of preparation of medicines based on onion peels in folk medicine is quite simple. From the peel of onions people make infusions, alcohol tinctures, decoctions, extracts, oils and ointments. The patent search carried out by us showed how much the onion peel is distinguished by the rich composition of various biologically active components. It includes: vitamin E, which is a strong antioxidant, slows down the aging process, prevents the accumulation of cholesterol in the body, is a means of preventing cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, it enhances the activity of vitamin A. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), contained in the peels of onions, is necessary to prevent beriberi, catarrhal and viral diseases, maintain immunity, health of gums and teeth, vascular tissues, bones and cartilage. Vitamin PP (or nicotinic acid), supports the normal functioning of the digestive system, improves the metabolism of carbohydrates, eliminates gastrointestinal disorders, normalizes the activity of the cerebral cortex, prevents cardiovascular diseases. B group vitamins help to remove mental and nervous overexertion, promote rapid recovery of the organism after the diseases and operations that have been carried out, prevent premature aging, have a positive effect in the treatment of skin diseases, and improve liver function, hair and nails. Salts of potassium, calcium and iron, regulate the water-salt balance, have a diuretic and mild laxative effect. Particular attention deserves flavonoids, carotenoids and phytoncides. Phytoncides onions have high bactericidal activity, they kill almost all types of pathogenic microbes [3]. In the infusions of the onion peels of the onion is the most important component – quercetin, which is a cure for many diseases. This flavonoid is found to a greater extent in onion peel and has a number of useful anti-inflammatory properties. For the prevention of oncology, the best use is to eat the main sources of quercetin (buckwheat, broths of onion and garlic peel, black and green tea, capers, onions, citrus fruits and many other products). They are listed in descending order of the content of flavonoids in them [4]. Onion peel on healing properties increase the production of antibodies and protects the body from various negative factors of the environment, i.e. is, in fact, a natural immunostimulant. Onion peel, an excellent anti-cold remedy, used for both preventive and curative purposes. And all because of the fact that it has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effect. Onion peel are also a true natural antiseptic. Due to the set of antioxidants present in the onion peels, the aging processes that occur in various organs and tissues of the body slow down, bright healing and also oncoprotective properties are manifested. Onion peel are useful as a diuretic. A large number of toxic substances, slags and other «excesses» is derived from our body with urine. The use of onion peel helps to cleanse vessels of «unnecessary» cholesterol, strengthen vascular walls and minimize the risk of blood clots, thereby preventing the development of numerous problems with the cardiovascular system. Onion peel also have the ability to lower blood pressure, especially with angina and coronary heart disease (CHD), but due to the ability to «keep tonus» the heart muscle, consider it a natural cardiotonic. Onion peel can stimulate blood circulation in various organs and tissues of the body, improving their work and nutrition, respectively. In addition, according to literary sources, it has the ability to prevent the formation of histamine and serotonin – substances that trigger allergic reactions, and has an anti-edema effect [5].

Conclusions and further research prospects The onion peel is rich in chemical composition: flavonoids (quercetin), phytoncides, carotenoids, vitamins (ascorbic acid, carotene, vitamin E, vitamin PP, B vitamins), mineral elements like calcium, potassium, iron. Due to such a rich chemical composition it has: immunostimulating, anti-catarrhal, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, tonic, anti-allergic, antiatherosclerotic, cardiotonic, circulatory stimulation, anti-cholesterol, hypotensive, regenerative, oncoprotective, cosmetological. Therefore, it’s time for the onion peel to be rationally used from a medical point of view and develop it according to quality indicators, as it is a promising raw material containing a large number of biologically active substances. In addition, the content of these substances in the onion peel is not standardized, medicinal 69


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

preparations based on the onion peel in the Registry of medicines of the Republic of Kazakhstan and in the State Pharmacopoeia of the Republic of Kazakhstan are absent. This creates prospects for the further standardization of the onion peel as a medicinal plant raw material and its introduction into pharmaceutical production.

References 1. 2. 3. 4.

Bavtuto GA, Erei L.M. Workshop on plant anatomy: a textbook. – Mn .: New edition. – 2012. – 464 p. Muraveva DA, Samylina IA, Yakovlev GP Pharmacognosy: a textbook. M .: Medicine, 2014. Zamedlin V.I. Be healthy! Our natural assistants. Onions and garlic: book – Phoenix, 2012 Prikhodko, A. Onion peels. Treatment for 100 diseases: the book – OOO Astrol Publishing Ltd., 2012. 5. Corulkin D.Yu. Natural flavonoids: a book. Novosibirsk: Theo, 2016.

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THE ROLE OF THE METHOD OF TEACHING IN THE EVALUATION OF MIDTERM Kamalidin O. Sharipov (Skamalidin@mail.ru), Konstantin A. Bulygin (kostyaapr@mail.ru), Kulshat Omirsakova (o.kulshat@mail.ru), Dinara Zhetpisbay (dinara_g2011@mail.ru) Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University, Almaty, Kazakhstan

Abstract The comparison of the effectiveness of interactive learning method (JIGSAW) with the traditional system of teaching biochemistry in medical school was the objective of this study. The effectiveness was evaluated based on the midterm which is carried out in the traditional way. The novelty of the theme lies in the practical application of methods and techniques of interactive learning compared to traditional methods during all classes of one section on biochemistry. The comparison is carried out in the same groups on the two sections of alternating interactive and traditional methods with distinction students by language of instruction and sex composition of the group. The practical significance of this work lies in the fact that it allows to make a conclusion about the most appropriate approach to teaching biochemistry to medical students in the corresponding categories and to show the dependence of the result of learning (assessment for boundary control) method of teaching. Keywords: TBL – team-based learning, team-based learning, CBL – case-based learning focused on cases; PBL – problem-based learning, problem-based learning; JIGSAW – interactive teaching method from the English «Jigsaw», work in small groups; mid-term – form of intermediate assessments of the knowledge and practical skills of students on a particular topic of the discipline Introduction The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of interactive learning method (JIGSAW) with the traditional system of teaching biochemistry in medical school. The effectiveness was evaluated based on the boundary control is carried out in the traditional way. Main research methods were following: • study and analysis of psychological-pedagogic and special literature on the research problem; • content analysis of various teaching material; • supervision over educational activity of students in the classroom; • pedagogical experiment designed to identify the effectiveness of the proposed interactive materials in the classroom for biochemistry at the medical University. The conditions of the pedagogical experiment: 1) the Experimental group must complete all of the scheduled classes in the studied section 2) to choose the Right pilot group – the ratio of achievement levels, gender, and linguistic signs (the equivalence in the experiment)

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Materials and methods We determined groups: №1, which was mostly boys (7:3), teaching was conducted in Russian. The second group was the Kazakh branch in which girls had more (7:3). As interactive method was the selected method JIGSAW [1,3,4], the traditional method included verbal analysis of the material by the front of the survey [1]. The study section was completed with the holding of midterm control by the traditional method – writing test, which was 4 the theoretical question and one case problem. Work in small groups according to the method JIGSAW was carried out as follows: whole group (10 students) were divided into three subgroups of 2-3 students, so to get three small groups (subgroups). Each small group was given the task – situational task and specified tasks for each student within a small group. Allotted time (2-3 minutes) to address each student and 5 minutes for discussion within the group, then one representative of a small group voiced a common solution. Possible modification of this method is given situational tasks for each student small groups. Allotted time (2-3 minutes) to address each student their task. Then was given time to each student explained to the members of their small groups their task. To discuss the results of the work of a small group, the teacher called one student from each small group.

The results of the study and their discussion To apply analysis of variance to determine the effect of teaching methods on the assessment of the midterm, it is necessary to verify the normality of distribution of the sample, to determine compliance of the sample with normal distribution are used a number of methods as the criterion Shapiro-Wilke, Epps-Palli or Pearson fitting criterion [2,5,6]. In our case, using MS Excel, we checked the normality criterion ShapiroWilke [6] and found that our samples are distributed according to normal distribution law. When performing the experiment under different conditions analysis of variance will help to determine how external factors on the measurements or deviations are random in nature. We needed to find out the following issue: is there a significant effect of different learning methods on the evaluation of midterm. This task is to test the proposed null hypothesis H0:. A1= A2=...= AMO equality of mathematical expectations, carried out in the analysis of variance, i.e. the need to test the hypothesis that the level of significance α = 0,05 (with reliability 0,95) the difference between the methods of teaching has no significant impact on the evaluation of midterm was carried out in the traditional way.

Conclusions: 1) The difference in the results of the midterm examination taken the traditional way (on the card questions with theoretical questions and situational task), depending on the method of teaching in practical sessions under this section (traditional and JIGSAW) is not reliable, therefore inappropriate to speak of the superiority of this or that method of teaching, as the dominant 2) Chosen methods of teaching had no impact on the results of the midterm examination taken the traditional way (on the card question with theoretical questions and situational task) depending on other factors (gender, language of instruction), so these factors at medical school for the selected conditions can not affect the results of midterm 3) The identification of a certain regularity in the results of a study of the influence of teaching methods on student performance require inclusion of not one section of the discipline, and the whole course and the final examination in the testing Center and an oral exam will be the target of statistical analysis.

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References 1. Alimov A. «Интербелсенді әдістерді жоғарғы оқу орындарында қолдану» – Manual for teachers, Almaty, 2009. – 328 p 2. Analysis (Two-Factor ones) of variance [Electronic resource] Mode of access: http://baguzin.ru, Baguzin, 21.08.2013 3. «Interactive teaching methods» training Workshop [Electronic resource] Mode of access: http:// kazguu.kz>news> 4. Interactive teaching methods [Electronic resource] Mode of access: http://nsportal.ru, Akbulatov S. A., 04.02.2012 5. The Normality of distribution using Shapiro-Wilco [Electronic resource] Mode of access: http:// life-prog.ru/1_4845_criteria-shapiro---uilki.html 6. The Parametric T-student criterion [Electronic resource] Mode of access: http://cito-web.yspu.org/ link1/metod/met125/node32.html, YSPU, Department of educational information technology, 26.07.2010

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THE METHOD OF LIMITING SPEED WHEN PASSING TURNOUTS OF RAILWAY VEHICLES WITH BOGIES OF MODEL ZK1 Vladimir Solonenko (v.solonenko@mail.ru) Narzankul Makhmetova (makhmetova_n1958@mail.ru) Janat Musayev (mussayev75@yandex.kz) Kazakh Academy of Transport and Communications (KazATC), Almaty

Abstract The task is solved by a combined method: analytical-computational and experimental.To solve the problem, an analytical method is used to draw up a calculation scheme, which takes into account the stiffness of spring sets, friction coefficients, angles of rotation of the body and wheel sets with respect to the transverse, vertical and longitudinal axes. On the basis of the calculation scheme and the assumptions, using the method of dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;alembert were the equations of the second order. Additional dynamic forces of reaction and communication spring kits recorded through an additional equation. The solution of the equations was carried out by the numerical method of step-by-step integration. The experimental phase of the work was carried out on the stage of the Bel station of the Shuya branch of the road. Initially, the dynamic parameters of the vertical dynamics coefficients and frame forces arising during the passage of switches with different speeds were determined. Measurements of the level of impact and check the stresses in the edges of the foot rail of the switch.The estimated values of the processed processes were defined as the most probable values of the measured values for each individual velocity. The estimated values were estimated with a probability of 0.9985. Keywords: railway carriage, railroad switch configuration, frame strength, stability, dynamic performance.

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One of the criteria for establishment of the allowed speeds are the sizes of the vertical and horizontal forces which are transferred from wheels of crews to cores of blunt and sharp frogs. The solution of the put objective was carried out by means of the spatial calculated scheme «carriageway» submitted in figure 1. The scheme allows to investigate the interaction of a way and the rolling stock in the vertical and horizontal planes in cases when roughnesses are both on one, and on both rail threads. The carriage is presented by the four-axis freight gondola car of model 12-9920 manufacturing in the People’s Republic of China on carts of model 18-9996 by ZK1 type in the calculated scheme, with conic cassette bearings. The movement of one cart of the gondola caris consideredin details as the mutual influence of wheels of various carts is insignificant.

Figure 1. The calculated scheme of системы «crew-ay» system

In work [1, pp.32-42] it is shown that the division of mass of a wheel into various quantity of elements is not affected on the sizes of dynamic forces. It allows to consider a wheel in the form of one mass. The transfer curveis simulated in the form of the concentrated masses connected by elastic connections and specified to the points of contact of wheels with rail threads. The lateral impact on a curve of the switch transfer is considered by movements of rail threads and elements of crews in the vertical and horizontal planes and the corresponding rigidity. The accepted calculated scheme consists of 13 solid bodies and has seventy eight degrees of freedom. We make imposing and we find out connections:

In the calculated scheme the following assumptions are accepted: forces arising in connections are functions of the compressed spring and speeds of compression of shock-absorbers; rigidity between sidewalls and wheels are defined by deformations of sidewalls, axle-box knots and necks of axes of wheel couples and also deformations in a zone of their contacts; the rigidity between wheels and the specified mass of a way is defined by deformations of wheels and frogs (necks of rails) and also deformations in a zone of contact 75


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

of wheels and frogs [2, pp.421-432]; forces operating in the contact plane in the presence of a gap between the crests of wheels and rail threads are determined by the theory of pseudo-sliding [3, pp.3-16]; after the choice of a gap there appears the cross forces of interaction depending on the size and speed an space of rail threads [4, pp.125-133, 5, pp.1197-1213]. Proceeding from the calculated scheme and considering the given assumptions, on the basis of Dalamber’s principle we will write down the differential equations of «carriage-way» system:

(2)

The characteristics of the calculated «carriage-way» system are defined by selection at the solution of a problem of the movement of a carriage on the roughnesses received experimentally. The vertical forces determined in the course of the solution are transferred from wheels of the four-axle gondola car to cores of frogs, are compared at the same time with the similar forces received experimentally (figure 2). From the figure 2 it is visible that the sizes of forces and also the nature of change on length of cores practically coincide with the forces received experimentally.

Figure 2. Vertical forces of interaction of a wheel of the four-axle gondola car with the core of the frog of blind crossing

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute â&#x20AC;˘ The Kingdom of Belgium

The oscillograms of primary measurements of the dynamic processes registered on railroad switches are provided on figures 3-4.

Figure 3.

Coefficient of vertical dynamics of the first step of spring suspension of gondola cars 12-9941 at the movement on railroad switches, mm

Dynamic indicators of gondola cars on railroad switches are determined by the measurements executed at the passage by gondola cars of railroad switches No. 13 of brand 1/9 and No. 29 of brand 1/11 on the rails of P65 which are on the Bel.station. For a forward stroke of gondola cars it was acceted the direction when gondola cars 12-9920 moved forward by the 1st wheel couple from the station towards the entrance arrows.

Figure 4.

Coefficient of vertical dynamics of the second step of spring suspension of gondola cars 12-9941 at the movement on railroad switches

The registration of dynamic processes in gondola cars in all arrivals began and came to an end on direct sites of a way. The frame forces were measured by means of the graduated tensometric schemes pasted on side frames of carts of gondola cars.The estimated values of the machined processes were defined as the maximum probable values of the measured values at each speed separately. The estimated values were counted on with probability 0,9985. 77


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

By the results of data processing at the given speed for each measuring scheme separate expanses of data were formed. According to these expanses there were estimated values of indicators. All the measurements were brokenon speeds and in the directions of the movement. In each arrival one maximum amplitude value of dynamic process was chosen. The values of frame forces were accepted taking into account a quastatic component, values of accelerations were processed without a quastatic component. For the assessment of size of frame forces the relations of frame forces to static load from a wheel couple of rails are considered. The indicators of influence of gondola cars on the way. The tests on measurement of a level of influence of gondola cars on the way and railroad switches were made on the same sites of a way as testson the definition of dynamic indicators. Forthe measurement of a level of influence of gondola cars on the way and railroad switches the chosen sites have been equipped with tensoresistors for the measurement of tensions arising in the edges of a foot of rails, the vertical and side forces transferred from a wheel to rails. For measurement of tension in the lower edges of a foot of rails and the curvilinear pointed and forces transferred from a wheel to rails, the tensoresistors by base of 10 mm and with a nominal resistance of 100 Om which were gathered into measuring schemes have been pasted on rails. Signals from measuring schemes were given to the entrance of a measuring complex and were registered on the laptop. The semi-bridge scheme, side and vertical forces from a wheel to rails – the bridge scheme is applied for the registration of tension in the lower edges of a foot of a rail. At the same time the tensoresistor of a compensation run was pasted not on a rail, but on a separate steel plate and settled down near the rail section where the tension was measured in rail foot edges. The side forces from a wheel on rails were registered according to the bridge scheme by Schlumpf 's method. The special load device with dynamometer sensors was used for graduation of tensometric schemes of measurement of side and vertical forces. At testing on railroad switches the tensions in the lower edges of a foot of a rail were measured in a front extension of frame rails, in the curvilinear acute and in a switched curve. Forces transferred from a wheel to rails in the horizontal and vertical direction were measured in a front extension of frame rails and in a switched curve. The dependence of the relation of frame to static load from the wheel couple to rails from the speed of movement is given in figure 5, a, b, c, d. In figure 5 it is visible that the relation of frame forces to static load from the wheeled couple to rails at the movement of gondola cars on railroad switches are in limits of admissible values. Also the big dynamics of the empty car is traced considerably. On instant values of frame forces and coefficient of vertical dynamics of the first step of spring suspension values of coefficient of a stock of stability against a wheel descent from a rail have been calculated (further in figures and in tables – KZU).

Direct move

Return move

а) from the wheeled coupleonrailstotheemptygondolacarof12-9920 model at the movement on P65 railroads witches of brand 1/9 to the side

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scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

Direct move

Return move

b) from the wheeled couple to rails of the loaded gondola car of 12-9920 model at the movement on P65 railroads witches of brand 1/9 to the side

Direct move

Return move

c) from the wheeled couple to rails of the empty gondola car of 12-9920 model at the movement on P65 railroads witches of brand 1/11 to the side

Direct move

Return move

d) from the wheeled couple to rails of the loaded gondola car of 12-9920 model at the movement on P65 railroads witches of brand 1/11 to the side

– the measured values of indicators; – estimated values (the maximum probable); – an average from 3 maximum (for reference);

Figure 5. Relation of frame forces to static loading

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The minimum value of coefficient of a stock of stability against a wheel descent from a rail at moving railroad switches is given in table 1. Table 1. Stability stock coefficient against a wheel descent from a rail

а) in railroads witches with a frog of brand 1/9 KZUminimumvalue Movementto a side

Moving direction

At a speed, km/h 15

25

40

50

60

80

90

100

110

120

Empty gondola car Direct move

2,31

2,30

2,00

2,09

2,72

2,52

2,48

2,38

2,30

2,21

Return move

2,43

2,16

2,22

2,43

2,84

2,72

2,70

2,64

2,59

2,54

Loaded gondola car Direct move

2,27

2,48

2,36

2,53

3,16

3,00

2,80

2,72

2,61

2,49

Return move

1,83

1,70

1,82

1,65

3,13

2,74

2,58

2,39

2,20

2,02

The allowed value

1,4 b) in railroad switches with a frog of brand 1/11 The minimal value of KZU Movement to a side

Moving direction

On a direct moving At speed, km/h

15

25

40

50

60

80

90

100

110

120

Empty gondola car Direct move

2,71

2,77

2,24

2,26

2,79

2,75

2,73

2,71

2,69

2,67

Return move

2,84

2,68

2,93

2,87

2,91

2,72

2,63

2,53

2,44

2,34

Loaded gondola car Direct move

2,93

2,92

3,19

3,07

3,89

3,77

3,71

3,65

3,59

3,53

Return move

2,20

2,05

1,73

2,06

2,93

2,86

2,83

2,79

2,76

2,72

Admitted value

1,4

The received dependences of coefficient of a stock of stability against a wheel descent from a rail from the speed of the movement are given in figure 9, a, b, c, d. The coefficient of a stock of stability was estimated on the minimum calculated value. The data provided in table 1 and in figure 6 show that the stability stock coefficient against a wheel descent from a rail at transportation by gondola cars of railroad switches to the side up to the speed of 50 km/h and in the direct direction up to 120 km/h are in the admissible limits, i.e. accept the values not less than 1,4. The given results show that dynamic indicators of the gondola car of model 12-9920 in an empty and loaded state at moving railroad switches meet the requirements of «Norms of the allowed speeds of movement of locomotives and cars on railway tracks of a track of 1520 (1524) mm of railway transport of the Republic of Kazakhstan» (further Norms of the allowed speeds of movement). 80


scientific journal of the modern education & research institute • The Kingdom of Belgium

Direct move

Return move

а) at moving by the empty gondola car of model 12-9920 of the railroads witch with the frog of brand 1/9 to a side

Direct move

Return move

b) at moving by the loaded gondola car of model 12-9920 of the railroad switch with the frog of brand 1/9 to a side

Direct move

Return move

c) at moving by the empty gondola car of model 12-9920 of the railroad switch with the frog of brand 1/11 to a side

Direct move

Return move

d) at moving by the loaded gondola car of model 12-9920 of the railroad switch with the frog of brand 1/11 to a side

– the measured values of indicators; – estimated values; Figure 6. Stability stock coefficient against a wheel descent from a rail

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Conclusions As the conducted researches show, the sizes of the vertical and horizontal forces, which are transferred from the wheels of carriages to the cores of blunt and sharp frogs are one of the main criteria for designation of the maximum speeds of the movement on blank crossings of the combined track. And the spatial scheme used in calculations is rather reliable and can be used for carrying out analytical researches of interaction of a way and the rolling stock in the vertical and horizontal planes, including, in cases when roughness both on one, and on both rail threads. The executed pilot studies show that stability stock coefficient against a wheel descent from a rail at transportation by gondola cars of railroad switches to a side up to the speed of 50 km/h and in the direct direction up to 120 km/h are in the admissible limits, i.e. accept values not less than 1,4.

References 1. A.A.Dolmatov, A.D.Kochinov, N.N.Kudryavcstevand oths. Features of dynamics of cars at a high speed of movement / HSIIRT. Issue 342, 160 p. 2. Vladimir Solonenko, Janat Musayev, Narzankul Mahmetova, Mikhail Kvashnin, Azamat Alpeisov, Algazy Zhauyt Some aspects of the experimental assessment of dynamic behavior of the railway track Journal of theoretical and applied mechanics Volume 55, Issue 2, pp. 421-432. 3. V.A.Lazaryan and othrs. The differential equations of spatial fluctuations of the four-axis freight car at the movement on an inertial way / DIET. Issue 138, pp. 3-16. 4. Janat Musayev, Algazy Zhauyt, Toty Buzauova, Gulnar Mamatova. The experimental determination of the stress calculation and relative strains in the span elements of railway bridges under the influence of the rolling equipment Journal of Measurements in Engineering. September 2017, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp. 125-133. 5. Kvashnin, Algazy Zhauyt, Toty Buzauova. Modeling of dynamic characteristics of freight car with optimized parameters of wedge-type shock absorber Journal of Vibroengineering JVE, 2017, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp. 1197-1213.

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Ekaterina Tsaranok Director for Educational Programmes Modern Education & Research Institute

Axana Pozdnyakova Director for Development Modern Education & Research Institute Design by

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The Scientific Journal of the Modern Education & Research Institute, 15 September 2018  

The multidisciplinary Scientific Journal of the Modern Education & Research Institute on the results of the conference “Modernization of the...

The Scientific Journal of the Modern Education & Research Institute, 15 September 2018  

The multidisciplinary Scientific Journal of the Modern Education & Research Institute on the results of the conference “Modernization of the...

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