Modern Aquarium September 2011

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September 2011 volume XVIII number 7

Series III ON THE COVER Our cover this month features Pterois volitans, popularly known as the lionfish. Long a favorite of saltwater fishkeepers with a taste for exotic beauty with an element of danger, the venomous lionfish isn't so welcome in its newly adopted range, the southern Atlantic coast of the U.S.A. See Steve Sica's story on page 13. Photo by Stephen Sica GREATER CITY AQUARIUM SOCIETY Board Members

President Vice-President Treasurer Corresponding Secretary Recording Secretary

Dan Radebaugh Edward Vukich Jules Birnbaum Mario Bengcion Tommy Chang

Members At Large

Claudia Dickinson Al Grusell Emma Haus Leonard Ramroop

Pete D’Orio Ben Haus Jason Kerner

Claudia Dickinson Leonard Ramroop Warren Feuer Mark Soberman Al Grusell Alexander A. Priest Marsha Radebaugh Claudia Dickinson Claudia Dickinson Warren Feuer

MODERN AQUARIUM Editor in Chief Copy Editors Exchange Editors Advertising Mgr.

In This Issue From the Editor G.C.A.S. 2011 Program Schedule President’s Message Tonight's Speaker: Mark Soberman by Claudia Dickinson

August's Winning Cartoon Caption Cartoon Caption Contest The 2010 FAAS Publication Awards by Alexander A. Priest

A Simple Complex The "Albimarginata Complex" by Alexander A. Priest

Our Generous Sponsors & Advertisers Grand Cayman's Lionfish

Committee Chairs

A.C.A. Delegate Bowl Show Breeder Award Early Arrivals F.A.A.S. Delegate Membership Programs N.E.C. Delegate Technology Coordinator

Vol. XVIII, No. 7 September, 2011

Dan Radebaugh Sharon Barnett Susan Priest Alexander A. Priest Stephen Sica Donna Sosna Sica Mark Soberman

by Stephen Sica

MA Classics Five Days in the Life of Corydoras Adolfoi by Joseph Ferdenzi

MA Classics The Amusing Aquarium by Bernard Harrigan

Fish Tuberculosis What is the Threat to Aquarists? by Dan Radebaugh

Wet Leaves The 101 Best Aquarium Plants by Susan Priest

G.C.A.S. Happenings The Undergravel Reporter Get Tanked!

Fin Fun (Puzzle Page) The Colorful Cory

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12 13 15 17 19 23 24 25 26

From the Editor by Dan Radebaugh he FAAS Article Competition winners have been announced! Actually, they were announced in time for last month’s issue, but the annual Silent Auction didn’t seem to be the best venue for presenting awards, so we held off to this month. Modern Aquarium once again did very well, sweeping several categories, including the Author of the Year category. Al Priest, our FAAS delegate and former Editor of Modern Aquarium, tells us about the contest and the winners, on pages 8 & 9. Congratulations to all our authors on another fine showing, and a special congratulation goes to Al for being named FAAS Author of the year! The subject of our cover photo this month, the lionfish Pterois volitans, is also the subject in this issue of the latest in a series of articles by Steve Sica. Steve, who tied for Second Place along with Sue Priest in the FAAS Author of the Year category, has written several articles documenting the spread of P. volitans that have graced the pages of Modern Aquarium going back to 2008, my first year as Editor. Steve has not only kept us abreast of this fish’s adventures in the New World, he has provided us with some beautiful photographs in the process. As a side-note, I came upon a news item regarding P. volitans in the current issue of Aquarium Fish International. A study done by the University of Queensland (Australia) has shown that in protected (no fishing) areas of the Caribbean, large groupers such as the Nassau Grouper Epinephelus striatus are able to effectively control the otherwise almost predator-free lionfish. Outside the protected areas, the groupers are too overfished to have a significant effect. The scientists recommend a drastic reduction in the harvesting of groupers until their numbers can build up sufficiently to be an effective control on the lionfish population.1 Later on in the issue, in an article with a complex title, Al Priest tells us about a couple of small bettas with a complex of their own. Sue Priest reviews a new book on aquarium plants, and I contribute a brief article on fish tuberculosis, a subject I’m sure none of us is eager to learn too much about. The Undergravel Reporter reviews the new Animal Planet show Tanked!, and the Fin Fun puzzle is “The Colorful Cory.” “MA Classics” this month celebrates the FAAS awards by presenting a First Place winner from 1998 by Joe Ferdenzi, "Five Days in the Life of Corydoras adolfi,"along with a cartoon by Bernie Harrigan, who



was also a First Place winner that year in the Cartoon category. Speaking of cartoons, the winning caption in last month’s Cartoon Caption Contest is shown on page 6, and the new cartoon challenge is on page 7. We didn’t have too many entries last month―maybe everyone was too involved with their winnings in the Silent Auction. To make entering easier, this month we’ll distribute entry sheets along with your Modern Aquarium issues. Just fill in your name and a caption, and turn it in to us before you leave the meeting. Good luck! * * * Remember, as always, we need articles! Modern Aquarium is produced by and for the members of Greater City Aquarium Society. Our members are our authors, and with ten issues per year, we always, always need more articles. I know several of you are keeping and/or breeding fish that I would like to know more about, and I’m certain other members would be interested as well. Share your experience with us. Write about it! If you’re a little unsure about the state of your writing technique, don’t worry – that’s why there are editors. If you have an article, photo, or drawing that you’d like to submit for inclusion in Modern Aquarium, it’s easy to do! You may fax it to me at (877) 299-0522, email it to, or just hand it to me at a meeting. However you get it to me, I’ll be delighted to receive it!


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Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

GCAS Programs 2011


t is our great fortune to have another admirable cast of speakers who have so graciously accepted our invitation to join us throughout the coming season, bringing us their extensive knowledge and experiences. You certainly won’t wish to miss a moment of our prominent guests, not to mention the friends, fish, warmth, and camaraderie that accompanies each meeting. I know I can barely wait to see you here! Enjoy! Claudia September 7

Mark Soberman Keeping and Breeding Corydoras

October 5


November 2

Ted Judy Going Gabon!

December 7

Holiday Party!


Winter Break


Winter Break

Articles submitted for consideration in Modern Aquarium (ISSN 2150-0940) must be received no later than the 10th day of the month prior to the month of publication. Please fax to (877) 299-0522, or email to gcas@earthlink. net. Copyright 2011 by the Greater City Aquarium Society Inc., a not-for-profit New York State corporation. All rights reserved. Not-for-profit aquarium societies are hereby granted permission to reproduce articles and illustrations from this publication, unless the article indicates that the copyrights have been retained by the author, and provided reprints indicate source and two copies of the publication are sent to the Exchange Editor of this magazine. Any other reproduction or commercial use of the material in this publication is prohibited without express written prior permission. The Greater City Aquarium Society meets every month, except January and February. Members receive notice of meetings in the mail. For more information, contact: Dan Radebaugh (718) 458-8437. Find out more, or leave us a message, at our Internet Home Page at: or Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

September 2011


President’s Message by Dan Radebaugh


s difficult as it sometimes is for me to remember this, there are fishkeeping periodicals besides Modern Aquarium. One of these is Aquarium Fish International. I had just about decided to let my subscription to this expire, but as there lately has seemed to be a slight but noticeable up-tick in quality, I went ahead and renewed. While perusing the latest issue (October) the other night, I saw a couple of items of interest. One of these I’ll let our Editor talk about in his column. The one I’ll address here was headlined, “San Francisco Considers Tropical Fish Ban.” It seems that the city, prodded by its Commission of Animal Control and Welfare, is considering a ban on the sale of all animals commonly kept as pets. This proposed legislation is purported to be for the purpose of “cracking down” on puppy and kitten mills by “discouraging impulse buying of animals that will end up in shelters.” Fish are to be included “because most fish in aquariums are either mass bred or taken from the wild.” Now while eliminating so-called puppy mills may be a laudable goal, this approach is not laudable. A couple of years ago (see

Modern Aquarium, May, 2009, pp. 2530), the Humane Society of America tried to get a bill (HR 669) through Congress that also had the apparent goal of ending pet ownership―but in the entire country. After pet owner groups realized what was going on and rallied against the bill, it was crushed in Congress. This new action in San Francisco smacks of the same authoritarian mindset as that defeated bill, and seems to signal a new strategy―divide and conquer. Maybe its proponents can slip it through in San Francisco and then set their sights on other cities, effectively avoiding national petowner organizations (and therefore organized opposition). Responsible pet owners and animal lovers these days need to be very careful and vigilant about what sort of legislation is being foisted upon the public, and very wary of what’s behind noble sounding marketing messages such as “cracking down on puppy mills.” If you look at the actual proposals, you might find that the true aim is to “crack down” on all of us who keep pets.


Computer Consulting Jason Kerner Consultant

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(718) 469-5444 September 2011

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The G.C.A.S. Proudly extends a most Warm Welcome to

Our Guest Speaker Mark Soberman Speaking On Keeping and Breeding Corydoras by Claudia Dickinson rom the time he was a young boy growing up in Sunnyside, Queens, Mark Soberman was fascinated by all aquatic life. Occasional visits to a neighboring apartment were savored, as here oldfashioned fishbowls, filled with the allure of guppies and live plants, lined the walls. At the age of ten, Mark received his first tengallon aquarium from another neighbor with like interests. The tank came equipped with all of the fittings, which included an old Supreme piston pump, and two fish that Mark remembers well—one kissing gourami (Helostoma temmincki) and one blue gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus). Encouraged by the full support of his parents, Mark’s passion flourished. It was a memorable day when his father took him on an excursion to Brooklyn for the purchase of his first thirty-gallon tank. His bedroom soon held this plus three more tanks, which housed everything from guppies to discus, and even saltwater fish! Attending college at the State University of New York at Brockport, where Mark went on to get his Masters, put fishkeeping on a brief hiatus. In 1984, the newly wed Mark and Robin Soberman went for a day’s outing at the racetrack, where Mark won an Exacta. Well, he immediately drove to Tropical Fish Supermarket with his winnings! The store’s proprietor, Charlie Murphy, assisted Mark and got him back into


Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

full swing with a twenty-nine gallon setup. Mark’s hobby had been rekindled and it expanded, until eventually he was able to create his dream of a fishroom. Putting in long days as sales manager of a dental supply company, he can now rejuvenate in this basement room, immersed amongst the fish and bubbling waters of forty aquariums which range in size from 10 to 125 gallons. With Mark’s precise and meticulous style, the neat rows of tanks shine with healthy, vibrant, and prolific fish. Although Mark specializes in breeding Corydoras catfish species, over the years he has also bred cichlids, killifish, characins, and livebearers. He is involved in a variety of projects, his most recent being to attempt the breeding of some of the riverine Synodontis species. One can always spot Mark’s fish in a show, most particularly if they are catfish, for they are certain to stand out from the rest due to the brilliant colors, large size, and striking beauty. His walls and shelves are filled with numerous trophies in recognition of his talents. Mark’s reputation travels far and wide for his ability to condition his fish and provide appropriate conditions for the spawning of the most difficult species.

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With a deep interest in the history of the aquarium hobby, Mark has a remarkable collection of antiquarian literature and ephemera that joins numerous aquatic artifacts. This is displayed in special bookcases, with extra space available for his insatiable desire to discover yet another rare book. The premier “All Aquarium Catfish Convention,” held in 2004, began a new journey in Mark’s outstanding career as he served as a panelist on the Corydoras Forum and united with fellow catfish experts from across the world. Since then he also did a workshop on catfish aquascaping in 2008 and gave the banquet catfish quiz in 2010. As a result of his acquaintances there, he now serves in the distinguished role of moderator on the highly respected forum, “Planet Catfish,”, and he is a member of the British Catfish Study Group. In 2006, Mark was invited back to the biannual convention to speak on African catfish. Involved with the formation of the North American Catfish Society, as well as other catfish organizations, Mark is also an author, having written

articles for Tropical Fish Hobbyist, Modern Aquarium, and several catfish journals. A highly sought after speaker, Mark has traveled extensively, giving his programs across the country as well as in Bermuda for the Bermuda Fry-Angle Society. A member of the Greater City Aquarium Society since 1984, Mark has served on its Board of Directors for more than 15 years. Named to Greater City’s Joseph Ferdenzi Roll of Honor in 1998, he is also one of the club’s top lifetime breeders. Aside from the GCAS, Mark is a member of the Long Island Killifish Association (LIKA), the American Killifish Association (AKA), and the American Cichlid Association (ACA), as well as the aforementioned British Catfish Study Group. It is with great pride and warmth that we welcome Mark tonight as he shares his extensive knowledge and experience with Keeping and Breeding Corydoras.

Photo by Claudia Dickinson

August Cartoon's Winning Caption

Duck and Cover 6

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Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

The Modern Aquarium Cartoon Caption Contest Cartoon by Eliot Oshins

Modern Aquarium has featured cartoons before. This time though, you, the members of Greater City get to choose the caption! Just think of a good caption, and jot it down on the enclosed Caption Entry Sheet, and turn it in sometime during tonight's meeting. Or you may mail, email, or phone the Editor with your caption (phone: 347-866-1107, fax: 877-299-0522, email: Your caption needs to reach the Editor by the third Wednesday of this month. Winning captions will earn ten points in our Author Awards Program, qualifying you for participation in our special "Authors Only" raffle at our Holiday Party and Banquet. Put on your thinking caps! And as long as you're thinking, think about drawing a cartoon yourself. I'm certain that some of you have some artistic talent and a sense of humor. Create a cartoon entry and send it to me for inclusion in our contest!

Your Caption:

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

September 2011


The 2010 FAAS Publication Awards by ALEXANDER A PRIEST embership in the Federation of American Aquarium Societies (FAAS) is open to aquarium societies in North, Central, and South America. Formed in 1973 to fight against a proposed federal law which would have severely restricted the importation and transshipping of tropical fish, FAAS is now primarily a virtual, web-based organization providing information to help societies run better. FAAS has a Publication Award Program to recognize the efforts and contributions made by aquarium societies and their members through their publications to educate their members, and to promote the hobby. Articles and artwork from non-commercial publications during a calendar year are submitted for judging. There are 30 categories for consideration. Some awards offer a junior level competition based on the age of the individual author. Greater City is a FAAS member, and participates in the FAAS Publication Awards program. The results of the judging of last year’s articles is below. For the 2010 publication year, there were 248 entries. All awards for all participating societies are listed here. For specific details (such as the title of award winning articles), go to*A (this information will soon be on the official FAAS website at While Greater City authors did well, we could (and should) have done better. Look at the 2010 Article Index in the March issue of Modern Aquarium and you’ll see no articles on killifish, cyprinids, plants, loaches, or rainbowfish, and that’s just to name a few of the areas I know some of our members are interested in. So, please consider sharing your interest and knowledge by writing articles.


Best Editor and Publication more than 6 issues 1) Joel Antkowiak - ACLC 2) Cameron Turner and Tanya Morose - KWAS 3) Dan Radebaugh - GCAS

Best Spawning Article under 500 words 1) Lauren Manalastas - PCCA 2) Ted Judy - MAS 3) Alexander A. Priest - GCAS

Best Editor and Publication, 6 or fewer issues 1) Jim Ellenberger - PCCA 2) Cheryl Rogers - AGA 3) José M. Centeno - AAA

Best Spawning Article, 500-1000 words 1) Joel Antkowiak - ACLC 2) Cameron Turner - KWAS 3) Daniel Spielman - PCCA HM) Dan Radebaugh - GCAS

Best Changing Cover, Original Art 1) The Aquatic Gardener - AGA 2) FishTalk - AAAA 3) Fins & Tales - KWAS

Best Spawning Article more than 1000 words 1) Artie Mayer - NCAS 2) Rolf Mader - PCCA 3) Sybille Finegan - AAAA HM) Alexander A. Priest - GCAS

Best FAAS-Related Article 1) Alexander A. Priest - GCAS 2) Alexander A. Priest - GCAS Best Exchange Article 1) Stephen Sica & Donna Sosna Sica - GCAS 2) Stephen Sica & Donna Sosna Sica - GCAS 3) Stephen Sica & Donna Sosna Sica - GCAS HM) Patricia A Smith - NCAS Best Review Article 1) David Ramsey - AAAA 2) Susan Priest - GCAS 3) Susan Priest - GCAS


Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

Best Article on a Genus of fish 1) Jim Datka - AAAA 2) Ken Seiders - AAAA 3) Eric Rogne - MAS Best Article on a Species of fish 1) Dan Radebaugh - GCAS 2) Pam Chin - PCCA 3) Dan Radebaugh - GCAS

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Best Continuous FAAS Column 1) Patricia A Smith - NCAS

Best Humorous Article 1) Susan Priest - GCAS 2) Elliot Oshins - GCAS 3) Alexander A. Priest - GCAS

Best Article on Aquascaping or Design 1) Lluis Ruscalleda Turon - AGA 2) Lluis Ruscalleda Turon - AGA 3) Tianna Bertolo - KWAS HM) Ken Seiders - AAAA HM) Stephen Sica - GCAS

Best Original Artwork 1) Elliot Oshins - GCAS 2) Patricia A Smith - NCAS

Best Article on Plant Maintenance, Cultivation or Reproduction 1) Scott Hieber - AGA 2) Ken Seiders - AAAA 3) Ed Koerner - KWAS Best Show Article 1) Ole Pedersen - AGA 2) Karen Randall - AGA 3) Pam Chin - PCCA HM) Joel Antkowiak - ACLC Best How To or Do-It-Yourself Article 1) Jayne Glazier - KWAS 2) Jayne Glazier - KWAS 3) Jules birnbaum - GCAS HM) Ryan Barton - KWAS Best Article on Health/Nutrition 1) Joseph Ferdenzi - GCAS 2) Ted Judy - MAS 3) Jules birnbaum - GCAS

Best Cartoon 1) Bob Kulesa - ACLC 2) Bob Kulesa - ACLC 3) Bob Kulesa - ACLC Best Continuing Column by a Single Author or Author(s) 1) Kevin Plazak - PCCA 2) Michael Risko - AAAA 3) Ed Koerner - KWAS HM) Michael Steffen - ACLC Best Article, All Other Categories 1) Jules birnbaum - GCAS 2) Al Ridley - KWAS 3) Sharon barnett - GCAS Jr-1) Stephanie Cornell - ACLC Author of the Year 1) Alexander A. Priest - GCAS 2) (tie) Susan Priest - GCAS 2) (tie) Stephen Sica with Donna Sosna Sica GCAS

Best Traveling Aquarist Article 1) Christel Kasselmann - AGA 2) Stephen Sica - GCAS 3) Jules birnbaum - GCAS HM) Rein & Char Breitmaier - KWAS

Legend HM = Honorable Mention Jr = Junior AAA = Asociaci贸n de Acuaristas de Aguadilla - El Ojo de Agua AAAA = Atlanta Area Aquarium Association - FishTalk ACLC = Aquarium Club of Lancaster County - Tank Tales AGA = Aquatic Gardners Association - The Aquatic Gardener GCAS = Greater City Aquarium Society - Modern Aquarium KWAS = Kitchener-Waterloo Aquarium Society - Fins & Tales MAS = Milwaukee Aquarium Society - SPLASH NCAS = Nassau County Aquarium Society - Pisces Press PCCA = Pacific Coast Cichlid Association - Cichlidae Communique

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A Simple Complex The “Albimarginata Complex” Betta Albimarginata and Betta Channoides by ALEXANDER A PRIEST - photos by the author


ccording to Wikipedia “A species complex are two distinct species. If the fish in both tanks is a group of closely related species, where were somehow combined into one group, I doubt the exact demarcation between species is that I could separate them back into two distinct often unclear or cryptic owing to their recent and species populations with 100% accuracy. They usually still incomplete reproductive isolation. look and act very much alike, and their care is ...Species complexes are more common among identical. So, this one article will essentially be plants, but animal examples exist, such as the about the “Albimarginata Complex” consisting of dog-wolf-coyote complex (the genus Canis) and the two species: Betta albimarginata and Betta cobras (genus Naja).1" The International Betta Channoides, both from Indonesia. When I first Congress currently shows 11 different complexes encountered Betta albimarginata, they were known for the genus Betta.2 The placement in a particular as Betta albimarginata sp. malinau (what was to Betta complex appears to be determined mostly by later become channoides was, at that time, called physical similarities. For example, the Picta Betta albimaginata sp. pampang). Complex consists of five small mouthbrooding They are small, both sexes as adults being species: Betta falx, Betta picta, Betta pallida, Betta slightly less than 2 inches, Total Length. Both are simplex, and Betta taeniata. The two species that currently make up the Albimarginata Complex: Betta albimarginata and Betta channoides are certainly similar in appearance. (There has been discussion about breaking albimarginata into three species based upon their local data, but so far this has not happened.3) If you do an Internet search for either species, you will find many people Male Betta albimarginata questioning the difference between them, basically asking “Which species do I have?” paternal mouthbrooders, with males incubating the eggs for about two weeks before releasing the fry, Betta channoides are slightly smaller, darker, after which the parents provide no additional care. and more intense in color, have a more blunt head, As long as the parents are well-fed, predation is and have less black around their gills than Betta rare. I recommend removing the parents after a albimarginata. At least one person indicated that spawning simply because it’s easier to care for the the most reliable way to tell the difference is by the fry. I always have an active sponge filter in every color of the fry, with the fry of Betta channoides tank. A sponge filter that has been in use for three being grey and those of Betta albimarginata being or more months will usually have infusoria and black.4 (I have not found this to be true.) microorganisms upon which the fry can graze. In I have a tank of each, which I acquired them addition, the fry can be fed microworms and finely from a reliable exporter who claims that what I have ground flake or pellets (I use a mortar and pestle).


Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

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Male Betta channoides Since this is a relatively small fish, both the number of fry per spawning and the size of the fry are small, with 30 to 40 being the absolute maximum number you should expect to see. Females initiate the spawning and will often show their readiness to spawn by displaying vertical body stripes (somewhat similar to those of female Betta splendens who are ready to spawn). Both species do best in soft, acidic water with a pH from 6.0 to 6.8, and with a temperature from 76E to 82E F. Betta species are primarily carnivores, so live or frozen worms and brineshrimp are the best foods for conditioning them for spawning. A tightly covered tank (these are jumpers!) with plenty of caves should be provided. (Not only are these relatively shy fish that appreciate hiding places, but the males will also use those caves while holding eggs.) While plants are not disturbed by either species, they prefer a low-light environment. That, coupled with soft acid water, somewhat restricts your choice of plants. Plants in the genus Anubias, as well as Java Fern can usually survive under these conditions.

The generally accepted common names for these species are: for Betta albimarginata, “Whiteseam Fighter” ( A l b i = w h i t e , Marginata=border, referring to the white stripe on the border of the anal fin), and for Betta channoides, “Snakehead Fighter” (Channoides = resembles channa, or snakehead). Also, as I mentioned, Betta channoides are darker and have more intense color, so other common n a m e s f o r Betta albimarginata and Betta channoides are, respectively, “Strawberry Betta” and “Cherry Betta” (supposedly, “cherry red” is darker than “strawberry red” -- who knew?). Males of both species are brightly colored (with red bodies, as indicated above). Females of both species are drab gray. When ready to spawn, males become even more intensely colored. While you can house more than one pair in a tank, usually only one dominant male will exhibit full color. These species are generally timid, nonaggressive fish, They can be housed with other small peaceful fish having similar water parameter requirements; but they do best (and are more likely to spawn) in a species-only tank of their own. The males of both species, while small, are brightly colored and very attractive. Males will get territorial when brooding, and females tend to be more aggressive, especially towards other females. I would rate them “moderate” with respect to the degree of difficulty to keep them, mostly because maintaining a soft, acid tank requires a bit more effort.

References: 1 2 3 4 7ae658c9a4bb4769b31b22a5ec53a82b

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GCAS Thanks You! Our Generous Sponsors and Advertisers The Greater City Aquarium Society extends our heartfelt thanks to the following manufacturers for their generous donations. Thanks also to our advertisers, whose contributions to our success as a Society are deeply appreciated. Please patronize our supporters. Aquarium Pharmaceuticals Aquarium Technology Inc Ecological Laboratories HBH Pet Products Koller-Craft Kordon, LLC Marineland Microbe Lift Ocean Nutrition America Omega Sea Red Sea


Rena Rolf C. Hagen San Francisco Bay Brand Seachem Zoo Med Laboratories Inc. Cameo Pet Shop Coral Aquarium Nassau Discus World Class Aquarium Zoo Rama Aquarium

September 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

Grand Cayman’s Lionfish Story and Photos by Stephen Sica


pring is a time of year when Donna and I enjoy traveling, and more often than not, it’s a trip to the Cayman Islands. When Donna read that the Cayman government finally sank the USS Kittiwake in January, she proclaimed that we had to dive this shipwreck before it is destroyed by a hurricane. “Okay,” I responded; “book it Donna!" and she did. The Kittiwake is a former United States Navy submarine rescue tender that had been decommissioned and eventually donated to the Cayman Islands as a dive industry tourist attraction. The ship is exactly 251 feet in length with a beam of 40 feet. For many years it was in mothballs in the state of Virginia, before it began the process of being environmentally cleaned and prepared to become a reef. Then it had to be towed from Virginia to Grand Cayman for its “inaugural” sinking, which took place on a patch of white sand just offshore of the trendy and touristy Seven Mile Beach on the west side of Grand Cayman Island, where most of the hotels are located. The Kittiwake was the first United States Navy ship that was donated to a foreign country under America’s artificial reef program. We arrived on Grand Cayman on May 20th. After dinner that evening I unpacked our gear. We were looking forward to our 8:30 pickup the next morning. We were booked for two morning dives, and then the Kittiwake dive in the afternoon. We were apprehensive, because it was going to be a strenuous day, with six additional dives planned for the following three days. Saturday morning found us riding with a couple from Minnesota in a rickety van down the back streets

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

of Georgetown, while a parade took over the main streets. We arrived at the dive shop, completed our paperwork, and took our gear to the boat that was tied up at the dock a short walk from the door. The crew of three helped us haul our gear aboard, and soon we were heading out to sea with seven other divers. Most dive outfits ask the divers which sites they have already dived during their current stay, in order to try to avoid repetitive dives to the same location. Unlike Donna, who prefers wide open spaces, most divers like to swim through coral canyons, overhangs and caves. The first dive usually has narrow walls and overhangs, and is the deeper dive. L i o n f i s h generally prefer cavelike protection. All of the lionfish that I have observed in the Cayman Islands were found at depths of forty to ninety feet, and protected by coral―sort of in their lair. I have very rarely seen a lionfish swimming in open water, and never in the Cayman Islands. In the Bahamas I observed some lionfish in the open on the reefs―usually at fifty feet or deeper. These would hover in one place―sometimes out in the open, but usually in their lair. During the course of our trip we made nine dives in four days. As a result, it was difficult to keep track of all of the lionfish that we saw. On some dives I saw two or three that I would mention to Donna while we were writing our dive log, which I usually did during dinner while we were waiting for our meal. Donna takes notes after our dives to keep our recollection fresh and to help me recall anything worthwhile or unique. Donna would say, “Didn’t

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you see the big one in the nook over there, or the one with the long spines over here, or the two together on the ridge by the rock…” Needless to say, between us we saw quite a few lionfish, but contrary to the rules of the buddy system, I often lag behind taking photos, while Donna swims ahead close to the divemaster. Often we see different things, and it seems that there were just too many lionfish to keep track of. The only dive where neither of us saw a lionfish was the Kittiwake shipwreck. Next to the ship was a large tract of garden eels. There also were numerous tracks in the sand, and at the end of each was a juicy conch. After a long day of diving, while we were waiting for our ride back to the hotel, we studied the bulletin board next to the dive shop doorway. There was a white chalkboard that I photographed. A few weeks later I was reading the June 2011 issue of Sport Diver magazine. Its “Dive Briefs”


section on page 10 was titled, “Deadliest Catch: Lionfish.” It stated that 53 was the highest number of juvenile fish found in the stomach of a single lionfish. Furthermore, the species has a stomach that can expand up to 30 times its normal size. Their diet includes virtually any small fish, shrimp or mollusk that you can name. In one month a single lionfish can lay 30,000 eggs. If all of these eggs hatched and matured into adult lionfish, these fish could lay 200 million eggs in two more months, and 8.1 quintillion eggs in three months. I do not know the magazine’s source of this information and I cannot vouch for its accuracy, but I believe that it is probably safe to say that the lionfish is a prolific reproducer! While all of the lionfish (to the best of my

recollection) that I have photographed have had brown to reddish brown stripes, I did observe a single smaller specimen that had black stripes. I viewed it from as many angles as possible to see if its dark coloration was an optical illusion or some such, but it sure looked black to me. I have included a photograph of this specimen, along with other photos of several of the other lionfish that we observed. I estimate that Donna and I saw at least 25 lionfish between us. It is safe to say that the lionfish epidemic is fully in attack mode. Will man be able to thwart this abnormal force of nature? I surely hope so, but I am beginning to have doubts. Only time will tell. Stay tuned for future updates.

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Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

MA Classics

In this installment of our series showcasing articles from past issues of Modern Aquarium, and mindful of the FAAS Publication Awards listed elsewhere in this issue, I looked through some past FAAS Award-winning articles, and found this one from 1998. This is the first article from Modern Aquarium Series III that we have featured in "MA Classics." In fact, it isn't only an article—it's an article and a cartoon! Immediately following Joe Ferdenzi's 1st Placewinning article on spawning Corydoras adolfoi is a cartoon by Bernie Harrigan, who won 1st Place in the Cartoon category that year (among others). So we get two blue ribbons for the price of one!

→ Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

September 2011



September 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

September 2011


CONNECTICUT BETTA CLUB International Show Sept 30 – Oct 2, 2011 To be held at: EARTHPLACE - THE NATURE DISCOVERy CENTER, 10 Woodside Lane Westport, CT 06880 203-227-7253 this show will be held in conjunction with The Norwalk Aquarium Society’s All-Species Show HOTEL – Four Points by Sheraton 426 Main Ave. Norwalk CT. 06851 203-849-9828 Mention Connecticut Betta Club. rooms are $80.00 per night, plus tax. reservations must be made by 9/16/11; rate is only good for Friday arrival thru sunday departure. Friday – 9/30/11 show set up begins at 10:00 aM Walk-ins need to arrive and be benched by 5:00PM Saturday - 10/01/11 Judging Begins at approximately 8:00aM showroom opens for viewing at approximately Noon. Sunday - 10/02/11 Fish room open for auction fish viewing 9:00aM. auction begins at 10:00 aM CASH ONLy for a fast auction. (Please be aware, this will be a pay – as – you - go, cash only auction. We will have runners to hand you your fish and collect your bid. there are banks close by. The NAS All-Species auction will begin at Noon. Show Chairs: Amin Rubirosa email


Awards – Ribbons for all Classes. Custom engraved 12oz glass Mug for Division Awards. BOS Custom Plaque. SEND FISH TO; Amin Rubirosa 37 Clifton Street, West Haven, CT 06516, 203-934-4483 entries must be received by 6:00 PM thursday september 30, 2010 Entry Fees - $2.00 single entries/$3.00 pairs Check made out to Connecticut Betta Club Fish Show Registrar:

Pre-registratioN is reQUired by 6:00 PM, Wednesday, september 28, 2011 ** WALk-IN” ENTRIES NEED TO BE PRE-REGISTERED via e-Mail Douglas kneissl or snail Mail (NO FISH!) Douglas kneissl 142 Old New Haven Ave Derby, CT 06418 203-751-6495 Head Judge: Leo Buss

For All Show Entrants: Deadlines: VERy IMPORTANT ! Pre-registration of your fish is required to help assure that there are no mistakes that could be detrimental to the breeders, the fish and/or the show. help us achieve our goal of a good show for everyone, including the fish. any unsold auction items will be considered donations to CBC


September 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

Fish Tuberculosis What is the Threat to Aquarists? by Dan Radebaugh


and city tap water. Human epidemics of granulomatous recently received an email from Greater City skin disease have occurred from swimming in infected member extraordinaire Claudia Dickinson, which water, and this mode of infection is in fact much more contained a story about a young girl who contracted common than is exposure fish tuberculosis, apparently to tropical fish tanks. The when she scraped her hand bacteria usually enter the on something inside her body through an open aquarium. She is now wound or abrasion, and the facing the prospect of infection should become having the hand amputated. apparent within two to three For the full story, including weeks after exposure.1 a newscast video, go to: It is important to h t t p : / / w w w . remember that exposure practicalfishkeeping. to the causative bacteria does not commonly result php?sid=4018&utm_ in infection. A study done s o u r c e = P F K _ in cooperation with the newsletter&utm_ U.S. Navy some 50 or 60 m e d i u m = e m a i l & u t m _ Gourami showing characteristic mycobacteria lesions. years ago showed that a much larger percentage of c a m p a i g n = J u n e _ 1 7 _ 2 0 11 & u t m _ t e r m = G i r l _ Navy recruits from the Southeast than from other areas may_lose_hand_after_catching_fish_TB&utm_ tested positive to certain types of skin TB tests, as a content=html. result of exposure to non-tuberculosis mycobacteria. Fish tuberculosis, also known as piscine These recruits had not been infected; their immune tuberculosis, acid-fast disease, aquarium granuloma, systems had successfully protected them.2 mycobacteriosis, and bent-spine disease, is worldwide Symptoms in humans usually first present in distribution, and all fish species should be considered as skin lesions. "The lesions will grow and spread susceptible.1 As aquarists, most of us have probably and Mycobacterium marinum can proceed to destroy heard of the disease, as it’s described in most of the the soft tissue under the skin, including tendons and basic aquarium books. While not common, human joints. In severe cases, fish tuberculosis can spread infection does occur. I am told that one of our Greater to the bones and cause City members has symptoms similar to experienced it. My own arthritis."3 interest in the disease Mycobacteria was recently stimulated are nonmotile, gramwhen a fish bite on one positive, pleomorphic of my fingers (I have (many-formed) rods one fish who loves that are acid-fast (the to bite me) became bacteria, after having stubbornly inflamed. I been stained with a had it checked out by phenol solution of a dermatologist, and fuchsine, retain this a biopsy fortunately stain on treatment showed inflammation, with a dilute mineral but no infection. acid and ethanol).1 Mycobacterium marinum, the best A small, raised, erythematous (redness of the skin caused by Like Mycobacterium dilatation and congestion of the capillaries, often a sign of the known of several inflammation or infection) lesion developed on the hand of a tuberculosis, mycobacterium mycobacteria species 35-year-old man who worked in a pet shop. that causes human implicated in the Photo: Nguyen, C. N Engl J Med 2004; 360: 8e tuberculosis, the various species in this genus disease, has been cultured from swimming pools, are difficult to eradicate, being resistant to most beaches, natural streams, estuaries, tropical fish tanks, Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

September 2011


antibiotics. The usual treatment is kanamycin, but often two different antibiotics are used over a three month period.3 The thick, waxy coat of the bacteria, along with the “clumping” that occurs in some strains, also makes them resistant to disinfectants.5 If you suspect that one of your fish has died from this pathogen, the recommended sterilization procedure is to first thoroughly soak the tank and its contents with chlorine bleach. Once the bleach has been neutralized and dried, soak or spray with alcohol (65-90%) for 15 to 30 minutes.5

Symptoms of fish tb • • • • • • • • •

loss of appetite fish remains in seclusion and out of sight rapid breathing (respiration) eyes appear to be cloudy or “popping out” fish lies on its side near bottom of aquarium stomach of fish appears to be sunken whitish blotches on exterior degraded and frayed fins distorted, "bent" spine

As experienced aquarists will recognize, the problem with these symptoms is that none of them, either individually or collectively, is unique to fish TB. Even the characteristic "bent spine" can have other causes, such as a deficiency of vitamin C. Causative organisms • • • • • •

Mycobacterium piscium Mycobacterium platypoecilis Mycobacterium anabanti Mycobacterium fortuitum Mycobacterium salmoniphilum Mycobacterium marinum Betta showing advanced lesion.

This list is by no means complete. There are thought to be around 50 other related organisms that can cause disease, living in all manner of environments. At least one researcher is using zebra danios to research the genus and hopefully help find a cure for human TB.4 Prevention The organisms that cause fish TB are ubiquitous, and thrive especially in warmer water. The key to preventing this disease lies in good basic husbandry practices—keep your fish healthy! Just as in humans, a fit immune system is the best disease preventative. Good food in the proper quantity, good filtration and frequent water changes to maintain beneficial water quality, keeping stress to a minimum—all these basic practices are important for keeping your fish desease free. Quarantine, while generally a good idea for new acquisitions, is not effective for fish TB, as this disease can take years to manifest.

Traditional aquarist strategies, such as adding salt and raising water temperature, are a waste of time with this disease, as these bacteria occur in both fresh and salt water, and thrive in warmer temperatures. Some sources say that treatment of this disease in the aquarium is so difficult, and a positive outcome so unlikely, that it’s best to go ahead and euthanize the infected fish, as well as its tankmates, followed by drying out and disinfecting the tank. Other sources however do recommend treatment. According to National Fish Pharmaceuticals, “Kanamycin + Vitamin B-6 for 30 days is the most effective treatment that we know of for tuberculosis. The fish should be quarantined during treatment time. Liquid baby vitamins found at your local pharmacy are a good source of vitamin B-6. One drop per every 5 gallons of aquarium water is sufficient. Replace the vitamins according to how much water is changed in the tank during treatment time.”1

While aquarists rarely contract this disease, it does occasionally happen. There are some precautions you should consider, especially if your immune system is compromised in any way. Avoid starting water siphoning with your mouth. Don’t let any broken skin come in contact with the water. If you have broken skin on your hands or arms it’s probably wise to wear protective gloves when putting your hands in the tank. 20

September 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

Conclusions Fish tuberculosis—more properly fish mycobacteriosis—is a potentially serious condition. Fortunately, while the causative bacteria are common in the environment, human infection is relatively rare. However, if you do happen to be one of the unfortunate few who do contract the disease, action is required. The first signs of an infection are usually skin lesions or a rash. If you suspect that you may be infected, a visit to a dermatologist would probably be a good first step. Along with a description of your symptoms, do mention to your physician of choice that you are a fishkeeper, and that you're concerned about the possibility of an infection involving M. marinum.

Probably your doctor will want to take a tissue sample for biopsy, and for sensitivity testing to determine the best antibiotic choice should one be necessary. Don't be afraid to ask questions. If your physician doesn't seem to be familiar with the disease, or doesn't seem to be taking you seriously, don't hesitate to get another opinion. Be an informed patient. Remember though, your odds of contracting this disease are quite low, so if your doctor assures you that you don't have it, you can probably believe him (or her).

Infected fish photos from 3 4 5 1 2

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

September 2011


Refreshments & Food Available

Get the Best Fish!

19th Annual New Hampshire Aquarium Society

AUCTION (FISH & DRY GOODS) Sunday, September 18, 2011 Newington Town Hall Nimble Hill Rd., Newington, NH Directions on back

Auction will begin at 12Noon. Arrive early for viewing. If vendors would like to set a minimum bid on any of their items, a non-refundable $1 charge will be applied per item. bump-ups are $2. Preregistering of lots is appreciated. Mail preregistration sheets to bill Janetos, PO box 32, Rollinsford, NH 03869 by Sept 10 or email to . Less waiting for labels!!!! Donations accepted or Sell your extra fish & equipment, 60/40 split. For more information & sheets Call bill Janetos (603) 749-2667 or E-mail at Call Norman brandt (603) 642-5074 or E-mail at Visit NHAS’s Webpage at


September 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

The photos are quite good. Some of them are extreme closeups of a stem or a few leaves, and others offer an overview of an entire plant. Most are suitable for identification. So, who could ask for anything more? I could! I would like to know how to propagate the a Series On Books For The Hobbyist plant(s) of my choice. Well, as it turns out, Ms. by SUSAN PRIEST Sweeney has also included this information for each of the 101 plants. Here is a listing of the he subtitle of this book says “how to choose information which she provides for each plant: and keep hardy, vibrant, eye-catching species overview, habitat, native range, maximum height, that will thrive in your lighting, water, feeding, special home aquarium.” It also care, propagation, and notes. describes 33 species to avoid. Excerpts from the page on The 101 best As a popular old song goes, Ludwigia ovalis tell us that it is Aquarium Plants “who could ask for anything new to the aquarium trade, by Mary E. Sweeney more?” native to Japan and China, TFH Publications, 2008 Before I take you inside, I delicate but grows quickly, want you to hold this book in prefers slightly acidic water, your hands for a moment. It is iron is necessary for its peachynot a typical bookshelf -sized volume (though of pink color; “the entire aquarium will benefit from course it would fit on one). It measures 8" by 4½", the extra care it will get because of this plant.” and is heavy for its size. Plant species to The back cover calls it a avoid include the big, “field guide.” I think it the bad, and the unlikely wants to be among that to survive, as well as genre of books which non-aquatic species people carry with them (terrestrial plants). The when they go exploring: p e a c e l i l y bird watchers, butterfly (Spathophylum sp.) is seekers, etc. It would c o m m o n l y slip nicely into the pocket misrepresented as an of a safari jacket, and aquatic plant. would seem to be custom made to fit in cargo Other features pockets on the legs of include lighting some pairs of pants. (intensity vs. volume), However, it is not worst and best aquatic waterproof, and wouldn’t fauna (i.e. fish and other stand up to a snorkeling livestock), indexes for excursion in search of scientific as well as aquatic plants unless it common names, and a was safely tucked into a color key on each page backpack on the shore. which indicates whether O.K., it’s time to a plant is best suited to move on. Inside both the the foreground, front and back covers is a midground, or “quick plant finder.” If background in your you know what species display. you want to research, you can find it even quicker If you would like to than quick by consulting learn more about the one of these. Anubias are plants that are already in favorites at our house, your tanks, or you are and it instantly tells me yearning to try that I want to turn to page something new, you just 59. I’m sure you will may discover that your find your favorites as well. If indeed you really do fantasy tank is within your grasp! want to go exploring, just make yourself comfortable and dive in.


Modern 18Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

September 2011 2011 September

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)


GCAS Happenings Unofficial 2011 Bowl Show totals to date:

Mario Bengcion 14 Richard Waizman 9 Harry Faustmann 5

September Joe Magnoli 9

William Amely 8

Here are meeting times and locations of some aquarium societies in the Metropolitan New York area:

Greater City Aquarium Society

East Coast Guppy Association

Next Meeting: October 5, 2011 Speaker: TBD Topic: TBA Meets: Meets the first Wednesday of the month (except January & February) at 7:30pm: Queens Botanical Garden 43-50 Main Street - Flushing, NY Contact: Dan Radebaugh (718) 458-8437 Email: Website:

Meets: 2nd Tuesday of each month at at 8:00 pm. Alley Pond Environmental Ctr.: 228-06 Northern Blvd. Contact: Gene Baudier (631) 345-6399

Big Apple Guppy Club Meets: Last Tuesday each month (except Jan, Feb, July, and August) at 7:30-10:00pm. Alley Pond Environmental Ctr.: 228-06 Northern Blvd. Contact: Donald Curtin (718) 631-0538

Nassau County Aquarium Society Next Meeting: September 13, 2011 Speaker: TBA Topic: TBD Meets: 2nd Tuesday of the month (except July and August) at 7:30 PM Molloy College - Kellenberg Hall ~1000 Hempstead Ave Rockville Centre, NY Contact: Mike Foran (516) 798-6766 Website:

Brooklyn Aquarium Society


Next Meeting: September 9, 2011 Speaker: Joe Caparette Event: Unique Corals Meets: 2nd Friday of the month (except July and August) at 7:30pm: NY Aquarium - Education Hall, Brooklyn, NY Call: BAS Events Hotline: (718) 837-4455 Website:

Next Meeting: September 15, 2011 Speaker: Zoo Med Laboratories Topic: TBD Meets: Lyndhurst Elks Club, 251 Park Avenue Lyndhurst, NJ 07071 Contact: NJAS Hotline at (732) 332-1392 Email: Website:

Long Island Aquarium Society

Norwalk Aquarium Society

Next Meeting: September 17, 2011 Speaker: Rit Forcier Topic: My Million GallonSalt Water Tank Meets: 3rd Fridays (except July and August) 8:00pm. Room 120 in Endeavor Hall on theState University at Stony Brook Campus, Stony Brook, NY Email: Margaret Peterson - Website:

Next Meeting: September 15, 2011 Speaker: TBA Topic: TBD Meets: 8:00 P.M. - 3rd Thursday of each month at: Earthplace - the Nature Discovery Center - Westport, CT Contact: John Chapkovich (203) 734-7833 Call our toll free number (866) 219-4NAS Email: Website:


September 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

the milk truck) or a telephone handset turned into a bubble wand (for the telephone tank) are interesting, they are hardly representative of the natural habitat of the aquatic residents in those tanks. The owners of those tanks do not have a piece of nature to study and enjoy, they have a “conversation piece” to show off with. For all the A series by The Undergravel Reporter aquariums shown in the first two shows, the tank In spite of popular demand to the owners apparently did not even select the aquatic contrary, this humor and information life that went into their tank. And, while some column continues. As usual, it does freshwater fish were briefly shown in the NOT necessarily represent the introductory clips to this series, all of the tanks in opinions of the Editor, or of the the first two episodes were saltwater. Greater City Aquarium Society. For someone interested in tanks as art, there are alternatives costing considerably less than one he cable channel known as Animal Planet just million dollars. For example, Duke University Biology and launched a new Environmental “reality” show Science alumnus called Tanked. Among Alex Andon has other things, the premiere developed a safe way episode of this new show to house small showed the creation of an jellyfish (they can’t L-shaped tank for the be kept in a regular entrance of the Las Vegas aquarium since Mob Experience at the they’ll get sucked Tropicana Hotel in Las into t h e w a ter Vegas. The cost of that filtration intakes). particular tank was not His seven mentioned, but one source gallon “Desktop I came across indicates that Jellyfish Tank” 2 custom aquariums made by resembles a A c r y l i c T a n k “goldfish bowl” Manufacturing in the enclosure. The water southwest part of the Las flows up through a Vegas Valley (the A “Desktop Jellyfish Tank” layer of live rock at company around which the show is based, run by two transplanted New the bottom, along one side of the cylindrical tank to the surface, then down the other side back into Yorkers) "can cost as much as $1 million."1 Efforts to insert drama, humor, and conflict the rocks. This circular water flow also keeps the into this show did not, in my opinion, enhance it. jellyfish centered in the middle of the tank so that The premier episode was actually two separate they’re not all huddled into one area. The tank can episodes run back-to-back. Each hour episode (OK, house up to five jellyfish and is lighted by a maybe 45-minute episode when you take away all built-in LED lamp. If you want your jellyfish to those commercials) had maybe five to ten minutes look different in various colors of light, the LED focusing on the inhabitants of the tanks: fish and lamp can be changed with a provided remote control. aquatic invertebrates, and that’s a shame. So, for a mere $350 you can place a pre-order It was interesting to see how much someone is (plus get a voucher worth $50 redeemable towards willing to pay for what is basically, aquatic art. jellyfish and food). and basically recreate a 1960s (Other aquariums shown in the initial shows Lava Lamp. You can then call yourself a “hippy” included one built into a telephone booth and or “cool” but please, don’t use this to call yourself another built into an old milk truck.) While “fuzzy dice” cast in plastic and made to resemble coral (for an “aquarist.”

Get Tanked!




Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY) Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

September 2011 September 2011



Fin Fun There are more color varieties of Corydoras catfish than “Blue,” “Bronze,” and “Albino.” Below are the common names (according to of some Corydoras species and the scientific names of those species. See if you can correctly pair them. Common Name

Scientific Name

Blacktop corydoras

Corydoras zygatus

Pink corydoras

Corydoras melanistius

Blackstripe corydoras

Corydoras spilurus

Gray corydoras

Corydoras axelrodi

Bluespotted corydoras

Corydoras melanotaenia

Black band catfish

Corydoras bondi

Pinkthroat corydoras

Corydoras semiscutatus

Green gold catfish

Corydoras griseus

Emerald catfish

Corydoras acutus Source:

Answers to last month’s puzzle: Common Name

Scientific Name

Three-lined pencilfish

Nannostomus trifasciatus

Lined seahorse

Hippocampus lineolatus

Barred loach

Nemacheilus fasciatus

Speckled killifish

Fundulus rathbuni

Checkerboard cichlid

Crenicara punctulatum

Polka-dot splitfin

Chapalichthys pardalis

Dotted corydoras

Corydoras maculifer

Threestripe gourami


Trichopsis schalleri

Threestripe corydoras

Corydoras trilineatus

Blackstripe corydoras

Corydoras bondi Source:

September 2011


September 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY) Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

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