Modern Aquarium November 2011

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November 2011 volume XVIII number 9

Series III ON THE COVER Our cover photo this month is a school of smallmouth grunts, Haemulon chrysargyreum, near a shallow reef off Key Largo, Florida. A dive site named Snapper Ledge is inhabited by six or seven large, but separate, schools of fish in an area the size of a couple of tennis courts. See "Fish 'n Schools," on page 15. Photo by Stephen Sica GREATER CITY AQUARIUM SOCIETY Board Members

President Vice-President Treasurer Corresponding Secretary Recording Secretary

Dan Radebaugh Edward Vukich Jules Birnbaum Mario Bengcion Tommy Chang

Members At Large

Claudia Dickinson Al Grusell Emma Haus Leonard Ramroop

Pete D’Orio Ben Haus Jason Kerner

Committee Chairs

A.C.A. Delegate Bowl Show Breeder Award Early Arrivals F.A.A.S. Delegate Membership Programs N.E.C. Delegate Technology Coordinator

Claudia Dickinson Leonard Ramroop Warren Feuer Mark Soberman Al Grusell Alexander A. Priest Marsha Radebaugh Claudia Dickinson Claudia Dickinson Warren Feuer

Vol. XVIII, No. 9 November, 2011

In This Issue From the Editor G.C.A.S. 2011 Program Schedule President’s Message Our Generous Members Our Guest Speaker: Ted Judy Last Month's Caption Contest Winner Our Generous Sponsors & Advertisers Cartoon Caption Contest Nostalgia Notes: New York's Fabled Aquarium Stock Company by Joseph Ferdenzi

Fish 'n Schools by Stephen Sica

Odds & Ends Anything Worth Learning is Worth Repeating by Jules Birnbaum

Member Classifieds Wet Leaves by Susan Priest

Pictures from our Last Meeting by Susan Priest

2 3 4 4 5 7 8 9 11 15 19 20 21 24

MODERN AQUARIUM Editor in Chief Copy Editors Exchange Editors Advertising Mgr.

Dan Radebaugh Sharon Barnett Susan Priest Alexander A. Priest Stephen Sica Donna Sosna Sica Mark Soberman

Live Long and Prosper by Susan Priest

G.C.A.S. Happenings The Undergravel Reporter Water Music

Fin Fun (Puzzle Page) Found on Gabon?

27 28 29 30

From the Editor by Dan Radebaugh

ometimes a cover photo―or any photo for that matter―can evoke a response that goes beyond what seems to be covered by the subject material. Steve Sica’s photo essay, which technically includes this month’s cover photo, had that effect on me. I don’t know what Steve’s thoughts are about his diving photos, and how they relate to his fishkeeping hobby. To me, once I had them placed in the magazine, they brought up the question of what is an aquarium. Is it a small glass box that we keep a few fish in? Is it a public facility with large tanks where we can view many species and sizes of water-dwelling creatures of which we would otherwise be ignorant? Or can we reverse our thinking a bit, and say that it’s a way for us to bring (in this case aquatic) nature to us, to enrich our lives that have become so industrial that we need things like aquaria to remind us that we are still part of the natural world? Perhaps things like collecting trips, diving trips, and other similar activities are just taking that inclination to the next level. So in a sense a competent diver is able to increase the size and scope of his collection by going to the fish, rather than bringing the fish to himself (or herself, of course). Anyway, what occurred to me while looking at these photos was something like, “How great to have an underwater National Park as an aquarium!” Way to go, Steve and Donna! Joe Ferdenzi this month, rather than taking us somewhere else, takes us somewhen else―in this case back to the glory days of the Aquarium Stock Company here in New York. While I was alive in those days, and involved in the hobby, I was pretty far from New York, so it’s a real treat to learn more about what was going on here in the Big City, and how that differed from, and affected, what was going on where I lived. Jules Birnbaum, in “Odds & Ends,” presents us with a review of basic principles and practices of fishkeeping, which will serve



us all well to keep in mind. Susan Priest’s “Live Long and Prosper” examines how those words relate to the creatures in our care. Along these same lines, in her “Wet Leaves” column, Sue reviews a new book by Mike Hellweg on Culturing Live Foods. Mike, if you’ll recall, spoke at one of our meetings a couple of years ago. The Undergravel Reporter also addresses the quality of life issue, with an example of a musically trained goldfish. Fin Fun borrows a theme from tonight’s speaker for this month’s puzzle, “Found on Gabon.” Our cartoon caption challenge drew even more responses than last month. Be sure and find out who the winner is, and take a look at this month’s challenge. For you artists, come up with a cartoon of your own and submit it! * * * Remember, as always, we need articles! Modern Aquarium is produced by and for the members of Greater City Aquarium Society. Our members are our authors, and with ten issues per year, we always, always need more articles. I know several of you are keeping and/or breeding fish that I would like to know more about, and I’m certain other members would be interested as well. Share your experience with us. Write about it! If you’re a little unsure about the state of your writing technique, don’t worry – that’s why there are editors. If you have an article, photo, or drawing that you’d like to submit for inclusion in Modern Aquarium, it’s easy to do! You may fax it to me at (877) 299-0522, email it to, or just hand it to me at a meeting. However you get it to me, I’ll be delighted to receive it!

November 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

GCAS Programs 2011-2012


t is our great fortune to have another admirable cast of speakers who have so graciously accepted our invitation to join us throughout the coming season, bringing us their extensive knowledge and experiences. You certainly won’t wish to miss a moment of our prominent guests, not to mention the friends, fish, warmth, and camaraderie that accompanies each meeting. I know I can barely wait to see you here! Enjoy! Claudia November 2

Ted Judy Going Gabon!

December 7

Holiday Party!


Winter Break


Winter Break











Articles submitted for consideration in Modern Aquarium (ISSN 2150-0940) must be received no later than the 10th day of the month prior to the month of publication. Please fax to (877) 299-0522, or email to gcas@earthlink. net. Copyright 2011 by the Greater City Aquarium Society Inc., a not-for-profit New York State corporation. All rights reserved. Not-for-profit aquarium societies are hereby granted permission to reproduce articles and illustrations from this publication, unless the article indicates that the copyrights have been retained by the author, and provided reprints indicate source and two copies of the publication are sent to the Exchange Editor of this magazine. Any other reproduction or commercial use of the material in this publication is prohibited without express written prior permission. The Greater City Aquarium Society meets every month, except January and February. Members receive notice of meetings in the mail. For more information, contact: Dan Radebaugh (718) 458-8437. Find out more, or leave us a message, at our Internet Home Page at: or Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

November 2011


President’s Message by Dan Radebaugh

ur annual Holiday Awards Banquet is next month―December 7th. For those of you who are new to Greater City, the banquet is our final meeting of the year, and this year will again take place at the Palace Diner (on Main Street by the LIE ramp). Our usual meeting time of 7:30 still applies. The cost will be $20 per person. See Emma Haus to sign up, over at the table where you pick up your Modern Aquarium. We will again have the “dollar-a-bag” auction, which went well last year. In this auction format the clubs gets $1 for each item sold, and the seller gets the balance, whatever that may be. Of course the seller can opt to donate 100% to the club! Remember, there will be no Bowl Show competition in December. This year’s closely fought contest will be decided tonight. Good luck to all! It’s time for us to start accepting membership renewals for 2012. Membership is still just $20 per year! As you pick up your magazines from Marsha, you can give her your dues, and she’ll update your membership. We welcome Ted Judy as our Speaker this evening, and thank Claudia Dickinson for putting together another excellent series of programs this year.



Our Generous Members Each month a blue sheet is located on our auction table where those members who donate items to the auction can indicate their donations if they wish to do so. Due to the immense generosity of those who donate, we have no shortage of items to be auctioned. A warm thank you to the following members and others who so generously contributed, making last month’s auction the bountiful success that it was: Bill Amely Rod DuCasse Sharon Barnett Harry Faustmann Mario Bengcion Joe Graffagnino Jeff Bollbach Al & Sue Priest Jules Birnbaum Dan Puleo Carlotti de Jager Ed Vukich Pete D'Orio 4

November 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

The G.C.A.S. Proudly extends a most Warm Welcome to

Our Guest Speaker Ted Judy Speaking On Going Gabon! Biography

Ted Judy is an addicted aquarist with over 25 years of fish keeping and breeding experience. He is a generalist who enjoys all types of fish from anabantids to tetras, but always finds plenty of room in his fish room for fish from West Africa (especially the dwarf cichlids). Ted is on the American Cichlid Association Board of Trustees, as well as the boards of the Milwaukee Aquarium Society and the Madison Area Aquatic Hobbyists. Ted is a former high school science teacher who is now a full-time stay-athome father with a fish room. He is a prolific speaker, proficient writer and wants to be a better photographer. Ted also maintains the web sites (his personal blog site) and (a community site dedicated to dwarf cichlids).

Aquarium Club Presentations The Genus Pelvicachromis This talk is an overview of the genus Pelvicachromis. All eight species of the genus are discussed, as well as closely related fish that are yet to be scientifically described. The slide show includes the presenter’s photographs of over 20 different Pelvicachromis species/geographic variants. The captive husbandry of the fish in this genus is discussed in detail, as well as strategies for spawning them and raising the offspring. This talk is approximately 1 hour long.

Fish Rooms‌ Be Careful, or You Will Get What You Ask For This presentation covers the issues that anyone planning to build a fish room needs to think about. The story is a humorous account of the how Ted planned and built his fish room, and includes images and examples from some of the best fish rooms in the U. S. A. (and Canada). The specific topics include planning for use of available space, temperature control, filtration, water changes, electrical issues, and planning for the future. This program is approximately one hour long.

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

November 2011


Raising Fry From Egg to Adolescence Getting the fish to spawn is only the tip of the iceberg for a fish breeder. This talk presents problems

associated with raising fry and provides strategies to overcome them. The information is applicable to any type of freshwater fish, and covers feeding, housing, maintenance and other challenging fry-raising situations. This talk is about 1-hour long.

Ted’s Most Excellent Cameroon Adventure: Part 1 Southern Cameroon – Ndonga to Ntem

This talk tells the first part of the story of Ted’s trip to Cameroon in February, 2009. The presentation covers the area of southern Cameroon from the Ndonga area to the Ntem River system on Cameroon’s southern border. Ted shares his adventure collecting fish in the areas in and around Ndonga, Kribi and the Campo-Ma’an forest reserve. You will see cool fish (both common and rare) including the discovery of a new species. You will also see what life is like for many of the people in Cameroon, from the largest city (Douala) to a small forest village. This talk is approximately 1-hour long. Ted’s Most Excellent Cameroon Adventure: Part 2 Northwestern Cameroon – Wouri to Mundemba

This talk tells the second part of the story of Ted’s trip to Cameroon in February, 2009. The presentation covers the area of northwestern Cameroon from Wouri River system in central Cameroon, to the inland area around the city of Kumba and the coastal area near Buea and Limbe. This talk includes a visit to the famous Lake Barombi Mbo crater and the well-known fish collection site in the area of Moliwe. You will also see pictures from the volcanic Mount Cameroon and the area around Mundemba, the gateway to Korup National Park. This talk is approximately 1-hour long.

West African Aquariums This presentation looks at the fish diversity of West Africa. The talk is organized around five types of west Africa aquariums from a 15-gallon nano tank to 150-gallon+ aggressive community. Ted will describe many species of fish that are readily available from the region, several of the rare ones and show what species can be kept together safely in a community together. This is a good presentation for a general aquarium club with members who are interested in a wide range of fish. The presentation lasts approximately one hour.

NEW in 2011

Going Gabon! This talk documents Ted’s 2011 fish collecting trip to Gabon, West Africa. The presentation includes photography and video from many collecting locations. Gabon is a place that is infrequently visited by traveling aquarists, and a country from which there is no commercial exportation of tropical fish. You will see many interesting species that are virtually unheard of in the hobby. This talk is about 1-hour long.

152 From September 2009 until August 2010, Ted competed with Mike Hellweg to see who could breed the most species of fish in a single year. The contest was documented in the TFH magazine column Breeders’ Challenge in 2010. Ted spawned 152 different varieties of fish… and LOST!!! This presentation is about the contest, how it was organized, why it was done and the many strategies Ted used to spawn so many fish in a single year. This is a good presentation for a club that is looking to motivate members to participate in BAP programs.


November 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

African Tetras The Congo tetra is arguably the most recognizable ‘large’ tetra in the aquarium hobby, but it is only one species from a large and diverse collection of tetras from Africa. This talk will cover the most common families, and the differences that set African tetras apart from their South American cousins. Ted will also talk about how to care for and breed (possibly) these beautiful fish. This program is approximately 50 minutes long.

Ted R. Judy 1509 Matthew Way Stoughton, WI 53589 (608)205-2241 website:

October's Caption Winner:

Cartoon by Elliott Oshins

Susan Priest

Ahoy, there, Elliot! This is Captain Dan. Could you row a little faster, so we won’t be late for the GCAS meeting?

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

November 2011


GCAS Thanks You! Our Generous Sponsors and Advertisers The Greater City Aquarium Society extends our heartfelt thanks to the following manufacturers for their generous donations. Thanks also to our advertisers, whose contributions to our success as a Society are deeply appreciated. Please patronize our supporters. Aquarium Pharmaceuticals Aquarium Technology Inc Ecological Laboratories HBH Pet Products Koller-Craft Kordon, LLC Marineland Microbe Lift Ocean Nutrition America Omega Sea Red Sea


Rena Rolf C. Hagen San Francisco Bay Brand Seachem Zoo Med Laboratories Inc. Cameo Pet Shop Coral Aquarium Nassau Discus World Class Aquarium Zoo Rama Aquarium

November 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

The Modern Aquarium Cartoon Caption Contest November, 2011

Modern Aquarium has featured cartoons before. This time though, you, the members of Greater City get to choose the caption! Just think of a good caption, then mail, email, or phone the Editor with your caption (phone: 347-866-1107, fax: 877-299-0522, email: gcas@ Your caption needs to reach the Editor by the third Wednesday of this month. We'll also hand out copies of this page at the meeting, which you can turn in to Marsha before leaving. Winning captions will earn ten points in our Author Awards program, qualifying you for participation in our special "Authors Only" raffle at our Holiday Party and Banquet. Put on your thinking caps!

Cartoon by Elliott Oshins

Your Caption:

Your Name:

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

November 2011



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The NEC 37th Annual Convention; March 23-25, 2012

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• Home • NEC Website • Contact 37th Annual Convention Registration Hotel Schedule Speakers Vendor Room Attendees of the General meeting on October 9th voted and our them for the NEC Conservation ContestsConvention in 2012 is CARTOON CHARACTERS ! Get your thinking caps on and start Sponsors Become creating a Sponsor your logo. For the rules of the logo contest, please go to the Convention website, About Become Involved click on the tab for "37th Annual Convention" and then "Contests" or Click Here! the History Contests deadline for entry submission is 11:59pm November 25th!

We have a theme for the 2012 Convention!

Monday, 29 August 2011 10:50

Rules for the 37th Annual Convention Logo Contest The Deadline for submission is 11:59pm November 25, 2011!! forward to a friend The Logo you design should incorporate this year’s theme, “Cartoon Characters” into a fishy design, representative of a Tropical Fish Convention. It does not have to include the dates of the convention (March 23-25, 2012) nor the fact that this will be the 37th convention, but you may include this information in the you wish. Copyright © 2011 nec, Alldesign rightsifreserved.

You are receiving this email because you are a member of the NEC. 1. Artist must be a current member of an NEC club. 2. Entry must be original artwork. (Never used before) 3. The majority offrom well-known are preferences copyright protected. If you use a copyright protected character, you must obtain unsubscribe this list cartoon | updatecharacters subscription written permission from the copyright holder and provide a copy to the NEC when submitting your logo. If said permission is not provided, the logo will be excluded from the contest. 4. Entry must be submitted by the artist. Please send a non-signed copy. Your signature can be added after the voting, or you may send a signed copy in addition if you prefer. 5. The design should follow the theme of this year’s convention, “Cartoon Characters.” 6. Please submit a color version. Four color maximum please. Black outlining, if used, also counts as one color. The color of the t-shirt is the fifth color. Please avoid shading as it will not reproduce as you intend it to on the T-shirts. The winning logo will be decided by popular vote through the NEC Convention Website December 2-16, 2011. It will appear on the Website, the cover of the Annual Convention Program, the Registration Flier, on the Convention T-shirts, and may be used in any/all NEC Convention publicity. Part or all of the logo may be used on the registration button and it may be modified to fit the button. Note that the artist may recommend a color for the t-shirt, but the final color may be decided by the NEC Convention Committee. The winner will receive a free registration for the 37th Annual Convention, a free convention T-shirt and a free banquet ticket (all non-transferable). The deadline is 11:59pm November 25, 2011. All entries must be received via email by Leslie Dick , by this date/time and the subject of the email must be “NEC Logo Entry.” You will receive a reply stating that 1 your entry was received – if you do not receive a reply, it is your responsibility to send the email again and call 203 748 7800 within the next 24 hours to ensure it was received. Late entries can NOT be accepted.

Please send Leslie an e-mail to with Leslie Dick, the Convention Chairperson, at LDick@comcast.netThis e-mail address is being protected Please email or call questions (203) 748 7800. Good Luck to All! from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. You can call with questions at (203) 748-7800. Good Luck to All!

Last Updated on Tuesday, 11 October 2011 05:20


November 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)


Nostalgia Notes:

New York’s Fabled Aquarium Stock Company by Joseph Ferdenzi


Street, the store ran the entire length of the block and s we fast approach the 90th anniversary of the had an entrance on Murray Street, which is south of Greater City Aquarium Society, it occurs to me Murray Street. Even though the main entrance was that many of our members are relatively new on Warren Street, I recall frequently entering the store to the hobby and are probably unaware of the great on the Murray Street side. I especially remember a role New York City played in the development of the large, rectangular sign that dangled over the sidewalk aquarium hobby in America. Not surprisingly for a on Murray Street; city of its size, that it was painted red, role included being and featured an home to some of angelfish in neon the most important lights. I often aquarium stores in wonder whatever the country, not the happened to that least of which was sign―I know it the world-famous continued to hang Aquarium Stock over the sidewalk Company. for several years Those of you after the store who have been in had gone out of the hobby as long business. as I have (dating A n y o n e back to the midwalking into that 1960s) or longer store could not help will undoubtedly but be impressed. remember it. The Let’s see if I can rest of you may be re-create the image saying you never The main entrance, on Warren Street. for you. heard of it, much less experienced it. I remember it well, and I’m sure If you walked in through the main entrance, the that anyone who visited it would never forget it. first impressive thing that would strike you was the The store began sometime around 1910, and block-long wall of tanks on the right-hand side. If I lasted well into the 1980s. Therefore, at the time of recall correctly, this consisted of three tiers of tanks its demise, it was undoubtedly the oldest continuously set against the wall. What you have to visualize is that operating aquarium store in the country. It was always this was an entire city located in Manhattan, block long! Especially though not always at the if you were a young same address. person, like myself Its longestwhen I first saw it, you used and most welljust couldn’t help but known address was 31 be mesmerized! There Warren Street in lower it was―tank after tank Manhattan, just a block of exotic fish (almost all from City Hall, and to freshwater). The variety the east of Church Street. was tremendous; it was Although its official A view of the interior of the store, looking south from the Warren the place I saw live address was on Warren Street entrance. Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

November 2011


An ad from the back cover of the Nov/Dec 1960 issue of The Aquarium magazine. Note the “Aqua Stock” brand, and the use of a celebrity aquarist, Paul Hahnel, who was a member of Greater City (look for his name on our Roll of Honor in our December issue).

killifish for the first time, including the most exotic “king of the killifish,” the blue gularis (now known scientifically as Fundulopanchax sjoestedti). You could easily spend an hour just looking at all the fish along this wall. On the left-hand side of the store the scene was more disjointed. At the front were some racks with tanks that housed, if my memory is not failing me, mostly marine fish. But, after that, came the nerve center of the whole operation, the sales counter. The store carried just about everything a hobbyist could need or want. All the major manufacturers of the day were represented, but the store also carried many products carrying the imprint of the store. Its distinctive logo featured another famous killifish, the beautiful lyretail, Aphyosemion australe. In fact, the fame and reputation of the store were such that other pet shops carried their line of products. Like all aquarium stores in the 1960s, it sold an array of live foods mostly unavailable in fish stores today. When is the last time you’ve seen live daphnia, glass worms, or bloodworms for sale in a store? 12

Past the counter area, which was more or less in the center, came the decorated tank displays. Here, tanks of various sizes were outfitted with decorations meant to convey images of what could be achieved in your home or office. Some of these displays were in roped-off areas. As a youngster, these decorated tanks did not attract my attention for very long, because they were way out of my ability to buy or find room for in my parents’ small, city apartment. (If you entered from Murray Street, these display tanks were the first thing you’d see on your right-hand side.) Whenever we had the time and a few extra dollars, I and my friend and fellow tropical fish hobbyist Mike Graziano would take the subway from Corona (Queens) to lower Manhattan, emerging from an underground stop that, unbeknownst to me at the time, was going to be the site of the World Trade Center. After our visit to Aquarium Stock, we would also stop at a store a few blocks away on Nassau Street (to the east of Broadway), appropriately named the Nassau Street Pet Shop. This was a small, hole-in-thewall kind of place, featuring tanks filled with fish at very cheap prices. For those who remember the store, its claim to fame was that one of its sidewalk windows featured a community tank (about 10 or 15 gallons in size) of plants and fish, with a sign proclaiming that the tank had been set up in some long-ago year and had never had a water change! You see, back in the day, the concept of the “balanced aquarium” held sway, and the idea that you could maintain a healthy fish population for years without water changes was considered something to brag about. Anyway, this store also went out of business around the same time, or maybe a little earlier, as the Aquarium Stock Company.

In its day, Aquarium Stock published beautiful catalogs intended for their mail-order customers (yes, they had mail-order back then for people who weren’t

November 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

lucky enough to be able to visit the store in person). These catalogs are now like time capsules that display what was available to mainstream hobbyists of the day, and have become cherished collectors’ items. (As a footnote, I’ll mention that they eventually opened a branch of the store in Los Angeles, and this location operated well into the 1990s.) I only wish that the store was still around today. Nostalgia has a wonderful effect, and I enjoy sharing memories of the place, but the pool of people who can

share those memories is ever shrinking. And, I wish newcomers to the hobby could have experienced it, so that, one day, they too could say they were there and remember.

As this page from the same catalog illustrates, filters were few and primitive compared to what is on the market today.

A page from the 1965 catalog, depicting various aquarium gadgets.

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

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Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

Fish 'n Schools Story and Photos by Stephen Sica


ue Priest recently gave me her August issue of like they show on television. the school either opens Audubon magazine. She showed me the last up as one swims into or through it, and then closes page; it was a brief article with a black and up again behind you, or unlike on TV, it just scatters white photograph of a tightly wound school of silvery away―usually only a few yards away. I feel that the fish called akule. There must have been thousands of fish do not want to surrender their territory. I do not fish in the cramped school or “bait ball.” recall observing a school just dispersing as a result About a week later, I asked Donna, “Should I of a close encounter with a person. Fish like to stick return the magazine together. to Sue next month?” The most “Yes,” she said. popular schoolers “Okay, I will. No, I in southern Florida won’t. I think I’ll use and the Caribbean the magazine as the are grunts, snappers, basis for an article and jacks. The fish about fish schools,” are large enough to I responded. “What be quite impressive do you know about in the wild, and schooling fish?” create an equally Donna retorted. impressive image “Not much, but I on film. Jacks have seen a few in like to hover in fish tanks, as well open water or near as in the ocean.” large shipwrecks. Besides, I have a Goatfish, which few photos from some people our vacations. One Bluestriped grunts off Key Largo. believe are not into thing that I think I have learned from writing for schooling, like to hang out in small groups of twentyModern Aquarium is that everyone likes to look at five or less. Some other smaller schools of fish are blue nice pictures―at least I do―so here I am with nothing runners, doctorfish, damselfish, and midnight-andmuch to say, but I do have a few photos. Donna said blue parrotfish. These fish also swim independently. that I have to say more than that. Okay, here are a few Occasionally I have seen blue and brown damselfish of my natural observations with an assist from Donna in widespread schools hanging over the precipice of to aid my memory. deep Caribbean walls. A school of fish is Some large, tightly difficult to photograph packed schoolers are because it’s usually glassy sweepers. The too large to fit in the sight of these fish, with camera’s viewfinder, but their pink to reddish full in some ways it’s easy, body, can be compelling. because it’s difficult to The accompanying photo miss such a large target. was shot in Cozumel on When I began reviewing a very small coral head, my photos, I found that I where a large green was mostly taking photos sea turtle was feeding. of individual fish. Many Neither the turtle nor of the small schooling the fish left the coral as I fish that I photographed approached, enabling me Cottonwick grunts off Key Largo. were just swirling blurs. to get a nice close-up. Usually the school hovers or stays stationary, so Another habitat in which to find schooling fish blurry photographs are not a major problem―or so I are shipwrecks. All sorts of fish inhabit shipwrecks, thought until I began to cull through my photos. Just especially small fish and juveniles, who enjoy the

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

November 2011


Blackwater soldierfish on wreck off St. Kitt's.

Glassy sweepers off Cozumel.

A school of Smallmouth grunts, Haemulon chrysargyreum, near a shallow reef in Key Largo, FL. In the left back is a strand of Elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata.

Brown chromis and sergeant-majors on Cayman wall.


Grunts on Aruba wreck.

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Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

large grouper in waters around small wrecks in Grand Cayman. Of course, groupers, large or small, really don’t hang out in schools, but two or three might hunt together. For reasons unknown to me, I have never seen a school of fish during a night dive. Sometimes it’s difficult to see anything, since your vision is limited by the length and width of your light beam and those of any nearby divers. Looking back on my many years of diving, I think that the most spectacular school of fish that I ever observed was during an afternoon dive in the British Virgin Islands, on the R.M.S. Rhone, about twenty years ago―before I used a digital camera. As Donna and I were ascending, we looked up to be met by hundreds of great A school of Blue chromis (Chromis cyaneus) that reside on a reef barracuda. Movie buffs may recall that the Rhone next to the Port Nelson, a 130 foot patrol cutter that was sunk off Nassau, Bahamas as a dive attraction. was the “mysterious sunken treasure ship” in The protection of the wreck. A wreck does not have to be a ship, but I prefer ships. I find them romantic. Wrecks also provide homes to schooling fish. Some unique wreck schools that I have seen are Atlantic spadefish in Florida, tarpon in the Cayman Islands, blackbar soldierfish (a squirrelfish) in Saint Kitt’s, on the wreck of the Taw, a small intracoastal freighter that was broken in half by a tropical storm, and thousands of what I think were mackerel scad around shallow dock pilings in Bonaire. Interestingly, these fish are members of the jack family. Fish gravitate to structures or enclosed places that can provide protection, and shipwrecks fill the bill. The larger the wreck the larger the fish, Yellow goatfish on Bahama wreck. although Nassau, Bahamas has many Deep. Memory of the movie is vague to me except for small wrecks in the 70-100 foot range that are home to Jacqueline Bisset, the lead actress. Ms Bisset aside, Goliath groupers. I have also observed this extremely the Rhone is considered a haunted wreck by many divers. A local dive center owner claims to have heard eerie sounds when swimming through the bow. Other divers have been tapped on the shoulder, only to discover no one behind them. The ship sank just yards from Salt Island with the loss of about 124 crew and passengers. Most were strapped in their bunks for safety! They are buried on Salt Island. Donna and I have swum through the bow, but neither of us had a supernatural experience. Oh, well… That night, we swam through the hull of the ship in almost total blackness―no ghosts, no bones, no psychic happenings, and no schools of fish―but lots of magical, or wonderful, goodnight dreams! By the way Sue, your magazine has been A school of Smallmouth grunts (Haemulon chrysargyreum) recycled. that reside on the wreck of the SS Pedernales, a tanker at anchor in Aruba that was sunk by torpedo in 1942. The front and aft of ship were welded together and refloated as a new ship. Wreckage is the midships that was torpedoed.

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

November 2011


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November 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

Odds & Ends Or

Anything Worth Learning Is Worth Repeating by Jules Birnbaum


n this collection of odd & ends, I will try to provide you with some ideas that seem to work for me. None are original.

A box filter can be used in a fry tank by simply taking the cover of the filter off so that the fry do not become trapped. For a hang-on filter, you can accomplish this by attaching a foam collar to the intake. When using hoses connected to the sink, a quick-disconnect attachment will make connecting and disconnecting simpler and quicker. When feeding fish in multiple tanks, place flake food in a plastic container and add some water. Then use a clear turkey baster to shoot the food into each tank. It’s faster, neater, and you will be surprised at how little food is needed. It’s also a good way to get food to shy fish and bottom feeders. Consider varying the diet of your fish by using table food, such as small pieces of white meat chicken, veal, or fish. This is cheaper than feeding live food. Also, try blocks of frozen brine shrimp and bloodworms as treats. These choices are safer and more economical than purchasing live food, and my fish love them. Earthworms are a good source of nutrition, but be careful when feeding your fish earthworms that might be contaminated by chemicals placed on your lawn or even a neighbor’s lawn (worms travel). I recently lost a tank of cichlids hours after feeding them worms from my son’s backyard. My fish just keeled over and died. My son, being a joker, bought me a little toy fish on the end of a pen as a replacement. They have fish eyes that move when the fish is squeezed (not funny). To be safe, let the earthworms purge their insides by placing them in some wet shredded newspaper or some wet filter foam for a couple of days before feeding them to your fish. Try not feeding your fish one day a week. You will notice your tank water will be clearer and your fish more active as they look for food. You will also notice algae growth will be reduced. Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

Several GCAS members feed their fish just a few times per week. When purchasing a new plant, but are not sure of where you want to place it, try using small clay pots. Plug up the bottom hole and use some rinsed peat moss, covered by gravel. This will encourage a better root system and a healthier plant. A pot is also easier to fertilize and place where it will get the proper light. This method is also useful when the tank contains no gravel— such as in a grow-out tank. Some plants come from unknown or untrusted sources, and should not be placed in a tank with your expensive fish, as they may be harboring hitch-hiking parasites. Treat the new plants with a solution of potassium permanganate for a few minutes, and then thoroughly rinse them before placing them in your tank. Always have a supply of aged water handy should any of your tanks develop a problem. When purchasing a new fish, have a quarantine tank available. A disease might not show up until the fish has been in your tank for a week or two. Get on a few pet shop and online tropical fish supply mailing lists to be made aware of sales. I’ve saved some meaningful dollars on equipment and supplies in this way. Develop a relationship with a fellow member of GCAS whom you can call on with a question or a problem. Use the Internet to get information on tropical fish, but always get a second and third opinion. There is a lot of inaccurate information out there, so be careful about what you believe. Websites such as Planet Catfish, the American Killifish Association, or the Cichlid-Forum can usually be relied upon. Finally, a few thoughts about safety around the fish tank: 1. Always have a towel handy to dry your hands. Remember—you are dealing with electricity that could kill you.

November 2011


2. Never put your hand in a tank when you have an open wound. Harmful bacteria that might be present in your aquarium water could enter your bloodstream. If your immune system is compromised in any way you might be inviting a health problem.

5. Some chemicals that are used in the aquarium might be dangerous to children, and should be kept tightly closed and out of reach. I am sure you know most of this stuff, but anything worth learning is worth repeating.

3. When standing on a step-stool make sure it’s a sturdy one.

4. With so much water around, make sure the floor is dry. You don’t want to slip and fall surrounded by so much glass.

Member Classifieds EQUIPMENT: Lifeguard AquaStep UV Light Hang-On -- 25 Watt $40 Reaction 4 Model DFU with built-in UV for up to 150 gallon cannister filter $50 Vortex Diatom Filter -- Model D1 $40 Marineland BioWheel Pro Hang-on filter -- rated up to 400 GPH $35 Pro Clear Skimmer -- Rated to 150 gallons $50 Call Warren: 631-563-1404 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Computers (used): towers, laptops Call Dan: 212-957-5300 ext 231


November 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

the Gulf of Mexico which is tolerant of warmer temperatures and lower oxygen content. They are the perfect food for seahorses and pipefish. As he does with each “food” under discussion, Mike provides a list of materials needed, a description of the culture method, and procedures for a Series On Books For The Hobbyist harvest and maintenance. In the culture of these by SUSAN PRIEST shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia) he recommends the use of undergravel and canister filters, the feeding of ere is a quiz to help you get your feet wet. brine shrimp nauplii and finely ground carnivore Which of the following live foods (if any) flakes, and full spectrum lighting. When they are are NOT worms: bloodworms, white ready to harvest, use a coarse net which will leave worms, or microworms? While you cogitate on the smallest shrimp behind, and feed them out your answer, I’ll move on. immediately. (This is a partial description of the The back cover says, and I quote: “Whether process. In order to achieve the guaranteed you are keeping finicky eaters, are trying to spawn positive results, you must read the entire entry.) your fish, or are looking for a source of disease-free Next up, I have chosen an alternative to live foods, this book guarantees positive results.” feeder fishes such as goldfish, minnows, and Let me repeat those last three guppies. First let me give you words—guarantees positive a brief anecdote. A few years Culturing Live Foods results! When, if ever, have back, my husband Al was you been made such a keeping some wild-caught leaf By Michael R. Hellweg promise? And no, there is no fish (Monocirrhus TFH Publications, 2008 disclaimer in small print polycanthus). No matter what somewhere on the inside food he offered them, the only saying that your results may thing they would eat were vary from those described (or language similar to feeder guppies (goldfish, and even minnows, were that). too big, and worms were likewise rejected.) He The culturings of a would buy 100 at a wide variety of live time, paying $1.00 for foods are clearly ten, for a total of described via “tried and $10.00 for 100. He true time tested would feed them some protocols,” alternatives flake food (gut to well established loading), and put them practices which have into a tank with strong drawbacks are aeration overnight suggested, and widely (thereby supposedly communicated myths are culling out the weak shattered. I will give and the sick). By the you an example of each next day only ten or so of these. would still be alive, and Mike offers us he fed them out. Not many dozens of live very efficient or foods to choose from, economical! along with detailed and It would take the easy to work with home aquarist many, descriptions of how to MANY tanks of culture them. Choosing goldfish to assure a just one to use as an steady supply of example is a challenge. I have decided on the mysis feeders. Guppies would be more prolific, but their shrimp, also known as the opossum shrimp. They fry would have to grow for awhile before they are generally sold as a frozen food, and are a bit would be of a feedable size. Mike Hellweg pricey to buy. I will be paraphrasing and using brief suggests convict cichlids (Archocentrus excerpts from his text. nigrofasciatus). They pair up easily, and produce The species of mysis shrimp that is most often approximately 100 fry every two weeks (more as available comes from cold water environments they grow larger). A couple of tanks of these fish which are difficult for aquarists to replicate. Mike should provide a reliable supply of nutritious food gives us guidelines on how to culture a species from for a small school of predatory feeders. (This is


18 Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY) Modern

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Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)


just one of several suggested possible alternative choices.) Are you ready to shatter some myths about brine shrimp? Myth #1: they have little or no nutritional value. “As with most other live foods, their value is directly based on how the hobbyist handles them, and the nutritional value of what they are fed. Myth #2: don’t use iodized salt. “The small amount of iodine the nauplii might carry would be beneficial to proper growth in larval fish.” Myth #3; water delivered through copper pipes can cause poor batches. “In order for copper to have a negative effect on the nauplii, they would have to be exposed to almost impossibly high levels for an extended period of time.” There are a couple more brine shrimp myths that I”ll let you read about for yourselves. The first item on every list of “materials needed” is a starter culture. Numerous sources of starter cultures are described (including aquarium societies) on the pages just before the index. “A recent web search for ‘buy live food starter cultures’ turned up more than1.3 million hits.” Appendix I addresses troubleshooting. Appendix II makes this book worth the price of admission all by itself. It is a chart which lists each live food, whether it is a protozoan, a crustacean, a plant, etc., and which animals can consume it (marine or freshwater fishes, amphibians or reptiles). Green = yes, yellow = no; if you aren’t color blind, this chart will lead you straight to the best live food choices for your fishes. Mike offers us a thorough discussion of the “ethical concerns of using live feeder fish.” An attempt on my part to encapsulate it would do it an injustice. You owe it to yourselves to read this. The photography is quite fascinating. First, there are the artistic photos; the ones that make you stop turning pages to enjoy the view. There are numerous photos of every imaginable type of “food” in every imaginable variety of container. (If


Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

Mike’s wife Angela, whom this book is dedicated to, allowed even half of them space in her refrigerator, then I’m nominating her for sainthood!) There are amazing microscopic images, such as the one of a paramecium with individual “green dots” of a unicellular alga—in other words, green water. There are lots of close-ups of various live foods, some of which compare examples of two different varieties in the same photo (grindal worms next to whiteworms). Speaking of worms, it’s time to reveal the answers to the quiz from way back in the first paragraph. Bloodworms are the larval stage of midge flys; meaning that they are actually insects. Microworms are nematodes, which are a type of metazoan. Whiteworms are true worms. I’m still not sure what nematodes and metazoans are, which might suggest that the addition of a glossary would be useful. If this observation qualifies as a criticism, then it is the only one I have. Many of you will remember Mike Hellweg’s visit to Greater City a few years back. If you do, you will recall that he is personable as well as knowledgeable. He has combined these two traits, along with meticulous research (as evidenced by his bibliography), to come up with this highly readable book on a topic of interest and usefulness to experienced fishkeepers. This is a fascinating and attractive book on many levels. It is hardbound, which adds a bit to the price. However you will find that your extra pennies have been well spent, as you will reach for it often and it will hold up well to your frequent handling. Do yourself and your fishes a favor, by adding this book to your aquarist’s library.

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Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S 19 (NY)

 

Giant Auction Fish, Plants, New and Used Equipment, Fish Foods, etc

Sunday Nov 6, 2011 12 noon VFW Hall 176 South Winooski Ave Burlington For more information David & Janine Banks 372-8716 Brian Candib 864-0746 Fran Kinghorn 879-4147 David Isham 372-3399 Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

November 2011


Pictures from our

Speaker: Rit Forcier

Michael Gallo

Rit Forcier & GCAS President Dan Radebaugh

Barbara Romeo

Our overflowing Auction Table



Walter Gallo

Stiff Competition for the Bowl Show

November 2011 November 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY) Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

last meeting Photos by Susan Priest

Prospective member Michael Young Cho

Prospective member Andrew Jovan

Last month’s Door Prize Winners

Dan Puleo

Jalil Morris

Last Month’s Bowl Show Winners:

1st Place: Richard Waizman Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY) Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

2nd Place: Richard Waizman November 2011 November 2011

3rd Place: Mario Bengcion

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1911 ~ Celebrating 100 Years of Educating Aquarists ~ 2011



Anthony Stissi Lake Tanganyikan Tropheus & Petrochromis Species

Marine Fish, Aqua-cultured Corals, Freshwater Fish, Plants & Dry Goods Auction At New York Aquarium’s, Education Hall, Surf Ave. & West 8th St., Bklyn, NY Free Parking • Free Refreshments

For more information visit us online at: B R O O K L Y N A Q U A R I U M S O C I E T Y .O R G Car Directions: Belt Parkway to Ocean Parkway South (Exit 7S). Take Ocean Parkway approx. 1/2 mile. The New York Aquarium will be on your left. Subway Directions: Either the Q or F trains to West 8th St., NY Aquarium Station.


November 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

by Susan Priest hich environment is most likely to provide a long and prosperous life for tropical fishes? Is it the aquarium of a conscientious aquarist (that’s you), or a life in nature? We can interpret the word prosper to mean “thrive” and “bear fruit” (Roget’s A-Z Thesaurus). Aquarium residents are subject to the vagaries of the availability of nutritious food (stale flakes or pellets), the presence of pollutants (insect sprays or air fresheners), and the threat of predators (arowanas, at over 40"), as well as many other factors. Being out-competed for food, coping with toxic industrial waste, released arowanas; does the world beyond your fishroom offer any better odds? What do you think? The more threatened a species of fish is in nature, the more life in an aquarium will benefit a population of any size. If you are caring for a species that can be described as conservationally threatened in any way, there is much to consider. Perhaps you can count the members of your “flock” on the fingers of one hand, or maybe you have a few tanks dedicated to their needs. Your goal on their behalf might be to prevent their extinction such that they may survive as a species in captivity, or your plans for them may be to return them to nature in the hopes that they will be able to re-establish themselves. These goals require more than skill. They require vision, as well. Your adoption of species which are thriving in nature, or which are readily reproduced in fish farms, fill different but just as valuable needs. The most important one that I can think of is fostering in children a love of and fascination with nature. Children today have less and less exposure to nature, and more and more exposure to “screens” ranging in size from two inches to fifty inches, and that’s just inside their own homes. They don’t feel the call of the wild luring them even as far from these screens as their own back yards! Mentoring children in the love of nature can be as simple as setting up an aquarium full of guppies for them. Warning: be prepared when your mentee asks you to take him or her slogging through a nearby waterway in search of new life forms, or maybe to a GCAS meeting. I look forward to the arrival of Jalil and Jahir Morris, who bring with them more than enough energy and enthusiasm to share! Research laboratories come in many forms. There may be one in your basement right now. Are you seeking more efficient spawning triggers? Whether the intended outcome of these experiments is to produce legions of juveniles to


18 Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

sell on Aquabid, or to play a role in the preservation of fishes such as those under discussion in the second paragraph, new knowledge can lead to a new future for all species of fishes. I hope you have been taking notes. Then there are the scientists who are trying to open the locks to cancer and genetic diseases. Zebra danios have long been contributors to the accumulated knowledge in these and other fields of scientific research. Are you among those adventuresome souls who fall into the category of “collectors?” You know who you are; someone who keeps dipnets and styros on the shelf in your garage instead of bald tires, or ink cartridges for printers that you don’t even have any more. The thing that really separates you from the rest of us is your ability to pull a net full of fish out of the water, and then be able to identify each of them. This includes being able to recognize the occasional “catch” which has yet to be identified. I’m impressed! Major contributors to the longevity and prosperity of the lives of fishes are the people who are writing the books and articles based on their observations and experience. (See the review of Culturing Live Foods by Mike Hellweg elsewhere in this issue of MA.) I’m sure that every one of you reading this has the waves of an article lapping at the surface of your mind which will be informative and interesting to every other of you. Maybe it doesn’t even contain any words. Does your cell phone have a camera? Irresponsible over-collecting is the reason some fishes are on the boundaries of extinction. The causes and effects of pollution is a topic much too broad to be covered here. Releasing fishes into a niche of nature which is not a native environment for them can quickly disrupt the finely tuned balance which supports all of life. As well documented as the negative impact of all of these behaviors are, they are still happening every day. Whose behaviors? The common denominator here is people. So, how are the fishes in your house? Are they living long and prosperous lives? If they are, then it’s a sure bet that they are helping you to live long and prosper, as well. The benefits to us of fishes in our environment is also well documented! Fulfill your role in this remarkable relationship. Those guppies need a water change!

November 2011

November 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)


GCAS Happenings


Last Month’s Bowl Show Winners: 1 Richard Waizman

Red Betta

2 Richard Waizman

Crown-tail Betta

2 Mario Bengcion

Female Betta

Unofficial 2011 Bowl Show totals to date: Richard Waizman 23 Mario Bengcion 18

Joe Magnoli 9 Harry Faustmann 5

William Amely 8

A warm welcome back to renewing GCAS members Al & Sue Priest and Barbara Romeo!

Here are meeting times and locations of some aquarium societies in the Metropolitan New York area: Greater City Aquarium Society

East Coast Guppy Association

Next Meeting: December 7, 2011 Speaker: None Event: Holiday Awards Banquet Meets: Meets the first Wednesday of the month (except January & February) at 7:30pm: The December meeting will be at The Palace Diner, 6015 Main Street - Flushing, NY Contact: Dan Radebaugh (718) 458-8437 Email: Website:

Meets: 2nd Tuesday of each month at at 8:00 pm. Alley Pond Environmental Ctr.: 228-06 Northern Blvd. Contact: Gene Baudier (631) 345-6399

Nassau County Aquarium Society

Big Apple Guppy Club Meets: Last Tuesday each month (except Jan, Feb, July, and August) at 7:30-10:00pm. Alley Pond Environmental Ctr.: 228-06 Northern Blvd. Contact: Donald Curtin (718) 631-0538


Brooklyn Aquarium Society Next Meeting: November 11, 2011 Speaker: Anthony Stissi Topic: African Cichlids Meets: 2nd Friday of the month (except July and August) at 7:30pm: NY Aquarium - Education Hall, Brooklyn, NY Call: BAS Events Hotline: (718) 837-4455 Website:

Long Island Aquarium Society Next Meeting: November 18, 2011 Speaker: Todd Gardner Topic: Taking the Plunge -- Making the Switch from Fresh to Salt Meets: 3rd Fridays (except July and August) 8:00pm. Room 120 in Endeavor Hall on theState University at Stony Brook Campus, Stony Brook, NY Email: Margaret Peterson - Website:


Next Meeting: November 8, 2011 Speaker: None Event: Silent Auction Meets: 2nd Tuesday of the month (except July and August) at 7:30 PM Molloy College - Kellenberg Hall ~1000 Hempstead Ave Rockville Centre, NY Contact: Mike Foran (516) 798-6766 Website:

Next Meeting: November 17, 2011 Speaker: Judith Weis Topic: TBD Meets at: THIS MONTH'S MEETING WILL BE HELD AT THE MEADOWLANDS ENVIRONMENTAL CENTER Lyndhurst, NJ 07071 Contact: NJAS Hotline at (732) 332-1392 Email: Website:

Norwalk Aquarium Society Next Meeting: November 17, 2011 Speaker: TBA Topic: TBD Meets: 8:00 P.M. - 3rd Thursday of each month at: Earthplace - the Nature Discovery Center - Westport, CT Contact: John Chapkovich (203) 734-7833 Call our toll free number (866) 219-4NAS Email: Website:

November 2011

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

Water Music? A series by The Undergravel Reporter In spite of popular demand to the contrary, this humor and information column continues. As usual, it does NOT necessarily represent the opinions of the Editor, or of the Greater City Aquarium Society. iane Rains, 54, from Hudson, Wisconsin claims that her 2-year old Ryukin goldfish, Jor, is the world's first musical fish which can play the glockenspiel and handbells, and has produced a YouTube video to prove it.1 The fish has been trained to play single notes, chords and four part harmonies by simply using her mouth.


Mrs. Rains is quoted in the British newspaper The Sun as saying: “Jor is trained every day, but she also has access to her instruments at other times and she plays whenever she feels the urge.3 “She certainly is a unique musician. She likes to listen closely until a particular moment inspires her to contribute. At precisely the right time, she will play her bells or chimes for a few seconds only, then swim off satisfied. “I haven't figured out how she decides when her help is needed. She does particularly like the notes F and D, so perhaps she listens for those.” Jor’s favorite to play along with is apparently Streisand’s rendition of “Moon River,” and her owner is apparently considering putting a CD together of Jor’s musical prowess. On a related note, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is complaining about sound levels at a recent event at the Georgia Aquarium. PETA filed a formal complaint over the music volume in the aquarium's Oceans Ballroom and lobby. The complaint alleged that, because of the sound, one beluga whale was

Jor pulling a bell cord

Photo from The Sun 4

Jor plays notes, chords and four part “twisting and angrily snapping at a seal.” So maybe the aquarium should switch to harmonies on a set of bells suspended above the playing Streisand? tank alongside music by Barbra Streisand.2 Mrs. Rains trains Jor using positive reinforcement— rewarding the fish with food every time it performs the required behavior. 1 2 3 4

Modern Aquarium - Greater City City A.S (NY) Modern Aquarium - Greater A.S. (NY)

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Fin Fun This month’s scheduled speaker, Ted Judy, traveled to Gabon to collect and photograph the native fishes in that country. Can you correctly identify which of the fish listed below are native to, or can be found in the wild, in Gabon? Species

Found in Gabon

NOT native to Gabon

Chromidotilapia kingsleyae Helostoma temminck Neolebias cf. ansorgii Rhadinocentrus ornatus Nanacharax parvus Monocirrhus polyacanthus Enneacampus ansorgii Badis assamensis Source: and

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ModernModern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY) Aquarium - Greater City A.S (NY)

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