Modern Aquarium

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AQUARIUM GouramV on- our ot Dwart; (Saufain! just one of the Gburawt;/i>:pee^s;: Ixpfeussed ?n ;"A Gourarnf Family Alfeumy-' f Priest, -beginning; on page 5 : s issue.


Vol. V, No. 5

May, 1998

FEATURES Editor's Desk


President's Message

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||||;;photo by Alexander A. • GREATER CITY AQUARIUM

A Gourami Family Album . „,„ „


Members |

An Apology and an Explanation .: : ; ..; G^eg Secretary | | | , : .'. PatvP'CG?one. IVIambers At Joe Bugei a Bugei Tom Borime Ca-fiotti ' • Ds.;Jager-

|li| W.uesi M-emftership . . . . : . £ariv A r r i v a l s ' ,. "

The Tranquil Aquarium

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9 10

Breeding Corydoras duplicareus


Is The Club Magazine Dead?



The Amusing Aquarium . . .


Wet Leaves (Book Review)



: . - : Leonard


llll;;;t : '-MOfiERisi-AQUARi.uiV!. ; I l^lllll Editor ..... „ . . " . ; . . . v-: Warren feuer Managing Editor: , . . A iex-andBr.'.;P'n;es.t/ Photo Layout .-Editor • '"• . :.. .y:J;asan; ; Production Director;-, -Bernard • AcivertiBmg: Mgr. , ;.; . , ||; | i . j J OK ept-

I Learn Less as I Know More G.C.A.S. Happenings Fin Fun (Puzzle Page)


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Prifitirtg By Postal Press

Articles submitted for consideration in MODERN AQUARIUM must be received no later than the 10th day of the month, three months prior to the month of publication. Copyright 1998 by the Greater City Aquarium Society Inc., a not-for-profit New York State corporation. All rights reserved. Not-for-profit aquarium societies are hereby granted permission to reproduce articles and illustrations from this publication, unless the article indicates that the copyrights have been retained by the author, and provided reprints indicate source and two copies of the publication are sent to the Exchange Editor of this magazine. Any other reproduction or commercial use of the material in this publication is prohibited without express written prior permission. The Greater City Aquarium Society meets every month, except during July and August. Meetings are the first Wednesday of the month and begin at 8:00 P.M. Meetings are held at the Queens Botanical Gardens. For more information, contact Vincent Sileo (718) 846-6984. You can also leave us a message at our Internet Home Page at: http : //ourworld. CompuServe. com/homepages/greatercity

From the Editor's Desk

would like to start this month by bragging. This is not something that I normally do, but, I can't help but be proud of the accomplishments of the Modern Aquarium staff. As I briefly mentioned in last month's editorial, our magazine was judged best in the FAAS (Federation of American Aquarium Societies) publication competition for 1996. This is the third year that we have entered the competition, and, after having finished second twice, we finally took that step up, and were judged as best by the competition committee. In addition, Modern Aquarium received the award for the best 1997 publication by the North East Council (NEC) at their annual convention this past March. This was the fourth time that Modern Aquarium has competed in the NEC competition, and we have come in first three times (1995, 1996, 1997)! I wonder if any other aquarium society's publication has won both the FAAS and the NEC publication contests in the same year. So you can understand why I am so proud. The editorial staff of the magazine works extremely hard, sacrificing much personal time to produce Modern Aquarium. As I have mentioned before, each issue is carefully reviewed and edited several times before we print it. We aim to ensure that each issue is as error free as possible. Once the issue is complete for content, the process of printing and assembling the issue begins. This is another labor intensive and time consuming event, as each issue must have a color photocopy pasted on its cover. In January of 1998, we began using perfect binding (the black binding on each issue). This has simplified the process somewhat, but there is still a great deal of work necessary. Fortunately, all of this hard work is rewarded, as we seem to to win more and more awards each year. So next time you pick up your copy of Modern Aquarium, take a minute to think about how much work went into producing it and don't ever take the magazine for granted. I had originally intended to write about several of my favorite Internet web sites for tropical fish enthusiasts this month. However, the more time I spent "surfing" the web in search of


prime web sites, the longer my list became, until I found that I would need an entire book to report on all the sites I've visited. And, by the time I would have published that book, some sites would be gone and others would have been created that would have been left off. Instead, I would like to write about a few web sites that can be used as starting points for your journey. A great place to start looking for information, if you don't know where to go, is a search engine such as Yahoo ( or Infoseek ( On these sites you can search for a subject, topic, or just about anything you might want. One bit of advice, if I may. Be as specific as possible in your search requests. Otherwise, you can end up with hundreds, maybe even thousands of pages of search results, much of which you probably won't want. I have come across several sites that are excellent starting points for tropical fish enthusiasts. First, there is our own web site, at You can find out anything you might want to know about Greater City there, and you can also contact our President Vince Sileo and Managing Editor Al Priest. Our web site also contains links to many other aquarium societies as well as a multitude of other aquarium related sites. Our webmaster, Al Priest, has done a great job creating the site. Check it out first on your journey. Aquarium Fish Magazine also has a web site that contains links to many other tropical fish related sites. Their web site location is: As you browse these two sites and the many links they contain you will get a sense of just how much information is available on the World Wide Web. The amount of information is mind boggling. And seemingly endless. It is easy to spend many hours browsing, just going from site to site and seeing what there is to be offered. A great source of new web sites are the hobbyist publications themselves. Tropical Fish Hobbyist has a column, called "Surfing the Fish Net" specifically dedicated to tropical fish related web sites. The other popular hobbyist publications constantly publish articles and have columns that deal with hobbyist web sites. There is truly something for everyone. The Internet is here to stay. Acceptance and use of it can only make your life easier, better, and help you to become more informed, no matter what it is you are using it for. If you have not spent time on the Internet and have Internet access I urge you to do so. You'd be amazed how much is out there. Warren Feuer

President's Message VINCENT SILEO The Perfect Aquarium Society The Aims of the Greater City Aquarium Society as defined in our constitution are: " gather, organize and disseminate knowledge offish and other aquatic species, to promote fellowship among the members and to further the conservation of all species and their natural habitats." We are going to fulfill these aims by bringing in top quality speakers from around the U.S. and around the World; fully finance Dr. Loiselle's next expedition to save the fish of Africa and Madagascar; and put on a Fish Show of such grand proportions that it is featured in the newspapers and on television news broadcasts. Here is next year's line up of speakers: September Steve Somermeyer on Lake Tanganyika Cichlids October Dr. Sallie Boggs on Breeding Odd Ball Fish November Derek J. Lambert on Endangered Livebearers December Dr. Ken Reeves Discuss' Discus January Holiday Party with Charlie Grimes as Master of Ceremonies February Claus Christensen on Aquarium Plants March Mike Schadle on Poeciliids April Al Castro on Characins

May Steve Lundblad on Peacock Cichlids June Gary Lange - Rainbows

Alright, close your mouth or you'll catch flies! I was just dreaming. Dreaming of the perfect aquarium society that doesn't exist. But that is our goal. This is NOT the speaker list for the Greater City Aquarium Society's '98-499 Season. But it could be. We are not able to fully finance Dr. Loiselle's next expedition. But we'd like to be able to do so. All of the above speakers have three things in common. First, they are all top quality speakers. Second, none of them live in Queens, heck they don't even live in the Tri-State area!* Third, all of them have spoken at the North East Council of Aquarium Societies Convention within the past three or four years. I bring this up for two reasons. First, if you haven't been to the NEC Convention you are missing something really special. Almost 70 aquarium societies belong to the NEC and together they make the annual convention an event that is not matched anywhere! Just the line-up of speakers is outrageous — then add to that vendors and manufacturers representatives, games, contests, auctions, national and international specialty society meetings, and one of the best banquets anywhere, complete with entertainment! Luckily for us, it is held just outside of Hartford, CT, every March or April. I have to admit that it is not cheap. Registration is usually about $25.00. The cost of a room at the hotel is usually about $70.00 a night and the banquet tickets are usually about $30.00 each. Although it is only a 2.5 - 3 hour drive away, I wouldn't recommend just going up for one day. Once there you won't want to leave until it is over. Plan to go up as early as possible and stay as late as possible to really do it right. After attending a few of these events you will feel like it is a second home, full of familiar faces that are happy to see you. Everyone with a common interest Tropical Fish Fever! Second Second? Oh, I almost forgot. Second, it costs quite a bit to bring in any one of these speakers. Even speakers like Steve Somermeyer, who is on the Mardel speakers program, and Al Castro, who is on the Tetra speakers program. These programs usually pay for the speaker's airfare. However, there is a catch. They will only pay for weekend airfare which is generally one third to one fifth as expensive as weekday airfare (without staying over Saturday night).

We must either make up the difference (sometimes as much as $500) or provide lodging and meals for four days (Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday) which can potentially cost even more. So our meeting night burdens us with an extra expense that Friday Night societies don't have to deal with. The Greater City Aquarium Society is a "Not For Profit Organization." None of us are personally gaining any monetary rewards from the Society. Unless you count winning the 50/50 or receiving 50% of the winning bid on auction items. But those should not be counted since they are predicated on the fact that you must first donate something valuable to the Society or risk losing your money. The point is that it takes money to support the aims of the Society. It takes money to bring in quality speakers to educate us, and it takes money to put on Fish Shows to educate the public and it takes money to conserve wildlife and their habitats. We maintain various fund raisers, such as the monthly livestock auctions, raffles, 50/50's and sale of merchandise. Unfortunately most, if not all, of the money brought in by these functions are from our membership. We experimented with the Super 50/50 which was designed to bring in money from non-members, as well as members. The attraction was a cash award. Unfortunately it required that our members "sell" tickets to family, friends and associates. For some this is easy, but not for most. Myself included. However, if you force yourself to try, the results might surprise you. I'm lucky to work in an office where everyone is free to bring up their favorite charity or school fund raiser. So when I mentioned the raffle, my co-workers were willing to participate. Some work situations don't allow this type of activity. But it doesn't hurt to ask, the worst they can say is no, but they just might say yes. I'd like to invite anyone who has any ideas or experience with fund raising to help us put together a Ways and Means Committee so we can better meet these aims. Do Fish Frolic? About this time next year we will be getting ready for our first Bi-Annual Fish Frolic. The Fish Frolic will occur at the same time of year as the Bi-Annual Fish Show. Fish Frolics will be held on odd years, such as 1999, and Fish Shows on even years, such as 2000.

Due to the "changing of the guard" on the Board of Governors this past year we were not prepared in time to start this schedule off with a Fish Show this year. Greater City started producing Bi-Annual Shows in 1992 with subsequent shows in 1994 and 1996. We decided to have a really spectacular show in 1997 to celebrate our 75th year as a continually active aquarium society and that threw us off schedule. By holding the Fish Frolic in May of 1999 we will be back on schedule. More importantly, we hope to dispel any confusion as to when we will be holding our next event. Everyone will know that the Greater City Aquarium Society puts on an event every Spring. What is a Fish Frolic? It's a one day event whose central theme is fish. The attractions may vary from year to year but there will most likely always be a livestock auction, manufacturers' representatives displays and vendor displays. Perhaps there will be some fishy games like the Fish Wits game at tonight's meeting, or "Kuhli Loach Races" where children have to pretend they are a kuhli loach and squirm on their bellies towards the finish line. We are open to suggestions, but act quickly, as we will quickly run out of space for all of the ideas you might offer. A year may seem far off, but we must decide what to include as soon as possible if it is to be a success. Please see me, or one of the other board members, if you would like to participate in the planning and production of this event. Regional and International Breeders Award Programs Both the North East Council of Aquarium Societies (NEC) and the Federation of American Aquarium Societies (FAAS) have Breeder's Award (Participation) Programs which you may compete in, along with our own GCAS Breeder's Award Program. Not only will you be competing for your own rewards, you will also be competing for GCAS, as awards are also given out based on Society totals. Watch for more information regarding both of these competitions in Modern Aquarium, or speak to Greg Wuest or Carlotti DeJager if you are ready to jump in.

*\<IW\M ^A/r r c/t/

iuÂŁ CuJmm ~ ALEXANDER A. PRIEST t's too bad there are no "dwarf fresh water Angelfish. The babies are so cute, colorful, and graceful that I'd love several tanks of them. But, Angelfish grow quite large. As it is, I have three tanks with one Angelfish in each (one being my 90 gallon community tank). However, there are fish which, in my opinion, have the same grace, compressed look, elegant trailing pectoral fins, and brilliant colors as Angelfish, but which reach a adult maximum size of less than three inches. These are the Dwarf Gourami, Colisa lalia. Originally, this article was to be about the Dwarf Gourami, one of the most popular and colorful fresh water fish in the hobby. This fish has many color variations, all of which are essentially the same fish. In the course of reviewing some of the available information on Gouramis (in other hobby publications, in commercial magazines and books, and on the Internet), I found a fair amount of misconceptions, over generalizations, and conflicting and misleading information. So, while I may do an in-depth article on one of my favorite fish, Colisa lalia, at another time, I decided to turn this into a general overview of the Gourami. If there is enough interest in this subject, I may devote several articles later to the care and breeding of different Gourami species. Gouramis, like the Siamese Fighting Fish (Betta splendens) and Paradise Fish (Macropodus sp.) are labyrinth fish, or anabantoids. This means that, in addition to being born with a gill-breathing system like other fish, they also have an air-breathing system in their gill cavities, extending up into the head. This allows them to "breathe" the air above the water and survive in oxygen poor water that would suffocate most other fish. Using one common classification, most of the commercially available Gouramis belong to one of two genera: Colisa (which, in addition to the Dwarf Gourami includes the Honey Gourami, and Giant Gourami), or Trichogaster (which includes the Pearl, Blue, Moonlight, and Snakeskin Gourami). I will describe the most common species in each.


There are also at least four other genera of commercially available Gouramis which I will also discuss: Sphaerichthys osphromenoides (Chocolate Gourami), Helostoma temmincki (Kissing Gourami), Trichopsis vittatus (Croaking Gourami), and Osphronemus goramy (the true Giant Gourami). Generally speaking, Gouramis are hardy fish that can be acclimated to a fairly wide range of water chemistry and temperature and a variety of foods. Unless otherwise noted, the ideal environment for these fish is a heavily planted tank, with both rooted and floating plants, and soft, slightly acidic water of around 80 degrees Fahrenheit. Gouramis do best on a varied diet of Brine Shrimp, worms (Blood worms, Black worms, etc.), and tropical flake food. It may be necessary to use micro pellets or crushed flakes with some of the smaller varieties. While often recommended as community tank inhabitants, it has been my experience that most Gouramis are not ideal candidates for a community tank. Because they generally move slower and are less agile than other fish, it is more difficult to flee aggression directed at themselves. Their long, thread-like, pectoral fins provide a very tempting invitation to fin nippers. Most Gouramis build bubble nests, and these are also generally unsuitable for community tanks. In addition, rapid water movement will usually cause stress for Gouramis. However, not all Gouramis use bubble nests. As I will discuss later, the Chocolate Gourami (Sphaerichthys osphromenoides) is a mouth brooder, and the Kissing Gourami (Helostoma temmincki) is an egg scatterer. The bubble nesting Gouramis build and tend their nests in a manner that is very similar to that of Betta splendens, except that most prefer to use floating plants as an "anchor" and will sometimes incorporate plant matter into the nests. Following the descriptions of individual Gourami species, I will provide some general information on bubble nest spawning, which will (except as noted) apply to all bubble nesting Gouramis described in this article.

Colisa chuna The Honey Gourami is found in India and Bangladesh. It reaches a maximum size of about 3 inches. The Honey Gourami is very peaceful and passive and should be kept in a species tank, so it won't be harmed by other fish. The fish gets its name from its straw yellow color. It can also have a silver or brown belly. The male has a lateral band from his eye to the lower half of the base of his caudal fin. The dorsal fin is yellow gold with a grey-brown belly. The body shape is a short, flat oval. They will eat live, freeze-dried and frozen food, mosquito larvae, blood worms, as well as flake and dried foods. Breeding males are less aggressive toward females than Colisa lalia. The fry are very small and need correspondingly small first foods. Colisa fasciata The "Striped Threadfish" is sometimes confusingly referred to as the "Giant Gourami," but at a maximum adult length of four inches, it should not be mistaken for Osphronemus goramy, which at an adult length of up to 24 inches, is the "Giant Gourami" in the truest sense of the term (and is discussed later in this article). Colisa fasciata is found in most parts of India. On the male, blue-green and orange stripes run diagonally on a olive-brown body, which fades to blue-green towards the chest. The dorsal fin is reddish orange towards the rear. The anal fin is blue or blue-green, with an orange border. The adult female's coloration is less distinct (her diagonal stripes are very faint). She is smaller than the male, with a more rounded dorsal fin. Up to 1,000 eggs may be produced in a single spawning. The male does not use plant matter in his bubble nest, but he will build his nest under an available floating plant. Therefore, floating plants should be provided, as well as barriers that the female can use as a refuge. Colisa labiosa The Thick-Lipped Gourami is found in Southern Burma. It will take all kinds of dried food, but prefers live foods, with some vegetable material. The male is larger than the female and grows to a length of about three inches. The male's body is brownish yellow, which darkens during the mating period. Faint blue-green vertical stripes cover the sides of the body. The dorsal fin has a red margin, and is more pointed on the male. The anal fin is rimmed with white. Females are lighter in color with a yellowish dorsal fin (sometimes with red spots), a nearly colorless caudal fin, and a bluish

anal fin with reddish outer margin. Because males only have intense color at breeding time, they are less popular than the Dwarf Gourami. Spawning behavior is similar to Colisa fasciata, discussed previously. Colisa lalia The Dwarf Gourami, Colisa lalia, (lalia is from the native name in Assam for these fish, Lai kholisha) is found in Northern India, Bengal, Asam, and Bangladesh. In the wild, it feeds on algae, rotifers, zooplankton and soft aquatic vegetation. It has also been used as a means of mosquito control. As you might guess by the name "Dwarf," this fish reaches a maximum adult length of only two to three inches. The natural or "wild" variety male Dwarf has red and light blue bands on its side, with a large blue-green spot on the gill cover. The adult female has a silver or grey body. They will eat dry flake food, but prefer live foods. They will also nibble on algae in your tank. It is important that these fish not be subjected to a chill. While generally peaceful, at spawning time males can become aggressive, although they usually defend only the area around their nest. The male's bubble nest is a mix of plant parts and bubbles, about two inches in diameter. One spawning produces between 300 to 700 eggs. There are many color varieties of the Dwarf Gourami, all essentially the same fish. Among the common varieties are: Red Neon, Neon Dwarf, Golden Dwarf, Sunset, and Flame. Trichogaster leeri Pearl Gouramis (also called Mosaic Gouramis, Lace Gouramis, or "Leeris") are found in Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo. This fish is often considered to be the most beautiful of the Gouramis. It has thread-like feelers, like the Blue and Honey Gouramis. They grow up to four inches in length. They prefer live foods, which should be small, due to their small mouths. The body is red and brown with white pearl-like spots (thus the common name "Pearl Gourami"). These spots form a mosaic pattern (thus the name "Mosaic Gourami") extending into the fins. This gives the impression of fine lace (undoubtedly the reason for the name "Lace Gourami"). A dark, horizontal stripe runs from the mouth through the eye and becomes indistinct as it approaches the tail. The male's ventral region is red, his long dorsal fin tapers to a point, the anal fin is more prominent and its rays are extended into thread-like appendages. When in breeding condition, males develop a bright orange breast. The female is darker brown and redder in

the belly area and fin tips. Females often have more silver coloring on their bodies and fins. These are generally timid fish that tend to hide behind the plants and rocks. They are bubble nest builders and are good parents. Both sexes will look after the eggs or young. Males rarely attack females during courtship. Trichogaster microlepis The Thin-lipped Gourami (also commonly called Moonbeam Gourami, Moonlight Gourami or Silver Gourami) lives in south-east Asia, Cambodia and Thailand. They take all kinds of dried, frozen and live foods. These fish can get quite large; up to 6 inches in length. In their native habitat, they have been used as a food fish. The male's bubble nest consists of large pieces of vegetation, which are held together by many sticky bubbles that the male "spits' into the nest. It is important that a male building a nest be provided with sufficient fresh vegetation, as he only uses fresh leaves, which he rips from the plants by using his mouth in a sawing action. The body is silver-blue. While sexes are difficult to distinguish, males have a slight I\r filamentous ventral fins are orange (the female's are more yellowish). They are peaceful, often rather sh\, which live mostly in the middle water lav ors They are not easily bred in the home aquarium However, if a breeding has been accomplished, the young are relatively easy to rear.

Trichogaster trichopterus The Blue (or "Three-Spot") Gourami, is found in Malaysia, Thailand, South East Asia, Burma, South Vietnam, Sumatra and the Greater Sunda Islands. This is a fairly aggressive fish, which grows to about 6 inches. It's best to keep only a single pair in a tank of at least 30 gallons. The body is basically blue, with a touch of silver on the belly and traces of green on the tips of the gill covers and fins. The name "Three-Spot" comes from: (1) a central dark spot on the flank; (2) another spot on the caudal penducle on its sides; and (3) the fish's own eye. The difference between the male and female can be determined by looking at the dorsal fin. The female's dorsal fin is short and round, the male's is more pointed. As a prelude to spawning, the female swims above the male, who rubs his back on her belly. The "Gold Gourami" is a color variation of the Blue Gourami that does not exist in nature. A powder blue subspecies, Trichogaster trichopterus sumatranus, appears to be a natural mutation. A "human engineered" color variation is the Crosby, or "Marbled" Gourami with dark andblue more pointed dorsal and their spots on a light bluefin, body.


Sphaerichthys osphromenoides The Chocolate Gourami (also called the "Plane Fish") is native to Sumatra and Malaysia. This fish attains a maximum length of two to three inches. (It can spawn generally at about 1 /4 inches). It has a chocolate brown color (giving t h i s fish its common name), with three light Trichogaster pectoralis v ertical stripes on the body (one at the rear of the The Snake-Skinned Gourami is found m head, the second at about the middle of the body South Vietnam, and Malaysia. It can reads .1 .irul the last at the rear of the dorsal). Sexual maximum length of 10 inches (usually 5 i r u n e dimorphism is not very pronounced. However, in the aquarium), and is sexually mature a; 3 trie male often has a patch of yellow in front of inches. It will accept dry food and frozen h \ the dorsal fin. food. These Gouramis are mouth brooders. The body is olive green to grayish LI FIX r,. A l t e r spawning, both the male and female collect with several diagonal yellow or gold bars \k horizontal travels fromfornose to tail The eggs the eggs line in their mouth incubation. hatch in about two weeks. Captive breeding is A mated pair will co-exist peaceful r. \er> difficult. It has been reported that a parent While the male builds a large bubblenest, m>ip u i l l spit out the young if it is disturbed. parents will tend it. They produce 3,000 to 5,ooo The Chocolate Gourami requires a lot at each spawning. These fish generally do noi of maintenance and should only be kept by an eat their young. As a result, adults can generali\e raised together with offspring. experienced and their dedicated aquarist. This Gourami is very delicate. These fish are

especially susceptible to oodinum (Velvet Disease). It needs open water for swimming but also an area of thick vegetation, both rooted and free-floating. They require very soft water (0.5-3 DH), that is fairly acid (I've seen pH recommendations from nearly neutral to as low as 5.5). They also require very warm water (82-92째F.). Because of their small mouths, these fish require food in small particles. They will eat newly hatched brine shrimp and crushed flake food. Helostoma temmincki The Kissing Gourami is found in Java, Sumatra, Malaysia, Borneo and Thailand. It is one of the largest Gouramis, reaching an adult length of up to 12 inches. (They are sexually mature at about five inches.) It is called the "Kissing" Gourami because of its habit of extending its thick, fleshy lips and "kissing." However, this is generally a sign of aggression, not affection. The lip protrudes when sparring with another fish, or while scraping algae from rocks. Compared to other Gouramis, this is a relatively plain fish with only slight sexual dimorphism. They have a large pink to silvergreen colored body and almost colorless fins. (There is also a gold variety.) While it is hard to tell males and females apart, the female generally has a rounder body shape. The Kissing Gourami is not a bubble nest builder. During spawning, the pair will embrace and thousands of sticky lighter-thanwater eggs will be produced. The eggs float upward, attaching themselves to plants, rocks, or floating to the water surface. The eggs hatch in about 2-3 days and the fry are free swimmers in about a week. Kissing Gouramis need a large tank with plenty of hiding places. Recommended breeding tank temperature is 76째F. You should also provide floating leaves (lettuce is excellent). These fish accept live foods (small fish, insects, and shrimp). Trichopsis vittatus The Croaking Gourami (also called the "Talking Gourami") is found in Thailand, South Vietnam and Malaysia. During courtship, both sexes will make "croaking" noises, probabK using the labyrinth organ, thus the origin of their common name. They will take dried food. Thev reach an adult length of up to two and three quarter inches. The fish is yellowish to brownish in color. The back is darker and belly yellowishwhite. Its flanks have a blue-white glint by

reflected light. Three to four more or less distinct dark brown to black longitudinal bands are along the flanks. The anal fin of the male is long and pointed, with dark pigment-spots at the base and a red-brown border. The female is less colorful, and her anal fin is not as long and is more rounded. There is also a dwarf variety, Trichopsis pumilus, which reaches a maximum adult length of only one and one half inches, and a variety commonly called "Schaller's Croaking Gourami" (Trichopsis schalleri). All of the Trichopsis mentioned above build bubble nests below the water's surface. Osphronemm goramy The Giant Gourami earns its common name by growing to a length of up to 24 inches. The largest one on record grew to 39 inches in 27 years. They are found in China, Malaysia, Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, and eastern India. The body color is brown to bluish-grey, with a darker throat area. The belly is whiter than any other part of the body. Albino specimens are known. A reddish variety is reported to be very popular in China. As these fish mature, they tend to be less colorful. These fish are sexually mature at five to seven inches. Males are quite similar to females, but the male may be recognized by an indented snout profile, more aggressive behavior, and a longer and more pointed dorsal fin when mature. In nature, they build submerged, spherical shaped bubble nests among bamboo stems. Spawns are very large, sometimes as many as 3,000 eggs are produced in a single spawning. Although primarily vegetarians, the Giant Gourami will eat nearly anything, including live foods, vegetable matter, and pellets. (They love green peas.) With adequate food and sufficient tank size, their growth is surprisingly rapid. Younger fish tend to be very aggressive, but this trait lessens as the fish matures. The Giant Gourami has been raised in ponds as a food fish, and are considered a delicacy. Breeding Bubble Nest Builders Most of the fish in this article are bubble nest builders. Except as noted, they are paternal care fish (the male builds and tends the nest and the female should be removed once spawning is over). Most bubble nesting Gouramis reinforce their bubble nests with plant material and often use floating plants to "anchor" their nests. It is best to use a single male/female pair in a tank roomy enough for both hiding and

swimming. Use both stationary and floating plants. (I recommend Java Fern and Salvinia, respectively, with a clump of Java Moss.) A floating lettuce leaf is also a handy option, and it will host infusoria for the fry to eat. Other than that, use the same steps as for a Betta splendens breeding (i.e., raise the temperature to about 86 degrees F., introduce the male first, etc.). A sponge filter with a very gentle air flow should be started, but make certain that the surface of the water is not subject to agitation (otherwise, this will destroy bubblenests). If the pair are not injuring each other, they can often be left together until after the spawning. Except for, perhaps, Pearl Gouramis, remove the male and reduce the temperature to about 80 degrees F. once the fry are free swimming. Liquid fry food and newly hatched brine shrimp provide adequate nutrition for the fry, when coupled with the naturally occurring infusoria on the sponge of the sponge filter.

An Apology and an Explanation ALEXANDER A. PRIEST ast month there was an article about proposed changes in Greater City's Breeders Award Program (BAP). That article was an April Fool joke, written by me. At least two people were mislead by it. If two people admit being "fooled," then there are probably others who were, but who did not speak up. It was not my goal to "trick" anyone or to say anything bad about our BAP. (In fact, I've been working with our BAP chairs to have GCAS members become eligible for Federation of American Aquarium Societies BAP awards.) I did not think anyone would take my article seriously. First, I put a shaded box on page 3 with the statement: ". . . there are two articles this month written by authors who had their tongues firmly in their cheeks. . ." The first such article was "Success At Last," (on cloning the Neolamprobogus farcealottus). The other one was "The New Breeders Award Program" on page 14. That article ended: "By the way, you DO realize that this article appears in the issue of Modern Aquarium, distributed on April 1 — don't you?" (April 1 was in bold print.) I thought these were enough hints, yet I sprinkled clues and hints in the article itself: 1) There was no author. (When was the last time you read a Modern Aquarium article without an author?)


Keep a lid on the fry tank, so the air over the water surface remains moist and about the same temperature as the water. This will prevent damage to the labyrinth organs of the fry when they take their first gulps of air. Do frequent partial water changes in the fry tank (daily changes of about 10%) and frequent feedings (three dimes a day, if possible). Separate larger fry from those growing less rapidly (predation among siblings is common with these fish). Above all, enjoy these generally peaceful beauties!

References Pinter, Helmut, Labyrinth Fish, Barrens, 1986 Vierke, Dr. Jorge, Gouramis and Other Anabantoids, T.F.H. Publications, Inc., 1988

2) The article was subtitled: "A Modest Proposal." Ever since 1729, when Dr. Jonathan Swift wrote: "A Modest Proposal for preventing the children of poor people in Ireland, from being a burden on their parents or country, and for making them beneficial to the publick," the phrase "modest proposal" has been synonymous with an outrageous satire. (Swift "proposed" eating children to feed the poor in order to draw attention to poverty and starvation in Ireland.) 3) The article mentions a July 4 meeting of the GCAS Board in Vermont. (Meetings are not held by GCAS or its Board of Governors in July, and they are never held out of state.) 4) The article mentions the "Board of Governing." (GCAS has a Board of Governors.) 5) The article refers to the "Annual Show and Auction of the Vermont Aquaristic Group." (There is no such group or show.) 6) The article gives the meeting location as "the Montpelier Seacoast Hilton in Montpelier, Vermont." (There is no such hotel.) 7) Vermont has no "seacoast." (So a "Seacoast Hilton" would be most unlikely.) 8) The article refers to a certain GCAS By-Law. (There is no such By-Law.) These 8 items were "extra credit hints," in addition to the box on page 3 and mention of April 1 at the end of the article. (Some are fairly subtle, so don't be upset if you didn't catch them all.) All things considered, I thought it was clear that this article was a joke. But be warned now, I won't give anyone any guarantees about next April!

there is no substitute for a knowledgeable shopkeeper and some reading on your own. Buy as many plants as you wish. More is better than less when it comes to plants. You can plant them all at once or gradually — it just depends on your budget and the availability of the plants. Again, as with my comments about the rocks, there is a need for some uniformity, though not as much as with the rocks. That is, you should generally arrange plants in groups of three or more, with the exception of a scheme where there is one large center plant, in which case, the plant groupings will be arranged around this center plant. You should limit your species selection to four to six kinds of plants, depending, of course, on the length of the aquarium. The bigger the tank, the more varieties you can have without running the risk that your aquarium will look like the mixed green salad at your local restaurant. Try to have some plants at all levels of the aquarium. This includes using some floating plants (but avoid Duckweed, it is very hard to get rid of once established). Last but not least are the fish. Obviously, there are hundreds of tropical fish to choose from, and I will, by way of example, recommend a few, but let me state in general terms what the ideal attributes for a fish for the tranquil aquarium should be. They must not like to eat or disrupt plants (this eliminates such fish as Silver Dollars, many cichlids, and, believe it our not, some species of Rainbowfish). They must not dig up the gravel and rearrange it (again, many cichlids have to be avoided). They should be relatively peaceful. They should be small — this allows you to have more of them and adds to the overall effect that your aquarium will look like Nature in miniature. They should be colorful. They should be schooling fish — this is something many of us never fully appreciate because we do not strive for this effect in most of our aquariums. When you see the schooling effect then you will realize how aesthetically pleasing it is.

relatively inexpensive (under $2 each). They are (in no particular order): the Rummy-Nose Tetra (especially Hemmigramus bleheri), the Cardinal Tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi), and the Neon Tetra (Paracheirodon innesi). Buy a group of just one species, at first. If we're talking about a 30 gallon aquarium, get at least 15 fish. In a larger tank, such as a 125 gallon, a group of 30+ Rummy-Noses is really impressive to behold. I said to start off with just one group because I believe that a tank with essentially one species is aesthetically more compelling and relaxing. Too many kinds of fish result in a scenario reminiscent of a subway during rush hour — hardly a tranquil image. However, I realize that most people find it hard to limit themselves to just one species of fish, especially if they only have one or two tanks to begin with. So, if you're really unhappy with the look of one school, get a second. But that's it! Any more than that results in a different aquarium, not the one that is the subject of this article. There is, however, one exception to that rule: a small school of Cory dor as Catfish (small being defined as five to seven fish). The catfish are great for several reasons. Corydoras are very peaceful, schooling fish. They occupy the bottom level and therefore get along very well with the mid-level tetras. In addition to their useful function as scavengers, they promote a healthy gravel bed by gently moving the gravel (use size #3, by the way) as they root about in it looking for food. Also, I think they are lovely and interesting animals. Although many Corydoras are beautifully marked, their colors tend to be on the neutral side, and, therefore, do not detract from the main visual image of the brightly colored tetras.

Try this concept of the tranquil aquarium. You may find it to be superior to television. I would also venture to say it will equal the relaxation value of the jellyfish aquarium, but at considerably less cost. If it doesn't work, try eating a bowl of Jello while gazing at your tranquil aquarium. The fish that, for me, most closely fit all the ideal attributes are the small tetras. My top three choices are readily available in stores and 11

Breeding Corydoras duplicareus MARK SOBERMAN

ometimes, it takes a great effort to breed a new species of Corydoras. I would like to say that, after years of effort, I was able to breed Corydoras duplicareus. However, this is not the case. In the beginning of January of this year I made a stop into The Pet Barn, a good pet shop in Franklin Square, Long Island, NY. My friend Paul, the store manager, wanted me to see the Corydoras adolfoi that just came in. I immediately knew that they were not C. adolfoi, but C. duplicareus instead. The two species look almost identical except that the black horizontal bar that runs across the upper body on both fish is much wider on the C. duplicareus. The fish had just arrived in the shop and really looked fantastic. To the contrary, whenever I see C. adolfoi that have just arrived from the shipper they usually appear very rough. There were 12 C. duplicareus in the tank and I purchased eight, five of which were females. The eight fish were placed in a ten gallon tank with about an inch of number three gravel and a box filter. The temperature was 74 degrees F. and the pH 7.0. Normally the pH in my tanks is about 6.5, but I had been having problems with the water out of the tap so I started using a product called Neutral Regulator, which alleviated the problem. About a week later, I fed my new charges live black worms and the rest is history. The next evening there were about 30 to 40 eggs scattered primarily across the water line. In fact, some were out of the water all together. The eggs, which were typical in size, were cream in color. I scraped the eggs off the glass with a single edge blade and deposited them in another bare ten gallon tank which was half full of water from the spawning tank. The tank was filtered by a sponge filter. I added a few drops of methylene blue to the water to prevent the eggs from fungusing. After about five days, the eggs hatched. Very few of them had fungused. When the yolk sacks were absorbed, I fed the fry live baby brine shrimp. This was the basis of their diet for the first few weeks. After that I fed them Tetra Tabimin tablets as well. About 25% of the water in the fry tank was changed weekly.



The fish from the initial spawning are now 5/8 inch in length and are back in the same tank as the adults. The C. duplicareus have spawned three more times in pretty much the same fashion. Before the last spawning, I placed some Java Fern in the tank and eggs were deposited there as well. However, most of the eggs were still deposited at the water line. I have given fry from the first two spawnings to friends, who tell me the fish are doing very well. The reason I am writing this is because, in my experience, the C. adolfoi, although similar in appearance, are a much more delicate fish. I find them far less tolerant of changes in water quality than the C. duplicareus. Maybe it's just me, but the C. duplicareus just seem more robust than the C. adolfoi. I would like to know if any other hobbyists agree with my observations. According to the book, "Aqualog, all Corydoras," Corydoras duplicareus is found in Columbia in the Rio Inirida and Rio Orinoco systems. However, after I first spawned the C. duplicareus, I contacted Lee Finley, who informed me that this information was erroneous. In fact, in the June, 1997 issue of Aquarium Fish Magazine, Lee gives examples of many errors in the locality information in the Corydoras volume. According to Lee, C. duplicareus was originally described in 1995 from Brazil in the upper Rio Negro system near Sao Gabriel de Cachoeira. In conclusion, Corydoras duplicareus is a beautiful fish that is easy to spawn and raise. In fact, I like it just as much as its more famous relative, Corydoras adolfoi. To my knowledge, this is the first documented spawning of Corydoras duplicareus in the United States. If anyone has any other information, please contact me via this magazine.

Is The Club Magazine JOSEPH FERDENZI lease read the title again. It says "magazine," not "newsletter." The two are conceptually different. The newsletter is what the name implies — a "letter" full of news tidbits about the club and its members. A magazine, in addition to news, contains substantive articles on the art and science of the aquarium hobby. Many clubs have newsletters, but relatively few publish magazines. (Some clubs have newsletters masquerading as magazines.) I look at all the publications our club receives from other aquarium societies. Production values aside, what is glaringly absent from many of these publications is substantive, original articles. A large proportion of these publications do not even have one original article — nothing, nada. Now, I'm not suggesting that each issue has to have a blockbuster article about some new fish discovery. Even an article on as dull a topic as society management would be helpful, but these are rare as well. Quite frankly, of what value is an exchange publication if all it tells you is that John Smith of Club Greenland bred Pterophyllum scalare for 10 points, and that Mary Doe of the same club won the Bowl Show with her Bella splendensl As Executive Editor of this magazine, I've usually taken the position that "noblesse oblige" — that we, who are fortunate to have talented members who produce a top-notch magazine, should share our good fortune with other clubs that are perhaps less fortunate or just smaller in membership, and therefore unable to provide us with a publication of equal content. However, it has also begun to dawn on me that, in some ways, this "noble" opinion is unfair to my own club. After all. who pays the expense for producing our magazine and mailing copies to these other clubs? Our members. What do our members get in return from some of these other clubs? Almost nothing How should the dilemma of wanting to be noble, yet not hurting ourselves financially, be resolved? Hell if I know, although some suggestions do seem to present themselves. For example, if it


were deemed that a particular club's newsletter is especially wanting, would it be wrong to ask that they pay a portion or all of the cost of producing and mailing the issues sent to them? And, incidentally, where are all those local club articles? Why are there so few? I'll answer this: there are not enough authors. Where, you might ask, have all the authors gone? Well, they're writing for the American Killifish Association Journal, the journal of the American Cichlid Association, and countless other national specialty clubs that publish magazines (I belong to 4 such organizations). They're writing for Tropical Fish Hobbyist, Freshwater And Marine Aquarium, Aquarium Fish Magazine, and Cichlid News (I left out marine magazines and some others). (Incidentally, I have subscriptions to all 4 mentioned.) And, perhaps most insidiously of all, they're only writing for the Internet, a Website, or some other computer something-orother (all of you that don't read computers, like me, please raise your hand — O.K., lower them, you're blocking the sunlight). In a word, there are just not enough authors to go around. How do we change that state of affairs? Again, stop asking me those tough questions — I don't know. Perhaps, we have to rethink our approach. Maybe, some local clubs can form regional associations and produce one publication, with local editors submitting articles to a central editor (club), who then assembles a master copy, allowing space for local news to be added by the local editor (club), who then has the finished product printed and distributed locally. This \\ould take a bit of organizing, but it could be done. Then too, some of us might make a sacrifice and rearrange our priorities — write more for your local club. Is this too quixotic a hope? There you go again — what is the answer? I do know one thing. I love working on this magazine for our members. The members and the talented editorial staff have made it rewarding and enjoyable. Is the club magazine dead? You will decide.


Societry >Tiir May 16-T7, Rochred Community Center - Cheshire, CT For info: Karl Chadbourne (860)589-7931 or Barbara Day (203)238-2962

Oouxrcil of A.qua*~lT}LniL Clulbs i JRisJhL JPesti^sral '98 September 1S-2Of 133B Fallside Resort, Niagara Falls, N.Y. Featuring International Speakers, including: Stephen Smith, Formerly of the UK, now residing in Nevada, Dr. Paul Loiselle (N.Y.), Dr. Gene Lucas (Iowa), Dr. Wayne Leibel (Pa), Dorothy Reimer (Ontario), and Gary Lange (MO) Featuring The National Conventions of: North American Fish Breeders Guild • Rainbowfish Study Group • Aquatic Gardeners Association • Federation of American Aquarium Societies "All Species Fish Show" • International Betta Show "Best of Show" • Giant Fish, Plant and Aquarium Product Auction • Manufacturer Exhibits • Hospitality Room • Banquets • More! E-Mail: Randy at or

"Vince, I'll take Pterygoplichthys species from the Rio Paraguay system for $500.00' 14

WET LEAVES A Series On Books For The Hobbyist SUSAN PRIEST

biquitous, comical, popular, omnivorous, social, helpful, peaceful, accommodating, shy; what do these words make you think of? Dr. Burgess uses all of them to describe "miniature" catfish. This is a charming volume. It brings the reader up close and personal with some of the most personable fishes in the hobby. The bulk of the text is dedicated to the genus Corydoras, with additional coverage of Aspidoras and Brochis. The 30 page introduction is very comprehensive, covering general as well as specific topics. It touches on such areas as the history of the introduction of corys to the hobby, various water parameters, and feeding (corys are omnivorous and locate food by smell). Shallow tanks are recommended because corys need to climb to the surface for an occasional "gulp" of air (they store and absorb it in their intestines). [My corys have no problem surfacing in a two foot high tank.] They should have plant shelter as well as open spaces. Corys are not found near costal regions because of their limited tolerance of salt. The easiest way to free a cory who is "stuck" in a net is to invert the net in the water and allow the fish to free itself. There is thorough coverage of the spawning activities of corys. "The courtship behavior, spawning act, carrying and deposition of eggs on a substrate, and other aspects of cory breeding are very similar . . . There are some exceptions to the rule, however, and these will be noted under the particular species accounts when known." The classic "T" position, which corys are known for, is described in detail. However, Dr. Burgess points out that "The T' position is not always formed and egg-laying and their fertilization are accomplished just as successfully with the partners side by side." Have you wondered why fish in general like to do their spawning during the rainy season? "The onset of the rainy season usually initiates courting behavior in corys. This is no doubt due to the increase in food items that usually accompanies these rains, thereby providing a good supply for the fry when they hatch out."


The introduction concludes by pointing out that "Most of the information provided can be applied to Brochis and Aspidoras as well." Brochis are described as looking like a huge Corydoras while the largest of the Aspidoras attain a length of only 5 centimeters. Almost 200 pages are dedicated to a description of each individual species. The Aspidoras and the Brochis include 14 and 3, respectively. The remainder, some 115 species, are Corydoras. [Corydoras duplicareus, as described by Mark Soberman elsewhere in this issue, is NOT included; an indication of how new this fish is to the hobby.] The information is not presented in -a rigid outline format or weighted down with scientific jargon. Rather, it is descriptive; almost conversational. There is, however, a repetitive nature to the text, as most of these fish have more similarities than differences. There are many photos. In some cases, there are two or three photos of the same fish, each taken by a different photographer. Some of the fish do not have photos available, and are represented by color drawings. Regular readers of this column know that I am partial to artist renderings. For some reason, I didn't warm up to the drawings in this book. The detail was there, but they seemed lifeless. This could be due to the fact that artist worked from "preserved specimens." A map or two would have been welcome. Knowing that the Corydoras elegans comes from the central Amazon region of Brazil is enough to satisfy me, even though I know that it is a huge river with many different biotopes. But, when I am told that a fish hails from the "eastern tributaries of the Rio Lagariococha," personally speaking, I need a "point of reference." The unique charm of the Index makes up for this shortcoming. Each page of the Index has 15 color photos or drawings. Under each illustration is the scientific name of the fish (the fish are arranged in alphabetical order) and the page number for the respective text. I think this would serve the reader very well for identification purposes. The subtitle of this book reads "Every species of Corydoras, Brochis & Aspidoras." As I pointed out earlier, new "miniature catfish" are being introduced into the hobby all the time. We will be watching for the sequel.





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I Learn Less As I Know More A series by "The Under gravel Reporter"

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he more you know, the more confused you get. Once, things were simple. Eggs were bad for you because they had cholesterol. Salt was bad for your heart and wine and beer were bad for you, period. Aspirin was good for headaches and fever, but should be taken only when absolutely needed. Hot peppers and spices are to be avoided by people with ulcers. Pizza was "junk food," to be avoided by anyone who wanted to stay healthy. Coffee was bad for you, as well. Now, based on recent research, eggs have less cholesterol than was thought. People on a low cholesterol diet have a greater chance of dying a violent death because a low cholesterol diet causes an imbalance in a chemical that regulates aggressive and reckless behavior. Something in beer reduces the risk of cancer. Red wine helps reduce your chance of heart attacks. Salt is good for your heart, helping to keep it beating regular. Hot peppers do not harm an ulcer and provide positive health benefits. Pizza is good for you (tomato sauce cooked with oil is much healthier than fresh garden tomatoes). An aspirin a day reduces the risk of a heart attack. And the aroma of fresh brewed coffee has health benefits (but only if inhaled within the first 15 minutes of being brewed). What, you may ask, does this have to do with aquaria — read on. Remember when you first learned about the Nitrogen Cycle (the biological filtration in aquaria performed by bacteria)? You were most likely told (as was I) that this process required Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter bacteria. The first bacteria, Nitrosomonas europaea, oxidizes ammonia to nitrite, while the second, Nitrobacter wmogradskyi, oxidizes nitrite to nitrate. Well, in a paper published in the January 1998 issue of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, it is


argued that Nitrobacter and its close relatives are not the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in aquarium filters. Rather, this task is performed by the Nitrospira-like bacteria. So what's the "big deal," you might ask? If the bacteria work the way they should, who cares what scientific names they go under? A Guppy is a Guppy, and did not change when the many scientific names for it (Lebistes poeciliodes, Girardinus reticulatus, Lebistes reticulatus, and Poecilia reticulatd) changed. (And we all know about those scientific name changes in the Cichlid world, don't we?) Well, it makes a difference if you are a company with a product that either claims to contain, or to foster the growth of, nitrifying bacteria in the aquarium. Maybe the best advice is not to depend on such products at all. Time and Nature will provide biological filtration. "Quick fix" chemicals are something an aquarist should rely on only in a crisis. Put tap water in a tank (add chemicals only if chloramine is used in your water system, as chlorine harmlessly dissipates into gas in a few days). If available, add water from a cycled tank. Wait. Throw in a few hardy fish (for example, Swordtails). Wait. (Have a glass of wine with an omlet, or a cold brew with a slice of pizza — might as well get some health benefits while you wait.) Test the water daily until ammonia levels drop to zero and nitrate levels rise. Your tank is cycled. Add new fish slowly and repeat. Which bacteria did it? I don't know and, frankly, after enough wine, beer, and pizza, I don't care.

Exchange Issues and Exchange Issues should be mailed to: Alexander Priest 1558 McDonald St.; Bronx, NY 10461 Correspondence to Modern Aquarium should be mailed to: Warren Feuer 68-61 Yellowstone Blvd, apt. 406 Forest Hills, NY 11375



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G.C.A.S. HAPPENINGS Last Monthfs Bowl Show Results: Since last month was our annual "Silent Auction," there was no Bowl Show.

Sept '97 — June '98 Bowl Show Standings to date: 1) 25 points: Steve Sagona 2) 7 points: Jeff George

4) 5 points (tie): Mike Loweth; Carlotti DeJager ...,^$f% points: %en. Hooper

3) 6 points: Frsngp^tf"'"

6) ,1 poijat::(tie): Claudia Dickinson; Ellen Halligan

Letfs welcome our Itewcit GCAS members: ./''

' ::=;iyp:: Alberto Cordero, Jr.


John & Laura Meshkis

I Chrj[§|^|;;3|irez .^IllyaM Kpenthal

Congrislligtions to the winner of our fiptjlpijper f 0/|09' Raffle:


J|:::.:< §|0fi:1^ And, ihaitks to all of the GCAS mer$fe£fs and friends wtlo plijiiipated in this fund-raising

meeting times and loc&|j|rnsM aquarium so.cieii^i|f}Siii

New York Society

Next Meeting, Jun^e,§j;: Meetings: montti at ^t

- Ist-^iScinesday of eacii| J&tanical Garden - (718) 846-6984 -Mail ||3f gatei*Cit|?:@compuserve . com

May 8: Yohan , Wild Bettas" Hall, (^ 'Ifiijuarmm) BAS Events Hog|le S^^^ : (718) 837^^^ f^?^"

month ; a t t e Quesi||:j|Q^ical ;parden Contacts: il££f George>l|!(||ne Jkidier Telephone: (l||)428Long Island Aquarium Society Meets: 8:00 P.M. - 3M;:::¥iipli|i month at Holtsville Park and Zoo, Buckley Rd. Holtsville, NY 11801 Contact: Mr. Vinny Kreyling Telephone: (516) 938-4066

Nassau County Aquarium Society ^^^^P^'ind Tuesday of each at the William M. Grouse Post 3211 V.F.W., Rte. 107, Hicksville, NY Contact: Mr. Ken Smith Telephone: (516) 589-0913

North Jersey Aquarium Society

Norwalk Aquarium Society

Meets: 8:00 P.M. - 3rd Thursday of each month at the American Legion Post Hall, Nutley, NJ Contact: Mr. Dore Carlo Telephone: (201) 332-4415

Meets: 8:00 P.M. - 3rd Thursday of each month at the Nature Center for Environmental Activities, Westport, CT Contact: Mrs. Anne Stone Broadmeyer Telephone: (203) 834-2253


Fin Fun Geography 201: South America Many of the fish we keep in our aquariums are native to South America. In this issue of Modern Aquarium alone there are references to several of them. Quiz yourself on some general knowlege about our neighbors to the South. 1) Which of the following countries are in South America? Guyana Guinea Papua New Guinea Macedonia French Guiana Ecuador Brunei Ghana 2) Which of the following fish are native to South America? Hemmigramus bleheri Chilodus punctatus Barbus conchonius Melanotaenia nigrans Hemichromis bimaculatus Apistogramma caucatoides Corydoras duplicareus Aequidens portalegrensis Helostoma temmincki Cichlasoma biocellatum 3) True or False - The Amazon River: A) Flows from West to East B) Is the world's longest river C) Is the natural habitat of the Nanacara anomala 4) What is the capital of Brazil? 5) Which of the following aquatic plants are native to South America? Ludwigia repens Cabomba aquanca Aponogeton crispus Anubias barteri Valisneria spiralis

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