From the Editor's Desk
his is Greater City's 75th anniversary. In 1922, fellow tropical fish enthusiasts such as ourselves first got together as a group called the Greater City Aquarium Society. Since I am not the keeper of Greater City's official history (there are several other members of our club who are much better at it than me), I won't go into any great detail about the club's history. On several occasions in the past the history of the club has been published, and it wouldn't surprise me if it showed up on these pages eventually. There have been many changes in fish keeping since GCAS first met. All-glass tanks, now standard, probably didn't exist then, not to mention acrylic tanks! Do you think pH buffers and regulators were available then? How about "black water extract?" I would almost guarantee that submersible heaters could not be found in 1922, and I'm not even sure thermostats were in existence back then. And yet, aquarists were able to keep and breed fish, and even enjoyed doing it. If they didn't, the hobby would not exist now. I don't think that there was as wide a range of fish available in 1922 as there is now, when African Cichlids and catfish are very much the rage, not to mention the tremendous boom in popularity that marine fish command. I know that marine fish were kept then, but I doubt with the success and sophistication that now exists. Some things, however, no matter how much technology advances, do not change. There are tried and true methods for success in fish keeping that transcend technology. At Greater City we try to follow these "truths." Many articles in this magazine discuss and describe the proper paths towards aquaristic success. The experience of our membership cannot be replaced by technology! As I've written in previous columns, you can't use automated tools unless you understand the concepts they work on. Another constant throughout these past 75 years has been the commitment of our members to the success of the club. Everv vear
many members give selflessly of their time and resources to help. Whether they help during meetings, tropical fish shows, auctions, publicity events or any (or all) GCAS related functions, these people are the key to our success. I am always amazed at the way our members pitch in when their help is needed. I felt a special sense of satisfaction as I watched Joe Ferdenzi present Al and Susan Priest with the F.A.A.S. Aquarist of the Year award for 1995-1996. I've had the privilege of working closely with Al since 1993 on Modern Aquarium. and I won't even try to put into words all that his contributions mean to me. Let me just describe Al with the following adjectives: tireless, conscientious, creative, concerned, intelligent, diligent, reliable, and well, the list goes on and on. Before each of the above, you should also add the word "extremely." At our January Holiday Party/Dinner, Joe surprised Al by announcing that he was being named "Managing Editor" of Modern Aquarium. Al's previous title of Assistant Editor just did not fully convey the role he plays in the magazine's success. If all that Al did was play a major role in the continuing success of Modern Aquarium, his contribution to Greater City would be significant. However, his efforts go far beyond that. Al and Susan (his terrific wife) almost single-handedly produce the show journal for our tropical fish shows, no small task. Al also produces a tremendous amount of publicity for the club, creating banners, brochures, ads, business cards and any other material needed. And still that's not enough. All by himself, Al created and continues to maintain our Internet Home Page, a major effort by itself. The Home Page identifies us as a presence throughout the world. I'm sure I left out about a million other things that Al does, but I think you get the point. Working right along side him is his wife Susan, one of the nicest people I've ever met. Sue is our current Membership Chair, a position I held for several years and I can tell you that she's a lot better at it than 1 was. She's incredibly pleasant and efficient, always making new members as well as continuing members feel welcome. Greater City is not about fish. Greater City is about people who keep fish. As we celebrate our 75th anniversary, let us acknowledge and treasure people such as the Priests who keep fish, and, by the way, typify the sort of people who make Greater City the special place it is. Warren Feuer
After another two months passed, the male Peacock was still doing well inside the "temporary" solution. However, I then discovered something that turned the "temporary" into "permanent." There were 1/2 inch fry swimming in the tank! There were no other fish in the tank. The two fish had been separated for about four months. The presence of the fry could mean only one thing: the pair had spawned through the net. At this point, allow me to describe the breeding set-up. The male was inside a hanging net trap. These traps are made by various manufacturers in varying sizes. They are handy items in the fishroom. This particular trap was 6.5 x 5 x 6 inches high. The netting has a mesh size of 1/16 inch square. The trap hung above the floor of the bare 10 gallon tank. About 5-6 inches separated the bottom of the trap from the floor of the tank. At first, 1 was amazed. I had never heard of mouthbrooding cichlids spawning in this way. Indeed, most accounts dealing with using dividers to spawn cichlids refer to substratumspawning cichlids. Well, here it was, another accidental discovery. It created an ideal solution: the pair could now be maintained in a small tank without any danger of hurting one another. The pair has spawned repeatedly since then. The last spawn contained 25 beautiful fry. This indicates that the net imposes no significant barrier to fertilization. The female is now free to
spawn at her own pace, without any male harassment. The male does not seem to suffer from his confinement. Because the trap has netting on all five sides, water flow is unrestricted. The fish is a vigorous eater. Its deportment is excellent. Indeed, he took First Place in a competitive Rift Lake Class at a local show in October of 1987. The only drawback is an aesthetic one. The full beauty of the fish is obscured by the netting (I later overcame this problem by making a larger trap with a "picture window"). Obviously, keeping the fish in a large tank with a harem of females may be more satisfying. But, if your tank space is limited or if your access to females is meager, this divider method presents a satisfactory solution. Conclusion The subjects of this article are a testament to the behavioral plasticity of fishes. Fishes continually amaze us with their interesting behavior, hardiness, and adaptations for survival. It is little wonder that fishes are one of the most successful groups of vertebrates to colonize Earth. For aquarists, fishes provide endless fascination. We need only to take the time to study and observe them. When faced with a problem, experiment. Try new things. More often than not, the fish will reward your efforts.
No one uses a clay flower pot to breed daffodils like Joe!
A Column by CHARLEY SABATINO
The Oddball Files: The Bocourti Cat
his installment of the Oddball Files deals with one of my all time favorites: The Hi-fin Bocourti Cat. If you are enticed by a sleek catfish with long flowing barbels patrolling the lower regions of your tank at twilight, then the Bocourti cat may be right up your alley. While this fish is not expensive as oddballs go (around $15, but as much as $40 for an albino), it can be extremely hard to find. Heterobagrus bocourti ( s y n . Prajadhipokia rex.) hails from Southeast Asia and Thailand and has a fairly wide distribution among its freshwater rivers (so why is it so rarely imported???). Its color is a uniform grey/green with a striking metallic sheen to its body. Its maxillary barbels (i.e., whiskers) extend to the caudal fin and are constantly moving back and forth while foraging for food. By far, the most striking attribute of H. bocourti is its incredible dorsal fin. It is slim and very high; probably half as long as its body! These, along with its forked caudal and very large adipose fins make the bocourti cat an exotic tank resident indeed. Care for H. bocourti is not rocket science. Your first concern should be tank space as this fish gets to about 10" SL (Standard Length). Now remember, this length does not include the space required for movement of the barbels, so allow as much room as possible to avoid undue stress or injury. The Bocourti cat can tolerate pH in the range of 6.5-7.2 and 10-20 degrees on the German Hardness scale. But like all catfish, it is sensitive to high levels of
metabolic wastes, so regular partial water changes are necessary (are you tired of hearing this yet???). The bocourti cat is nocturnal and will hide during the day. However, utilizing things like subdued lighting, compatible tankmates and sufficient hiding places will help to bring it in view (especially at twilight). The literature states that while not really a predator, H. bocourti will eat anything that will fit into its mouth so, as always, choose tankmates wisely. It is also not known to be particularly aggressive. I had been looking for this fish seemingly forever and had been only able to find the aforementioned albino form which, in my opinion, pales (excuse the pun) in comparison to the wild one. After about two years of diligently scouring all the local stores as well as wholesaler's and importer's lists, I finally scored. While on a routine trip to a pet store, I was pleasantly surprised to see a tank labeled "HI FIN BOCOURTI CATS". There were four in the tank at about 3.5" (SL) and all were in good condition. After much observation, I chose one to take home. This fish was initially quite secretive in my isolation tank hiding among the tubes and driftwood. Evening surveillance with a flashlight allowed me to check for disease, parasites or a hollow stomach. After about a week, my bocourti cat actually came out in the evening when food was introduced, albeit for a microsecond. This fish accepted all sinking frozen and prepared foods with gustoâ€”those long barbels are quite efficient! My bocourti cat seemed to behave itself while in isolation. It was housed along with a few dwarf cichlids (1.75-2.5 inches SL) and a small plecoâ€”also new residents to the Sabatino household. No aggression/predation was observed (missing fish, injuries, etc.). In fact, a pair of the mouth brooding dwarf cichlids spawned during this period. Now, while I wouldn't keep the bocourti cat with small tetras, it seems to be much less of a risk in a community tank than Angelicus catfish (Pimelodus pictus) or Four Line Cats (P. blochi), which look similar, but are more predacious. After about a month in isolation, my fish was placed in a 220 gallon tank (84x24x25) which is located in my den and which contains a myriad of plecos, catfish and large tetras. The tank is full of hiding places and is fully planted. At this article's writing, the bocourti has been in the 220 about a month. Just recently I have noticed it cruising around after the tank lights have gone out. I suspect 1 will have more and
the exchange column
ALEXANDER A. PRIEST
ith some aquarium society publications, you get the distinct impression that the entire project is a giant burden to be taken care of as soon as possible. Then, there are other publications in which I see careful planning and an effort to produce something not only informative, but also visually interesting. The publication of the Atlanta Area Aquarium Association falls into the latter group. While not large (none of the issues 1 have exceeds, excluding the cover page, five sheets of paper folded in half to form a 5'/2"X8'/2" booklet). Fish Talk shows considerable visual interest. The front cover is always colored paper (apparently never Atlanta the same color as the month before) with a line drawing or clip art depicting an aquatic theme (plant or animal). This artwork is also different each month. Not only does the artwork and color on the front cover keep changing, but the layout and fonts used on the cover change frequently, as well. I find this willingness to experiment and innovate refreshing. (When I suggested adding a small diamond to dot the "I" on Modern Aquarium's front cover for our Diamond Anniversary year, and some very small letters identifying it as the publication of the Greater City Aquarium Society, I was voted down on the Editorial Board and looked upon as if I had suggested covering the Declaration of Independence with graffiti!) The pages are formatted with either one or (as with Modern Aquarium) two columns with "fully justified" text (that is, text that, except for the last line of a paragraph, always extends fully to the right margin, just look at the pages of Modern Aquarium as an example). This publication also shares another feature common to Modern Aquarium: the use of different fonts and graphic elements to headline articles.
Another interesting visual treatment is that the page numbers are white numerals inside of black fish at the bottom outside corners of the pages. The fish on the even (left hand side) pages faces left and the one on odd numbered (right handed) pages faces right. I like this. Anyway, back to the basic premise of this column: what can we learn about the organization by reading their publication? For one thing, the organizational structure of the Atlanta Area Aquarium Association is interesting. They have the usual Officers (President, Vice-President, Treasurer and Secretary) and the usual Committee heads (Programs, Bowl Show, Newsletter Exchange, Breeders Award, etc.). But, they also have some unique positions. One of them is that of "Historian." This is a position that we might consider establishing to have a duplicate copy or photo of everything anyone might have from our 75 years of existence. Another interesting position is that of "goodwill." Whether this is limited to promoting goodwill among members, or extends beyond to the community and local stores as well, I don't know. (But it is interesting to note that this publication has quite a few ads from stores and products.) »l
• seen a reference to the | &, A, number of members of M this society, they can t be ™ all that large, as many of their meetings are held in the homes of their members. Nonetheless, they seem quite active. Another interesting thing is that, in order to obtain Breeders Award Points, four or more of the fry must be auctioned at a meeting. The Atlanta Area Aquarium Association apparently meet 11 months a year, (all but July, when they hold an annual picnic). But, last year's August meeting had to be changed to a different date because of the Olympics! One member, Mark Barnett, set up "Fish Link Central," an excellent aquaria website on the Internet. (There's a link to our site from there.) Mark is the society's Secretary and Treasurer, and Editor of Fish Talk. I may link to this website from Greater City's website. It's at http://www.mindspring.com/~mbarnett/fishlink.htm Be forewarned that if you click "new links" you might find yourself in an endless loop (I did). I noted at the end of one article an Editor's Note indicating that the article got the writer 10 tickets on a raffle of a filter. It's good to see a group that values its writers at least as much as its breeders.
Creasure The article we have chosen for this month's edition of the "Treasure Chest" was first published in the October 1973 issue of Modern Aquarium. It makes reference to a very well known name in the hobby, as well as a product that is still used today. We hope you enjoy . . .
Guenther Horstmann, GCAS During the holiday season around the 4th of July, I went to visit my relatives in Germany. They live only a few miles from the town where our world-renowned fish food ~ TetraMin ~ is manufactured. For those of us who missed geography when the town of Melle was discussed, let me tell you to look southeast of Osnabrueck on a map of Germany Ordinarily there are no guided tours through the factory' except for special occasions; but somehow I had managed to convince
someone of the interest of our readership and I was given the privilege of taking this tour. While I was waiting in the spacious lobby for Miss Hoffmann, I was fascinated by a replica of a giant fossil on the wall. It was a petrified Portheus molossus, a fish that lived some 80 million years ago in the area now known as Kansas. It grew to more than 15 feet. Later, when the entire North American Continent was lifted by the movement of the earth, the strait from the Arctic Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico disappeared and many of these fish were petrified in massive lime deposits. Although the Portheus has been extinct for many million years, it still has relatives today. The petrification shown is one of the largest and rarest known to the world. The copy here was made from the original at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco, the only cast ever taken. It was then presented to Dr. U. Baensch, the founder of the Tetra Werke, to honor his pioneer work in keeping and feeding tropical fish. Interest in aquaria runs deep in the Baensch family. Back in 1923, Dr. Baensch's father published a book entitled "Tiere hinter Glas" (Animals behind Glass), an informative and interesting work on aquaria, terraria and insectaria. It has remained popular in Germany even to the present day. Dr. Baensch began the hobby of keeping tropical fish at the age of nine with a pair of neons, a gift from his father. In high school and college he studied biology, zoology and botany while continuing his interest in aquaria and tropical fish. Originally, he began as an agriculturist, managing a pet shop and a small wholesale outlet between 1951 and 1953, turning two of his hot houses into a nursery for tropical fish and water plants at the same time. Bringing fish through the winter months created a problem for the hobbyist in Germany. Live food was scarce; and in search of a substitute, Dr. Baensch succeed in developing a product called BioMin, a perishable paste which had to be kept under refrigeration and had to be fed to the fish with a spoon. Fellow hobbyists soon realized that the fish raised by Dr. Baensch were healthy in winter, and in 1953 a production of BioMin in tubes was established. Location of the production: A meat grinder in the kitchen of his home. It was in his professional breeding work that Dr. Baensch first hit on the idea of drying the Tube Food Paste. He built the first drying cylinders himself: two small rotating drums about five inches in diameter and two feet long. On these cylinders, the paste was dried electrically.
forming a thin film. Breaking this film up into flakes with his household food chopper, Dr. Baensch produced the first TetraMin flakes. That was just the beginning. As a professional breeder, Dr. Baensch was familiar with the other fish foods on the market at the time. He knew the difficulties aquarists encountered with these foods, and he worked to create a food which would F.£;: s p a r e the **# hobbyists as : •;„" many problems as possible. A frequent complaint among hobbyists, at Portheus that time, was that dry food would sink too fast in the aquarium, dropping uneaten to the tank floor and rapidly fouling the water. In response to this complaint, Dr. Baensch developed a nutritious fish flake food which floated on the water surface for a long time, sank slowly in the tank, and did not cloud or foul the water. He called it TetraMin Staple Food. What's in a name? Contrary to what is sometimes believed, the name "TetraMin" does not refer to the Neon or Cardinal Tetra. Rather it is a compound of two different words: "tetra" and "vitamin." The first part of the name, "Tetra" comes from the ancient Greek word for the number "four" and stands for the four different kinds of nourishing flakes from which the original TetraMin was produced. The "Min" in TetraMin comes from "vitamin," a Latin-based word whose original meaning is "something required for life." In the years since Dr. Baensch first developed his remarkable fish food, the name TetraMin has become a household word among aquarium hobbyists in every corner of the globe. The principle of the production has remained the same. Let's follow Miss Hoffmann now to see the technique in progress. All but the recipe was free to be viewed. Miss Hoffmann took me to the upper floor. Sack upon sack of raw ingredients were stacked in a large storage room, all of them labeled with secret codes. The dry materials are pre-manufactured, Miss Hoffmann explained, while she showed me 16 4' x 1' silos in the floor. "These silos are filled with the raw ingredients and then released by computer at the proper quantity for the dry mixture," Miss Hoffmann said. "On the floor
below, there is a mill, which grinds the materials almost to powder." When the grinding process is completed, the powder runs through a magnetic machine to eliminate the presence of metallic matters and after that it passes an anti-contamination process to kill any possible larvae or eggs of harmful insects. The basic ingredients are then transferred to the mixing drum, where they are comOTP^' , ,fij bined with '«y^ .. . ..>• V>&J the s p e c i a l ' TetraMin formula. The mixture is then transferred through a series of tubes to a big vat, where hot water, large quantities of vital nutrients such as fish roe and beef liver, and natural agents to promote fish color, including carotene, are added. Only natural ingredients go into the TetraMin formula, no chemicals are used. The cleanliness is striking in this factory. It reminds me of a dairy farm. It's hard to believe that "only" food for fish is being produced. After the basic ingredients have been combined and the water has been added, the thick porridge-like soup is pumped into the huge drying cylinders, where the moisture is removed and a paper thin film remains as a result of the procedure. The cylinders are now heated by means of steam and are surrounded by ladders and gangways for the workers to control their function. The one-man business has grown into a four hundred man operation. There are six different flakes combined in TetraMin. Each has its own formula and each mixture is prepared individually, dried, and ground into flakes. The flakes of each series are stored in plastic bags of 20 pounds. In another division, the six different flakes are combined according to a precise scientific formula. After the flakes are mixed and screened for size, they are sealed in plastic bags and labeled with the date of production. A specially designed canning machine literally vibrates the flakes into the plastic containers as we all know them. Empty a can of TetraMin and try to put them back. You will have at least a cup-full left over. In our next issue I will tell you more of other products and activities in the TetraMin Factory.
Remember when I stated that this book fills in the gap in some of the historical literature? Well, prior to Socolofs book, there were two books that I considered essential reading in that area (and, ironically, Socolof has A Series On Books For The Hobbyist a role in both books for me). The first is Albert JOSEPH FERDENZI Klee's masterpiece, The History of the Aquarium s all the readers of Modern Aquarium Hobby in America (published in book form in 1987 by the American Cichlid Association's Guy know by now, I'm a bit of an aquarium Jordan Endowment Fund, of which Ross Socolof history buff. Recently, a book has was Chairman). The second book is Lynn appeared on the scene that fills in some of the Barber's The Heyday of Natural History gaps in the prior historical literature. The book I am referring to is Confessions Of A Tropical (Doubleday 1980), which covers the birth of the hobby in England during the 1850's. This last Fish Addict by Ross Socolof (published by book was, in fact, recommended to me by Ross Socolof Industries, Bradenton, Florida 1996). himself. He predicted that I'd like the book, and If Socolof were just some average he was right. Since the Barber book covers the tropical fish nut, the book might be no better than a rambling set of paragraphs about one person's period from 1850 to 1870, and the Klee book ^ picks up from there and love affair with tropical ends in the 1930's, fish. But, because Confessions of A Tropical Fish Addict Socolofs book, which Socolof is someone • Ross: Socolof . :lillii!l| starts from the 1930's, special in the hobby, it completes my "trilogy" is much more than that. Socolof got started with fish in 1931 at of aquarium history books. Of course, Socolofs book is not an the age of six. He remembers, incidentally, historical treatise in the way that Klee or Barber's participating in shows of the Greater City books are. In large part, it is autobiographical Aquarium Society. His love of the hobby grew and relies to a great extent on the author's to such an extent that, by the 1950's, he was in memory. However, as far as I can judge, his the wholesale pet business here in New York memory seems to be pretty good. For example, City. By the 1960's, he was a fish farmer in he mentions attending shows of the Greater City Florida. He was in this line of work for over Aquarium Society. Granted that he somewhat two decades. He was one of the founders of the incorrectly inserts the words "New York" Florida Tropical Fish Farm Association — a very between "Greater" and "City," but, after all, the influential group in the fish industry. However, club is in New York. Moreover, he describes the Socolof has always been a hobbyist at heart. For prize medals that used to be awarded at these his endeavors on behalf of the American Cichlid shows. Although he no longer possess any, his Association, for example, he was elected a description of the medals is accurate. How do I Fellow (its highest honor) in 1973, only the know? We still have one (see my accompanying second person at the time to be so honored (the article on the C. H. Peters Medal in Modern first, in 1972, was the beloved cichlid enthusiast, Aquarium for the entire story behind that medal). Guy Jordan). He has had fish named after him, The book also contains many historic including Pseudotropheus socolofi, a beautiful photos of persons and places, and reproductions blue Lake Malawi cichlid. He continues to be a of early tropical fish price lists and very active supporter of the hobby. advertisements. The only thing the book lacks is His book contains a fascinating set of a name and place index. This would have been recollections. You get the inside story on the old helpful to a reader who wants to revisit only part Nassau Pet Shop that used to be on Nassau St. in of the story quickly (the Klee book also suffers downtown New York City. You find the from this "defect"; the Barber book has an fascinating tale of Fred Cochu, his Paramount index). That little nit-picking observation aside. Aquarium, and the introduction of the Neon Tetra I unreservedly recommend the book to anyone to the hobby. You get advice on how to succeed with an interest in our hobby. I only wish more or fail in the tropical fish industry. And there are people would write such wonderful memoirs. many other interesting parts. The book is written in a rather informal style — as though he were just talking to you. I found it very enjoyable.
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1995-96 BREEDERS AWARD POINTS Tom Bohme Donald Curtin Carlotti DeJager
Warren Feuer Frank Gannon
Xiphophorus montezumae Corydoras aeneus Poecilia latipina Aphyosemion calliurum Herotilapia multispinosa Poecilia perugiae Iriatherina werneri Nothobranchius rachovii Cynoleb ias flammeus Xiphophorus helleri Melanotaenia boesemani Aplocheilichthys normani Pachypanchax sakaramyi Cichlasoma nanoluteus Julidochromis transcriptus Poecilia sp. Endlers
Poecilia sp. Endlers
Julidochromis regani Lamprologus leleupi Pseudotropheus salousi Aphyosemion scheeli Julidochromis ornatus Lamprologus caudopunctatus Lamprologus brevis Haplochromis obliquidens Haplochromis sp. Redfin Piebald Corydoras aeneus Poecilia reticulata Protomelas fenestratus Carassius auratus Aphyosemion australe Julidochromis transcriptus Poecilia velifera Xiphophorus helleri Melanotaenia boesemani Cichlasoma nicaraguense Macropodus opercularis Barbus titteya Synodontis multipunctatus Astatoreochromis alluaudi Haplochromis sp. Flameback
Sharon Mirabella John Moran
Julidochromis regani Brachyrhaphis roseni Xiphophorus variatus Labeotropheus fuelleborni Astatoreochromis alluaudi Callochromis stappersi Corydoras axelrodi Labidochromis caeruleus lemon Xiphophorus helleri
10 5 20*
5 5 25* 30* 25* 5 15* 20* 20* 60** 15
15 15 10 10 15 15* 15 10 15 10 5 20* 10 5 15 5 5 5 10 5 20* 30* 15 15 15 5 5 10 15 25* 25* 10 5 *First for GCAS **First in the U.S.
Fin Fun |c Many of our favorite aquarium fish, cichlids in particular, are endemic to the rift lakes of Africa. Most of you probably know a lot about the fish from this area, but how much do you know about the lakes themselves? You are about to find out. 1) Which of the following lakes are "Rift Lakes?" (please underline): Tanganyika Albert Kivu Victoria Malawi Edward
2) The African rift lakes are found in the following part of Africa (please underline): a) North b) South c) East d) West 3) Which lake is the largest lake in the world (please underline): a) Tanganyika b) Malawi c) Victoria d) None of these 4) Match these lakes with their ages: Lake Victoria
2 million years
1 million years
10-15 million years
5) Which rift lake is bordered by: Tanzania, Mozambique, and the Republic of Malawi? Answer: 6) Which rift lake was formerly known as Lake Nyasa? Answer: 7) The surface of this lake reaches 773 meters above sea level, but, at a depth of 1,423 meters, it also marks the lowest point on the African continent. What lake is this? Answer: 8) Name the African lake that has been "polluted" by the Nile Perch? (Hint - it is not a RIFT lake) Answer: REFERENCES:
National Geographic Atlas of the World Success with Cichlids From Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika by Sabine Melke, TFH 1993 A Complete Introduction to Cichlids by Dr. Robert J. Goldstein, TFH 1987
Solution to Last Month's puzzle: Utte&V
Common Name (M. means Mosquitofish)
One Band M. Pellucid M. Regans' M. Tropical M. Spotted Tail M. Holbrook's M. Ten-aba M. Black-fin M. Rio Panuco M. Mangrove M. Puebla M. Rachow's M.
Flexipenis vittata Gambusia marshi Gambusia regani Gambusia sexradiata Heterandria bimaculata Gambusia affinis holbrooki Brachyrhaphis terrabensis Gambusia atrora Gambusia panuco Gambusia rhizophorae Heterandria Jonesi Gambusia rachowi
FEBRUARY 1997 volume IV number 2