Modern Aquarium

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I JUNE 2006 volume XIII number 4

Greater City Aquarium Society - New York


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Vol. XIII, No. 4

June, 2006

FEATURES Editor's Babblenest


President's Message


Our Generous Members


The Madagascar Lace Plant: A Study in Cultivation


Adventures in Fish Shipping - Part I


The Seahorse Chronicles: An Interview with Neil Garrick-Maidment . . 9

Pete D'Orio : ; ; : : ;; Carlotti De Jager : ' • ..' J a so n Kef n e r • •; • • • • :• ; ;|:E mm a. • ;H a u s • : Leonard Ramropp t ,5-^^:iiSs:|^S.'><]K:||¥

Members Night


Java Fern: The "Super Plant"


. Breeder Award :

How to Propagate and Train Java Fern


Early Arri va Is- : ,. . . ,.. , ,,,;:: . , • -^;m--< /• 1! ! Sell.

Through the Lens


Fishkeepers Anonymous


The Amusing Aquarium (Cartoon)


Wet Leaves (Book Review Column)


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The Environment and the Creepy Crawlies . . . 21 G.C.A.S. Happenings


Fin Fun (Puzzle Page)


Articles submitted for consideration in MODERN AQUARIUM must be received no later than the 10th day of the month, three months prior to the month of publication. Copyright 2006 by the Greater City Aquarium Society Inc., a not-for-profit New York State corporation. All rights reserved. Not-for-profit aquarium societies are hereby granted permission to reproduce articles and illustrations from this publication, unless the article indicates that the copyrights have been retained by the author, and provided reprints indicate source and two copies of the publication are sent to the Exchange Editor of this magazine. Any other reproduction or commercial use of the material in this publication is prohibited withoul express written prior permission. The Greater City Aquarium Society meets every month, except during January and February. Meetings are the first Wednesday of the month and begin at 7:30 P.M. Meetings are at the Queens Botanical Gardens. For more information, contact: Joe Ferdenzi (516)484-0944. You can also leave us a message at our Internet Home Page at: h t t p : / / w w w . g r e a t e r c i t y . org or h t t p : / / w w w . g r e a t e r c i t y . com

by ALEXANDER A. PRIEST t is quite possible that Modern Aquarium has more columns than any other amateur aquarium club publication in the country. And, starting next month, we will be introducing another new column by Sharon Barnett that will appear on an irregular basis. (Sharon has an article in this issue related to her program this month. This is not part of her new column and, well let's just say that her column is going to be a little different.) We still need new articles every month. The articles need not be very long, nor need they be detailed scientific studies. Even reading about your failures can help someone avoid making the same mistakes. For those of you who have asked, no I have not heard anything from either the Northeast Council or from the Federation of American Aquarium Societies on their 2005 publication awards. (Now that I've written this, I'm likely to have one or the other announce their awards just after this issue goes to press!) A number of years ago, the Boston Computer Society (BCS) decided that the Internet provided essentially the same services it did, so the BCS was no longer necessary, and they disbanded. It was the largest personal computer user organization in the world, with over 30,000 members in all 50 states and in 40 countries. At its peak in the late 80s, it supported more than 75 different user and special interest groups, and held more than 150 monthly meetings! For Aquarium hobbyists, the Internet provides a wealth of information, and websites to ask questions at, and get help. (an eBay-like website devoted to the auctioning offish, aquatic plants, and aquarium supplies) has a greater number and variety of items daily than you'll ever see in a monthly aquarium society auction.


Despite that, Greater City is flourishing. Without any special "membership drives" we seem to get one or two new members every month. So why hasn't the Internet made_us obsolete? Well, for one thing, it's because we keep coming up with innovative programs such as the one we have this month (thanks to Claudia Dickinson) that encourage members to share just a little of their experience and expertise with the rest of us. (And for another, you can get "up close and personal" with items being auctioned in our truly fantastic monthly auctions, whereas on, you're lucky if you have a blurry, out-of-focus photo of what you are bidding on, and then the bidding price does not include the shipping cost (which, in many cases, is actually more than the winning bid price). Let's not forget that Greater City was one of the very first aquarium societies to have its own website, and that we very often have new members tell us that they "found" us on the Internet. While it's great to share information, please don't forget, if someone suggests doing something in a very different way from the way you are doing it, that fish generally do not like drastic and sudden changes. I found this out the hard way when I tried to do a much greater water change than usual on one tank of fish, after a very notable and distinguished guest speaker at Greater City suggested that massive water changes was the optimal way of doing water changes. The tank I selected had been established for several years, and housed some of the "toughest" (with respect to tolerance of a very wide range of water conditions) fish around. Within a week, all the fish in the tank subjected to a massive water change (which had all been healthy, as far as I knew) were dead. So, pick and choose from the information you are given to decide what's right for you. Just because information comes from a so-called "expert" does not mean it's any better than the practical advice you get from your fellow hobbyists (or even the knowledge you have acquired through your own personal experiences). The fish and plants you obtain at our monthly auctions are probably better quality, and on the whole cost less, than those on any auction site. That's the value of an aquarium society, and that's why Greater City is doing so well even today, even with the readily available "information highway" that is the Internet.

June 2006

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

President's Message by JOSEPH FERDENZI ast month's Greater City meeting was fun, as usual. It featured our now annual tradition of having one meeting where members get to ask questions of our home-grown panel of experts. This event is coordinated beautifully by Claudia Dickinson, and professionally produced by our own resident "professor" (and Claudia's husband), Brad Dickinson. This year's panel consisted of three people who are well known to Greater City members for their aquatic knowledge and achievement. All three, incidentally, also serve on Greater City's Board of Directors. The most "senior" of the three was Mark Soberman, who has been a member since 1984. He has served the Society in many capacities over the years, and is currently our Vice President. In that time, Mark has also made his reputation in the aquarium world beyond Greater City, and is a nationally recognized expert on catfish. Second in "seniority" on the panel was Carlotti De Jager, who has been with our club since the early 1990s, and who has also ably served Greater City in many capacities. Carlotti exemplifies the true lover of the natural world her aquariums are a testament to this, and her fish repeatedly win prizes because of the evident care with which she attends to them. The "junior" member of the panel was Ed Vukich. Ed joined Greater City only a few years ago, but he has already contributed much. He breeds many varieties of fish of outstanding quality, which he generously donates to our monthly auctions. (In this regard, one of his only "rivals" is, ironically enough, his brother Anton, to whom we are indebteded for much, including the fact that he induced Ed to join Greater City.) Ed


also serves as our current Recording Secretary, a job he performs very well (with a little typing help from his delightful wife, Linda). As you can tell, with such preeminent aquarists on the panel, our "Q & A Presentation" was bound to be enjoyable and informative. And, it was! I always enjoy the questions posed by our members in attendance. The questions are well thought out, are often very challenging, and are sure to bring out useful information. I'm convinced that our members enjoy these panel Q & As as much as I do. This is just one of the benefits of being a member of an aquarium society — that you can acquire some of the knowledge of experienced hobbyists that is not available elsewhere. There are so many other benefits that I am often puzzled over why more hobbyists don't join aquarium societies. I know that some are prevented from participating by reasons of distance and time, but, for others, I suppose that they lack the experience of having participated in the events of a great club like ours. I sincerely believe that anyone who has ever attended a Greater City meeting or event could not possibly come away with any feeling other than satisfaction. Our events are friendly, lively, entertaining, and informative. I am not saying this so that you will all go out and recruit new members. While we all love having new members, we are, quite frankly, sort of "full to the rafters." We are hopeful that the new main building being constructed at the Queens Botanical Garden (our current home) will have a sizable auditorium; one that is larger than the current one, so that we might be able to better accommodate more members. In the meantime, those of you who are members will, I hope, continue to enjoy your participation in what is one of the best clubs in the aquarium universe. P.S., we never have enough new authors for Modern Aquarium. Won't you please tell us one of your stories?

Our Generous Members very month we have a sheet on our auction table where members who donate items to the auction can indicate their donations (and yes, a "50%-50%" split js also donation). Although we have no shortage of items to be auctioned, only a few of those donating complete this sign-in sheet. We'd like to give everyone who donates credit, so if you donate to the auction, please put your name down. For our May auction, the following generous members agreed to be identified as having donated items:


JeffBolIbach Sharon Barnett Anton Vukich Ed Vukich Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

June 2006

The Madagascar Lace Plant: A Case Study in Cultivation by JOSEPH FERDENZI he Madagascar Lace Plant is the unrivaled sovereign of the aquarium plant world. Although it is not rare, its unique appearance and beauty have made it one of the most desirable plants for the home aquarium. Its culture and lore have been long steeped in mystery and fascination, and this has only added to its luster as the botanical star of the aquatic universe. The Lace Plant was first described by European scientists who found it on the island continent of Madagascar, home to many unusual animals and plants. It was in use as an aquarium plant in America by the early 1900s. Pioneering Florida farmer, Albert Greenberg, founder of Everglades Aquatic Nurseries, and the preeminent aquatic plant expert of his time (pre-World War II), featured a drawing of a Madagascar Lace Plant on his business stationery as a testament to its lofty status. Numerous articles have been written about this plant, and no reference work on aquatic plants could be complete without a discussion of it. Yet, a review of the books in my personal library reveals that these discussions are often abstract, and illustrate some of the confusion surrounding this plant. Jiri Stodola's 1967 classic, Encyclopedia of Water Plants, refers to the Madagascar Lace Plant by the scientific name of Aponogeton fenestralis. He describes it as "unique among all plants." He goes on to claim that it is "too delicate to be placed in a tank with other plants." He states that it needs "a special tank" with a substrate consisting of equal parts of sand, clay, and charcoal, with indirect light or Gro Lux® bulbs, acidic water in the range of 6.8-7.0 pH, and a temperature of 64° to 68° F. He is also of the opinion that "good growth is dependent upon a frequent change of water" at the rate of about one quarter of the tank per month. In my opinion, this discussion would discourage most hobbyists from attempting to try their hand with this plant because it is depicted as a very fussy plant. Stodola also makes mention of the fact that there is a similar species from Madagascar known as Aponogeton henkelianus (more on this later). The next entry is Aquarium Plants (1977) by Karel Rataj and Thomas Horeman. The plant is now known as Aponogeton madagascariensis, with A. fenestralis and A. henkelianus regarded as junior synonyms. Their advice on growing the


plant largely parallels that of Stodola. The plant should be housed in an "isolated tank" of seven to twelve gallons, in a substrate composed of sand and loam (which is essentially a mixture of soil, sand, and clay), and with "bright" lighting but "out of direct sunlight." They also stress that the plant "requires frequent change of water," which they describe as one third per week in summer, and one third per month in winter. And, once more, a discouraging epitaph: "they live in the tank for one season and then die off" My next book is by a German aquarist, Helmut Muhlberg, and is entitled The Complete Guide to Water Plants (1982). Now, the information on the Madagascar Lace Plant changes a bit. He is the first author to claim that the nature of the substrate is not important, and that it can tolerate a wide temperature range (15°-25° C). He also makes no mention of frequent water changes. However, he does advise that the water be very soft and the lighting be fairly moderate. And, once again, a note of discouragement is sounded: the plants are generally doomed to die because the tuber disintegrates. Muhlberg tells us that A. madagascariensis was recognized by the scientific world as the correct species name in 1968. This would account for Stodola's use of A. fenestralis in 1967. But unlike Rataj and Horeman, Muhlberg claims that there are two other Madagascar lookalikes: A. henkelianus, which supposedly has broader leaves than A. madagascariensis, and A. guillotti, which supposedly has narrower leaves. I have seen Madagascar Lace Plants with comparatively broad leaves and ones with comparatively narrow leaves, but whether they are separate species I leave to others to debate. I find they are all beautiful, although I do have a slight preference for the broader leaves. Our next author, Barry James, A Fishkeepers Guide to Aquarium Plants (1986), takes Muhlberg a step further in making it seem less complicated to keep Madagascar Lace Plants. He says that plain gravel is just fine, that pH is not critical, that moderate light is required, and that the plants can tolerate a wide temperature range (59°77°F). But, he too cautions: "the plants die down and the tuber seems unable to build up sufficient nutrients for the next growth cycle, and generally disintegrates." Oh, phooey! This "annualism" bogeyman rears its ugly head again, sure to

June 2006

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

Drawing by Bernard Harrigan discourage many hobbyists (akin to the dread most hobbyists have for "annual" killiflsh). My most recent entry in this survey is Christel Kasselman's book Aquarium Plants (originally published in Germany in 1999). She opines that A. madagascariensis is "one of the most popular aquarium plants," but warns that it "should only be kept by specialists who can consistently meet the high requirements of this species in the long term." (One wonders how the plant is going to be so popular in the future if this advice is heeded.) What does Kasselman describe as the "high requirements"? Succinctly stated, they are: low temperature, strong water movement, soft acidic water, a nutrient-rich substrate, medium light, and regular rest phases (the book does not give details). In contrast to Muhlberg, she thinks of A. henkelianus as merely a variety of madagascariensis (this is of interest to scientists, but it does not change the maintenance requirements for these plants). Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

So, what conclusion do you draw from these various accounts — that the Madagascar Lace Plant is a great beauty to be enjoyed from afar, or only for a brief time? That would seem to be the message, but I have a different viewpoint. It stems from a guy named Steve Gruebel. Steve has never written a book. He has never written an article on aquatic plants. He has never lectured at an aquarium society. No, the only thing Steve has is 40 years in the family business — Cameo Pet Shop (established in 1947). Cameo has always featured aquatic plants. To this day, it remains the finest expositor of aquatic plants of any store in New York City, if not the entire metro area. In short, Steve has a wealth of practical experience in buying, maintaining, and selling aquarium plants — few people can match 40 years in that business! Steve regularly has all kinds of Aponogetons in his store. He generally gets them as tubers (bulbs) and grows them out in his display

June 2006

tanks. This includes the Madagascar Lace Plant. He often grows simply magnificent specimens. What are his growing conditions? Hold on to your seat! Here they are: 10 to 20 gallon tanks, one fluorescent tube (sometimes a Gro Lux type, but often the least expensive general-purpose brand), an air-driven box filter, New York City tap water, (pH is usually 7.0), fish, occasional water changes, and glass gravel! Notice the absence of fertilizers, special lighting, special substrates, fancy water movement, or anything of a high-tech or "special" nature. Do they last more than one season? Well, most of his lace plants fly out of the store, but Steve knows they can. I'm here to witness to that. Over a year ago, I bought one of Steve's fledgling lace plants. I brought it home and placed it in a 10 gallon tank with a substrate of plain gravel, one 15 watt fluorescent bulb (a generic all-purpose aquarium bulb), two box filters with dolomitic gravel, and no fish. The water temperature was kept at 73째 - 76째 F. I did not test for pH or hardness (this will surprise no one who knows my habits). Under these conditions, the plant prospered. In a month's time it became a beautiful specimen. Everyone who visited my fishroom admired it. After about six months, it started to die back. Eventually, it lost all its leaves. What to do? Steve said not to worry. I could either leave it there and it would grow back after several months, or I could hasten the process by placing the bulb in a plastic bag in the refrigerator for one month, and then replant it. I chose the former. Sure enough, after about three months, it started to grow leaves again. I hadn't changed a thing except that I had added three small Apistogramma cichlids to the tank, and I performed a water change of about 30% once a month. These new leaves are still there, several months later. As a precaution derived from James' comment that tubers often seem unable to draw enough nutrients for the next growth cycle, I placed one aquarium plant fertilizer tablet in the substrate. Steve's opinion on whether or not you will have success with this plant is that it largely depends on the quality of the tuber that you start

off with. He too has had experiences where the quality of the bulbs he has received has been poor, and the plants do not grow well, if at all. According to Steve, Madagascar Lace Plants are not difficult, and if you have a good quality bulb, you will have growth for more than one season. My Madagascar Lace Plant is living proof that his opinion has merit. Incidentally, the Madagascar Lace Plant has a close cousin by the name of Aponogeton boivinianus. This plant does not have lace-like leaves. Instead, where A. madagascariensis has openings, this plant has a bubble-like texture. I currently have one growing in a 15 gallon aquarium that I bought as a young plant from Steve at Cameo. Again, the tank/water parameters are very ordinary, but it has grown into what I consider to be the most beautiful aquarium plant that I have ever owned. Give aquatic plants a try. Don't give up if you don't succeed at first. Often, failure is simply due to the fact that many of the plants you find in pet shops are of poor quality, or are unsuitable as aquarium plants. I counsel patience and perseverance. I know that, for me, growing beautiful aquarium plants is every bit as satisfying as breeding the rarest of exotic fish.

References Barry, James. A Fishkeepers Guide to Aquarium Plants (Salamander Books, London, 1986). Kasselman, Christel. Aquarium Plants (Krieger Publishing, Florida, 2003). Muhlberg, Helmut. The Complete Guide to Water Plants (E.P. Publishing, Germany, 1982). Rataj, Dr. Karel and Horeman, Thomas J. Aquarium Plants (TFH Publishing, New Jersey, 1977). Stodola, Dr. Jiri. Encyclopedia of Water Plants (TFH Publishing, New Jersey, 1967).

June 2006

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

Adventures in Fish Shipping - Part I by SHARON BARNETT ntil just a few years ago, I would never have believed that I would ever receive fish shipped by mail, or that, even more surprisingly, / would ever be capable of shipping live tropical fish around the United States. I rarely gave any thought to how the fish got from their home waters to the pet shop, and when I did, I called up a mental image of a photo that I'd seen in an old book, depicting tropical fish being loaded into large metal cans for air shipment. I don't remember which book it was, but I'm pretty sure that the photo was taken before 1970 — positively ancient! I don't know enough about the ornamental fish industry to say with any certainty that they use the same methods as hobbyists, but I am sure that there are many similarities. For instance, I know that the large fish farms use the same type of shipping boxes as hobbyist shippers: corrugated cardboard boxes with an inner molded styrofoam box. Some hobbyist shippers construct "styros" from pieces of styrofoam cut to fit inside the cardboard box...with varying degrees of success. Before I became an internet junkie (and before I discovered Greater City), I had books which depicted beautiful and exotic fish which were rarely, if ever, available in the local fish shops. At that time, all that I could do was drool over those fish; I had no hope of ever getting my hands on them...enter online fish vendors, who shipped fish in the mail! I had just recently received my copy of Ole Seehausen's Lake Victoria Rock Cichlids, and was hopelessly wishing for some of the fabulously colored cichlids pictured therein when I chanced upon a vendor who listed one of the fish that had captured my imagination — Haplochromis sp. Crimson Tide... and so my adventures in fish shipping began. Not long after that, I discovered, sort of an eBay for fishkeepers, and my fate was sealed;


Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

I have since received scores of boxes offish in the mail and in the past year, I have shipped fish to upstate New York, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Utah, and California! The large majority of the fish arrive safely, but the few times that the fish have arrived distressed or dead, and the times when they have arrived in particularly good shape have provided me with some lessons in the best methods for shipping fish successfully. Of course, there are times when everything has been done properly, but the fish die anyway. Some fish are just too delicate and tend not to ship well...a couple of examples are Rasbora vaterifloris, A.K.A. Fire Rasbora (naturally, one of my favorite fish), and Boehlkea fredcochui, A.K.A. Blue Tetra. Sometimes, the box gets dropped 2 stories by a forklift, gets run over by a truck, or gets left out on the tarmac overnight when it's 95 degrees or 10 degrees outside. Remember that Samsonite commercial with the gorilla throwing the suitcases around? Sometimes that gorilla gets hold of the box. I've also gleaned information from online articles, forum posts, and manufacturer's information sheets on the various methods of shipping fish and the proper use of shipping materials. The methods that I have settled on, which are outlined below, may not be the most cost-effective for a hatchery, but if you want to ship fish to a buddy across the country with excellent odds for the fish arriving in good shape, this is the way to go. Checklist for shipping live freshwater tropical fish (sorry, I have no experience with saltwater fish). The following information is based upon my experiences receiving and sending live fish, and my reading about methods of fish shipment. Shipping box: Corrugated cardboard box with Styrofoam box snugly fitted inside.

June 2006

For summer shipping: Heatpacks are not required. If temperatures are above 90 degrees F, I would hold off on shipping, or look into coolpacks (I have no experience with these). For winter shipping: Via Overnight Mail (USPS Express Mail, FedEx, UPS, DHL): Use a 30 or 40 hour heatpack. If temperatures are extreme, either delay shipping or use two heatpacks, say a 20 hour and a 40 hour. The heatpacks get warm enough to keep the box temperature from dropping dangerously low during extremely cold weather, but they don't maintain high tropical temperatures. Via Priority Mail (you can shave a day off the transit time if you ship from the Post Office at the airport): Use a 60 or 72 hour heat pack. I use a 30 or 40 hour heatpack as well because, although the 60/72 hour pack lasts longer, it takes longer to reach its peak temperature, so I supplement with the 30/40 hr pack to ensure a longer period at peak temperature. Be sure that the side of the heatpack that has perforations and/or a red line is the side that is facing away from the box lid. The heatpack should be secured to the top of the box(make sure that the tape does not cover the perforations). It is not necessary to shake the heatpack, but it is necessary to expose it to the air for several minutes before sealing it in the box. In order to remain active, the pack requires a supply of oxygen (O2). When taping the styro shut, I leave a small section of the lid unsealed to allow some air to seep in. If the heatpack becomes wet, it will fail. Place a couple of sheets of newspaper between the heat pack and the bags offish. Fill in any empty spaces and cushion the bottom of the box with foam, bubblewrap, crumpled newspaper, etc. Prepare water for shipping the night before in order to have a supply of completely clean water that is the same temperature, pH, and hardness of the water that the fish are in currently. Since I ship African cichlids, I fill a five gallon bucket with fresh water, which I treat with Amquel速 to remove chlorine and the ammonia that is released when the chloramine bond is broken, and then I add a large piece of limestone(or some other calcareous rock) to raise the pH and to buffer the water. Feed the fish very well for about two weeks prior to the ship date in order to prepare them to fast for the three days prior to shipping, as well as the time that they will spend in transit (juvenile fish that are under one inch generally do not have the necessary reserves to survive this regimen). I bag each fish individually, so that there are no fatalities due to murder (common with cichlid males), and in the event that a fish does die,

its corpse doesn't poison the water of another fish. Invertebrates like shrimp and crayfish are more sensitive to nitrates, and consequently should be fasted for about five days. To lessen stress, include a bit of plant matter in their bag to give them something to hold onto. Snails are a bit hardier and can be safely shipped wrapped in wet paper towels or newspaper, placed inside a plastic bag with no fasting period. They also have lower temperature requirements. If you are using breather bags, you only need to add enough water to cover the fish. Tie off the bag right at the water line, leaving no air space. Wrap each bag in a sheet of newspaper. If you are shipping small fish like tetras, rasboras, or 1.5-2.5 inch baby cichlids, it is not necessary to doublebag. I have successfully shipped adult female mbuna (Lake Malawi "rock fish") and mbipi (Lake Victoria "rock fish") in double-bagged breathers (double-bagging breathing bags decreases their gas exchange capabilities, but they still work). However, in my opinion, adult cichlids and catfish are best shipped in very thick regular polyethylene bags as their spines are likely to puncture the membrane-like breather bags. The bags are selfhealing to a degree, but large holes would be a problem. If using a regular bag, then fill it one-third with water and two thirds air or O2. Do not use pure O2 for fishes that breathe atmospheric air, as their gills can become damaged by the pure O2. If you wish, you can use a product like Bag Buddies, which will release O2 into the bag, and which contains a mild sedative. This product is not recommended for use with baby fish. It is very important to tie the bag securely, either by tying the bag itself, or by using rubberbands. Double or triple-bag, inverting one bag inside the other. I would strongly recommend shipping via overnight mail when using regular bags. For large cichlids like adult discus or angels (which I personally would not attempt) use airport-to-airport freight services. Securely tape the box shut with shipping tape. Clearly write the destination address and the return address on the box. Label the box "Live Tropical Fish", and draw arrows indicating "This side up." Ready, set...ship! Editor's Note: Some people fill gas-permeable bags totally (with no air space) to provide a greater "cushion" and to reduce "sloshing" in transit. If you do this with anabantoids (bettas, gouramis, ctenopomas, etc.), they will "drown" without access to atmospheric air in the bag. It has also been my experience that heat packs can draw oxygen out of these bags, suffocating anabantoids even if there is air space. AI P.

June 2006

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

THE I*EAHOB/E CHRONICLE/* AN INTERVIEW WITH NEIL GARRICK-MAIDMENT by BERNARD HARRIGAN rom time to time, "Seahorse Chronicles" will run interviews with prominent people in the seahorse field. I am thrilled and honored to present this interview from a world expert in seahorse conservation, Neil Garrick-Maidment, from the United Kingdom. Neil has pioneered research into the breeding of rare and delicate seahorses in captivity. He's a guest columnist in "Horse Forum" printed in FAMA (Freshwater And Marine Aquarium Magazine). He is also the Director and founder of the "Seahorse Trust," and the British Seahorse Survey. I feel that for Neil to take time out of his busy schedule to answer some questions for us not only speaks well of Modern Aquarium, but of Greater City Aquarium Society as a whole.


1) So, Neil, tell us more about your background. I am a naturalist and an author. I design natural history kits for children, and advise many projects around the world in breeding and keeping seahorses. I also sit on a number of advisory groups for eco-tourism, research and zoos.

6) Can seahorse farming be enough to save these charismatic creatures in the wild? Yes. It certainly goes a long way to addressing the aquarium trade (and will get better as the years go on), and even though I detest it as a trade, it can also help the medicine trade.

2) How did you first get interested in seahorses? Purely by accident through a local public aquarium that my family had been involved in for many generations. The owner asked me to try raising some of his captive bred seahorses. From there I went on to building up a private collection of seahorses that included 18 species (all of which I have bred to multiple generations) of about 150 animals.

7) Tell us about the Seahorse Trust. The Seahorse Trust was set up for a number of reasons, and it acts as an umbrella organization for many people working with seahorses. Through it we do our own research such as the British Seahorse Survey, which has now been extended down into the Canary Islands, and we actively link projects and individuals together. We also act as an advisory service to home aquarists.

3) What's the biggest challenge facing the hobbyists who are trying to keep seahorses? Finding healthy, feeding, captive bred stock. 4) Which species of seahorse would you personally recommend to a novice? None in particular, as they all have there own difficulties. If I had to recommend just one, then it would the knysna seahorse (Hippocampus capensis), as it is a hardy, benthic species that in the wild will feed on non-motile food. 5) Has the demand for seahorses in (non)traditional medicine increased or decreased? I don't know the answer to this as it is not the area I have been studying.

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

8) At the Greater City Aquarium Society we have the C.A.R.E.S. Preservation Program. If hobbyists want to help more, what can they do? Actively encourage captive breeding by sharing brood stock, create information sharing groups, and work together (like public aquariums do through their various federations and breeding groups). There are too many private seahorse keepers out there who are prepared to take and not give. Setting up breeding groups, and sharing the animals and information will not only help to increase the number of animals in captivity, but will also build the knowledge about seahorses in captivity, which ultimately will save seahorses in the wild.

June 2006


"MEMBERS NIGHT!" A GCAS GALAXY OF *** STARS!!!*** Tonight, the GCAS will stage a series of mini-programs that will be presented by the membership!

J2iouaLu a mo $t to (D ui By Claudia Dickinson **********************************************

Sharon Barnett Sharon maintains 18 tanks, with a focus on African cichlids and plants. We all know Sharon for, along with her multifaceted aquatic talents, her beautiful smile and cheerful nature, which light up our GCAS meetings. Tonight, Sharon presents her experiences on:

How to Ship Fish Steve Giacobello Steve is adept in many arenas of our hobby, with a particular interest in guppies, angelfish and Cory dor as. If you have a question on fish nutrition, or are in need of supplies, as the proprietor, Steve is the one to ask. Another extraordinary talent of Steve's came to my attention when I had the great fortune of viewing his lovely photography. To my great delight, I also discovered that he gives lessons on the subject. Tonight, Steve shares with us the art of:

Aquatic Photography ********************************************** 10

June 2006

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

Karen Ottendorfer Since the day she joined, Karen has become one with the GCAS, her contagious enthusiasm filling the room with vibrant exuberance. Karen is always ready to be a part of our activities and share her knowledge of fishkeeping that she has learned through maintaining her nine aquariums. Tonight, Sharon shows us methods of doing (and possibly some ways not to do!):

Water Changes Al and Sue Priest Quintessential members of the GCAS, Al and Sue need little, if any introduction, when in fact, such that would do them justice would fill an entire article. Editor-in-Chief of Modern Aquarium, Al's fishkeeping skills are as extraordinary as his leadership of this magazine, including a commendable focus on species at risk, with many registries in the C.A.R.E.S. Preservation Program, and numerous successes with the procreation of difficult-to-breed fishes. Associate Editor of Modern Aquarium, Sue's talents excel in her award-winning writing. Her astute observations of her fish, as well as of people and nature, are beautifully reflected, as Sue so eloquently places them to paper for us to enjoy and benefit from. Tonight, Al and Sue present:

It's A Small, Small World (Microscopic Aquatic Images)


Dick Moore Standing quietly in the back during our meetings, with that wonderful, genuine smile, Dick is filled with a wealth of knowledge ~ always glad to impart his wisdom and experience with other hobbyists. Renowned for his extensive work with Victorian cichlids, Dick's contributions to conservation are admirable, with many species registered in the C.A.R.E.S. Preservation Program. Who more perfect than Dick to demonstrate and discuss:

Stripping the Female of Fry, and Raising the Young Warren Feuer Our computer technician extraordinaire, Warren will guide the evening's programs through the technological aspects, ensuring the evening of a smooth flow. Thank you so much Warren ~ you are a *Gem*!

Our deep and heartfelt thanks to each of you! It is with great pride, and to our great fortune, that we welcome you tonight.

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

June 2006


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How to Propagate and Train Java Fern Text and Drawing by BERNARD HARRIGAN ava Fern, being a true fern, reproduces via spores, a difficult method of reproduction as far as the hobbyist is concerned. I've never had a baby Java Fern just pop up in any of my aquariums, or even on a wooden beam above my fish tanks. Luckily for all of us, that's not its only mode of propagation. If you look at my drawing, you can see young Java Fern plants sprouting up along its rhizome, and shoots even springing up along its leaves. These are called adventitious plants, and with this method Java Fern multiplies easily and profusely. Like I've said before, you can train Java Fern to grow on driftwood or rocks, so it lends itself wonderfully to aquascaping. The roots of this plant have Spiderman-like super powers. I've seen it adhere to the smoothest stone and hold fast like Spidie's web, and it has the ability to cascade down a piece of driftwood or rock work like Spiderman crawls down a wall. To train it to grow on a specific item in your aquarium, just tie the roots of the plant to the item using a piece of cotton thread. I prefer to use dark brown or black thread, so that it blends in with the roots. Make sure you use 100% cotton thread. This way, as the roots affix themselves to the item, the cotton thread will simply decompose and disappear. Align the rhizome so that new growth develops in the direction you want the plant to grow. You can use several plants to fill in the spaces between your rock work for a super effect.


Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

June 2006


Photos and captions

An exceptional job was performed by GCAS Expert 1 ';ii||; Moderator, President Joe Ferdenzi, and GCAS Expert Technical Producer, Brad Dickinson! A warm thank you to GCAS Expert Panelists, Carlotti De Jager, Ed Vukich and Mark Soberman!

To our great delight, Ed Vukich is joined by his lovely wife, Linda. llillli

Mervyn Bamby brings home an armful of raffle j| prizesforhis West African cichlids! |

Our hats are off to Michael Gallo, as he looks forward to working with his local school and the warm welcome to our new father and son GCAS C.A.R.E.S. Preservation Program!

>y Claudia Dickinson

LaMont Brown has enjoyed another GCAS "Evenin with the Experts!"

';;-'; ••:r®


;^ ' : < ; : ; - • '


traight from work to the GCAS meeting, William -uckett certainly looks sharp!

Jeff Bolbach is dreaming about...his 'pet' turtle?!?

L heartfelt welcome to our new GCAS member, 'rystal Mattucks, who specializes in Rift Lake ichlids.

GCAS buddies Jason Kerner and President Jo Ferdenzi relax after another terrific evening with th



iAquariurn •Society Established 1921


ow many of you quickly scanned the contents page for the location of this column, or simply thumbed through the issue until you found it because you want to read it first thing (even before you turn to The Undergravel Reporter)? Who Knows; you could be sitting right next to this month's anonymous fishkeeper. Would you be able to tell? At this point, I encounter the most difficult part of preparing this column. I am sorely tempted to tell you all a thing or two about this month's auto-biographer, a "teaser" as the T.V. channels would call it. I know, however, that I must resist; I must let this person speak freely on their own behalf, and so I am pleased to present Modern Aquarium' s :


Anonymous Fishkeeper/June 2006 Please introduce yourself. This thing iEi^i;|giiii)::Biii^ started really early. I |^ ;|||t||^ had to be about 7 or 8 i^ years old, and my uncle who lived in ! Laurelton had a tank l||l||I|Ilp with two really big fp^ colorful fish in it. I guess I pestered, cried, and begged my ' J ^ mom enough that she if^ gave in and we got ourselves a 20 Goldie ^ tank. My job was the water changes, which fl§ to a kid is pretty e x c i t i n g ...g o i n g hunting to remove all the fish and decorations. My mom cleaned the gravel (thank goodness) and I took care of the corner filter. Tell us about your education as a fishkeeper Life events removed that first fish tank from my life as I went to school, got a job, got married and had kids. I didn't give fishkeeping 16


any thought for years, until 1990. My kids wanted a fish tank and we didn't have room for a large tank. We settled for a five gallon, and put one of those Siamese Fighting fish in it. The kids got bored with that so we added another Siamese Fighting fish (no need to guess what happened). We then had the opportunity to purchase a larger place and, combined with the release of "Finding Nemo," the hobby took up space in my head again. I went out to replicate the 20 gallon "Goldie" tank I knew as a kid. That tank lasted until 2004. The family complained incessantly that the Goldie tank wasn't anything like the tank in Nemo. It was then that I decided to go tropical. From that first tropical tank, a leak sprang because everything I knew about keeping fish had changed, and I had a lot of catching up to do. I figured I may as well use the internet to garner all this new info (no more water buckets, partial water changes). The wealth of information was mind boggling, to say nothing about this weird niche of folks who were growing live plants underwater. It was t h r o u g h connections I made through the internet that I met some very knowledgeable aquarists, and found my way to Greater City. I now own two tanks, one of which is a heavily planted 75 gallon Amazon biotope, which I really don't have room for. Is there someone you think of as a mentor? I actually have two. One of them is Brian, the Discus keeper from Long Island. The other is Andy, the biologist from Kew Gardens. It was Brian who saw my plight a few years ago via an online forum, and actually invited me to a get

June 2006

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

together with a group of local aquarists. Both of these guys are successful in their own right, each possessing a wealth of knowledge that I have gleaned for my betterment. I am positive that I would still be emptying my tank for maintenance if it weren't for them. Do you have pet names for your fish? That's easy. His name is Cliff. Cliff is a 9" Sailfm Gibbiceps Pleco. I named him Cliff because he is always hanging somewhere, and it reminded me of the opening scene of "Cliffhangers" with Sylvester Stallone. I also have a huge Golden Apple Snail named Gary (yes, after Spongebob's pet snail). Describe your most memorable fishkeeping experience This may sound corny, but that occurred right here at a Greater City meeting last year. I call it the "Amazon bonanza night." I was looking to increase the livestock in my 75 gallon tank. One of the items up for auction was a bagful of Bristlenose Pleco babies. I had counted about five in the bag while it was on display. When the item came up for auction, Joe said that there were about seven. I won the bid at a robust $7.00. When I got home I did the acclimation thing and, to my surprise, there were 9 babies; 4 albinos (which I had never seen before), and 5 browns. I could not believe my good fortune. If anyone knows about bristlenose, these guys retail for $20 and up. I still have 7 of them to this day. That same night I snatched up a bag of 5 Bolivian ram fry for $6.00. This was probably the most convenient method of stocking an Amazon biotope tank in one day that I have ever known or heard of. What advice would you give to a beginning fishkeeper? One of the most annoying paradoxes in the hobby is the lack of, or conflicting, information that is provided to the beginner. If possible, I would advise the beginner to think of the purchase of a fish tank and equate it to the purchase of any major investment. Shop around, plan it out, and get as much information as you can get prior to purchase. This may seem to be over the top, but becoming an aquarist is more than picking up a tank and placing fish in it. I would also stress that patience above all else is a requisite. Without patience, the beginner is doomed from the start. Also, joining an aquarium club like Greater City is more than a great idea; it is a way to speak with experts. The wealth of knowledge gathered in that small room

ow I'm going to tell you a few things aboul our anonymous fishkeeper for May that he didn't tell us about himself. He and his family lived for many years in a home in Whitestone, Queens, where there was a mosaic of a fish at the bottom of the stairway going down to his basement. (He didn't put it there; it came with the house.) What else could this be but a clear sign that here was where he should establish his fishroom, and so he did. For many years it was the home to a wide variety of tropical fish, both rare as well as common, and it was visited by people from throughout the aquarium world. He has since moved to Nassau county, where his fishroom as well as his reputation continue to be magnets to fishkeepers from both near and far. He is an avid historian of the Civil War as well as the aquarium hobby. He has an extensive library devoted to these topics. At least one of the magazines he told us he reads regularly is written in Italian. He has often been heard to say "I never met a fish I didn't like." He is the president of an aquarium society (hmmmm; I wonder which one?). AND he was born on Christmas day! He never misses a Greater City meeting unless it falls on his wife's birthday (he is smarter than he looks!). His photo appears in virtually every issue of Modern Aquarium, and it would seem to me that his name as well as his face should be clear to every one of you by now. However, for the sake of consistency as far as this column is concerned, I have included yet one more mug shot of our esteemed and beloved president, Joseph Ferdenzi. P.S.- If you actually guessed who it was before today, consider yourself to be a "Joe Ferdenzi Groupie." I didn't know there was such a thing, but we all live and learn! A




Mark Rubanow 205 8th Street, Hicksville, NY 11801 (516) 939-0267 or (516) 646-8699 (beeper)


Always cover a tank with Comet Goldfish! 18

June 2006

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

WET LEAVES A Series On Books For The Hobbyist by SUSAN PRIEST lants don't change over the years, but people do. People like to experiment. In a quest for a specific result, scientists pull together as much information as they can, and then combine it in a variety of ways. Alternately, hobbyists use what they have on hand, and then observe and make note of the results. "Oh, yeah! I mixed some crushed coral in with that batch of gravel to stretch it." Well, with each new generation of fishkeepers and authors comes the latest generation of information. I feel that the main strength of this book is to be found in what the author calls "Part One: Practical Section." Biology, water quality and filtration, substrate, planting, lighting, feeding, propagation, and maintenance are all clearly explained through excellent use of a combination of color illustrations, photographs, and step-bystep instructions. Being a self-proclaimed science geek, I especially liked the descriptions of different kinds of roots, leaves, and what goes on inside a cell. Don't worry if that stuff doesn't interest you. You can skip right past it to the hands-on-put-it-right-to-work material, of which there is plenty. Here are a couple of unknown facts (at least unknown by me). In nature, the substrate is slightly warmer than the water above it. To replicate this in our aquariums, Mr. Hiscock suggests (notice that I didn't say recommends), the use of a heating cable designed for this purpose. It provides very gentle heat, is housed in a plastic sleeve, and will not affect the overall temperature of the tank. He states that "Substrate heating is not a vital part of a good planting substrate, but where thin layers of nutrient-rich substrates are used, the currents produced by a heating cable will significantly improve the distribution of the nutrients." Also news to me is the fact that many of the plants which we keep in our aquariums do not exist in nature. These plants are the result of cross-breeding and selective propagation. I have not found any way to identify these "created" plants in this or other books on the subject.


Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

The second half of the book is dedicated to Plant Profiles. "In this part of the book over 150 are featured along with descriptions." At this point, I would like to remind the reader of the words mini encyclopedia in the title. This listing of plants is not comprehensive. The preamble to the section on Echinodorus tells us that there are over 45 species in this one grouping alone (no, they are not all represented in this text). Most of the photographs have a "fish-out-of-water" feel to them which does offer a high level of detail and clarity. Each plant is represented by at least one photo, a descriptive paragraph, and a data chart. The data chart for Java Fern tells us: Origin: Southeast Asia Maximum height: 10 inches (25 cm) Growth rate: slow to medium Area: background, midground or as a feature plant Light: shelter from bright light Temperature: 64°-82° F (18°-28° C) Propagation: by adventitious plantlets Difficulty: 1 (suitable for beginners) For practical purposes, this book has three indexes. The contents is essentially a list of all the individual plants under discussion. Then at the back of the book there is a General Index, as well as a Plant Index. The plant index has cross-referencing which the contents list lacks. Again, bearing in mind the word "mini" from the title, there will be some plants which you won't be able to locate in any of the indexes, as they will simply not be there. However, the pages are very browser-friendly, and will make you want to find a space for each of them among your sunken gardens! One of the reasons I choose to review this particular book at this particular time was to add a twenty-first century installment to the information in the Madagascar Lace Plant article found elsewhere in this issue. In part, this author says: "it is not an easy plant to care for and requires clean and clear water conditions" "water movement in the aquarium will help to keep these extraordinary leaves clear of debris" "keep it in soft water with a pH of 7.0 or lower; temperature 68°-72° F" "will do well in most (lighting) conditions; provide shade in well-lit aquariums" "difficulty level: 4 (most difficult)." Whether this information is based on the observations of scientists or hobbyists is not clear! In closing, I would like to say that I recommend this book to beginner hobbyists and science geeks.

June 2006


wa rd I ey :::^S

Tropical Fish Food! l^qi


| Bods Hi


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THE PET BAR>| FRANKLIN SQUARE'S COMPLETE PET CENTER 212 FRANKLIN AVE FRANKLIN SQUARE, NY 11010 Corne see our large Aquarium Plant display and receive I ONE FREE cultivated plant, just for stopping by! EXOTIC FRESHWATER FISH





June 2006

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

The Environment and the Creepy Crawlies A series by "The Under gravel Reporter" I||^

111^^ !!!!^ ustralia, the "Land Down Under," is currently considering legislation to protect itself against yet another dangerous invasive freshwater species. No, it's not a snakehead or piranha that has the Aussies concerned this time. It's the very dangerous Goldfish, its near kin, the Koi, and a few other common pet fish. Some Australian government regulators are concerned over the possible introduction of these non-native fish into the country's ecosystem, and the potentially damaging results to native wildlife. Naturally, it's the hobbyists who are blamed for environmental problems. Let's ignore the Australian government's introduction of the Cane Toad to control a sugarcane destroying beetle. Since the beetle was not the toad's food of choice if given other options, it ate just about anything and everything else. Then there was the Australian government's introduction of the insect Aconophora compressa to attack the invasive lantana plant, which attacked fiddlewood and other non-invasive native trees as well. (Considering the fact that the Aconophora compressa was the 28th insect introduced in a span of about 80 years to control lantana, it's amazing that problems like this had not emerged sooner.) You can read more about the proposed fish ban at: friends of fish/news/3753.html Does handling blackworms, microworms, wingless fruit flies, flour beetles, etc., for feeding your fish live food give you the "creepy-crawlies?" Well, consider the couple who, the BBC reported on January 27, 2006, planned to wed on Valentine's Day. Many couples get engaged or married on that day. What makes these two noteworthy is that the bride is a Thai woman who set a world record by spending 32 days in a cage with 3,400 scorpions; while the groom set a record by spending 28 days with 1,000 centipedes. If that wasn't "creep-crawly" enough, the couple declared


Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

their intention to consummate their vows in a coffin. Hey, I don't make this stuff up, read about it at: asia-pacific/4653398.stm Even as tropical fish hobbyists are concerned over the fate of fish from Madagascar, Salt Lake City fashion designer Jared Gold is offering jeweled brooches of brightly colored Swarovski crystals affixed to a live, 3-inch-long Madagascar hissing cockroach. A woman can allow the cockroach to roam a short distance around her dress or jacket via a silver chain affixed to the roach's back. The brooch sells for $80 at Gold's Web site. A New York Post story on 4/14/2006 quoted an animal-rights spokesman as saying it was "just the gift" for the "person who doesn't mind a small animal excreting on them throughout the day." The Jared Gold website: has a link to this broach, which can be purchased online. To quote the website: These insects come in varied patterns and are decorated with the finest Austrian Swarovski crystal. Each roach takes about an hour of painstaking work to achieve his final magical glory. All roaches are male to ensure sterility, and come complete with a leash set. This consists of a gorgeous pin you attach to your clothing with a chain that clasps to the cockroach's carapace to keep him from running amok. The lifespan of these animals is approximately one year if housed and fed properly. This is not a guarantee, it is an estimate. Roaches love fresh bananas and must have access to fresh water at all times, a very damp paper towel or cotton ball will do the trick. Dehydration is the main cause of death. Keep him in a little terrarium in the dark and he will love you and be very responsive to your touch. Roaches are shipped overnight in a box and can be kept in this box for up to 4 days without food or water while you secure him more hospitable accommodations. Who said conservatives aren't interested in aquatic species conservation? On 1/8/2006, the Times of London reported that recently released government files from the 1980s showed that the administration of British Prime Minister Thatcher was concerned that poachers posed a potential threat to the Loch Ness monster (if, and whenever it shows up, of course). Also in those files, as reported on the Internet website "News of the Weird," was a letter from Swedish officials seeking advice from the Nessie-experienced British on protecting Sweden's own underwater Lake Storsjo monster.

June 2006


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Open Saturdays and Sundays Amex, Discover, MasterCard, Visa 2 miles off exit 11N of the Belt Parkway www.


June 2006

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

G.C.A.S. HAPPENINGS Last Month's Bowl Show Results: 1st) Ed Vukich 2nd) Rich Levy

3rd) Evelyn Eagan

Unofficial 2005-2006 Bowl Show totals to date: Bill Amely-15pts Rich Levy-1 Ipts Evelyn Eagan-lOpts

Ed Vukich-8pts

Jerry O'Farrell-lpt

Join with us in welcoming new GCAS members: Frank Liang Crystal Mattucks We extend a thank you to the following renewing members: Bennie Graham Garry Grant Solomon Varon

Here are meeting times a n d ;

s of some aguarium societies in lite Metropolitan New York area:

GREATER Next meetingf July 5|26l| Speaker: ^1 D i § pig n a Topic: "Jpginn th Saltwater" Meetaipfit Wednesday of the month at 7:30 pm (Ejp'fept Jpujary and February) at: f Qu8li|jfeotanical Garden Jli^glain St. - Flushing, NY Conta8!Piir. Joseph Ferdenzi (516) 484-0|4| E-nS|i|: GreaterCity@compuservexori|fc Website: http://www.greatercity.giig last Coast Guppy A

| B r gi k I y 11 § qti a rj u m S o c i e ty Next meeli n g : jf u n eg, 2006 Speaker: Mark DJlaiigl5,S;: "%^ Topic: uW:a te^G a r d||f;'i;: \ .

at 7:30pm:

at the ipSfe^^v ^

Big Apple Guppy Club "

Contiit: Gene Baud ?< & B



: v , , ch month (except Jin. ; : ;ii,;;;\!ley Pond Environmt ifflfiir S^P ^em Blvd- at 7:30-1 :;Slf . ..aid Curtin (718) 631

Lon||3$|find /\|uarium Society


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16, 2006

Jjl||xt meetiiff I f une I || ! Shbusters LIVE

shrimp" (also electionsfl and August) at


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Website: httpl|||iasonline Email: Arie Gi president@l North Jersey

:::,:2od|:;:tu csda v • •; fat aiitffcan. Legion. BlvilllMassap | p i ";:^^ Contib Mi . C i ;;;>::::::::5i (5 1 ^ :,; 'v:rp!/7www.r|;|,;::::::::v org

Friday of th#p8nth(ei

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. at West 8th St., Brdllf n, NY^ Events Hotline: (718) ww.brooklynaquariumsod!i!f!brg


it 1st Thursday of ea ^§s Botanical Garden at §



Squarium Society

Next Meeting: June 15, 2006 Speaker: Mark Soberman Topic: "Catfish"

'fleets: 8:00 P.M. - 3rd Thursday of each month at: Earthplace - the Nature Discovery Center - Westport, CT

Contact: NJAS Hotline at (732) 332-1392 Website: or e-mail:

Contact: John Chapkovich (203) 734-7833 E-mail: Call our toll free number (866) 219-4NAS Website:

Fin Fun PAT

(Plant Aptitude Test) Throughout this issue there are several articles about aquatic plants. This is a topic which many aquarists think of as a "no-brainer." Well, try wrapping your little grey cells around these questions to test your aptitude for keeping aquatic plants. 1. Which of the following environmental factors DOES NOT affect the rate of photosynthesis: a. Carbon dioxide b. Oxygen c. Temperature d. Light 2. Salvinia natans is also known as: a. Floating Fern c. Sunken Java Fern

b. Java Fern d. Sunken Arrrowhead

3. Which of the following is a sign of calcium deficiency: a. Lower leaves turn yellow from the tip inward b. Leaves are darker than normal c. Stunted growth d. New leaves are misshapen 4. Which of the following plants is native to Central America: a. Anubias sp. b. Cabomba sp. c. Hygrophila sp. d. Sagittaria sp. 5. A rhizome is a: a. Modified stem c. Leaf that grows beneath the substrate

The solution to last month's puzzle Cichlid

b. Root ball d. None of these

(KHLID tfllRRI Lake Malawi

Lake Victoria

Striped Goby Cichlid


Elephant Nose Cichlid


Red Flush Aulonocara


Allaundi Cichlid Golden Tropheops


Frontosa Cichlid Browns Mouthbrooder


Fuelleborn's Cichlid


Blue-Gold Aulonocara


Blue Goby Cichlid 24

Lake Tanganyika

June 2006

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

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