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want to thank GCAS member Elliot Oshins for his article this month (the second one in a row that he has written!). Modern Aquarium needs a constant flow of original member-written articles in order to maintain its position as the premier amateur aquarium society magazine in the United States. Remember, this magazine is only as good as you make it through your contributions. I can accept articles sent to me over the Internet, or given or mailed to me on disk, or on a CD, or on Zip or Jaz cartridges. I can take articles in almost any standard word processing format (such as Word, WordPerfect, WordPro, etc.), and graphics in almost any format, as well. If you mail or hand me a disk or cartridge with an article, please indicate what program you used to create the article, and include a printed copy. I also want to thank noted aquarium historian Dr. Albert Klee (and the featured speaker at our June 2004 meeting) and Sallie Boggs (our featured speaker for our October 2004 meeting) for their original articles, featured in this issue. The Northeast Council of Aquarium Societies ("NEC"), of which Greater City is a member, is holding a contest to design a logo for their 30th annual convention next year. The logo should reflect the convention's theme this time, which is "The 1970s (We're not getting older, we're getting better!)." Details of this contest are on our Information Table at the rear of the meeting room. If you have questions about this contest, or about the NEC in general, you can ask those questions of Greater City's NEC Delegate, Claudia Dickinson.


In my opinion, Greater City meetings really need to start promptly at 8 pm, and should end by 10:30 pm (or no later than 11:00). If the President, the speaker, or anyone else necessary for the presentation portion of the meeting (such as someone bringing in equipment, etc.) have not arrived by 8:00 pm (certainly a possibility due to traffic conditions), then the auction should start (presided over by the ranking Board member in attendance), to be stopped and resumed once the speaker arrives and has concluded his or her presentation. At least one society that I am aware of has a special drawing for "early arrival" members. Maybe we could give a coupon for "double raffle tickets" to anyone who arrives by 8:00 pm. I am not speaking here as the Editor of Modern Aquarium. It is not my job to conduct or manage meetings, nor do I want that job. But, in my role as "plain ordinary GCAS member," I believe that we cannot possibly hope to attract young people (who have to go to school the next day), or people who need to get up very early the next day to go to work, if our meetings continue to last longer and longer.

EXCHANGE EDITORS: Articles in Modern Aquarium can be reprinted in the publication of non-profit amateur aquarium societies, unless the article specifically notes that the author has reserved publishing rights. However, we do request that two copies of the issue of the publication in which an article was reprinted from Modern Aquarium be sent to us, for transmittal to the author. Questions about our exchange policies, or any change in the name or address of your Exchange Editor should be send to us via email at: GreaterCity@compuserve.com

October 2004

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

Guest President's Message by CLAUDIA DICKINSON From time to time, Joe will invite various members to write a guest "President's Message." This will enable others to present their views on the past, present, and future of the Society. This month, Joe has invited Claudia Dickinson to be his guest writer. ~ED s I began my interview with our guest speaker this month, it was not but moments into our conversation that I realized that the GCAS was in for a very special treat of an evening spent with a lady as full of quiet, unassuming charm as she is with an infinite wisdom on all that she has made her desire to study, research and observe, aquatic and otherwise. Tonight, Sallie Boggs will be making her presentation to us on the breeding of loaches and synodontis, and I have no doubts that be it this topic, or any one of many other topics, that we would be equally enlightened at the evening's end. With a fascinating history of traveling the world, and an aquatic interest sparked on the islands of Jamaica at the age of 12, Sallie's 'real life' is as intriguing and admirable in her 30 years spent with stem cell and cancer research at the University of Pittsburgh. Sallie is a world-renown expert on loaches, as well as many other matters, and her advice and speaking engagements are highly sought after. After conversing with Sailie, I feel quite certain that her knowledge is due greatly to her quiet integrity and oneness with nature, bringing her the peace and ease to understand intrinsically that which surrounds her. Driving 9 hours to visit with us this evening, Sallie has so generously brought along fish from her own fishroom to contribute to our auction. What an exceptional opportunity that shall be for any and all who have the great fortune to return home with Sallie's fish to add to their own tanks! Sallie is as kind and generous in sharing her own knowledge as she is with encouraging fellow aquarists to share their experiences and thoughts with her. She welcomes your discussion, and would love to hear about any experiences that you may have had in breeding unusual fish. We extend a warm thank you to Sallie for her graciousness in joining us tonight!


Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

In the May 2004 issue of "Modem Aquarium" Dr. Paul Loiselle advises: "The ornamental fish hobby can afford a refuge to species at risk of global extinction, and serious aquarists, working through their local societies, can go far towards creating the necessary climate to make this happen. It remains only to be seen if the organized hobby has the will to meet this challenge." Let us at the GCAS, as well as hobbyists across the country, rise to the challenge! Conservation efforts and enthusiasm for the cause are running high, born of a deep passion for the mission at hand of saving our precious fishes that are in peril across the globe. May we maintain a clear focus on saving our fishes and keep up the momentum throughout the coming year by clearing tank space for fish that need our help now! If you are currently maintaining any of the species on either Table 1 or Table 2 of Dr. Loiselle's May article, a copy of which Tables are on your seats tonight, please share this information through registering on the GCAS Conservation Program sheet at the Membership Table. Our GCAS President Joe Ferdenzi, your Modern Aquarium Editor, Al Priest, and I want to hear of the endangered species, as well as those that are extinct in the wild, that you are maintaining, as we proceed forward with the inception of our GCAS Conservation Program. We can and we will rise to the challenge, with the GCAS at the forefront in its leadership and encouragement of hobbyist conservation efforts! Last month our guest speaker, Dr. Ted Coletti, asked me to send him a list of GCAS members deserving of recognition and special thanks. What a wonderful idea, as he so well put, that it is best for an outsider to look in and send special thank you's to all who put extra effort into the makings of a great society, such as the GCAS. As I began to make that list, naturally, first I thought of our esteemed GCAS President Joe Ferdenzi, who inspires us through his caring and diplomatic leadership skills to do the best that we can to make the GCAS the best that it can be! Then we have our eminent "MA" Editor and his wife, Al and Sue Priest, whose notoriety and marvelous talents speak for themselves. There is Jack Traub, with his wonderful beaming smile to collect and administer our funds, our Vice President Mark Soberman, always ready to lend a hand, Warren Feuer, with his many hours and efforts spent collecting and organizing creative manufacturer donations, and Jason Kerner, who goes above and beyond to arrange the cover photo layout for our magazine, not to mention the final printing of the publication.

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The Modern Aquarium flourishes because of our eloquent authors such as Bernie Harrigan, Dr. Albert Klee, Sallie Boggs, Jannette Ramirez, Elliot Oshins and Jerry O'Farrell, who gladly give of their time and their talents. What would we ever do without the ever-pleasant and talented Pete D'Orio, and the endeavors of Brad Dickinson, Carlotti De Jager, Pat Coushaine, Steve Chen, Al Grusell, Lenny Ramroop and Dora Dong? Our Bowl Show is made possible for our viewing enjoyment by our regular participants ~ thank you Bill Amely, Carlotti De Jager and Evelyn Eagan, among others! Oh, and our GCAS auctions! The best in the land, with the highest quality offish and plants! Our astonishing auctions are possible through the

superb generosity and fine aquaristic skills of such members as Anton Vukich, Edward Vukich, Doug and Don Curtain, Harry Faustmann, Horst Gerber, Joseph Graffagnino, Rich Levy, Bill Adams, Charley Sabatino and Mark Rubanow, to name only a few It was here that my pen began to write slower and slower, until finally it stopped. It was then that I wrote to Ted: "This is the most difficult of all, as all of our Membership is so very special, and #1 in my book! I would rather place everyone's name and photo on this list!" And so, I thank all of you, most special Members of the GCAS ~ for surely you are the



Why I Keep Small Tropical Fish by SALLIE BOGGS love being in and around water. The enjoyment is multiplied many fold if there are fish that I can observe, or interact with, in the water. I particularly like the warm clear water over reefs because the animals are more colorful and I can stay in the water longer than I can in cold water. I have a passion for learning how fish behave and there is no more interesting behavior than breeding behavior. I often say that I fancy myself as the Jane Goodall of the basement. To illustrate my passion for keeping and breeding fish as follows: I spent 20 years raising children, 30 years doing stem cell and cancer research and 50 years raising fish. One of the most exciting events in my life was swimming with a wild porpoise (I know porpoises are technically not fish). This porpoise seemed to enjoy the company or humans who were bedecked with snorkel or SCUBA gear and he hung around the reefs of the island of San Salvador for several months, voluntarily going from dive group to dive group and playing with all the divers. He was so ubiquitous that the divers gave him the name, "Sandy," and he was even featured in a dive magazine. I have a great picture of myself reaching out to touch him as he came over to see me. SCUBA diving and snorkeling are great ways to observe fish, but the time of observation is limited and it is very unlikely that I could follow the breeding behavior of particular fish during a dive trip. I would love to be able to learn about all these fish, but I am limited to those who would survive and hopefully thrive in my tanks. The fish that range the open sea or are most visible over the reef would never be happy confined to my small aquariums. That is why I keep small fish, preferably small territorial fish that are quite happy to live in a hole and venture out only to feed or chase other fish. Blennies, gobies and some darters, some catfish, and a few cichlids fit into this pattern. I expect that they may not even know they are missing out on the grandeur and freedom of open water. I have kept some fish that come from cold or temperate environments but they had to endure temperatures in the 70s. Those that absolutely require colder water do not survive well and certainly don't breed successfully. For me it is a real pain to chill the water for them. I have chilled water on occasion in order to breed certain fish. These include goldfish, Dojos and some darters. For me it is easier to keep a part of my basement at 80 degrees than to keep a tank or room at <50 degrees. That is why I keep tropical fish. However, if anyone would like to offer me a job and facilities for studying some interesting critter like the sea dragon I would make every effort to take it on.


October 2004

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

Love, Look, and tke Lotueiy by SUSAN PRIEST research what genus and species we had acquired. ove has been known to prod us into doing After I had accomplished this task, Al looked it up many a strange and sundry thing. You can on the internet. Here's where the "luck" part of the never predict when love is going to take title comes into play. It turns out that this fish is over your brain, and put into motion a chain of events over which you have little control. At first, endangered! Now, I'm not sure who is lucky; us you don't even realize what has happened. But, or the fish! However, I do maintain that luck of minute by minute and hour by hour, an idea is one variety or another is at work here. slowly growing, until a fully developed plan Rather than waterlog you with any more appears in your mind. storytelling, I want to move on to the fish itself, the Al and I were prodded into this particular Botia sidthimunki, or Dwarf Loach, and tell you act of love by the news that GCAS was going to be what I have been able to observe about it so far. It visited by Sallie Boggs (who is well known for her is an active fish which rarely rises above the lower expertise in the area of loaches, among other third of the aquarium. It prefers to eat live things). We said to ourselves "Let's take a photo of blackworms over commercially prepared sinking a loach for the cover of foods, but has refused Modern Aquarium." neither. It spends most Well, we have a couple of its time in a sheltered of clown loaches in our location, however it 90 gallon community does not shy away from aquarium, but one of human observers. For a them has already been in small fish hi a tank by Botia sidthimunki itself it seems to a cover photo. There are a couple of very large produce a lot of waste. khuli loaches in there as well, but shrimp pellets Now we come to the third part of the title: cannot always be counted on to lure them from this fish is lonely! Every source I have consulted whatever hiding place they are using on a as to the nature of these fish says that, in order for particular day. So, our love of Modern Aquarium them to thrive, they need to be part of a group of took us on a shopping trip in search of a loach to several of their own kind. This social structure photograph. provides stress relief to every member of the group, Lo and behold, we found ourselves at a and more importantly in this particular case, pet store which just happened to be next door to provides an opportunity to reproduce. our favorite restaurant-what a coincidence! Within Upon learning of its endangered status, as said store we found a tank with four or five well as the importance of tankmates, we returned to varieties of loaches. We spotted a handsome the store in hopes of acquiring at least one more of specimen, but quickly noticed that it had a nasty these fish. It was at this point that our luck took a temperament. (Ultimately we expected to change for the worse. (When I say "our," I am incorporate the "photographee" into our including the fish.) So, it now becomes a labor of community, so this one was quickly ruled out.) love for me to educate you further, as well as to "What about that 'checkerboard' fish; it should make a plea for one of you to come forward and photograph well." I won't recount the tale of what offer a more suitable home for this endangered the store employee had to resort to in order to orphan. capture the frisky fish. Let's just say that it was a The Botia sidthimunki, with such common challenge! names as the Chained Loach, the Monkey Loach, For the sake of keeping focused on my the Mouse Loach, and the Dwarf Loach, is the topic, I will also spare you the details of how this smallest and most peaceful member of the Botia fish ended up in a five gallon tank by itself, and genus. Adult size may range from 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 move on. I pulled out a couple of books in order to inches. It is native to muddy-bottomed lakes and


Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

October 2004

streams in Thailand and India, where the water is soft, and slightly acidic at a pH of 6.5-6.9, and the water temperature ranges from 76-85 degrees F. They are best kept in groups of at least five. They are omnivorous, in that they will eat worms, crustaceans, insects and plant matter, as well as frozen and commercially prepared sinking foods. Their tank should provide plants and hiding places, as well as open areas for free swimming. A challenge to the aquarist is to provide excellent water quality by means of frequent water changes, and at the same time leaving behind a layer of mulm, which to this fish will be reminiscent of its native waters. All members of the Botia genus fall into the category of "prickly-eyes," meaning that they :^[^ have protective spines under their eyes which they extend during times of stress. If you are going to transfer one of these fish from one container to another, you would do well to try using a paper or plastic cup. If they catch their spines in a net, they could be injured by your efforts to disentangle them. These fish are not sexually dimorphic (which is to say that the males and the females look the same). There have been sporadic reports of successful breeding in an aquarium, however I have been unable to locate any detailed accountings. One source reports that they become very pale in color at this time, and another states that they will not breed until they reach the age of seven years. Juveniles sport the "chain" pattern, but mature fish of breeding age develop one thick black stripe which runs the length of the flank on both sides. Spawning behavior includes latching onto each other via their spines, and swimming in circles. The sources I have consulted have not used the term "egg scatterer" in describing this fish, however I cannot imagine what other "breeding strategy" would apply. At one time this fish was considered to be extinct in nature, however a population has been discovered in a small river. It is currently on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Bear in mind that any specimens available in the hobby have most assuredly been wild-caught, and a successful breeding program will serve to help protect these precious few that are still surviving in nature.

I'm willing to guess that most of you have done stranger things in the name of love than buy a fish in order to publish a photo of it. As for luck, what probably comes to your mind is a number with several zeros at the end (must be 18 or older to play!). Lastly, I can only hope that there is one among you who will adopt our lonely Dwarf Loach. If a few members of its own species cannot be located, we will eventually incorporate it into our community tank, but this is a fish with a past as well as a future to preserve! The Baensch Atlas considers this fish to have a degree of difficulty of 2 (with 1 being suitable for a beginner, and 4 requiring the skills of an expert). Don't be too quick to overlook yourself as ' ' v;-M-: v ' ' - " an adoptive parent. When visiting your neighborhood fish s h o p , or an a q u a r i u m club auction, keep a mental picture of this fish in the back of your mind. If you come across some, well, maybe it is not a coincidence. Perhaps love and luck have led the way!

If anyone among our readers can provide suitable housing for this fish which includes tankmates of the same species, and would like to adopt it, we will arrange to get it to you (at no cost to you). Alternately, we would be glad to purchase some if you have any of this species available. You can reach us at the following e-mail address: 102337.517@compuserve.com Sue andAl Priest

References: Aquaworld: www.aquaworld.netfirms.com Aquarium Atlas. Vol. I, Baensch, Hans A., and Riehl, Dr. Rudiger. Terra Press, 1991. Loaches Online: www.loaches.com A Popular Guide to Tropical Aquarium Fishes, Dick Mills. Terra Press, 1997.

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Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

JEANNE V1LLEPREUX-POWER, THE "MOTHER" OF THE AQUARIUM by ALBERT J. KLEE, Ph.D. have never before had the opportunity to write about a "fairy tale" in connection with the aquarium hobby, but it comes to pass that I write one now, and a true fairy tale it is. The story concerns a rather extraordinary woman â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Jeanne Villepreux-Power. Jeanne Villepreux, the daughter of a shoemaker, was born in a small French village (Juillac) in 1794. As a young girl, her job was to take care of the family's sheep, but thanks to her mother, the small Jeanne learned to read and to write â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a rarity for a simple shepherdess at the beginning of the 19th Century. At the age of 18, she traveled to Paris (a distance of roughly 200 miles, walking a good part of the way!), and she became a dressmaker of some renown. In this fairy story her "magic wand" was a needle - the one with which she embroidered the dress of the bride-to-be, Caroline Bourbon of Sicily, the future spouse of the Duke of Berry, son of Charles X. Having made the dress, she was invited to attend the rather spectacular marriage, and during the course of the ceremony she met a young English Count, named James Power. He was a rich industrialist from Messina, a port city in Sicily. They were married in 1818 in Messina, where they lived for 20 years. Thus begins a true histoire d'amour. Jeanne Villepreux, the petite dressmaker, becomes Lady Jeanne Power, living in a luxurious English colony of the rich and the cultivated. Lively and intelligent, Jeanne studied languages and the natural sciences. The wealth of Sicily - its minerals, fossils, butterflies, plants, mollusks, and marine life - excited her curiosity. Life and its mysteries thrust this self-taught naturalist into a life of multifaceted research. While conducting scientifically controlled and reproducible experiments, she invented, according to the physiologist Claude Bernard, the principles of the experimental method. Moreover, she was the first (1832) to create and use aquariums for experimentation in aquatic environments. She was also the first to suggest that rivers could be repopulated by raising fish in aquariums until they were big enough to be reintroduced. As early as 1858, she was recognized by Richard Owen (one of the most renowned British zoologists of the time) as the "mother" of "aquariophily." From 1832 to 1842, she was the only woman in the Catania Accademia di Scienze, and a corresponding member of the London Zoological Society (plus 16 other


Modern Aquarium - Greater City A,S. (NY)

academies). She wrote several books, and the Historical Society of Messina has just republished her Guida per la Sicilia, a brilliant and erudite inventory of that Island's environment. Villepreux is mentioned in a French book published in 1899 about women in Science, Les femmes dans la science. She was famous all throughout Europe for her works on the shell of the Paper Nautilus (Argonauta argo). The following is an article titled, "Introduction to Mollusca," published in Mollusca in 1858 by Richard Owen (for those readers not familiar with marine mollusks, I have provided definitions in the parentheses): "The knowledge of the varying forms of the living Mollusks, of their habits and powers, has been increased, and is likely to be materially advanced, by the rapidly extending practice of preserving them in confined spaces of sea or fresh water. Poli, Montagu, and before them probably other lovers of nature, resident near the sea, availed themselves of large vessels to keep alive, in frequently renewed sea-water, the marine animals in the study of which they were interested. But to Madame Jeannette Power (nee de Villepreux), according to the testimony of Professor Carmelo Maravigna, in the Journal du Cabinet Litteraire de rAcademia Gioenia, of Catania, for December 1834, ought to be attributed, if to any one individual, the invention and systematic application of the receptacles now called Aquaria, to the study of marine, and principally of molluscous animals. "Madame Power invented three kinds: one of glass, for preserving and studying living Mollusca in a room; another, also of glass, for small Mollusks, protected by an external cage of bars, in which they could be kept submerged in the sea, and withdrawn at will for inspection; and a third kind of cage for larger Mollusks, which could be sunk and anchored at a given depth in the sea, and raised, when required, for the purpose of observation and experiment. With these different kinds of molluscous menageries, of which the first answers to our present improved and enlarged aquaria, Madame Power carried on her observations and experiments from the year 1832 to 1842 at Messina in Sicily. "She determined the question of the true relation of the Argonauta, or Paper Nautilus, to the delicate boat-like shell that it inhabits. She first showed that the so-called "sails" were normally applied over the exterior of the shell, and proved

October 2004

experimentally that they were the organs that formed and repaired the shell. She proved that the Bulla lignaria (i.e., a marine shell) preyed upon, and by its strong gizzard ground down and digested, the Dentalium entale (i.e., a Tusk shell). She described the curious maneuvers by which the Astropecten aurantiacus (i.e., a Sand Star) seized and conveyed to its mouth and stomach small Naticae (i.e., marine gastropods). And many other interesting facts were brought to light by this persevering and ingenious observer, through the application of the "Gabioline alia Power," as her aquaria were termed by the Gioenia Academy, some years before the practice of so studying aquatic animals was introduced and diffused in this country." With regard to the Paper Nautilus, for years it was the subject of a great argument between Owen and the French naturalist Ducrotay de Blainville (and others). Blainville maintained that it was fixed in its shell, Owen having the opposite opinion. Jeannette Power solved the

problem years later when, breaking shells, she proved that the cephalopod was able to repair it. In 1856 she published "Observations physiques sur ie poulpe de 1'Argonauta Argo," followed by other marine studies in 1860. Unfortunately, after 20 years the couple was obliged to leave Sicily and, during the voyage to France, she lost all her equipment (including her aquaria) and, worse, most of her collection, during a shipwreck. Jeanne Villepreux-Power passed away in her natal town of Juillac at the age of 77. Her husband, who remained in Paris in 1871 to defend the city during the Prussian siege of that year, rejoined her a few months later in their shared sepulture. Forgotten for more than 120 years, she and her works are now coming back to light, and her name, "Villepreux-Power," was given to a very important crater on Venus during the Magellan Project. A remarkable woman indeed was Mme. Jeanne Villepreux-Power.

A FISH JUNKIE by ELLIOT OSHINS slave (slaav) n. 1. One bound in servitude to a person or household as an instrument of labor. 2. One who is submissive or subject to a specified person or influence. 3. One whose condition is likened to that of slavery. 4. A machine or component that is controlled by another machine or component (the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language). rom the beginning of time, there has been slavery. The Old Testament explains how long you can keep a slave, and when you have to give them their freedom. In 1861 to 1865 the American War a/k/a The Civil War between the North and the South, was the war fought to free the slaves. There is another type of slave, which is being a slave to one's hobby and fish room, for those lucky enough to have one. I spend many enjoyable hours in my fish room, looking at different species of fish, doing maintenance, and reading different magazines and books. I also like talking to anyone who will listen to my fish tales, be they friend or stranger. To come home very late from a club meeting with a new fish purchase is a labor of love, as is looking up the fish in my Aquarium Atlas, and spending time acclimating the fish to its new tank or tanks. Getting to bed way past my bedtime in wee hours of the morning causes me to have crazy dreams that I'm an ichthyocentaur. All of the above entails the love of the hobby. However, being a so-called slave to the fish world truly isn't so bad, mainly because of the many pleasurable hours it gives me. The meetings


are a great place to meet and make new friends, and most of all kibitz. The speakers are very knowledgeable, and you can learn a lot about the aquarium hobby (providing you don't fall asleep when the lights go out for the slide show). The auctions are always enjoyable, whether being held at the club or other locations. Of course, that is if you don't get carried away, and try to buy every fish that looks healthy and different, as there are always some interesting fish and plants. I buy too much, and then spend half the night trying to maneuver my purchases into different tanks. It's like playing Russian roulette. Most aquarists are like little kids in a candy store â&#x20AC;&#x201D; everything looks good. It's our love of being amateur ichthyologists. I always look forward to the meetings, which I find fascinating. I am disappointed when the meetings end in June, We should have at least one meeting in the summer months. If you are smart, you belong to more than one club. The rewards are endless. I would like to write more, but I have to feed my fish.

October 2004

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

G.C.A.S. nas, a mozt * Waim -Jhank ^Lou to (L/ ut


Breeding Loaches and Synodontis " By Claudia Dickinson enowned for her accomplishments with collecting, maintaining and breeding oddball, rare and difficult to breed fish, Sallie Boggs is a true legend in the aquarium hobby. Self-designated "Jane Goodall of the Basement," Sallie attributes her success to extensive time spent intently observing fish in nature, as well as closely watching them go about their daily lives within her tanks. She is driven by a passion to constantly strive for new discoveries that she may pass along to others. Sharing a common love offish, along with a fishroom of 40 tanks, Sallie and her husband Ed have traveled to Italy and France, as well as other regions of the Mediterranean, Madagascar and Africa. Not but a moment off the plane, and Sallie can be found out in the waters with her face mask on and her collecting gear in hand. Ed affectionately laments that he is left on shore "holding the bag" as he waits for Sallie to emerge from the water with her prize collection for the day! Sally exhibits a quiet integrity and oneness with nature, bringing her the peace and ease to understand intrinsically that which surrounds her. It is our great fortune and with deep warmth and appreciation that we welcome Sailie to the GCAS tonight to share her vast knowledge and experiences with us on "Breeding Loaches and Synodontis!"


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October 2004

A Question and Answer column moderated by Claudia Dickinson and Jannette Ramirez Pouring through books, perusing over the globe, conversing heartily with our peers in friendly debate, listening in rapt attention to the words of a distinguished lecturer in a packed auditorium, only to return to our own tanks to ponder further over our own fish and our hobby Be it the first year, or the fortieth year, for as many years as we care for our aquatic inhabitants, there are as many questions as there are answers. With every corner turned, in our discovery of each new species offish or plant and with every new spawn, our insatiable inquisitiveness only grows and flourishes without bounds on this, the journey of our hobby. CD.

The spectrum of questions is endless with such a broad subject as loaches and synodontis. In order for us to begin to have our own specimens breed, it is important to first understand where they originate, and the waters which they are used to, in order for our loaches and synodontis to feel most at ease for procreation within our own tanks. With her passion for breeding those which have never bred in a home aquarium previously, and her many years of personal observation in nature of these fish, Sallie Boggs is surely the perfect guest to answer our many queries this month. A heartfelt thank you to Sallie for taking the time to bring us her great erudition on loaches and synodontis!

fk "What is the geographic origin of most, if not all, loaches?"

There are loaches in Europe, China, India and many other places in the northern European continent. Rumors have it that Dojo loaches have been introduced in Lake Erie.

"What is the natural habitat as far as substrate, plants, rocks, wood and water parameters of loaches?"

It varies from large rivers to rice paddies to cool water rapidly flowing streams.


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Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

"Do all loaches prefer to school, or do some loaches favor a solitary life?"

I don't know about all loaches, but all the ones I have, except for the tiger loach, seem to keep together.

1^ "What is the geographic origin of most, if not all, synodontis?'

Africa ~ some rivers and some lakes.

"What is the natural habitat as far as substrate, plants, rocks, wood and water parameters of synodontis?"

Caves to open water, or upside-down under an overhang.

"Do all loaches and synodontis prefer to be active during the evening hours?"

One cannot lump all loaches together. The sidthimunki and Batik loaches are out and swimming around most all day. Some of the larger synos are out all day in my tanks. The multis are out night and day. The rest are usually hiding all day except when they are breeding.

Sallie Boggs Grand Master Breeder Sallie Boggs is preeminent in the aquatic world for her great passion and success with collecting and breeding oddball, rare and difficult to breed fish. A lady as full of quiet, unassuming charm as she is with an infinite wisdom on all that she has made her desire to study, research and observe, aquatic and otherwise, Sallie is a highly sought after speaker across the country, bringing her 50 years of experience to share gladly with other hobbyists. Documenting her studies through photographs and numerous articles, Sallie credits her success to the time spent observing the fish that she has, Sallie is as kind and generous in sharing her own knowledge as she is with encouraging fellow aquarists to share their experiences and thoughts with her.

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October 2004


The DeFINitive

Tetra Breeding Article by BERNARD HARR1GAN ou can use this article for breeding the Blood-Fin Tetra (Aphyocharax anisitsi), Blind Cave Fish (Astyanaxfasciatus mexicanus), Cardinal Tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi), Beacon (or "Head and Tail Light") Tetra (Hemigrammus ocelifer), Rummynose Tetra (Hemigrammus bleheri), Flame Tetra (Hyphessobryconflammeus), Black Phantom Tetra (Megalamphodus megalopterus), Red Phantom Tetra (Megalamphodus sweglesi), Red-Eye TQtra(Moenkhausiasanctaefilomenae), Harrison's Pencilflsh (Nannostomus harrisoni), Marginatus (or "Dwarf) Pencilflsh (Nannostomus marginatus), Three-Line Pencilflsh (Nannostomus trifasciatus), Emperor Tetra (Nematobrycon palmeri), X-Ray Tetra (Pristella maxillaris\d it can be adapted for breeding most other terra species.


TANK CO짜gft Start with one period. A week of to two dozen young separation and extra rich tetras, all purchased at diet should be all they'11 the same time from one need. source. Being young, While that is they are less stressed by going on, set up their their journey from the honeymoon suite. Start importer/fish farm, the with a clean 51A gallon wholesaler, and/or the tank. Place it in a dimly pet store to your home. lit area. All tetras are They are also less light sensitive, to some degree; the eggs and fry expensive if purchased when they are young. are especially so. Cut a Some pet shops will piece of plastic egg crate Typical tetra spawning tank give you a discount for Drawing by B. Harrigan that's used in lighting to completely cover the purchases of a dozen or bottom of the tank. Place a small submersible more fish, if you ask them. heater in the back of the tank. Put one floating, Once you have them home, practice good and two sinking, spawning mops towards the right aquatic husbandry. Most tetras that you will be trying to breed have a natural environment which side of the tank. This is the spawning site. Attach a small sponge filter to the left side of the tank. consists of soft, acidic water with almost no trace Have it flowing to a slow to moderate rate. of nitrites, nitrates, or ammonia. That's the environment you're trying to emulate. Some tetras Water parameters can vary when keeping are sensitive to changes in the water, but it is tetras. However, for breeding purposes, they important to change 25% of the water every week. cannot. Research the species you're trying to This will help you to raise the healthiest and most breed. Cardinal Tetras (Cheirodon axelrodi) need prolific breeding stock possible. a pH of 5.8, with the water temperature around While raising the tetras to maturity, look 76째F, while Serpae Tetras (Hyphessobrycon for signs of sexual differences. In some species, it serpae) want a pH of 6.8 with a water temperature will be obvious, but with most tetras it won't. A of 80째F. Always use the softest water possible. good rule of thumb is that females of most terra Keep your water hardness under 30 ppm. Mix species are larger, and have a more rounded gut tap water with RO (reverse osmosis) water, or even area. Also, keep an eye out for two fish that keep distilled water. Never use rainwater, since you swimming together. They're your best choice for don't know what contaminants the rain will pick up a breeding pair. I like to see the males very active, as it falls from the sky. and the females round and ripe. Prepare 55 gallons of water that could Separate the pair from each other into either be housed in a large plastic garbage can or a tanks by themselves. (Absence makes the heart 55 gallon tank. Filter the water using preboiled grow fonder!) At this point, I will start adding peat moss. This lowers the pH, softens the water white worms to their diet. It's an especially rich even further, and releases tannic acid in the process food that helps ensure maximum egg production, (a must-have, for some tetras). You will be using but it is too rich to feed the fish over an extended the 55 gallons for breeding and raising the fry.


October 2004

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

of the tank, or some may be darting around. If no After filling the breeding tank with this water, I fry are noticed, recover the tank, and check it again also add some of it to each of the tanks housing the every 12 hours. By the next day, if no fry are parents-to-be. Wait until you know you'll have a spotted, then check the eggs. Do they have an opaque appearance, or look fungused? If so, then morning free. Then, the night before, add the the spawn isn't viable. It's time to start over. happy couple — first the female. Give her at least However, if they're dark brown to black, then an hour to get adjusted to her new surroundings recover the front of the tank, and be patient. before you add the male. Cover the top of the tank Recheck them every 12 hours. to prevent the terras from jumping out. Then cover In about 4-5 days, the fry will have the entire tank with heavy black plastic. This is absorbed the yoke, and are ready to be fed. Their done to keep all light out. In the morning, when you have time to mouths are minuscule. Green water and infusoria spend with the pair, slowly peel the plastic from should be their first foods. Feed the fry two to the top front corner of the tank, until you have three times a day, in small amounts. Uneaten food will remain alive to be consumed later, but too removed all of the plastic from the tank's front much food will foul the tank. Careful daily water glass. Leave the other sides covered. You want to changes are a must. Remove one gallon of simulate dawn — their normal spawning time in detritus-laden water, the wild. With low level light, their ^^^j^^f^j^^^^^. y^^^^^^^^g^:^}^ without syphoning any courting dance should ^;;^if ^§;^ ^ fe& SJs^SilSSISlw;- fry- Refill with water begin in 10 to 15 :^f^S^§0fy from your 55 gallon reservoir. Once again, minutes. If the light is be sure that the new too intense, it may take water isn't cooler than over an hour. If all the water in the tank. goes well, you'll have Watch the fry carefully, "love at first light." _._-., making sure that all are The male will eating. dance around the "iri'T!r!*^t-r*:'iS^^S® doing well and female, trying to draw Three days her to the spawning after the first feeding site. They will be Red-Eye Tetra (Moenkhausia sanctaefllomenae) (depending on the laying and fertilizing Drawing by B. Harrigan species) start weaning the fry over to eggs. This will be repeated over and over, until all the eggs are laid. microworms. Then, a day or two later, add baby brine shrimp. Microworms are smaller, and can be Terras can lay anywhere from less than 50 to more eaten earlier than baby brine shrimp. The brine than 1,000 eggs. Once the spawning activity has ceased, shrimp need to be placed in a very fine net, and remove the adults. They will offer no parental rinsed off in freshwater before being fed. Baby brine shrimp will speed the growth of the fry, and care, and are notorious egg eaters. Put them back turn their bellies orange. Once you can see that all into their conditioning tanks and feed them. They of the fry are eating the baby brine shrimp, you can are tired, hungry, and they need to rest. stop feeding the green water/infusoria. After the adults are squared away, it's Once the fry have been completely back to the eggs. Do a 50% water change on the spawning tank, using the extra water you made up. weaned from the green water/infusoria, it's time to Make sure that the new water isn't cooler than the move them into a larger tank. Have a 30 gallon water in the breeding tank, even by a couple of Long already established two weeks prior to this, degrees. The water change is to remove any waste with sponge filters, a submersible heater, a few produced by the adults overnight, or during their aquatic plants, and a tightly fitted hood. Always be morning of frolicking. Retape the black plastic careful that the temperature of the new tank cover over the front of the tank. As stated earlier, matches the temperature of the breeding tank. If these eggs are light sensitive, and too intense of a the water is cooler by even a couple of degrees, it light source could wipe out your entire spawn. could make the tetras prone to diseases, such as The eggs hatch out after 36 hours, ich. Larger spawns might need to be split up into depending on the species. Peel away the front two tanks, depending on the species. With regular water changes, and good panel and check for fry. Do not use a bright light (I can't emphasize this enough). The fry will look aquatic husbandry, you should find yourself with like tiny slivers of glass, less than one-eighth of an tons of tetras! inch long. They will appear to be stuck to the side

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

October 2004


Photos and captions of our September 2004 meeting

GCAS President Joe Ferdenzi proudly extends a warm welcom to our guest speaker Dr. Ted Coletti. Our evening's guest speaker, the celebrated Dr. Ted Coletti, treated us to an extraordinary "New Look at Livebearers !" If it is the perfect food for your livebearers that you are searching for, the knowledgeable Steve Giacobello, "SpawnedintheUSA.com" proprietor, and "MA" advertiser, is definitely the man that you want to see!

Whether it is with donations o exquisite fish, or helping to keep the auction running smoothly, Anton Vukich is always ready withl a radiant smile that matches his** A lively discussion on livebearers warm heart! prevails, as a common cord of fish and friendship is struck between GCAS member Lenny RamroopJ and our guest speaker Dr. Ted ill Coletti. Andr extensive wisdom on killiflsh, as he joins us our guest speaker in November.


October 2004

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

by Claudia Dickinson

The interests may vary from the far reaches of African Cichlids, to Discus, to Bettas, but the common bond of friendship is universal in the aquatic world, as exemplified by Michael Foran, Mark Rubanow, and Bill Amely!

Bennie Graham's smile lights up the room, as he makes an exceptional find in the auction!

GCAS Vice President Mark Soberman's illustrious aquatic bookshelves are overflowing, but| as the winner of one of the evening's Door Prizes, there is always room for one more! GCAS members Brian Grossberg Door Prize winners Susan and and Andrew Jacovina are definitely Peter Steiner are delighted with an considering adding livebearers to elegant edition on Swordtails and their tanks after listening to our Platies to add to their aquatic evening's program! library!

Our September Bowl Show Winners

Evelyn Eagan - 1st Place Bi-color Betta splendens Evelyn Eagan - 3rd Place Red combtail Betta splendens

Rich Levy - 2nd Place Swordtail guppy Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

October 2004


SpawnedintheUSA.com Aquarium fish, supplies and stuff...

• Locally Spawned Fish • T-shirts • Polo Shirts • Sweatshirts • Coolers, Shipping Bags • And much, much more .. cell: 914-374-8073




Mark Rubanow 205 8th Street, Hicksville, NY 11801 (516) 939-0267 or (516) 646-8699 (beeper) morgansfin@aol.com


October 2004

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

Tfee Romance of by JOSEPH FERDENZI ften, I am introduced to others at social gatherings as a "fish expert." Sometimes, I correct this description because I really don't see myself as a "fish expert." True, I probably know more about fish than most people, but I certainly don't consider myself to be a "fish expert" in the same way as a professional ichthyologist might be considered. Moreover, I know hobbyists who know a lot more about fish (or a particular genus or species) than I do. No, I don't like the label of "fish expert." What I really consider myself to be is an "amateur aquarist," and therein lies a tale of romance. If you look up the word "amateur" in an English dictionary, you will find that the word is derived from a French word, which in turn is derived from a Latin word, meaning "lover," and describes someone who engages in an activity for the love of it (as opposed to, say, a professional, who gets paid for engaging in that activity). Well, my participation in the aquarium hobby is surely done for the love of it. I have never been in the business of selling fish, plants, or other aquarium products, and my services have never been for hire (there is nothing wrong with a hobbyist doing any of those things; I just haven't done any). My love is for aquariums, not fish per se (by themselves). I can recall visiting the fishroom of a nationally known guppy breeder. His guppies were beautiful. His fishroom consisted of row upon row of gleaming, sparkling clear tanks containing a veritable rainbow of vividly colored guppies. His fish had the best of everything. I was very impressed, but I knew that kind of fishroom would bore me inside of a year if it were mine. Those gleaming tanks contained two items: water and guppies — that's it — not one plant or speck of gravel was to be seen anywhere. Don't get me wrong: I can appreciate what this person was doing; I even admired it, but it wasn't for me. What he was doing, in my mind, was more akin to animal husbandry than it was to aquarium keeping. To me, there is a big difference. I've also met hobbyists who have tanks in which they house fish, usually large ones like Oscars, Red Tailed Catfish, Goldfish, and have names for them, and enjoy feeding them, and interacting with them — in other words, they treat them like they would an "aquatic dog." That's great, and I admire that, but it's not what I love. I don't keep fish for that reason. I keep them because they are part of our natural world, and my love for aquariums reflects their part in that world. Fish may, indeed, be the "stars" of the aquarium,


Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

but they are not the whole show. If all I could do was keep fish in a container of water, I might still be in the hobby, but I definitely wouldn't be in love with it. I love aquariums because they enable me to put a little "slice" of nature in my home. It is a slice that few of us would otherwise get to see (for most of us, including me, snorkeling and scuba diving are not everyday, or even every month, options). My earliest interest in aquariums was inspired by the fact that I grew up in the concrete and asphalt world of New York City where there was little of the natural world left, much less anything aquatic (and here I am referring primarily to freshwater biotopes). What I love to do is take a glass case and fill it with water, gravel or sand, rocks, wood, plants, fish, and aquatic invertebrates, thereby creating a living water world into which I can peer as long as my heart desires. I want it to "look" natural — it doesn't have to be an exact duplicate of a particular biotope, or meet some rigorous scientific test, but, on the other hand, a tank with a castle and a sign that says "no fishing" doesn't thrill me. Takashi Amano's aptly titled book, Nature Aquarium World, illustrates gorgeous, even stunning, natural-looking aquariums that probably exist nowhere in nature. But, as anyone who has seen his tanks, or photos of his tanks, can attest to, his aquariums are breathtaking works of beauty using only natural looking materials. They always have gravel or sand, rocks or wood (or both), fish, aquatic invertebrates, and plants (besides the water, of course!). You cannot underestimate the importance of plants in making an aquarium truly beautiful (here, I am referring primarily to freshwater aquariums). Plastic plants are not plants any more than plastic fish would be considered to be fish. Plastic plants may have their uses, but they have no place in a natural aquarium in my home. Since I generally maintain a large fishroom, I am fortunate to be able to keep a variety of tanks. Some are rather bare, and are used solely for breeding certain fish. Some have no plants because they could not thrive with the fish housed in those tanks. But, I always have many tanks containing what I love: the complete package, the aquarium that is that little slice of aquatic nature. Are you an amateur aquarist? If so, like me, wear that badge with pride.

October 2004




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Sunday, Oct 10, 2004 First Aid Squad Building 18 Spring St - Freehold, NJ Free admission ($2 bidder fee) • open to the public • snacks and refreshments available Registration: 9:00 am - 11:00 am • Viewing of items: 10:00 am - 11:45 pm • Auction starts: Noon For more information or to preregister, e-mail Joann: jojo2017@aol.com; or call (732)625-1920 http://www.jerseyshoreas.org

NEW HAMPSHIRE AQUARIUM SOCIETY 12th Annual Auction October 17, 2004 Newington Town Hall Newington, N.H. 9:00am - Noon: fish registration, bidder cards and preview • Noon: Auction http://www.nhaquariumsociety.com

3 pm: Raffle drawing

All Aquarium Catfish Convention - Oct 15 -17,2004 Best Western Maryland Inn 15101 Sweitzer Lane Laurel, Maryland Speakers and panelists include: Lee Finley, Ian Fuller, Shane Linder, Ng Heok Hee, Ron Nielson, Ingo Seidel, J.R. Shute, Stan Weitzman, Eric Bedrock, Don Kinyon, and GCAS's own Mark Soberman http://www.pvas.com/catfish/welcome.htm


October 2004

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)



I St. Brendon's Church East 12th St. & Ave. 0, B k l y n NY

VIEWING OF LOTS 7:30PM AUCTION S T A R T S 8:30PM Free Admission • Free Parking • Refreshments • Fish Food Samples • Sale Items • Books • Vendors Tables For more Information visit our web site WWJALBJRJS^ or call BAS 24 Hr. Calendar of Events/Inclement Weather Hotline

(710) 637-4455 _ f Belt Parkway to Ocean Parkway drive North to Ave, N. Turnrightinto N and anotherrightinto E.l2th St. Drive to Ave. O. Church Parking on right in Church lot or park on street. Cor North: lake BQE to Prospect Expressway which becomes Ocean PanWiy. Drive to Ave. N. Turn left and continue to E.12lh St. Then make right to Ave. O. (follow parking directions above} Ftrotfvlo Ave. M. Wdk along Ave M to E. 12lh St. Make right and walk to Ave. O. Auction is in Church Hal! across the street from lot on the left . Follow signs.

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

October 2004


wa rd I ey







"HI 111 Cqme see our large Aquarium Plant display and receive I p I I ONE FREE cultivated plant, just for stopping by!






October 2004

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

Pass The Remote A series by "The Under gravel Reporter"

his summer, the 20 year old plus air conditioner in my bedroom finally "gave up the ghost" and needed replacement. When I went to the local appliance store, I was given a choice between a model with, and a model without, a remote control. I also discovered at the store that even some fans now have remote controls. Since I didn't need yet another remote to lose, program, or keep "fed" with batteries, I chose the model without a remote. (I doubted that the "universal" remote I use for my television, video DVD player, stereo receiver, music CD player, and video recorder could be programmed for an air conditioner, even if I could control yet another device with it.) When I commented to a friend that a remote control on an air conditioner seemed pointless, he remarked that his air conditioner is mounted high on the wall, and that a remote was essential to him. I suggested he could just set the air conditioner to a comfortable setting, plug it into a power strip on the floor, and turn the air conditioner on and off by pressing the on/off button of the power strip — no batteries, programming, or lost remote controls. He looked at me as if I had just emerged from the 17th century. Imagine, controlling something by hand, when you could do it by remote! (To which I replied that since the power strip would be on the floor, you didn't have to use your hands, you could use your big toe. That got me an even more incredulous stare.) However, this got me to thinking about "remote control fishkeeping." When you think about it, this is not really a new idea. Automatic ("vacation") feeders have long been in the hobby, powered by batteries or electricity (although they could probably be designed to work on solar power, or even as a "wind-up" device). Many aquarists use central filtration that incorporates slow new water addition with old water removal, or that just adds new water when evaporation drops the water level below a specified level (some betta


Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

and guppy breeders never do water changes — their automatic systems do all the work for them). Many aquarists (myself included) use electric timers to control the lighting on at least some tanks. Some aquarists go one step further and have several timers controlling banks of lights, to approximate the gradual increasing and decreasing levels of light that occur at dawn and dusk (and some even have "moon lights"). We all preset our tank heaters to a desired temperature per tank, and the heaters then turn on and off automatically in response to our "programming." You can go on the Internet to see "webcams" of fish tanks (cameras pointed at aquariums). Inexpensive webcam cameras will even let you enjoy looking at your tanks remotely, so you can enjoy (and check on) your fish without having to go down to your fishroom. We already have air pumps with rheostats (rotary dials) that control the amount of air going to all of the filters and airstones to which they are attached, and we have valves for individual air lines, that do the same for single devices. The aquarium hobby only lacks an "all-in-one universal" remote to control all these other devices. Imagine laying back and being able to see on your bedroom TV any of your tanks equipped with a camera (and, of course, being able to pan, focus, and zoom the camera so that you can see everything in the tank). Does the water seem a bit more cloudy than it should? Then use your remote to cut down on the amount of food automatically dispensed, increase the flow rate for water exchange, and increase the airflow into the sponge or box filter. Is the tank getting a bit too much algae? Then reduce the amount of food and the amount of time the light stays on, and increase the water exchange flow rate. I could get one of those automatic robotic vacuum cleaners to clean the fishroom floor and pick up any "crispy critters" that have jumped. Maybe I can even attach a net to a robotic arm to remove any "floaters" in the tank — all controlled by my universal aquarium remote control device. Hmmm, I'm seeing a pattern here. If I can identify certain common problems, maybe I can automate the system to the point where my intervention is not needed at all. If so, all I have to do is lay back in bed and enjoy the fish in my tanks. I'll need to convince my aquarium society to webcast their meetings on the Internet, so I don't need to leave my house to hear the speaker. (It would have to be an "interactive" broadcast, so I could bid on auction items — to be paid by credit card and mailed to me, of course).

October 2004


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Open Saturdays and Sundays Amex, Discover, MasterCard, Visa 2 miles off exit 11N of the Belt Parkway www.WorldClassAquarium.com


October 2004

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

Fin Fun Name That Loach Many loaches have common names used by aquarists. Below, the left column has the scientific names of some loaches. See how many of these you can match up with their correct corresponding common names, listed in the right column. Have you noticed yet that there is one more name in the "common" column than there is hi the "scientific" column? Just for fun, match two of the common names to one of the scientific names! Answer next month. Scientific Name

Common Name Manchurian Loach

Botia morleti Misgurnus fossil is

Banded Loach

Botia modest a Acantopsis dialuzona

Orange Finned Loach Horn's Loach Weather Loach

Botia helodes

Clown Loach

Botia sidthimunki

Long Nosed Loach Dwarf Loach

Pangio pangia Botia macracanthus Botia striata Leptobotia mantschurica

Banded Loach Cinnamon Loach Tiger Loach

Solution to last month's puzzle: BtlbbleneSt OF Latin name


Common Name Siamese Fighting Fish

Betta splendens


Carassius auratus


Orange Bushfish

Microctenopoma ansorgei


Peacock Goby

Tateurndina ocellicauda

Kissing Gourami

Helostoma temminckii

Dusky Perch

Epinephelus guaza


Pigmy Haplo

Haplosternum pectoral

Giant Gourami

Osphronemus goramy

Sparkling Gourami

Trichopsis pumila

Chocolate Gourami

Sphaerichthys osphromenoides


No Bubblenest



a a a

Bonus Point: The answer to the question "Which fish would have the hardest time trying to survive with any other fish on this list?" is the Dusky Perch (since it was the only saltwater fish on the list). 24

October 2004

Modern Aquarium - Greater City A.S. (NY)

Profile for Dan Radebaugh

Modern Aquarium  

October 2004 volume XI number 8

Modern Aquarium  

October 2004 volume XI number 8