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Commercial Centers : Revisiting Typologies

Manan Narang

A Thesis submitted to The School of Planning and Architecture in fulfillment of the requirements for The Degree of Bachelor of Architecture May 2011, New Delhi

Thesis Guides Professor Vinod Gupta Professor Moti Lal Bahri

Commercial Centers : Revisiting Typologies

Manan Narang

Declaration The research work embodied in the thesis titled Commercial Centers : Revisiting Typologies has been carried out by the undersigned as part of the undergraduate program in the Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi, India under the supervision of Professors Vinod Gupta and M.LBahri The undersigned hereby declares that this is his original work and has not been plagiarized in part or full from any source. Furthermore, this work has not been submitted for any degree in this or any other university.

________________________ Enrollment No | A/1867/2006

May 2011 in New Delhi

Commercial Centers : Revisiting Typologies

Manan Narang

Certificate Certified that the thesis titled Commercial Centers : Revisiting Typologies submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Degree of Bachelor of Architecture, is the bonafide work of Manan Narang who carried out the research work under our supervision in the Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, Further certified that to the best of our knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other thesis or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate We recommend that the thesis be placed before the examiners for their consideration for the award of a B.Arch Degree



Professor Moti Lal Bahri Dept. of Architecture School of Planning and Architecture

Professor Vinod Gupta Space Design Consultants G-4, Masjid Moth, GK-2, New Delhi

________________________ Professor Aruna Ramani Grover Thesis Coordinator Dept. of Architecture School of Planning and Architecture

Commercial Centers : Revisiting Typologies

Manan Narang

Acknowledgements This Thesis would not have been possible without Professors Vinod Gupta and M.L Bahri, for their continued and much needed guidance and support for the process of design and writing the book Professor Aruna Ramani Grover, for helping us frame the book and guiding us throughout the process Professors Sambuddha Sen, Shweta Manchanda, Iftikar Mulk Chisti, Rajiv Aggarwal, Arun Rewal, Santosh Aulakh, Arvind Krishnan and Satish Dabral for their much needed crits whenever required My Mother, for her unfailing support and encouragement My Father, for always keeping me on guard My siblings, to take my mind off design My poor little brain for coping with the pressure of writing a Design Thesis My desktop for its unswerving loyalty and being there for me always without fail (crash) My friends Moby, Pompi, Pinku, Cchotu, Doosh, Wiki Das, Slim , Dumb@$$,Po and Jal Maata for being there through thick and thin and the weekly you know whats


Commercial Centers : Revisiting Typologies

Manan Narang

सारांश यह थेिसस आज के मौजद ू ा वािणि यक कद्र को प्र न करने की कोिशश है | इस पिरयोजना के िवचार और अ वेषण भारतीय संदभर् म वािणि यक क्षेत्र के इितहास, शाहजहानाबाद के बाज़ार , और सन ८० का पहला मुि त लेक्स, तथा आज के शौिपंग मौल को समझने से उ प न हुए है | यह पिरयोजना साकेत सामुदाियक कद्र के िलए प्र तािवत िकया गया है | यह थेिसस मौल तथा मुि त लेक्स स कृित को समझने का प्रयास करती है , जब वे अपने प्रारि भक अव था म थे, तािक हम उसकी अ छी और बुरी िवशेषताओं को समझ कर आने वाले कल के वािणि यक के द्र के िलए एक संतिु लत ि टकोण को इजाद करने म सक्षम ह | मुख्य प से वािणि यक िवकास है | अ य काय म एक म टी लेक्स, बरात घर और क वशन सिु वधाएं, एक िबजनेस होटल और टूिडयो अपाटर् म स शािमल ह | आगे िव तार के िलए काप्र ताव िकया है | आज िद ली म नािमत वािणि यक क्षेत्र की सख्त ज रत है | यह िपछले २-३ दशक से शहर भर म आवासीय कालोिनय म वािणि यक थान की बाढ़ से प ट है | हाल ही म शहर म भूिम के उपयोग को िविनयिमत करने के प्रयास का कड़ा िवरोध हुआ है | िद ली म वािणि यक क्षेत्र की जिटलता को समझने के िलए, हम पहले इस मु े पर िद ली मा टर लान की राय को समझना आव यक है | इन िजला गए और आज वािणि यक िव तार अनुकूल

और सामुदाियक के द्र म अिधकांश सं ७० से ८० के बीच िवकिसत िकए की बढ़ती ज रत को पूरा करने म सक्षम नहीं ह | आज, यह भिव य के पर िवचार करने की सकत ज़ रत है | कभी शहर की बदलती ज रत के यावसाियक इमारत के ढं ग को पुनः िवकिसत करने की आव यकता है |


Commercial Centers : Revisiting Typologies

Manan Narang

List of Plates 1.1 | 1.2 | | | | | | | | | | |

Connaught Place, Source : |2| Top Left : Busy Indian Street |3| Bottom Left : Janpath after renovation, Source : Top Left : Insula at Ostia, Rome, Source : |7| Bottom Left : Nai Sarak, Old Delhi, Source : Competition Entry : Design proposal for SkyVillage, a Mixed Use Development in Rødovre, |8| Source : Images showing the on site construction of 8House at Orestad, Copenhagen, by BIG |9| Architects, Source : Street life at Paseo Colorado, Pasadena, California, Source : |10| Next21, experimental housing and mixed use project, Osaka, Japan, |11| Source : Top Left : Silk Road and sea routes between Europe and Asia, Source : |13| Bottom Left : Streets and Avenues of New York, Source : The To Do List for a Healthy Street Dialogue, Dissertation by Shriya V . Top & Bottom Left : Old lithographs showing street life in Shahjahanabad, |14| Source : Bottom Right : Plan and perspective view of a street in Jaisalmer, Source : Street Form, Dissertation by Rewal A. Old lithograph showing a bird’s eye view of Shahjahanabad, Source : |15| Top Left : Entrance to Ghaffar Market, Karol Bagh |16| Bottom Left : Ajmal Khan Road, Karol Bagh, Source : Bottom Right : Gridiron Planning, Karol Bagh, Source : Top Left : High rise buildings at Barakhamba Road |17| Bottom Left : Street view, Old Delhi, showing Jama Masjid in the background, Source :


Commercial Centers : Revisiting Typologies

Manan Narang

List of Plates | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

Top Left : Mall of America, Bloomington, Minnesota |19| Bottom Left : Toronto Eaton Centre, Ontario, Canada, Source : Images showing Malls, both abroad and in India, Source : Miscellaneous |20| Top Left : Zone F, New Delhi, Source : |23| Bottom Left & Right : Map showing Saket Community Centre, Source : Eicher Maps Satellite image of Saket Community Centre, Source : |24| Layout Plan of Saket Community Centre, Source : Rejuvenation… Yashwant Place, |25| Chanakyapuri, Thesis by Guha S. Typical Floor Plan of Saket Community Centre, Source: Rejuvenation… Yashwant Place, |26| Chanakyapuri, Thesis by Guha S. Top : Existing Area Program, Saket Community Centre, Source : Rejuvenation… Yashwant |27| Place, Chanakyapuri, Thesis by Guha S. Bottom : Existing Built Up Area and Ground Coverage Pie Charts, Source : Author. Site Sections, Saket Community Centre, Source : Rejuvenation… Yashwant Place, |28| Chanakyapuri, Thesis by Guha S. Panaromic View, Saket Community Centre, Source : Rejuvenation… Yashwant Place, |29| Chanakyapuri, Thesis by Guha S. Plans and Section, PVR Anupam, Source : Rejuvenation… Yashwant Place, |30| Chanakyapuri, Thesis by Guha S. Redevelopment Proposal,2006, Saket Community Centre, Source : DDA Archives. |31| Top Left: Zone F, New Delhi, Source : |34| Bottom : Images of Basant Lok Community Centre, Source : Top Left : Map of Delhi, Source : Author |35| Top Right : Map of Basant Lok, showing the Community Centre, Source : Satellite image of Basant Lok Community Centre, Source : |36| Layout Plan of Basant Lok Community Centre, Source : Author |37|


Commercial Centers : Revisiting Typologies

Manan Narang

List of Plates | | | | | | | | | | | | 3.1 | 3.3 |

Top : Existing Area Program, Basant lok Community Centre |38| Bottom : Site Sections, Basant Lok Community Centre, Source : Rejuvenation‌ Yashwant Place, Chanakyapuri, Thesis by Guha S. Top Left : Open space Configuration at Basant Lok Community Centre |39| Bottom Left : Parking areas at Basant Lok Community Centre, Source : Author Bottom : Images and visual of model, India Habitat Centre, Source : |42| Satellite image of India Habitat Centre, Source : |43| Layout Plan, India Habitat Centre, Source : Community Center : An Exploration of the Public |44| Realm, Thesis by Reshma A. Top : Upper & Lower Basement Plans, India Habitat Centre |45| Bottom : Site Section, India Habitat Centre, Source : Community Center : An Exploration of the Public Realm, Thesis by Reshma A. Top & Bottom Left : Images showing India Habitat Centre, Source : |46| Top Right : Reference Map, India Habitat Centre, Source : Images showing India Habitat Centre, Source : |47| Top Left : Site Plan, City Centre, Salt Lake City, Source : |50| Bottom Left : Percentage distribution of Program Components, City Centre, Salt Lake City, Source : Community Center : An Exploration of the Public Realm, Thesis by Reshma A. Bottom Center & Right : Images of City Centre, Salt Lake City, Source : Satellite image of City Centre, Salt Lake City, Kolkata, Source : |51| Floor Plans, City Centre, Salt Lake City, Kolkata, Source : Community Center : An |52-57| Exploration of the Public Realm, Thesis by Reshma A. Images of Salt Lake City Centre, Source : Miscellaneous |58-59| Top Left : Street life at Lajpat Nagar Market |62| Bottom Left : Interior street, Palika Bazaar, Source : Activity Frequency Chart for various Program Components, Source : Author |64|


Commercial Centers : Revisiting Typologies

Manan Narang

List of Plates 3.4-8 | 3.9 | 4.1 |

4.2 | 4.3 | 4.4 | 4.5 | 4.6 | 4.7 | 4.8 | 4.9 | 4.10 | 4.11 | 4.12 | 4.13 | 4.14 -15 | 5.2 | 6.1 | 6.2 | 6.3 |

Flow Chart Analysis for Program Components, Source : Miscellaneous |65-69| Top Right : Pie Chart for Proposed Area Distribution |70| Bottom : Adjacency Matrix for Proposed Development, Source : Author Left : Delhi Land Use Map, Source : |73| Top Right : Prevailing Wind Data, Delhi, Source : Ecoect Weather Data Center Right : Annual Temperature and Precipitation Data, Source : Left : Delhi Map showing city Linkages and Transport Networks, Source : Author |74| Top Right : Image showing sub zone F-16 in colour, Source : Author Satellite image of Sub-Zone F-16, Source : |75| Map of Sub-Zone F-16, Source : |76| Mapof Sub-Zone F-16, Source : Eicher Maps |77| Plan showing facilities in the neighborhood of the site, Source : Author |78| Figure Ground, Site Precinct, Source : Author |79| Reverse Figure Ground, Site Precinct, Source : Author |80| Built vs. Unbuilt spaces, Site Precinct, Source : Author |81| Road & Nallah Networks, Source : Author |82| Satellite Image highlighting the site, Source: Author |83| Site Plan showing respective building heights, Source : Author |84| Bird’s eye views from Ordinal Points, Source : Author |85| Street images of Saket Community Centre, Source : |86-87| Images showing Commercial Centres around the world, Source : Miscellaneous |91| Top Left : Conceptual Site Section, Source : Author |96| Bottom Left : Convex and Concave, by M.C Escher, Source : Stage Plan showing Pedestrian and Vehicular Circulation, Source : Author |97| Final Site Plan showing Pedestrian and Vehicular Circulation, Source : Author |98|


Commercial Centers : Revisiting Typologies

Manan Narang

List of Plates 7.1 |

7.3 |

7.5 |

8.2 | 8.3 | 8.4 | 8.5 | 8.6 | 8.7 | 8.8 | 8.9 | 8.10 | 8.11 | 8.12 | 8.13 | 8.14 | 8.15 | 8.16-19 | 8.20 |

Top Left : Visual of Block Model, Stage 1 Bottom Left : Figure Ground Analysis of Linkages Bottom Right : 3D site massing, Stage 1, Source : Author Top Left : Visual of Block Model, Stage 2 Bottom Left : Figure Ground Analysis of Linkages Bottom Right : 3D site massing, Stage 2, Source : Author Top Left : Visual of Block Model, Stage 3 Bottom Left : Figure Ground Analysis of Linkages Bottom Right : 3D site massing, Stage 3, Source : Author Project Outline, Source :Author Precinct Plan , Source :Author Site Plan , Source :Author Layout Plan , Source :Author Site Accessibility , Source :Author Site Sections , Source :Author Site Elevations , Source :Author Basement Plan , Source :Author Ground Floor Plan , Source :Author First Floor Plan , Source :Author Third Floor Plan , Source :Author Fifth Floor Plan , Source :Author Seventh Floor Plan , Source :Author Roof Plan , Source :Author Perspective Views , Source :Author Visual of the Models , Source :Author




|108| |109| |110| |111| |112| |113| |114| |115| |116| |117| |118| |119| |120| |121| |122-125| |126-129|


Commercial Centers : Revisiting Typologies

Manan Narang

Table of Contents Design Investigation 1.0 | The Search


2.0 | The Re-Search


3.0 | Reading the Program


4.0 | Reading the Site


5.0 | Framing the Framework


Design Translation 6.0 | Design Realization


7.0 | Design Development


8.0 | Design Proposal





Commercial Centers : Revisiting Typologies

Manan Narang

Synopsis This thesis is an attempt to question the existing commercial center. The ideas and explorations of this project are derived from understanding the history of commercial areas in the Indian context, from market streets of Shahjahanabad to the community centers of 80’s which saw the launch of the first Multiplex in India, acquainting the masses to a new style of shopping and recreation – the Mall. This project, located in Community Center, Saket- home of the PVR Anupam; aims to retrace back to a time when the Mall/Multiplex culture was in its nascent stage, with the intention of distilling the pros and cons of the old Community Center, along with the desirable attributes of the modern shopping mall, in order to contrive a balanced approach for the Commercial Centers of the future. The development is predominantly Commercial. The other functions include a Multiplex, Banquet and Convention Facilities, a Business Hotel and Studio Apartments. Further Expansion has been proposed.




_________________________ THE SEARCH 1.0 | Page


Delhi, apart from being the capital, is one of the most populous cities in India. It is estimated that by 2021, Delhi’s population will rise to 23 million. As per the Economic Survey of Delhi 2001-02, about 2.3 lakh retail enterprises exist in Delhi providing employment to 5.4 lakh people, engaged in trade, commerce and allied services. By 2021, it is expected to grow to 4.15 lakh retail enterprises providing employment to around 9.63 lakh people. In addition to these, “a large number of enterprises in sectors such as restaurants and hotels, finance and insurance, real estate and business operate from commercial centers. This indicates the predominance of retail and allied service activities in the economic structure of the city.”

The Master Plan of Delhi proposes a hierarchical five tier system of planned commercial areas.  Metropolitan City Centre/Central Business District (Connaught Place, Karol Bagh, Walled City and Extensions)

   

District Centers serving a population of 5 lakh. Community Centers serving a population of 1 lakh. Local Shopping Centers serving 10,000 people. Convenience Shopping Centers serving 5,000 people.

Most of these District and Community Centers were developed in the 70’s and 80’s and are ill equipped to address today’s growing needs. The need for more commercial area, owing to increased population densities within Today there is a dire need for designated the city, and the ever changing demand commercial areas in Delhi. This is evident for a certain type of space- commercial; in the present situation call for a in the mushrooming of reconsideration of how we design our commercial/retail spaces in residential commercial areas. colonies throughout the city over the past 2-3 decades. Recent attempts to regulate land use in the city has resulted Today, it is imperative to consider future expansion, ever changing needs of the in widespread public furore, and has city and thus, develop a new way of witnessed little success. looking at commercial building typology, that can address the needs of the To understand the complexity of Commercial sector in Delhi, we need to present and the future. first understand the MPD’s take on this issue.

_________________________ THE PREPOSITION 1.1 | Page


Through the course of this study, I would like to explore and investigate the following research areas : As Delhi is a metropolitan city, land is always a valuable commodity. So how shall one plan for the future, when residential densities and FARs are increased?

| How do we design for uncertainty? What parameters of the development program can be fixed and where do we need flexibility, such that the building/s can adapt to the current needs of its time? |

Malls today occupy a sizeable chunk of the existing commercial area available in Delhi. Although, malls break the | How does the commercial center cope trend in our perception of commercial with the needs of tomorrow? And how areas, with state of the art facilities and a large variety of retail spaces under does one optimize the utilization of one roof, they are mostly exclusive, open areas and common facilities? | regulated environments whereas, traditionally, the Indian marketplace In learning from the past, one can has inherently been inclusive in its suggest that it is futile to design for a fixed need, as needs tend to change disposition. over time. The relevance of one space requirement over the other changes | Can a commercial center, designed many times within the lifespan of a for the future, somehow retain an building. For example, today there is a inclusive character, which is need for more commercial areas, inherently more Indian, more in sync whereas maybe half a century ago, with the way we are and the spaces we industrial areas were in high demand. occupy? |

_________________________ THE SEARCH 1.2 | Page


2.0 _________________________ CORE AREAS OF RESEARCH 2.1 |


_________________________ CASE STUDIES 2.2 |

_________________________ THE RE-SEARCH 2.0 | Page 4

2.1 _________________________ MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT 2.1.1 | _________________________ INDIAN STREETS FOR DUMMIES 2.1.2 |


_________________________ WHY MALLS? 2.1.3 |

_________________________ CORE AREAS OF RESEARCH 2.1 | Page



The community center aims to provide all necessary facilities that the neighborhood requires for sustenance. Also, the community center caters to the city at large, as being centers of trade and commerce, visitors from all over the city pass through daily, for business, leisure and recreation. The center has multiple land use, which can be broadly categorized into commercial- comprising retail and office spaces, recreational and public functions, thereby integrating and unifying common interests. Thus, one of the research topics would be to study how a planned mixed use development functions.

_________________________ MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT 2.1.1 | Page


In the history of urban development,  All project components should be mixing of different land uses in one area interconnected by pedestrian links has been prevalent in human although this integration can take settlements, from small towns to large many physical forms cities. The concept of mixed use urban  A vertical mixing of project areas dates back in history throughout components into single mixed use the world, from the ancient settlements building. of Rome, to the medieval settlements of  Careful positioning of project Europe and the Walled City of components around central public Shahjahanabad. spaces.  Inter-connection of project So what is Mixed Use Development? components through pedestrian friendly pathways. According to the original definition given in Urban Land Institute’s (ULI) These characteristic distinguishes Mixed book – “Mixed use developments: New Use Developments from Multi-use ways of land use” published in 1976, Developments. mixed use developments are characterized by  Three or more significant revenue producing uses.  The three or more uses should be significant and attract a significant market in their own right.

_________________________ MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT | Page


MIXED USE TOWER A mixed use tower is a single structure typically of considerable mass and height, whose uses are principally layered vertically. PROS Consolidation of solid mass into single entity and therefore striking physical profile, establishing a dramatic project identity. CONS Little opportunity exists to create a compelling outdoor public place or civil realm. INTEGRATED MULTI TOWER STRUCTURE They include individual buildings and towers architecturally connected by common atrium, concourse, shopping complex and underground parking structure that integrates all or most of the project components at the lower levels in a common base.

uses- residential or office over retail, for example- in low or midrise buildings. They are predominantly made of a variety of individual buildings arranged along streets and around public squares or other open spaces. Mixed use town centres in urban villages are clearly the direction that most mixed use designs are moving today. Such projects are often developed on large sites where buildings can be arranged and mixed horizontally as well as vertically. They also offer greater flexibility for timing and phasing projects. OPERATIONS, MANAGEMENT AND MAINTENANCE IN MIXED LAND USE No simple formula exists for the design of operations, management, and maintenance structures for mixed- use properties. Rather, structure must reflect the particular nature of each project and the objectives of major participants.

MIXED USE TOWN CENTRE, URBAN VILLAGE AND DISTRICTS They are organized around streets parks plazas and squares and function more like an urban district rather than a single project. They frequently involve stacking

_________________________ MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT | Page


OPERATIONAL ISSUES AND CHALLENGES Mixed use properties often require complex management structures, but the objective should always be to keep the structure as simple and straightforward as possible. Two overriding questions should be addressed upfront in establishing a management plan;  How will operating responsibilities and cost be allocated to the various entities?  How can the detailed operating needs of each use be best served in the overall development and management plan? ALLOCATING RESPONSIBILTIES AND COSTS A typical mixed-use project has three or more separate and distinct income producing entities, each needing distinct operations, management and maintenance requirements. The two major challenges in managing mixed–use properties involve determining the best allocation of responsibilities and allocation of cost of common centrally provided services among the projects participants. These challenges are especially difficult when, as is often the case, participants have radically operating needs and motivation.

These differences have to be resolved in the design of the operations, management, and maintenance. APPRACHES TO OPERATIONS AND MANAGEMENT Operation and management in typical mixed-use developments have evolved through trial and error into major participants striking a deal accepting to all. For mixed use projects in general, the early tendency to divide a project into separately into separately managed components or spaces gradually yielded to a perceived need for more central management ownership entity to private associations; public/private managed entities, and business improvement districts. SOLUTIONS FOR MIXED USE DEVELOPMENTS  District Management by the developer  Separate management, entities and associations  Public/Private approach

_________________________ MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT | Page


COLUMN SPACING AND STRUCTURAL ISSUES Column spacing can vary considerably between uses especially between office and residential uses. In addition, different uses often use different structural systems example, concrete in residential and steel in offices. An innovative structural approach is used in Paseo Colorado, designed by EE&K Architects, in which retail and FLOOR SIZE AND LAYOUT residential facilities were added to a When uses are stacked in a single concrete parking garage. structure, then the problem is In this case a 1.2m high service floor approached in different ways The first is to make the floor smaller was added between residences and at the upper levels where residencies retail for horizontal routing of utilities. or hotel is located. Secondly, one can simply combine uses that are structurally compatible e.g. hotel and condominiums The third solution is to place the hotel/residencies at the top of a structure surrounding a central open space or atrium. Some units or rooms can be oriented outwards and some inwards. STRUCTURAL ISSUES The structural configuration that presents the greatest complexities is stacking uses vertically for example; mixed use towers include underground parking, retail on lower levels, offices above retail and a residential use or hotel on top. Their different requirements create the greatest design problem.

_________________________ MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT | Page 10

CONSOLIDATION COLUMNS In Next21, Osaka, Japan, every four columns on the upper floor are consolidated into one column on the lower floors. This creates a larger base (10.8m x 10.8m) on the lower floors in order to accommodate public facilities. OPPORTUNITIES IN MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT Attractiveness and vitality are sustained during a major part of the day. Reduction in travel time. Creates a suitable environment for small investments which doesn’t easily find place in specialized zones due to inaffordability of expensive establishments and competitive maintenance. Ensures safety of the occupants Results in shared infrastructure thereby making possible economies of scale in development, e.g. parking

PROBLEMS IN MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT From a business point of view, this kind of development calls for extraordinary planning, management and capital resources. There can be a conflict between various activities like noise, traffic etc. Encroachment of other uses onto public spaces affects the quality of residential environment. Problem for separate access for each use.

_________________________ MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT | Page 11


The community center is designed as a public place, an urban space for heterogeneous existence where strangers coexist in peace on civilized terms. Therefore., understanding the factors that contribute in making a successful urban space is important. A lot has been written about the Indian street, the quintessential urban building block of the Indian city. As in the previous chapter, an attempt to understand the Indian street’s characteristics will result in a better understanding of what makes an urban space a public place.

_________________________ INDIAN STREETS FOR DUMMIES 2.1.2 | Page 12

“Streets and their sidewalks, the main public places of a city, are its most vital organs. Think of a city and what comes to mind? It’s streets.” (Jacobs J., 1961, p.29).

spatially and culturally appropriate to the lifestyle and society they were built for. In Europe and the West, before industrialization and the advent of modernism, cities were given backbone by streets and there was a high level of social and community interaction.

The concept of the street has existed since the dawn of time. According to Joseph Rykwert, the history of the street can be traced to the trade routes The New York City plan follows Hippodamian planning principles to of the past. the core, by emphasising a grid iron Though the routes started out as links plan with the city divided into blocks by streets and avenues– hence streets are or connectors, the typology gradually manifested itself into the street – alive the defining, dividing veins of urban mass. The main street or downtown, with activity and purpose and bound inspired by the planning of Beijing, by built and natural enclosures. contains the main public facilities, like a “Thus the street is a cumulative response courtyard, and the town grows around it. Since each block is identical, the to the collective efforts of a society as affected by the selective, distributive and street provides the real character to the city. accommodative forces of the environment.” (Rewal, A, 1988, p.02.) In India, most traditional cities were a mix of organic spontaneity and careful The interaction of the street with urban planning that was contextually human activity, the prevailing socio – valid and socially sensitive. cultural, political and economic conditions, and the physical characteristics of the settlement are of a spatial and volumetric character that is ever changing with time, thus aiding in the layered evolution of the street. Traditional urban design was shaped by the aforementioned factors and thus created cities and streets that were

_________________________ INDIAN STREETS FOR DUMMIES 2.1.2 .1 | Page 13

Traditional Indian cities developed around the arterial network of their streets; and the streets in turn were a function of the lifestyle of the people. Cities were usually ruled by a king who decided and planned out the hierarchical social and urban structure of the city.

Streets were designed for pedestrians and the street volume was in accordance to the human scale. Moreover the narrow winding streets bordered by tall buildings remained pleasantly cool due to shading by the buildings.

Jaisalmer, Rajasthan, a desert town originally built by traders, was conceptualised and designed according to Indian traditions and culture. Thus the streets respond to the socio – cultural aspects of the life of the residents, and also to the climate. They were designed primarily to facilitate The main street of Chandni Chowk was pedestrian movement. Streets are broken up into small visually initially planned as a processional comprehensible units to relieve the avenue with a wide fresh water canal monotony. The high street walls act as running through it, flanked by tree lined sidewalks and commercial shops sun shades and enclosures, and help retain a continuous flow of cool air. that spilled out onto the pedestrian walkways, ensuring vibrant street life. Openings, terraces and balconies were all oriented towards the street, thus facilitating a high degree of interaction. In cities like Shahjahanabad, certain main axial streets were laid out, buildings of prominence marked out at strategic locations, connected by those streets and the rest of the city mushroomed organically.

_________________________ INDIAN STREETS FOR DUMMIES 2.1.2 .2 | Page 14

_________________________ INDIAN STREETS FOR DUMMIES 2.1.2 .3 | Page 15

“The way town planners conceive cities in India is largely derived from British town planning experience in the belief that they are universal and modern. There is no history of indigenous town planning thought to break the colonial influence on the way town planners conceive urban problems.” (Krishna Menon A.G, Imagining the Indian City, Economic and Political Weekly, p.2932) ‘Modern’ urban planning in India was introduced by the British in India at a time when the Garden City principle was gaining prominence as a solution to the evils of the industrialized city. In the west, the city was seen as a glamorous, capitalist, technologically – advanced organism, and then there was a violent shift to the idea of the anti – city, which eventually found expression in India. As per the new city planning dogma, zoning according to functional use occurred, and streets also went from being loci of public life to being segregated into commercial, residential etc. Commercial streets lost their old world charm, as all public activities were compartmentalized into individual buildings – again leaving the street as a road, a mere conduit for transit. A recent example, which brings to light the potential of street life and how it adds value to the surrounding development is Karol Bagh.

Also designed on a grid-iron pattern, the area was primarily residential with a large Muslim population until the exodus of many Muslims to Pakistan and an influx of refugees from West Punjab after Partition in 1947 many of whom were traders. There remains a sizeable Marathi, Tamil-speaking population. Karol Bagh was also home to a large Bengali community, and has one of the oldest Durga Puja in the city, though their numbers have now dwindled. Despite its share of problems of dated ramshackle construction, extremely high densities and no parking space, Karol Bagh is vibrant and lively at all times of the day. The boundaries between residential and commercial get blurred as the shops open onto the same streets as the houses, with roadside temples and mosques jockeying for position with cars and scooters and informal trade stalls lining the road as far as the eye can see.

_________________________ INDIAN STREETS FOR DUMMIES 2.1.2 .4 | Page 16

| PROS |

| CONS |

Owing to the mixed use character of Indian cities, the main streets were always vibrant and active spaces, throughout the day, and well into the night. Achieving such an intensive and consistent use of a designed space is a challenge

Mixed use developments along narrow lanes with traffic choking the area is an aftermath of the advent of automobiles on the urban scene.

The streets reflect the people, and their lifestyle , culture and society, by embodying the day to day activities within its ambit, thus imparting a unique character or flavour to each place, within the city and between different cities. This is lacking in the modern day shopping mall, which suffers from chronic homogeneity. The continuous use of this open space as a place and a busy thoroughfare throughout the day ensured safety to the residents in Mohallas and Koochas

Mixed use developments in large parts of Old Delhi and Karol Bagh are dated and were sporadic in their pattern of development. Therefore, mixed-use areas in Delhi are viewed as inferior developments when compared to their more recent planned counterparts. Mixed use developments, as studied previously, do not support large floor areas, and are more conducive to small establishments, which is incongruous with the definition of retail in the present context, wherein the demand for more and more leasable area is unending.

The scale and degree of enclosure of these streets could be controlled, to respond to the climate of the place, to maximize comfort and usability.

_________________________ INDIAN STREETS FOR DUMMIES 2.1.2 .5 | Page 17


Every weekend, the country’s 250 odd malls report roughly 1.5 lakh footfalls each. It seems that all we do in the name of recreation, is hang out at a mall. In order to contrive a new typology of commercial for the future, it is imperative to understand what makes the mall attractive? Why is the tribe of Indians who throng the malls on weekends growing? Why does the middle class Indian today, find malls a better alternative to the Main Market of the bygone era?

_________________________ WHY MALLS? 2.1.3 | Page 18

According to Wikipedia, a shopping mall or simply mall is one or more buildings forming a complex of shops representing merchandisers, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit, along with a parking area — a modern, indoor version of the traditional marketplace. “Malling” is defined as ‘going to a mall with a large group of people with no intention of buying anything’ by the Today, for most visitors, shopping isn’t the only objective for going to a mall anymore. This goes to show that in the Indian metropolis, malls are fulfilling a need which is more than shopping and leisure.

“Inorbit mall opens its doors at 5 A.M. every morning to morning walkers and joggers, as there are hardly any parks in the neighborhood. Even the few parks are crowded in the mornings. “ Today mall owners look at a mall as a way of creating social infrastructure. The reason why malls have become not only centers to shop and eat, but also to attend cultural events is the very fact that our cities are devoid of abundant community spaces. According to Ranjanja Sengupta, author of Delhi Metropolitan : The Making of an Unlikely City, “Malls embody metropolitan modernity in the urban imagination. They’re places where all the seductive delectables of progress and affluence are on show.”

According to Kishor Bhatija, CEO, Inorbit Malls today, have become the new Town Squares of our cities. Mall, Malad, Mumbai, the shortage of open spaces in the city with even the basic amenities lacking offers potential in engaging with the community.

_________________________ WHY MALLS? | Page 19

| PROS |

| CONS |

According to Naresh Fernandes, consulting editor, Time Out India, “the architecture of malls is intimidating – there are security guards, metal detectors and State of the art facilities, sparkling that signals ‘keep out’ to people of a restrooms, daycare centers, valet certain class” basically implying that the parking, and the security measures. Many malls today have reserved parking inherent character of a mall is not open. for expecting mothers and handicapped It’s an exclusive, introverted people, prams for children, newspapers environment, which is a 180 degree turn from the traditional street pattern. and free Wi-Fi. The convenience factor of having everything in one place.

The right mix of stores under one roof offers enough options . A controlled environment offers the visitor protection from the elements as opposed to a traditional market.

Malls are more or less the same across the world, and thus the diverse character of the cities is homogenized by the rampant mushrooming of malls to fulfill the demand for commercial areas.

_________________________ WHY MALLS? | Page 20

2.2 _________________________ SAKET COMMUNITY CENTRE, NEW DELHI 2.2.1 | _________________________ BASANT LOK COMMUNITY CENTRE, NEW DELHI 2.2.2 | _________________________ INDIA HABITAT CENTRE, NEW DELHI 2.2.3 | _________________________ CITY CENTRE, SALT LAKE CITY, KOLKATA 2.2.4 |

_________________________ CASE STUDIES 2.2 | Page 21

_________________________ SAKET COMMUNTIY CENTRE, NEW DELHI 2.2.1| Page 22

The Saket Community Centre, also known as the Anupam Complex is located in the residential neighbourhood of Saket in South Delhi. It lies on the connecting road between Press Enclave Road and MehrauliBadarpur Road. Total Site Area 28000 m2/7.24 Acres Built Up Area 18410m2 Proposed F.A.R 100 Achieved F.A.R 55 Ground Coverage 25% Covered Area 6880 m2 Open/ Landscaped Area 3408 m2 Parking Area 9575 m2 Paved Area 8197 m2

The community centre was designed by the DDA in 1984; with the Anupam Cinema and office complex. Due to the fading business of Anupam, it was sold to Priya Village Roadshow (PVR), a joint-venture between Village Roadshow Limited; an Australian entertainment company, and Priya Exhibitors Private Limited; in 1996, and was converted to India’s first multiplex, in 1997- PVR Anupam. Today the complex comprises of the PVR Cinema, the Krishna Continental- a 3-star hotel, offices, retail outlets and restaurants. The back of the complex houses the Police Post for Saket.

_________________________ SAKET COMMUNTIY CENTRE, NEW DELHI| Page 23

_________________________ SATELLITE IMAGE | Page 24

_________________________ SITE LAYOUT PLAN | Page 25

_________________________ TYPICAL LAYOUT PLAN | Page 26





SECTION THROUGH RETAIL STREET The built-up area is designed such that the streets end with a focus thereby creating a sense of enclosure. Whereas rear blocks do not create the desired space as it lacks the focus. Activities on either side of the blocks causes movement across the complex giving it a street like character. The scale of space enclosed by the blocks is very intimate. The entire complex has been restricted to a low-rise setup, easily identifiable to the human scale. The elevation controls imposed by the DDA has been deviated from and use of signages and colour has been a contributing factor to the creation of a sense of space.

uninviting. The elevation treatment of the buildings was controlled by the DDA, making the place look monotonous. The restaurants added signages and the colour contributing to a total change in the look of the complex. With the real estate values skyrocketing, more and more offices are being displaced by retail outlets or restaurants.

Each of the flat-office spaces has a staircase and a toilet, which otherwise could have been made a common entity for all the offices. Thus the efficiency of office spaces is greatly reduced, which is also a loss of financial value. Each of the flatThere are 5 office buildings arranged into clusters of 2 and 3 blocks on the north office spaces are 85 m2 of floor area with approximately another 30 m2going and south side of the complex respectively. The ground floor is occupied by into staircases and toilets. This means that for every flat-office, there is a 25% commercial activity, mostly consisting of high end restaurants, pubs and fast loss in floor space. food joints. These are now extending into the upper floors as well. The offices are accessed from the staircases in the parking lots, but due to the restaurants using the same space for services makes the entries rather

_________________________ VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS | Page 28

The informal activities include eating joints and their spill outs, juice shops, pan/cigarette shops, mobile selling stores, STD/Reprography shops, accessories and mehendi-wallahs, book and magazine stalls and pushcarts serving street food. The increase in the growth of the informal market was witnessed after the PVR Anupam came about. Since then, the complex has become more colourful and lively. The forecourt of the cinema acts as an interface between the cinemas and the exterior of the complex- a very common hang out place. This court is often used for conducting street shows and promotional events. This complex has very little street furniture – lamp-posts, stone benches and a few dustbins. Although some of the hoardings were not organised, yet they add colour to the complex. The sitting platforms under the trees have been encroached upon by vendors, resulting in the formation of shopping streets.

The community centre is a scene of chaos, the 6m wide roads insufficient to handle the traffic loads, resulting in jams. No service lanes are provided at the intersection. The constant traffic and spill over parking around the complex is a nuisance for the surrounding residential areas. Bus routes have been altered to avoid the Community Centre owing to the perennial traffic problem. The parking requirement varies during different times of the day. The total required parking is 520 cars, although a provision for a modest 192 cars has been provided. At any given time, the number of cars parked is around 300. Out of these, roughly 100 cars belong to people going to the offices in the complex. During weekends, the parking requirement rises by another 250 cars approximately.

Parking Lots are not well designed. In some cases, entries lead to dead ends and lack visual linkage with the plaza. Due to increase in the parking requirement, The outdoor sitting areas of the food joints also spill onto the open spaces which paid parking has been arranged along the main roads. gives the place a lively atmosphere. Fountains, meant to provide visual delight and thermal comfort, in the courts are in a state of disrepair. Absence of informal activity at the rear end of the site gives the place a deserted look. _________________________



Anupam theatre was constructed in 1984 by the DDA, with a capacity of 986. Due to the falling clientele, the theatre was retro-fitted into the PVR Anupam-4 in 1997 with 4 screens and a seating capacity of 1148 by architects Mathur and Kapre Associates. The cinema is located in the North-West part of the complex with a forecourt on the North, and a piazza on the South side. The cinema has a basement parking for employees of the multiplex along with the parking lots on the rear and North side. The multiplex auditoria seating capacities are as follows: 448 seats 150 seats 150 seats 400 seats

36000 lts 5 m2 30000 lts 50 m2 35 m2 105 m2 178 m2 105 m2 14 m2 30000 m2

430 m2 145 m2 145 m2 460 m2




Audi 1 Audi 2 Audi 3 Audi 4

Underground Water Tank Pump Room Overhead Tank Transformer H.T Panel Control Room A/C Plant Room A/C Plant Store A.H.Us Fire Tank

_________________________ ANUPAM CINEMA | Page 30

_________________________ REDEVELOPMENT PROPOSAL ’06, DDA | Page 31

The open space enclosed by the building blocks is comfortable according to the human scale |

The built mass is focused around two perpendicular streets- the major activity being concentrated along the East-West street leading from the PVR Anupam. The | North-South street fails to draw in crowds as there is hardly any retail on the ground floor along this edge |

The court in front of the multiplex is an active hangout space. The presence of temporary eating joints and street activity around this space adds to the informal | character and this part of the site is the most active throughout the day |

Due to insufficient parking provision at the site, the surplus spills over onto the arterial roads, adding to the chaos at the intersection |

The complex is developed as flatted offices, each unit has its own staircase and toilet. This greatly reduces the efficiency as 25% of each unit goes into exclusive | circulation , leaving only 85 m2 of floor space |

The cinema occupies a large portion of the total ground coverage, with partial retail on the ground floor. The internal shops at the ground floor are uninviting | and the edge shops have been occupied by fast food joints |

_________________________ INFERENCES | Page 32

_________________________ BASANT LOK COMMUNTIY CENTRE, NEW DELHI 2.2.2 | Page 33

The Basant Lok Community Centre in Vasant Vihar, better known as the Priya Complex, is a potpourri of many urban trends - from coffee shops to cha bars; chocolate cafes to pubs; lounge bars to fusion restaurants, and branded garment stores to export rejects - they can all be found here existing in unison. At this market there is something to do for everyone – either watch a movie or browse through books or let go at a fast food or fine dining restaurant—there are options to suit every budget. But, according to regulars, “the market had deteriorated considerably of late which is evident by the paanstained walls, peeling plaster and

missing tiles that one comes across while walking through this market. Law and order too seems to have become a problem and the market takes on a darker demeanour as the night progresses.” Main pedestrian entrance to the complex is from the Munirka Marg where McDonalds stands as a landmark. It is also the drop-off point for people coming by vehicles leading to traffic jams. The level difference created between the road and the complex and the inward looking nature of the complex segregates the vehicular movement from the pedestrian circulation.

_________________________ BASANT LOK COMMUNTIY CENTRE, NEW DELHI | Page 34

Layout of the complex consists of 2 main pedestrian streets at right angles to each other. Three subsidiary paths at lower level connect the main access path to the parking space. The open space in front of the cinema occurs at the intersection of the two streets. There is another open space at the end of the perpendicular path. This 11 Acres ~ 4.45 Hectares space and the path leading to it form a separate area, overlapping with the 126767 ft2/11777 m2 perpendicular path only at the edge. 468419 ft2/43518 m2 100 98 25% 720 Cars 1020 Cars

The Basant Lok Community Centre was planned by the DDA to serve the residents of Vasant Vihar and the nearby areas. DDA planned the layout of the complex and allocated the major land uses. However, it has now become a major hangout place for the entire city. Site Area Ground Coverage Total Built up Area Proposed F.A.R Achieved F.A.R Ground Coverage Parking @ 1.66 ECS Current Parking

_________________________ BASANT LOK COMMUNTIY CENTRE, NEW DELHI | Page 35

_________________________ SATELLITE IMAGE | Page 36

_________________________ SITE LAYOUT PLAN | Page 37




Eateries are serviced from their backyards. All showrooms are serviced from the front in the morning. Smaller offices depend upon split and window units for air conditioning. Hence, the façade facing the pedestrian street at the entrance of the offices is cluttered with the exhaust outlets for the A/Cs, which is not a pleasant experience. Priya cinema, restaurants like People working in offices use the parking nearest the service cores such McDonald’s, TGI Friday’s and firms like as the one behind the petrol pump and JA Annexe, J.K. House etc. are centrally air conditioned. the service lane. Both movement and activity are concentrated along the main access street and the space in front of the cinema. This is the reason why most of the high profile shops and restaurants are along the main spine. The informal sector too is concentrate along this access.

Hotel Vasant Continental, PVR Priya, Nursing Home and bigger offices have reserved parking for their staff. Visitors to the hotel, shoppers and people coming to watch movies use the parking along the Munirka Marg and the service lanes.

All the big firms and Priya cinema have sprinkler systems and smoke detectors for fire protection. Fir hydrants are also provided at some places. Small offices have fire extinguishers to combat fire. Except for Hotel Vasant Continental, fire escape staircases are not provided anywhere. Priya cinema has emergency At peak hours, and on weekends, parking shoots up by 15-20% leading to exits in case of fire. further chaos. Even though there is an extra parking of 40% on the site, parking still seems to be insufficient and spills across the Munirka Marg, leading to traffic jams along the road and congestion at the intersection of the Main Road and the service lanes. Only one major garbage station is provided at the site. There is an inadequate number of dustbins. Rag pickers hover around the place collecting bottles and plastic bags. _________________________ USAGE ANALYSIS | Page 39

This complex suffers from similar problems as the PVR Anupam complex |

Designed as two perpendicular streets with flatted offices, the one leading from Munirka Marg to the PVR Priya is predominantly more active than the | perpendicular street which ends loosely in a circular court |

The parking provision although considerably higher as compared to Saket, still spills onto the Munirka Marg causing traffic jams during weekends |

The flatted office typology greatly reduces efficiency as each unit has its own exclusive circulation |

Similar to the case in Saket, informal activity is concentrated along the street leading to the PVR Priya ending in a square court, thereby making this edge vastly | more exuberant than the one leading towards the circular court, where the street life fizzles out |

_________________________ INFERENCES | Page 40

_________________________ INDIA HABITAT CENTRE, NEW DELHI 2.2.3 | Page 41

India Habitat Centre has been conceived as an ideal physical environment with a range of facilities that will maximise the effectiveness of individuals and institutions, in their holistic support of the habitat. The principal resolve of the centre “to restore at every level – environment and ecological- a balanced, harmonious and improved way of life” is reflected in its concept and design.

IHC is now home not only to these offices and research organisations, but houses a  club, India’s most comprehensive convention centres, as well as several restaurants  and performance venues for cultural activities. The design and operation of the  hospitality facilities, Habitat World, has been entrusted to the Old World  Hospitalities Pvt. Ltd.

Ever since its inception, the IHC has made its presence felt. In the last few years, it  Spread over nine acres, IHC has a built up area of approximately half a million square feet. It incorporates innovative new technologies in building management has become the centre of contemporary cultural, economic, business and social  events. The concern for the habitat and its environment works as the backbone of  systems, conference systems, communication and energy conservation. this pulsating complex. Site Area

9.6 Acres/38400 m2

Total Built Up Area

53241 m2

Ground coverage

9609 m2

*The IHC utilises only 1.4 of the 2.5 FAR permitted at that time.  Several leading corporate entities and non‐profit organisations like TERI, HUDCO,  NHB, CII, ILO etc. share a common concern for the habitat, have come together to  participate in this venture of institutional building and have evolved a unique  equation of synergy within the complex.

The ground was perceived as a vehicle free environment and a fairly elaborate  system was worked out to deny access to motorised traffic except for repair and  fire. All cars and scooters are directed into two levels of basements. The conference is the only function, that allows entry to the vehicles through. The  IHC can be divided into three blocks. The two blocks on Lodhi Road have offices on  upper floors and reserved for public facilities on ground. The third block on the  south houses common facilities, like a conference centre, a large auditorium, a  library and a guest house. Two basements comprising all the parking and services  extend under the entire block. Restaurants and exhibition spaces on the ground  floor open out into courts; with the courts also being used for public exhibits, a  lively ambience is created.

_________________________ INDIA HABITAT CENTRE, NEW DELHI | Page 42

_________________________ SATELLITE IMAGE | Page 43

_________________________ SITE LAYOUT PLAN | Page 44



An important consequence of combining the public spaces with the offices is the creation of an informal security arrangement. Generally office complexes are dead spots before and after office hours, but at IHC, the various restaurants, exhibition spaces ad guest rooms will keep the campus alive and populated after hours.

Surface parking is provided for 60 cars and chartered buses. Two basements have a capacity of 933 cars. The entire building is air conditioned and basements are mechanically ventilated. Sprinkler systems installed in usable area and water purification plant have been installed. Fire escapes and lobbies are pressurised to prevent fire along vertical shafts. All office spaces have The IHC contains a variety of functions flexibility of having their own wet areas apart from those provided near the that cater to almost all types of central cores and a floor grid provides requirements. Major office spaces are located in the blocks adjacent to Lodhi adjustable connections for power and Colony. The blocks housing the offices telephone that can be integrated with the partitioning. Computerised are articulated to form the three courtyards, the ground levels of which building management systems designed for efficient operations of all contain public functions such as exhibition spaces, fast food restaurants, systems, including watering of the window boxes and detection of faults. banks etc. and access to the vertical cores. _________________________ MIXED OCCUPANCY & SERVICES | Page 46

The landscaping here is integral to the design. Each internal courtyard has been designed to impart a distinct identity to the spaces and is conducive to the type of function or activities that can be anticipated. This has been achieved by paving patterns of different materials, the use of water and the play of levels and plants. The external spaces have a more formal quality, to act as a foreground for the building. The facades around the window boxes further soften the wall surfaces. Another factor that governed the design was the effort to modify the climate as much as possible by nonmechanical means. Thus the top two

floors of the building have been projected twice. This results in a building shadow that is larger than its footprint, thereby shading the wall surfaces from the summer sun. The introduction of a sunscreen protects the courtyards from the summer glare while letting the winter sun filter through, and is a very successful innovation. That greatly enhances the ambience of the courts. Further reduction of heat gain is achieved by keeping the openings on the external surface less than 80% of the surface area, while strip window characterises the facades around the courtyards.

_________________________ LANDSCAPING AND CLIMATE CONTROL | Page 47

The IHC is said to be one of the few intelligent buildings in the city. The entire complex is designed keeping in mind the comfort level of the users by various | means such as making it universally accessible, making it climatologically a very comfortable building etc |

The complex is designed in a way such that the buildings are inward looking and have courts which are well landscaped. The courts are visually connected. This | increases the legibility of the complex |

The buildings are designed such that they are internally connected at another level with bridges. The bridges are also used to define entries |

The centre has multiple entries and exits (10 no.s) which aids in easy circulation |

The entire complex has been conceived as vehicle free environment and the servicing and other related activities are at the periphery of the site. Internally, the | centre has a pedestrian friendly environment |

_________________________ INFERENCES | Page 48

_________________________ CITY CENTRE, SALT LAKE CITY, KOLKATA 2.2.4 | Page 49

City Centre is Kolkata’s first integrated, multi-utility facility that is located at Salt Lake. City Centre has emerged as a single preferred destination addressing multifarious needs of the entire community. The City Centre was conceived not only as a shopping mall, but also as an office complex, a residential area and a lot more. A confluence as it was, of all needs and a solution to it. Confluence is the essence of the City Centre, of its functionality and aesthetics. Site Area 25660 m2/6.34 Acres Built Up Area 5.8 Lakh ft2/53880 m2 Ground Coverage 44% Achieved F.A.R 200 Parking Provision 250 cars Office Space 40000 ft2 Residential Space 1.3 Lakh ft2 Fashion






White Goods/ Electronics




Telecommunication Services


Office & Commercial


Gifts & Stationary






City Centre, designed by Charles Correa is spreads over 6 Acres. It represents a unique blend of Shopping Malls, Cineplex, Entertainment Areas, Food Courts, Offices and Residences amidst open spaces, lush greens and contours over a sprawling space of half a million square feet of area and much more. City Centre has seven buildings for retail, and commercial outlets and a structure housing the INOX Multiplex, each of which are interconnected. Elaborate seating arrangements have been made in a large expanse of open space, christened Kund, plus there is a fountain and a 19th century tram in the exhibition area. There is a parking space for 250 cars, 14 entry and exit points and large spaces to amble around.

_________________________ CITY CENTRE, SALT LAKE CITY, KOLKATA | Page 50

_________________________ SATELLITE IMAGE | Page 51

_________________________ GROUND FLOOR PLAN | Page 52

_________________________ FIRST FLOOR PLAN | Page 53

_________________________ SECOND FLOOR PLAN | Page 54

_________________________ THIRD FLOOR PLAN | Page 55

_________________________ FOURTH FLOOR PLAN | Page 56



_________________________ FIFTH FLOOR PLAN | Page 57

_________________________ PHOTOGRAPHS | Page 58

_________________________ PHOTOGRAPHS | Page 59

City Centre is renowned as a space for communal gathering rather than its functional value of being a shopping mall because of the kind of planning strategy | that has been applied by the architect. Here the design is an open plan without distinct boundaries which gives scope for people to spend time, relax, watch a | movie etc. which in a way revives the ‘adda’ culture of Kolkata |

The centre is an amalgamation of many blocks which are interconnected and the circulation is in a state of flux. The corridors, bridges, flights of staircases add to | the circulation flow. Due to the openness of the design, one can never feel claustrophobic within the centre |

The ‘Kund’ acts as a focal point to the complex, it being the meeting point for people. The blocks open into the Kund, thus resulting in it being the meeting place | for people |

Wind tunnels are created at different places within the site which keeps the place cool at all hours of the day |

Parking provision for 250 cars is insufficient for a site of this size and scale. The parking equivalent for a similar built up area in Delhi would be 1616 cars | _________________________ INFERENCES | Page 60



_________________________ READING THE PROGRAM 3.0 | Page 61

Community Centers in Delhi were developed around the late 80’s and are in desperate need of an overhaul today. The circumstances at the time these centers were developed were vastly different from the present. Today Delhi faces an acute shortage of commercial areas, thereby leading to the sporadic growth of unauthorized establishments and small businesses within the residential colonies. Although, the abovementioned “unauthorized� typology follows the mixed-use development pattern (with immense potential within a walk-able environment), as seen in Shahjahanabad, and more recently in Karol Bagh, the use of cars has further aggravated the situation as a lot of these areas are not designed to cater to such densities. In view of the recent developments, these new centers of commerce need to be fully equipped to handle the aspirations of the city for more leasable commercial area, while simultaneously addressing issues like access, connectivity to major public transport networks, accommodation of parking( the numbers go through the roof!) and integrating a wide variety of functions to better cater to the public. A public place reflects the society and culture of a community and needs to be the locus of public life. Presently, public spaces are viewed merely as transition points between two venues. Without public life, the public spaces are worthless. And public life thrives when citizens from all walks of life, all strata of society, all castes and religions converge and celebrate daily life, and thus, satisfy their aspirations for recreation, leisure and social interaction.

_________________________ ABOUT THE PROGRAM 3.1 | Page 62

Tentative Program Retail/Shopping | Office Spaces | Restaurants | Multiplex | Business Hotel | Serviced Apartments | Banquet Hall | Convention Centre | Clinic & Dispensary/Laboratory | Coaching Centre/ Training Institute | Spa, Gym & Saloon | Exhibition Spaces | Informal Trade | Multi-Level Car Parking |

Site Area 29320 m2/7.24 Acres F.A.R 125 Max. Ground Coverage 25% Height Restriction NR Built-Up Area 36650 m2 Carpet Area 23822.5 m2 Parking Requirement (@ 3 ECS) 1100 36650 m2 Future Expansion (@ 125 F.A.R) Carpet Area for Expansion 23822.5 m2 Built-Up Area (post expansion) 73300 m2 Total F.A.R (post expansion) 250 2199 Parking Requirement (post expansion) _________________________ PROJECT SCOPE 3.2 | Page 63

_________________________ ACTIVITY CHART 3.3 | Page 64

_________________________ FLOW CHART ANALYSIIS 3.4 | Page 65

RETAIL/ SHOPPING RESTAURANTS _________________________ FLOW CHART ANALYSIIS 3.5| Page 66

OFFICES COACHING CENTER _________________________ FLOW CHART ANALYSIIS 3.6| Page 67


BANQUET HALL SEMINAR HALL _________________________ FLOW CHART ANALYSIIS 3.8| Page 69

22400 m2 |


3000 m2 |

Business Hotel

5550 m2 |

Serviced Apartments

1500 m2 |

Banquet Hall

2000 m2 |

Convention Center

1800 m2 |


400 m2 |

Future Expansion

36650 m2 |

Parking @ 3 ECS

2199 No.s |


Commercial Area

*Expressed as %age of Total Built Up Area

_________________________ ADJACENCY MATRIX 3.9 | Page 70

The complex needs to have a variety of functions in order to successfully cater to the neighborhood and the city. Therefore, a business hotel, convention spaces | and banquet hall have been included in the program |

Despite being a Community Center, meant for serving the nearby areas of Saket, Malviya Nagar and Khirki village etc. a large number of footfalls comprise people | from different parts of the city, and thus, the site becomes a place for the city, and not just the neighborhood |

Although the site is a single complex, a certain degree of segregation is essential for the different components to function satisfactorily. Provisions for separate | drop offs and service areas is crucial |

The MPD 2021 restricts the FAR of Community Centers to 125, a mere 25% increment from the previous Master Plan, which is vastly incongruous with the | population growth and the acute shortage of commercial areas in the city |

Despite sitting below the District Centers in the hierarchical commercial model of the city, the parking requirement for the Community Centers is the same. In | layman’s terms, we need to provide a ‘parking basement’ as big as the total built up area for the site |

_________________________ INFERENCES 3.11 | Page 71



_________________________ READING THE SITE 4.0 | Page 72


TEMPERATURE & PRECIPITATION DATA Delhi is located at 28°37’ N, 77°15’E and lies in Northern India. It borders the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh on East and Haryana on West, North and South. Delhi lies almost entirely in the Gangetic Plains. Two prominent features of the geography of Delhi are the Yamuna flood plains and the Delhi Ridge. The low lying Yamuna flood plains provide fertile alluvial soil suitable for agriculture. However, these plains are prone to recurrent floods. Reaching up-to a height of 318m (1043ft.) the ridge forms the most dominating feature in this region. It originates from the Aravalli Range in the South and encircles the West, North-East and North-West parts of the city. Yamuna, a sacred river in Hindu culture, is the only major river flowing

through Delhi. Most of the city including New Delhi lies West of the river. Delhi falls under the Seismic Zone IV, making it vulnerable to major earthquakes. Delhi has a Composite Climate with high variations between summer and winter temperatures. Summers are long from early April to mid-October, with the Monsoon season in between. Winter starts in late October and peaks in January and is notorious for its heavy fog. Extreme temperatures range from -0.6°C to 47°C with the annual mean temperature being 25°C. The average annual rainfall is approximately 714mm, most of which is during the monsoons in July and August. The average date of advent of monsoon winds in Delhi is 29th June. _________________________ READING THE SITE 4.1 | Page 73

Apart From being the capital of India, Delhi is the second largest metropolis of the country with over 16 million citizens, eighth largest metropolis in the world. Located on the banks of the river Yamuna in the Punjab region of North India, Delhi is a major political, cultural and commercial centre of India. Owing to the migration of people from across the country, Delhi has grown to be a cosmopolitan city. Its rapid development and urbanisation, coupled with the relatively high average income of its population, has transformed the city.

The 2011 Census of India puts the city’s population at 1,67,53,235 at a density of 11,297 persons/km2, with a sex ratio of 866 and a literacy rate of 86.34%.

According to the 2001 Census of India, the population of Delhi that year was 1,38,50,507. The corresponding population density was 9294 persons/km2, with a sex ratio of 821 females per 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 81.82%. By 2003, the National Capital Region of Delhi (NCR) had a population of 14.1 million people, making it the largest metropolitan area in India surpassing Mumbai.

South Delhi has a population of 2,258,367 (2001 census), and an area of 250 km², with a population density of 9,034 persons/km². Administratively, the district is divided into three subdivisions: Defence Colony, Hauz Khas, and Kalkaji.

South Delhi is an administrative district of the National Capital Territory of Delhi in India. It is bounded by the Yamuna River to the east, the districts of New Delhi to the north, Faridabad District of Haryana state to the southeast, Gurgaon District of Haryana to the southwest, and South West Delhi to the west.

_________________________ READING THE SITE 4.2 | Page 74

_________________________ PRECINCT SATELLITE IMAGE 4.3 | Page 75

_________________________ PRECINCT GOOGLE MAP 4.4 | Page 76

_________________________ EICHER MAP, ZONE F-16 4.5 | Page 77

_________________________ PRECINCT PLAN 4.6 | Page 78

_________________________ FIGURE GROUND 4.7 | Page 79

_________________________ REVERSE FIGURE GROUND 4.8 | Page 80

_________________________ BUILT VS UNBUILT 4.9 | Page 81

_________________________ ROAD AND NALLAH NETWORKS 4.10 | Page 82

The site is located in Saket, South Delhi. Saket falls under Zone F, S |16 in the DDA Zonal Plan. The site is well connected from all parts of the city through road and metro linkage. Saket colony is placed between the Mehrauli Badarpur Road and Press Enclave Road. The Saket Metro Station and Malviya Nagar Metro Station are within walking distance of the site ( ~500 m). _________________________ SITE SATELLITE IMAGE 4.11 | Page 83

SITE AREA : 29320 m2

194.25m X 155.95m

_________________________ SITE PLAN 4.12 | Page 84



FROM SOUTH-EAST _________________________ VOLUMETRIC DISPOSITION 4.13 | Page 85

_________________________ SITE PHOTOGRAPHS 4.14 | Page 86

_________________________ SITE PHOTOGRAPHS 4.15 | Page 87

The site is located in a densely populated neighborhood and thus needs to address the community level needs of the residents to successfully contribute to the | city’s hierarchical commercial model |

The South and the West roads form the major edges for the site, but due to their size are a regular host to traffic congestion |

A 13m wide four lane carriageway has been proposed by the DMRC (p2.2.1.9), covering the Nallah, along the North edge of the site. This road, being dormant in | character, abutted by the Sports Complex and the District Park maybe useful for support functions to the site |

The site abuts the Sarvodaya Kanya Vidyalaya and the New Green Field School towards the East. Access needs to be created from within the site extents to expose | this edge for use |

As the site is surrounded by large greens; the District Park and Sports Complex to the North, North-East and a colony park to the South-East, it may be counter | productive to maximize true ground within the site |

_________________________ INFERENCES 4.16 | Page 88



_________________________ FRAMING THE FRAMEWORK 5.0 | Page 89

The site is located in a dense residential neighborhood in South Delhi, an | ideal location for a commercial center | At present the site has access roads along the South and the West sides. | Another four lane carriageway has been proposed along the North, thereby | increasing the edge length, suitable for commercial activity |

Incorporating a variety of program components in the center ensures the | optimum utilization of space, as the site may be actively used throughout | the day as well as during evenings | There is tremendous scope for modifying our perception of, and the present | norms pertaining to, commercial areas |

| The South and West carriageways are 15m and 12m wide respectively. As a | result, it is a host to frequent traffic congestion | Access to the site is restricted to pedestrians and vehicles only as buses | don’t ply on the North-South road. The nearest Metro Stations; Malviya | Nagar and Saket- are more than half a kilometer away

| The parking requirement at the site is 3 ECS i.e. 1100 cars at an FAR of 125. | The large volume of traffic movement in and out of the site may overload | the arterial roads | The different functions, owing to their vastly different requirements of | access and service may disturb the overall functioning of the site

_________________________ SWOT ANALYSIS 5.1 | Page 90





Creating a secondary circulation loop through the site help generate more edge length for drop-offs |

The street areas maybe designed for sun and rain protection so as not to disturb the movement within the site at any time |

An uninterrupted pedestrian circulation designed at multiple levels will ensure the sustenance of retail activities at upper levels |

The South and West edges of the site are busy arterial roads. Maintaining the edge condition by placing a continuous street-like development will mirror the | volumetric disposition across the road, which is lined with private residences |

Presently, a nallah runs along the North edge of the site. A 13m wide four lane carriageway has been proposed along this edge. This is convenient, as this edge is | ideal for placing secluded drop-offs for the banquet hall and convention center |

The District Park to the North offers a relief in terms of built volume, and thus the North edge is an ideal for the Hotel, as the rooms can benefit from the view |

The street areas maybe designed for sun and rain protection so as not to disturb the movement within the site at any time |

_________________________ DETERMINANTS FOR THE SITE PLANNING 5.3 | Page 92

As the site has no height restriction, taller blocks can be planned for expansion |

However, placing taller volumes on the North and East edge of the site is desirable as it will ensure maximum solar penetration within the site |

For maximum retail penetration, a low rise development is suitable, with optimum open area for pedestrian activity and no vehicular access within the core | commercial areas |

The rooftops of the buildings may be designed as usable open spaces. This will predominantly dictate the profile of the built form on the site |

Height variations in the built volume help to create air turbulence, which is desirable for providing thermal comfort in the open spaces |

Visual anchors within the site are desirable as they help visitors orient themselves within the complex and impart a sense of legibility that signage cannot fulfill |

The built form should align itself to form zones of street and court-like open spaces, and the open-built edges need to be designed from the visitor’s eye level | perspective, considering that is how the site will be experienced |

_________________________ DETERMINANTS FOR THE ZONING AND VOLUMETRICS 5.4 | Page 93

For creating higher retail potential, a large part of the site needs to be designed as a no car zone, with walk-able streets having retail on both sides, and a healthy | informal activity |

Larger functions like the multiplex, may be shifted from the ground, as it occupies a large footprint on the valuable plaza area. Instead placing it above or below | the ground is desirable, as incidental retail areas maybe better suited on the ground level |

The banquet hall, which may be used occasionally, but have higher footfalls and mass arrival and departure of people, needs to be segregated from the rest of | the site |

Using mechanical parking systems is imperative to meet the enormous parking demand on the site without sacrificing a large footprint. Moreover, entry and exit | points at the site should not be located near intersections to prevent congestion |

A large basement on the site may provide more collection area for the surface run-off which maybe harvested for horticulture or used as grey water |

Vertical stacking of different functions is possible, as in a mixed use typology, but dedicated access and service areas need to be provided |

_________________________ DETERMINANTS FOR THE FUNTIONAL DIAGRAM 5.5 | Page 94



_________________________ DESIGN REALIZATION 6.0 | Page 95

Initially, the complex was envisioned as a single built volume with interconnected zones of activity at multiple levels, a maze in 3D, and connections to the site surroundings through bridges that plug-in the neighborhood to the complex. Following the initial thought, the response to the surroundings helped dictate the parameters for further development of the design.

 As the site has no height restriction, taller blocks can be planned for expansion. However, placing taller volumes on the North and East edge of the site is desirable as it will ensure maximum solar penetration within the site  For maximum retail penetration vertically, a low rise development ‘closer to the ground’ is suitable, with optimum open area for pedestrian activity and no vehicular access within the core commercial areas.  An uninterrupted pedestrian circulation designed at multiple levels will ensure the sustenance of retail activities at upper levels  Visual anchors within the site are desirable as they help visitors orient themselves within the complex and impart a sense of legibility that signage cannot fulfill  Providing for the enormous parking requirement without sacrificing large footprints on the site is crucial

_________________________ INITIAL DESIGN IMPULSES 6.1 | Page 96

One of the few things that were designed and fixed at the beginning was the accessibility diagram of the site, which would have an impact on the general site planning of the development. The key factors taken into consideration while designing the circulation are as follows :

 Vehicular drop-offs need to be provided at each of the main arterial roads.  The drop-off/s on the North edge can be used as dedicated entry/exits for the hotel, banquet hall and convention facilities and also for servicing.  The East edge of the side was set back and a road created to maintain a continuous loop of vehicular circulation around the site.  An internal road was also created, to introduce a secondary loop. This served the dual purpose of segregating incongruent functions such as the banquet hall etc., while also creating internal drop off points and access to basement. This loop helps create a continuous circulation for visitors approaching from sides : both North East and South East.  Streets and courts formed the buffer spaces between built forms, when arranged between the external road and the internal open space.

_________________________ STAGE PLAN 6.2 | Page 97

Further changes in the design were made, keeping the basic access diagram in place. The final stage of design maintains the main guidelines laid down at the beginning, although the placement of drop-offs with respect to the visual anchors, and the progression of open spaces has been modified in due course. Also, the introduction of an Automated Multiple Level Parking structure validates the initial intent to divide the site into a large pedestrian commercial zone and a smaller zone for special functions.

_________________________ ACCESSIBILITY 6.3 | Page 98



_________________________ DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 7.0 | Page 99

The design intent was to provide a street-like retail environment on the ground floor level by maximising the built surface exposed to the streets, both internal and external, thereby resulting in higher ground coverage. A central public open space would serve as the only anchor on the site, by which to orient oneself within the complex. The internal streets would pass through zones of variable size, scale and degrees of enclosure.

for a two level( covered and open) pedestrian walkway. The North face of the site opens onto the District Park adjoining the Saket Sports Complex. A four lane carriageway has been proposed by the DMRC, covering the Nallah. This access road to the site can be utilised for drop-offs and servicing of segregated functions such as the business hotel and banquet hall.

The South and the West edges of the site are major arterial roads through the Saket neighbourhood. Therefore, an attempt has been made to provide a continuous edge of retail along the road with adequate setback


_________________________ DEVELOPMENT STAGE 1 7.1 | Page 100

| PROS | Placement of core commercial areas and other functions clearly demarcated |

Low rise high density development keeping in mind the response to the surrounding residential areas |

Higher ground coverage exposes maximum building edge to walkways, a desirable characteristic for retail areas |

Integrated built form, with all the buildings connected at upper levels to function as a single complex |

Interesting spaces created on rooftops, as a receding built form is developed, with variable heights and a reducing footprint |

The taller structures are aligned along the North and the East edges of the site so as to ensure direct sunlight penetration to all streets and courts within the site |

An automated car parking structure is introduced along the East to cater to the huge requirement, while leaving the basement free to accommodate usable | program components |

| CONS | Lack of legibility in the pedestrian circulation within the site |

Servicing of restaurants, hotel and banquet unresolved |

Drop offs on the South and the West edges open into the central space at odd locations |

No provisions for flexible usage of spaces: a standard 16m built form is the only building type employed | _________________________ PROS AND CONS 7.2 | Page 101

Building volumes were modified according to the frontal views of entry points. The dropoffs were aligned centrally along the transverse streets.

from the drop-off points and merging the internal edge of the basement with the main public space, thereby creating a sunken central courtyard.

A system of transverse streets was developed Built forms spanning across the streets on upper levels were converted to wide bridges leading to the central court. for movement with informal activity at the Shifting the parking to an Automated Multi- first floor level. Level Car Parking freed the basement for use as commercial space. The basement area was integrated with the plaza level circulation, by opening entries


_________________________ DEVELOPMENT STAGE 2 7.3 | Page 102

| PROS | The South and West faces of the site, that are important arterial roads through Saket, have a continuous retail edge |

Shaded walkways are introduced on the external faces of the development, creating a subtle distinction the outside and the inside of the site |

The walkways also help minimize heat gains from the South and the West |

The entire site is connected on the First Floor Level to form an elevated secondary plaza level, a public place elevated from the ground to cater to the extra built | up area on the site, while helping stretch the retail along the vertical |

Also, the First Floor Level reaches out to connect the neighboring areas and their greens with the heart of the complex |

Drop-off areas are formalized, as volumes along the edges are designed according to the views of the site from the approaching roads |

Functions such as large retail and the Multiplex are shifted to the basement, which is a ring of built opening into the central courtyard. This allows flexibility in | molding the superstructure, as the bulkier functions are arranged below the main plaza level |

| CONS | Built volumes with corridors attached create a thick building section; a 20m ribbon structure, which adds to the bulk of the complex |

In ordering the randomness of the previous iteration, the playful stepping of the built masses is overlooked, resulting in a monotonous boxy arrangement of | buildings |

The large rooftops thus created are devoid of any interaction with indoor spaces | _________________________ PROS AND CONS 7.4 | Page 103

The site was opened to the pedestrian flow from the North-West also, which was earlier limited only to the South West corner. These entrance routes act as catchment areas for people commuting via public transport such as bus, metro, etc. Formal drop-offs have been provided for the Business Hotel and Banquet Hall, as well as on the South and West roads.

The First Floor walkway connecting all the buildings on the site was continued along the South and the West external faces to provide diffused light to the spaces inside and minimize heat gains.

Receding built forms have been created, resulting in stepping terraces, which not only ensures a built-open interaction on the roofs, but links all terraces to create multiple level The eastern built form enclosing the central open spaces connected by the first floor. open space was omitted, to open out the central court towards the parking structure on the East, providing views of the ‘Machine at Work’, and creating an internal Main Entrance, suitable for visitors commuting via private vehicles.


_________________________ DEVELOPMENT STAGE 3 7.5 | Page 104

| PROS | Building Section is reduced back to 16m i.e., it functions as a 12m leasable floor plate in a singly loaded corridor arrangement. These wide corridors can house | circulation as well as informal activity, adding to the life of the complex |

Legibility in circulation is improved, by introducing a secondary loop of retail around the central court. This offers the pedestrian a sense of continuum, with the | only anchors to orient oneself being the noisy, congested external edge of the site as opposed to the central courtyard, which is the central hangout space for | the complex |

The site has been opened to pedestrian traffic from the North West corner, earlier only restricted to the South East. This creates a sense of entry for pedestrians | commuting via the public transport system |

The multilevel car park has been emphasized, by clearing the East enclosure of the central court, which creates a Main Entrance that faces the parking structure |

The progression of spaces varies for the user as per different approach types – arriving as a pedestrian, arriving by a self driven vehicle, or getting dropped off |

Terraces have been consciously stepped in the built form enclosing the courtyard. These stepping terraces are spill outs of their respective indoor space and are | interconnected within each building with steps and with other buildings on the First Floor Level |

| CONS | The singly loaded corridor typology reduces the leasable floor area |

The current scheme offers only two corner locations as leasable space within the complex. These spaces have a landmark potential, and are also the first frontal | view a pedestrian gets when he/she walks into the complex |

The size and scale of the parking structure doesn’t respond to the neighboring development, that of the residences across the road on the South, and schools | on the East | _________________________ PROS AND CONS 7.6 | Page 105



_________________________ DESIGN PROPOSAL 8.0 | Page 106

After all these exercises, a final design proposal was arrived at. This was presented to a jury of eminent panelists as a conclusion to the semester. The following pages document the final drawings and visuals of the model. The drawings have been supplemented with an adequate scale to compensate for any scaling occurring during printing/photocopying or any other means of electronic transfers. The project was represented by two models : a Site Model @ 1:500 and a Context Model @ 1:2500.

_________________________ DESIGN PROPOSAL 8.1 | Page 107

_________________________ PROJECT OUTLINE 8.2 | Page 108

_________________________ PRECINCT STUDY 8.3 | Page 109

_________________________ SITE PLAN 8.4 | Page 110

_________________________ LAYOUT PLAN 8.5 | Page 111

_________________________ ACCESSIBILITY 8.6 | Page 112

_________________________ SITE SECTIONS 8.7 | Page 113

_________________________ SITE ELEVATIONS 8.8 | Page 114

_________________________ BASEMENT PLAN 8.9 | Page 115

_________________________ GROUND FLOOR PLAN 8.10 | Page 116

_________________________ FIRST FLOOR PLAN 8.11 | Page 117

_________________________ THIRD FLOOR PLAN 8.12 | Page 118

_________________________ FIFTH FLOOR PLAN 8.13 | Page 119

_________________________ SEVENTH FLOOR PLAN 8.14 | Page 120

_________________________ ROOF PLAN 8.15 | Page 121

_________________________ PERSPECTIVE VIEWS 8.16 | Page 122

_________________________ PERSPECTIVE VIEWS 8.17 | Page 123

_________________________ PERSPECTIVE VIEWS 8.18 | Page 124

_________________________ PERSPECTIVE VIEWS 8.19 | Page 125

_________________________ IMAGES OF THE MODEL 8.20 | Page 126

_________________________ IMAGES OF THE MODEL 8.21 | Page 127

_________________________ IMAGES OF THE MODEL 8.22 | Page 128

_________________________ IMAGES OF THE MODEL 8.23 | Page 129

Rewal A., 1988, Street Form, Unpublished Dissertation, School of Planning and Architecture. Retrieved February | 13,2011, from School of Planning and Architecture Library |

Menon A.G.K., Imagining the Indian City. Economic and Political Weekly. Retrieved January 22, 2011, from | |

Guha S., 2006, Rejuvenation‌ Yashwant Place, Chanakyapuri, Unpublished Thesis, School of Planning and | Architecture. Retrieved April 5,2011, from School of Planning and Architecture Library | Reshma A., 2009, Community Center : An Exploration of the Public Realm, Unpublished Thesis, School of | Planning and Architecture. Retrieved April 15,2011, from School of Planning and Architecture Library |

Shriya V, 2010, The To Do List for a Healthy Street Dialogue ,Unpublished Dissertation, School of Planning and | Architecture, Retrieved April 28, 2011, from School of Planning and Architecture Library |

Singal S, 2010, The Effect of Building Facades on the Character of Urban Streets, Unpublished Dissertation, | School of Planning and Architecture, Retrieved April13, 2011, from School of Planning and Architecture Library |

Dixit P., April 3, 2011, The Call of The Mall, Hindustan Times Sunday Magazine (Brunch) |

_________________________ BIBLIOGRAPHY | Page 130

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