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FO RGO t T EN LEGA CI ES


Edi tor’ sNote I nmos t , i fnotal l ofus , t he r ei sal way sas mal l par tofour s e l v e st haty e ar nst ogoagai ns tt he nor ms i mpl yf ort hes akeofi t( orast he ys ay , j us tbe c aus ewec an)andf ort hos ewi t hi de al i s t i cmi nds ,pe r hapse v e n“ s av et hewor l d”bygoi ngwhe r enoonehasgonebe f or e .I nour c as e ,t her omant i candoddl ygr at i f y i ngnot i onofunc ov e r i ngt hedownpl ay e dorf or got t e n ac hi e v e me nt soft heunde r dogsi nhi s t or ywast oot e mpt i ngf ormyt e am andmet opas s ov e r .Thus ,t het he meoft hi si s s uewass e tas“ Hi s t or yoft heFor got t e nLe gac i e s ” ,whe r ewe at t e mptt os he dl i ghtonf i gur e s ,e v e nt sandpl ac e sofhi s t or yt hatc ar r yac e r t ai n,unknown s i gni f i c anc eandgi v et he mt heat t e nt i onandappr e c i at i ont he yde s e r v e . Whi l emos tar eawar et hat201 5mar kst he50t hanni v e r s ar yofSi ngapor e ’ si nde pe nde nc e ( doe sSG50s oundf ami l i ar ,any one ? ) ,i twoul dt akeal i t t l el onge rt or e c ogni z et hati ti sal s o t he70t hanni v e r s ar yoft hee ndofWWI I . Thi si swhywehav ear t i c l e saboutDav i dMar s hal l ( p.1 6)andChi uneSugi har a( p.1 0)al ongwi t habookr e v i e wonChi na’ sf or got t e nr ol ei n t heSe c ondWor l dWar . Cl os e rt ohome , wee xpl or e dt hedi mi ni s hi ngs i gni f i c anc eofmar t i al ar t s( p. 1 8)andi nt r oduc e dt hef i r s te v e rdanc ef e s t i v al i nSi ngapor e( p. 1 2) . Fi nal l y , wec ov e r e dgr oundsov e rSi ngapor e ,e xami ni ngpl ac e sl i ket heI s t anaWoodne uk( p.1 4)anda TCM s hop( p.22)t uc ke dawayi nt hehe ar t l ands . Thi si s s uei smyde buta st hee di t orofMne moz i ne ,a ndf r om t he i ni t i a lr e c r ui t me ntt of i na l l ypr i nt i ngt hepubl i c a t i on; t hej our ne yha sde f i ni t e l ynotbe e na ne a s yf e a t .I ti sat a l l or de rt ol i v eupt ot hes t a nda r dsofpr e de c e s s or sa nd pr e v i ousMne moz i nei s s ue s ,buta ne v e nt oughe rj obt o e ns ur et ha tt hi spubl i c a t i onr e ma i nsa ss ome t hi nga l l whoa ppr e c i a t eHi s t or ywoul de nj oy .Tha nkf ul l y ,a nd c oi nc i de nt a l l ya l s oi nt hes pi r i tofr e me mbe r i ngl e ga c i e s , Iha das t r ongt e a m whos uppor t e dmet hr oughout ,wr i t e r s whowr ot ebe a ut i f ul l ya ndde s i gne r swhode s i gne d s t unni ngl y ;t hes uc c e s soft hema ga z i nec a nnotbes hor t oft he i rc ont r i but i ons . Wehopey oue nj oyt her e a da ndmor es o,bei ns pi r e dt ot a kea s e c ondl ooka tt hes e e mi ngl yor di na r ya r oundy ouy our s e l f .

Chi e fEdi t or , KwokYiLi ng

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Prof .J oeyLong/6 Wewe l c o meA/ PJ o e yLo n gb a c k t oNUSa n ds p o k et oh i ma b o u th i s r e s e a r c h !

Mnemozi ne I ssue8/Oct201 5 Edi t ori alTeam Chi e fEdi t or KwokYiLi ng De put yEdi t or s ChngShaoKai Jos huaLi m JudeLe ong Le anGuanHua Li m Ji aYi

A Forgot t enHero: Chi uneSugi hara/1 0 Ho wh es i l e n t l ys a v e dmo r et h a n 6 0 0 0r e f u g e e si nWWI I A TCM Shop i nPekKi o/22 Mo r et h a nj u s t TCM

Desi gn Team Chr i s t abe l l eOng Eme r al dGan

CoverDesi gn Jus t i nTan

Cont ri but ors

Revi ewi ng 1 965/34 Ho wh a st h e SG5 0f i l m,1 9 6 5 , f a r e d ?

Home I t ’ sHi st or y…Agai n!/4 Homecomi ngf orAl umnust ur nedPr of essor/6 Ngi am:On Gr aduat i on andTeachi ng/8 Feat ure Humani  ar i an Di s obedi enc e:Chi uneSugi har aand he Hol oc aus t/1 0 Obs er vi ng heSi ngapor eFes t i valofDanc e1 982/1 2 I s  anaWoodneuk:Hei r l oom f r om Mal ayRoyal  y/1 4 Mar s hal l i ngSi ngapor e/1 6 Mar t i alAr t si n2 0 h Cent ur ySi ngapor e/1 8 TheFi r s tLadyof heWor l d/2 0 TokyoHomel es s/2 1 MyGr andf a her ’ sSt or y:A Si ns eh ofPekKi o/2 2 Fr om  heAs hes :Publ i cHous i ngand he Buki tHoSweeFi r e/2 4 Vi et names eBoatPeopl e/2 6 J avani s hed:A Fl eet i ngCul t ur e,aSi l entLanguage/2 8

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Revi ew Ah KuandKar ayuki San Pr os t i t ut i on i nSi ngapor e/2 9 For go t en Al l y:Chi na’ sWWI I/31 For um:Let ’ shearyourvoi c es !/32 1 965/34 TheFi nalEc ho:Remembr anc e/35

ChooRui z hi Chr i s t a be l l eOng Emi l yEng GohSwe eYi k Gl e n nOng J oe yChua J os huaLi m KwokYiLi ng Ma r c usTa n Ma r i aTe o Ni s ht aAma nda Nur ulAf i qa hbt eSul a i ma n Nur ulQi s t i nabt eFa dhi l l a h Pr i ya da r s hi niNa ga r a j a h Se ba s t i a nWa ng Ta nHuiSha n

Publ i cRel at i ons ChngShaoKai

Mne moz i nei spubl i s he dbyt heNUSHi s t or ySoc i e t ya ndi sdi s t r i but e dt oa l lc ur r e nts t ude nt s ,s t a f f ,f r i e ndsa ndbe ne f a c t or soft hes oc i e t y .Asanonpr of i te nt i t y , wewe l c omedona t i onsa ndot he ri nki nd s uppor t . Thev i e wse x pr e s s e dbyt hewr i t e r sr e ma i ns ol e l yt he i rowna nddonot ne c e s s a r i l yr e f l e c tt heof f i c i a lv i e woft he Na t i ona lUni v e r s i t yofSi nga por ea ndi t s a f f i l i a t e s . Formor ei nf or ma t i on,pl e a s ee ma i lusa t publ i cat i ons@nushi ssoc. org

Wantt or e l i e v epas tme mor i e s ?Fi nd t he m at ht t p: / / i ssuu. com/ mnemozi ne


KwokYiLi ng|publ i c at i ons @nus hi s s oc . or g

TheNUSHi s t or ySoc i e t yi sas t ude nt r un or gani z at i on t hatai mst oe nc our ageandc ul t i v at ei nt e r e s tf or hi s t or yamongNUSs t ude nt sandt hege ne r alpubl i c .I t sme mbe r si nc l udeal lHi s t or yandEur ope anSt udi e smaj or s ,wi t hme mbe r s hi pandpar t i c i pat i onope nt oot he ri nt e r e s t e ds t ude nt s . Pe opl ewi s e , NUSHi s t or ySoc i e t yi spr i mar i l yc ompr i s e dofi nt e r e s t i ngi ndi v i dual sandhe ar t war mi ngi nt e r ac t i ons .Conv e r s at i onsout s i det heHi s t or yHonour sRoom,whi c hhasbe c omeawar m andf ami l i ar hi de outf orme mbe r soft heHi s t or ySoc i e t y ,r angef r om s c hool r e l at e dt opi c sl i ker e v i e wi ngmodul e sand e s s ayque s t i ons ,gos s i pi ngaboutt hel at e s tc onf e s s i ononNUSWhi s pe r st oany t hi ngunde rt hes un,bei t t heGe ne r alEl e c t i onsorPi xar ’ sl at e s tt e ar j e r ke r .Wi t hs uc has mal lme mbe r s hi p,i ti si ne v i t abl et hat s t r ongbondsar ef or ge dwi t hi nt heHi s t or ySoc i e t yc ommuni t y . Ont hef i r s tofSe pt e mbe r , NUSHi s t or ySoc i e t yc al l e df ori t sAnnual Ge ne r al Me e t i ng( AGM) , whe r eane w bat c hofExe c ut i v eCommi t t e e( EXCO)wasal s oe l e c t e d.He r e ’ swhatt heout goi ngandt hene wl ye l e c t e d Pr e s i de nt shav et os ay ! Fi r s tandf or e mos t ,onbe hal fofmyEXCO,wewoul dl i ket hanky ouf oral ly ourc ont r i but i onsands uppor tf orNUSHi s t or ySoc i e t yi nt hepas ty e ar .Whe t he ri twashe l pi ngoutas as ubc ommi t t e eme mbe rorasapar t i c i pantf oroure v e nt sort hos ewhohe l pe dt os har e aboutNUSHi s t or ySoc i e t y ,t hanky ouv e r ymuc h. I thasbe e nanhonourt os e r v eal ongs i demyEXCOme mbe r s , ast hePr e s i de ntofNUSHi s t or ySoc i e t yf orAc ade mi cYe ar201 4/ 1 5.Thej our ne yf ort heEXCO hasnotbe e ne as y . Fr om t hes t ar t ,myt e am hashadt ode alwi t hmanypr e s s i ngi s s ue swhi c hhads ur f ac e d e ar l i e r .Col l e c t i v e l y ,wemadede c i s i onsonr e c har t i ngt hedi r e c t i onoft hes oc i e t y ,aswe l l asr e v i s i t e dandr e v i s e dt hes oc i e t y ’ ss ov e r ni ngc ons t i t ut i on,i nt hehope sofbr i ngi ngt he s oc i e t yt ogr e at e rhe i ght s .I twasal lt hemor et or t ur i ngf ormewhe nwehadt ode c l i nec ol l abor at i onr e que s t sandi nv i t at i onsdur i ngt her e s t r uc t i ngpr oc e s s .Ne v e r t he l e s s ,Ihank e v e r y onewhohass t oodbymyEXCOandmedur i ngt hepas ty e ar .Looki ngbac kIc annot s ayf ors ur eIwi l lnotr e gr e tt hos ede c i s i ons ,butIbe l i e v emyEXCO wi l lagr e et hatwe madet hebe s tpos s i bl ede c i s i onsgi v e nt hec i r c ums t anc e sandl ai das t r onge rf oundat i on f orNUSHi s t or ySoc i e t yuponwhi c hf ut ur ege ne r at i onsc anbui l dupon. The r emaybet i me swhe nt hes oc i e t yf ai l e dt ol i v eupt ot hee xpe c t at i onst ot heme mbe r s , andf ort hos et i me s , Ic anonl yapol ogi z eandl e av ey ourf e e dbac kf ort hef ut ur ege ne r at i on t owor kupon.Wear eaf t e ral l ,bui l di ngt hi ngsf r om s c r at c h.Ias s ur ey ou;howe v e r ,my EXCOhast r i e dourbe s t .Pl e as edof or gi v eusi fwehav ef ai l e dt ol i v eupt oy oure xpe c t at i ons . Las tbutde f i ni t e l ynott hel e as t ;Iwoul dl i ket ot hankmyEXCO f ort hehar dwor kt he y hav eputi n.ToHuiShan,Ras y i dah,ZhiWe i ,Dar y l ,Pe ar l y n,Chr i s t abe l l e ,Ji ngJi e ,and Ce l e s t e ,t hanksf orput t i ngupwi t ht hepai nf ulde c i s i onswhi c hIhadt omakes ome t i me s . I thasbe e napl e as ur et os e r v ewi t hy ou.Al lt hebe s ti ny ourne xtl ap,anddoc omebac kt o t hi sne wf oundhomewhi c hwehav epai ns t aki ngl ybui l tup. Andt oe v e r y one , l e t ’ sc ont i nue t omakeHi s t or yawar m andi nc l us i v ef ami l yt hati sadmi r e dbyot he r s . Out goi ngPr e s i de ntofAY1 4/ 1 5,WangWe iQuan,Se bas t i an

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Ye araf t e ry e ar ,t heHi s t or ySoc i e t y ' sAnnualGe ne r alMe e t i nghasbe e nanoppor t uni t yt oc ons ol i dat et hes oc i e t y ' spr ogr e s sandunde r t aki ngs , andt hi sy e ar , wear e pr oudt ohav es e e nt heac hi e v e me nt smadebyt heout goi ngExe c ut i v eCommi t t e e of201 4/ 201 5. Onbe hal fofe v e r y one , Iwoul dl i ket ot hankHui Shan, Ras y i dah, Zhi We i ,Dar y l ,Pe ar l y n,Chr i s t abe l l e ,JJ,Ce l e s t e ,andofc our s e ,Se bas t i anf ort het r e me ndouse f f or ti ns t e e r i ngt heSoc i e t yi nt her i ghtdi r e c t i ononc emor e .Youhav e pav e dt hewayf ort hene xtCommi t t e et owor khar dandbui l dupont hi sf ounda t i on. I ti smyi mme ns epl e as ur et oi nt r oduc et oe v e r y onet heExe c ut i v eCommi t t e eof 201 5/ 201 6.Wear e ,Cl ar i s s a,Al e x,Ji aMi n,Jude ,Vi na,Nat as ha,Er i c ,YiLi ngand ShaoKai , andI .Mos tofusar ef r e s hf ac e s , butwehopet oi nj e c tv i gourande nt hus i as mi nt ot heSoc i e t y .Toge t he r ,wewi l ls e r v et heSoc i e t ywi t hpr i deande ns ur e t hatwe ,t heHi s t or ySoc i e t yar eac ohe s i v eandbonde duni t . I nc omi ngPr e s i de ntofAY1 5/ 1 6,Ti mot t yTayJunJi e

E x c o 1 4 / 1 5

E x c o 1 5 / 1 6

I nde e d,t heNUSHi s t or ySoc i e t ys e e mst ohav ec omeal ongways i nc et hel as tbat c handt hene wExc o i sr e adyande xc i t e dt oc ar r yont hebat onofbr i ngi ngt hes oc i e t yt ogr e at e rhe i ght s !Whi l ewer e me mbe r andl e ar nf r om t hev al uabl el e s s onsoft hepr e v i ousbat c h,weal s ol ookf or war dt oc ar v i ngoutourown hi s t or yf ort heSoc i e t y .

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Se bas t i anWang|s e bas t i anwwq@hot mai l . c om & YongSuRu|yongs ur u@hot mai l . c om Phot ogr aphyBySe bas t i anWang Mne moz i nes atdownwi t hourl at e s taddi t i ont oour NUSHi s t or yDe par t me nt–As s oc i at ePr of e s s orJoe y Longt of i ndoutmor eabouthi m. Joe y , ashepr e f e r s t obec al l e d,war ml ygr e e t e dus ,put t i ngas i dehi se xpl or at i onoft hene w NUSI VLE s y s t e m( whi c hhe mi s c hi e v ous l yc al l s“ EVI L” )af t e rr e t ur ni ngf r om hi s one we e ks e r v i c et ot he Si ngapor e mi l i t ar y .He gl adl yobl i ge suss omet i me ,al be i tc oy l y ,s har e d abouthi sc ur r e ntr e s e ar c har e asandhi st i measan unde r gr aduat es t ude nt i nt he de par t me nt f r om 1 9921 996. Thankyouf orhavi ngt hi schatwi t hus.W el comet ot heNUSHi st oryDepart ment .W hat haveyoubeenupt ol at el y? I ’ v ebe e n pr e par i ngf ormyl e c t ur e sand c our s e s . The s ec our s e sar ee s s e nt i al l yne w,andt husI ’ v et o pr e par et he mf r om s c r at c h.Asf arasmyr e s e ar c hi s c onc e r ne d,I ’ v egotac oupl eofpr oj e c t s .I ’ m wr i t i ng ont he1 955BandungConf e r e nc ewi t hanot he rc ol l e ague–Ami t avAc har y a;andt heot he rwoul dbee s s e nt i al l yane xt e ns i onofmyr e c e ntbook“ Saf ef or De c ol oni s at i on– TheEi s e nhowe rAdmi ni s t r at i on, Br i t i s h,andSi ngapor e ”whi c hl ooksatt heUSi nv ol v e me nti nSi ngapor edur i ngt hede c ol oni z at i on pe r i odi nt he1 950sande ar l y1 960s .Iwi l lc ont i nue t hats t or yandl ookatt heUSi nv ol v e me nti nAs i a andSout he as tAs i adur i ngt heCol dWar .The r ear e v ol ume sofe xc e l l e ntwor konhowI ndoc hi na,I ndo ne s i a,t hePhi l i ppi ne s ,Thai l and,andNor t he as tAs i a we r ee mbr oi l e di nt heCol dWar ,butnotmuc hon Si ngapor eorMal ay s i a.

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Myr e s e ar c hi nt e r e s t sar ec ur r e nt l yi nt hos eunde r s t udi e d as pe c t soft hec onf l i c t .I ’ ms t i l lc ol l e c t i ng dat a,v i s i t i ngt hear c hi v e s–mai nl yt hos ei nt heUS and t heUK ast he yhav er e l e as e dc ol l e c t i onsof pape r sf orr e s e ar c h, e v e nupt ot he1 980s . Theunf or t unat et hi ngi st hatac c e s st o Si ngapor e an doc ume nt s ,par t i c ul ar l yt hos ege ne r at e dbyt heMi ni s t r y ofFor e i gnAf f ai r sandMi ni s t r yofDe f e nc e ,i sl i mi t e d.I twoul dbei nt e r e s t i ng,f ore xampl e ,t oi nv e s t i gat et hel ogi cofwhyt heSi ngapor eAr me dFor c e s we ntwi t ht heAR1 5/ M1 6as s aul tr i f l er at he rt han ot he rr i f l e s .Mor et han a pr oc ur e me ntmat t e r ,I t hi nkas t udyoft hathi s t or yc oul dof f e russ ome


i ns i ghti nt oSi ngapor e ’ sdi pl omat i cpos t ur e and e c onomi ci mpe r at i v e s ,and how s mal l s t at e sl i ket hi sc i t y s t at enav i gat e dt he i rway t hr oughCol dWarpol i t i c s . TheCol dWarwas gl obalhi s t or y ,andSi ngapor easwe l lasMal ay s i awasv e r ymuc hapar tofi t . annotr e al l yl ookati t shi s t or yi ni s ol aSoapartf rom t hel ect uresandyourre- Wec t i o n , a n d t h i s w a s w h y I w a s d r a w n t o t h i s a p search,how do you spend yourf ree p r o a c h i n s t u d y i n g S i n g a p o r e . t i me? Ac t ual l yIdon’ thav emuc hf r e et i mel e f t ! ngbackt oyourt i mei nNUS, Joke sas i de ,what e v e rf r e et i meI ’ ml e f twi t h So,movi d o y o u s e e a n y d i f f e r e n c e i n NUS t hen i ss pe ntwi t hmyf ami l y ,andc hur c h. andnow? Are t here any i ssues f rom your res st hef r i e dbe e fc harkwayt e ow search whi ch you may l i ke t o share, Umm… Imi c k.The r ewast hi sgr e atc harkway possi bl yi n rel at i on t o ourt heme on atTheDe t e o w s t a l l , h e l me d b y a l a d y . S h e f r i e dt he t hef orgot t enl egaci es? noodl e s ,whi l ehe rhus bandoc c upi e dhal fof hes t al lands e r v e dde l i c i oushorf un.Thos e I ’ m nots ur ei ft hi shasgot t e nar ound, butt he t w e r e my c o mf o r t f o o d . T h a t w a s i n t h e 9 0 s , Te ngahAi rBas ehadf ac i l i t i e st hatc oul dac b u t f r o m w h a t I k n o w , t h e e l d e r l y c o u p l e h a s c ommodat enuc l e arbombe r sandwe apons . i nc er e t i r e d.The c ur r e ntc ant e e ns e r v e s The ywoul dbede pl oy e dt he r ef orpos s i bl e s e atf ood,butt hec harkwayt e ow s t al ls t i l l us ei nSEATOope r at i onsagai ns tc ommuni s t gr s t a n d s o u t a n d b r i n g s b a c k f o n d me mo r i e s . f or c e s .Gi v e nt hef e aroft headv anc e me ntof Mo s t o f t h e l e c t u r e r s w h o i n s t r u c t e d me , c ommuni s m ac r os sSout he as tAs i a,t heBr i t tf r om t wooft he m[ whos hal lnotbe i s h upgr ade d Te ngah i nt he50sand 60s . apar n a me d t o p r o t e c t t h e i r a g e s a n d i d e nt i t i e s ] , Wor ki ngi nc onc e r twi t ht heAme r i c ans ,t he a r e n o w n o l o n g e r w i t h t h e f a c u l t y ; t h e Br i t i s hhadc onc e i v e dofpl anst ode f e ndt he i r r s onwhoi ns pi r e dmet oge ti nt ot hi sf i e l d i nt e r e s t si nAs i aagai ns tt heChi ne s ewi t hnu- pe – mi l i t a r y h i s t o r i a n D a n C r o s s w e l l – i s n o w a t c l e arwar f ar e . Col umbusSt at eUni v e r s i t y .Al loft he m we r e nf l ue nt i ali ns hapi nghow Iappr oac ht he Youseem t ocoverqui t eawi deareai n i t udyofhi s t or y . t erms ofyour research,whatwoul d s youconsi deryourkeyexpert i se?

Any words ofencouragementt ot he i on ( of Hi st ori ans) Iam f as c i nat e dwi t hi nt e r nat i onalandt r an- younger generat o u t t h e r e ? s nat i onalhi s t or y ,andhav ec ul t i v at e dani nt e r e s ti ns e c ur i t ys t udi e s .I nt e r nat i onalhi s s i onat eandc ur i ous .I fy ou’ r epas s i ont or yi snowmor es ophi s t i c at e dandc ompl e x, Bepas a t e a b o u t w h a t y o u d o , I t h i n k y o u ’ l l l o o k f or and hi s t or i answor ki ngi nt hats ubf i e l d of w a r d t o d o i n g i t . I ma g i n e s p e n d i n g a n d c o mhi s t or yhav ee mbr ac e dt hec ul t ur alandt r ant t i ng 35 y e ar s of y our l i f e on s nat i onalt ur ni nt hehumani t i e sands oc i al mi unde r gr aduat eandgr aduat ewor k] ,y ou’ v e s c i e nc e s .Thee l e me nt sofe c onomi c s ,pol i -[ g o t t o b e p a s s i o n a t e a b o u t w h a t y o u ’ r e d o i n g . t i c s ,andwarr e mai n,buti nt e r nat i onalhi s A n d c u l t i v a t e a n e n t h u s i a s t i c c u r i o s i t y a n d t or y now c ons i de r s c ul t ur e , di s c our s e , raboutt hi ngs .The ywi l lhe l py ouf i nd ge nde r ,r ac e ,andr e l i gi ont obee qual l yi m- wonde t h e a w e s o me a n d t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y i n w h at por t ants ubj e c t sofanal y s i si nr e l at i onsbe ma y s e e m t o b e t h e o r d i n a r y . t we e ns t at e s and s oc i e t i e s .Tr ans nat i onal hi s t or yi sal s oope ni ngupne wl i ne sof qui r yaboutt hei nt e r c onne c t e dne s soft he wor l dandt hepor ous ne s sofs t at e s .Si ngapor ec oul ds e r v east hequi nt e s s e nt i alc as e s t udyoft r ans nat i onalhi s t or y ,aswear eat t hec r os s r oadoft hewor l de c onomyandt he gl obalf l owsofi de as ,pe opl e ,andc api t al .

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NGI AM:ONGRADUAT I O NA N DT E A C H I N G S e b a s t i a nWa n g|s e b a s t i a n wwq @h o t ma i l . c o m

Mne moz i nemanage dt oc at c hupwi t houre xChi e fEdi t or , Ngi am Xi ngYi , be t t e rknownasNgi am, whohas j us tgr aduat e df r om NUS.Hes har e sabouthi spas tf oury e ar si nNUS,hi sf ut ur epl ansandwhathet hi nks aboutt het e ac hi ngofHi s t or yi nSi ngapor es c hool s .

HiNgi am,congrat ul at i onsonyourgraduat i on! W hathaveyoubeenupt ol at el y? Iam c ur r e nt l yt aki ngaPos tGr aduat eDi pl omai nEduc at i on( PGDE)att heNat i onalI ns t i t ut eofEduc at i on ( NI E) .Thi si si npr e par at i onf ort e ac hi ngHi s t or yand Soc i alSt udi e st os t ude nt satt heSe c ondar ys c hooll e v e l . Ihav eal s obe gunt ov ol unt e e rmyt i meatapr ogr amme f ory out hof f e nde r s . Forl e i s ur e , s omeofmyf r i e ndswho hav ej us tgr aduat e dwi t hmehav ef or me dawe e kl yr e adi ng gr oup di s c us s i ng phi l os ophy ,and t hathasbe e n mos te nj oy abl e . Asaf ut ureHi st oryt eacher,whatdoyout eachi ngHi st oryt obel i ke? Pe r hapsIs houl ds t ar twi t hwhatIt hi nkl e ar ni ngHi s t or ys houl dbel i ke .Tome ,hi s t or ys t ude nt ss houl dal l t ur noutt obeal i t t l ec he e ky .The yl e ar nne v e rt ot ake whati spr e s e nt e dt ot he ms upe r f i c i al l yandar eabl et o di s gui s es har pc r i t i c i s m wi t hc onc i s ewi t .Onamor es e r i ousnot e ,hi s t or ys t ude nt ss houl dbeabl et omakean i nde pe nde ntandc ons i de r e dj udge me nt ,andmor ei m por t ant l y ,ac c ountf ori tr e s pons i bl ywi t he v i de nc eand l ogi c .I twoul dbes adt os e ehi s t or ys t ude nt sbe c ome mi ndl e s sbandwagone r swhof ue le i t he rant i e s t abl i s hme ntpol e mi corc ons e r v at i v ei ndoc t r i nat i oni r r e s pons i bl y .

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How c ant hi sbet aught ?Imus tf i r s ts ayt hatt e ns i ons be t we e nt e ac hi ngobj e c t i v e shav epe r s i s t e dandwi l l pe r s i s t ,andmyr e s pons emaynotbet hec or r e c tone .Ibe l i e v ewhathi s t or yt e ac he r sc andot oe nc our aget he s e ‘ de s i r e dout c ome s ’( t hei r ony )i st o( 1 )he l ps t ude nt s l e ar nhow t oas kgoodque s t i ons ,( 2)pr ov i deasmany pe r s pe c t i v e sandappr oac he sf ort hes t ude nt st or e ac h ani nf or me dr e s pons e ,and( 3)humbl yal l ow t hes t ude nt st oque s t i ont he i rt e ac he r s . Fur t he r mor e , ami dt he gr owi ngbur de nsoft het e ac hi ngs e r v i c e ,hi s t or yt e ac he r ss houl dne v e rf or ge tt oc ont i nual l yhonet he i rown t hi nki ngand c r af t .How c an y ou l e ar n hi s t or yf r om s ome onewhodoe snotpr oduc ei twe l l ? Ast heChi e fEdi t orf ort hr e ee di t i onsofMne moz i ne , whatar ey ourt hought sont hepubl i c at i on? Mne moz i newast hebr ai nc hi l dofAl e xChowandChe w An Ee ,al umnif r om t he Hi s t or y De par t me nt .Yong ChunYuanwast hes e c onde di t or ,andIpi c ke di tup f r om t he r e .Wei nt e nde dt oc r e at eapl at f or mf ors t ude nt st owr i t ehi s t or yi nde pe nde nt l y , be y ondt hef or mal e xpe r i e nc epr ov i de dbyourunde r gr aduat epr ogr amme . Thepubl i c at i one xpande dqui c kl y ,gi v i ngusoppor t uni t i e st oe ngages e v e r al or gani z at i onsande v e nt si nSi ngapor es uc hasnonpr of i tor gani z at i ons ,mus e ums ,and s c hool s . Wewe r eal s ode l i be r at ei ni nv ol v i ngnonhi s t or ymaj or si nt hepr oc e s sofc hur ni ngoutMne moz i ne . Fore xampl e ,t hebe aut i f ulde s i gnf ort hei ni t i ali s s ue s wasdonebyWu Zhuoy i ,an Ar c hi t e c t ur es t ude nti n NUS.Wehopet hatMne moz i nehasc onne c t e dpe opl e whoe nj oyhi s t or y ,r e gar dl e s sofwhot he yar e .


Tel lusmoreaboutyourgraduat i on,andany memorabl e event st hatyou woul dl i ke t o sharei nyourf ouryearsi nNUS. I ti sat r ut huni v e r s al l yac knowl e dge dt hatt hehi s t or ymaj or si nNUShav et hebe s tHonour sRoom, andbye xt e ns i on, oneoft hec l os e s tbat c hofhonour s s t ude nt samongt hemaj or s .Is pe akf ort hemaj or i t y ofmybat c hmat e swhe n Is ayt hatal otofgood me mor i e sofourf i naly e arwe r ef or me di nt hatv e r y r oom.Si ngi ngKar aoke ,s c r e e ni ngmov i e s ,c e l e br at i ngf e s t i v al s ,andpl ay i ngbr i dgewe r ej us ts omeof t hemanyt hi ngst hatbr oughtust oge t he r .

Fi nal l y,doyou haveanywi sewordsf oryour j uni orswhoarepursui ngt hei rundergraduat e degreei nNUSnow?

Chal l e ngey our s e l f .Thi si sac r uc i alt i meofpe r s onal de v e l opme nt ,andy ouwi l lbes e v e r e l yc he at i ngy our Butpe r hapst hemos tde f i ni t i v emome ntwast he s i s s e l foft hi sv al uabl eoppor t uni t yi fy oudonotgr aduat e s ubmi s s i on day . The de par t me nt wi l l pe r haps asamor emat ur epe r s ont hany ouwe r e .Donots hy al way sr e me mbe rus( andnoti nagoodway )f or awayf r om wi de ni ngt hebr e adt hofy ourac ade mi ce xbe i ngunabl et os ubmi tourt he s e sont i mebe c aus e pe r i e nc es i mpl ybe c aus eofy ourobs e s s i onwi t hy our manyofushadwai t e dt i l lt hel as tmi nut et opr i nt CAP. I ti se as yt opi c k' s af e ' c l as s e st haty ouc andowe l l t he m out .Howe v e r ,manyofuss e l f l e s s l yputt he m- i nbutnotl e ar nany t hi ngne wf r om,andt hi si sac oms e l v e sf or war dt os uppor tt hos ewhowe r ei nt r oubl e , pl e t ewas t eofGEMsandBr e adt hmodul e sav ai l abl et o waki ngupe ar l yt ogot odi f f e r e ntpar t sofSi ngapor e y ou.Ne i t he rs houl dy ouc hoos ey ourc l as s e sbyt he be f or eal lt hepr i nt i ngs hopsope ne dt oe ns ur et hat numbe roff r i e ndse nr ol l e di ni t ,butbywhe t he rt he e v e r y t hi ngt hatc oul dbedonet omi t i gat et hepr ob- c l as she l psYOUt ol e ar nandt hi nkbe t t e r . l e m wasdone .Thatwast hemome ntwhe nwekne w t hatwehadr e al l ybe c omeauni t e dbunc h.Al lofus Taket hei ni t i at i v e .Donots i mpl ypas s i v e l ywai tf or hav emanage dt oge twhe r ewear eonl ybe c aus ewe y ourl e c t ur es l i de sorr e adi ngst obeupl oade donI VLE, hav er e l i e done ac hot he ral ongt heway . butt hi nke ar l yonaboutwhaty ouar egoi ngt ol e ar n. Maket hats t e poff ai t handge tt oknow ne w pe opl e out s i deofy ourc omf or tc i r c l e ,i nc l udi ngy ourpr of e s s or s .The r e ' smuc ht o begl e ane df r om t hepe opl e ar oundy ou,ands howi nghumi l i t ygoe sal ongwayi n bui l di ngt he s er e l at i ons hi ps .

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GohSwe eYi k|goh. s we e . yi k@gmai l . c om

Japane s edi pl omatChi uneSugi har abe l ongst oas pe c i algr oupofpe opl ewhor e s i s t e dt hemadne s sofHol oc aus t .Al t hough6mi l l i onJe wswe r es l aught e r e di n Naz i s m' sque s tf orr ac i alpur i t y ,t hos ewhode f i e di t 1 s e r v e ase xe mpl ar ye xampl e sofhumani t y .Whi l e t he i rs e l f l e s s ne s sc ameatgr e atpe r s onalc os t ,t he i r de e dsof t e nr e mai ni nobs c ur i t y .Ast henumbe rof t he i rbe ne f i c i ar i e sc ont i nue st odwi ndl ede c ade saf t e r Wor l dWarTwo( WWI I ),t hehe r oi s m ofme nl i ke Sugi har ar i s ksbe i ngf or got t e n. Sugi har awast heJapane s eVi c eCons uli nLi t huani an c api t alofKaunasi n1 940.Byt he nt heBal t i cs t at e 2 be c amear e f ugef orJe wse s c api ngt hepogr oms i n Naz i oc c upi e dPol and2.Fe ar i ngaGe r mani nv as i onof Li t huani a,t hous andss oon l ooke dt ot heJapane s e c ons ul at ef orhe l p.De s pi t ebe i ngde ni e dpe r mi s s i on byt heMi ni s t r yofFor e i gnAf f ai r sofJapan( MOFA) , Sugi har a gav eawaymor et han 2000 handwr i t t e n t r ans i tv i s asbe f or eaSov i e ti nv as i onf or c e dhi sde par t ur ef r om Li t huani a.Hewr ot et hel as tofhi sv i s ason hi st r ai noutofKaunas ,t hr owi ngt he m outt ode s pe r at er e f uge e sgat he r e d out s i dehi sc ar r i age . �Ast he v i s aswe r ev al i df ore nt i r ef ami l i e s ,upt o6000r e f u3 ge e sf oundr e f ugei nJapane s eoc c upi e dt e r r i t or y .He l os thi spos taf t e rt hewarandl i v e dal owke yl i f e .Hi s de e dswe r eonl yr e c ogni s e day e arbe f or ehi sde at h, whe nher e c e i v e dt heI s r ae l i t i t l eof" Ri ght e ousAmong 4 t heNat i ons " .

Thear duoust as kofi s s ui ngy e ar s ' wor t hofv i s asi n af e w day si nt e r f e r e dwi t hhi sdut i e si nLi t huani a, whi c hi nc l ude dt heobs e r v at i on ofSov i e tt r oop mov e me nt si nt her e gi on5.Tohi ss upe r i or s ,Sugi har a' sac t i onswasnots i mpl yanac tof" unJapane s e "i ns ubor di nat i on,butas e v e r ede r e l i c t i onof 6 dut y . Atat i mewhe nJapane s es ol di e r swe r ef i ght i ngt ot hede at hi nt hePac i f i c ,Sugi har ac ommi t t e d ac ar di nals i n.I ti spe r hapsnos ur pr i s et hatt he pos t warMOFA di s mi s s e d Sugi har a,i ns pi t eof hi m be i ngt he i rf or e mos te xpe r tont heUSSR7.

Sugi har a' shumani t ar i ani s mc ont r i but e dt ohi sobs c u- Sugi har a' sde e dal s of e l lv i c t i mt oJapane s er e v i r i t y ,ashi sac tc ameatt hee xpe ns eofhi sdut y . s i oni s m.

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I n an at t e mptt o di v e r tat t e nt i on awayf r om t he at r oc i t i e si tc ommi t t e ddur i ngt hewar ,t hemi ni s t r y c l ai me dt hatt hev i s aswe r epar tofi t spr e war" Fugu Pl an" ,whi c he nc our age d Je wi s hi mmi gr at i on t o Japan8,e v e nt houghJapan' sal l i anc ewi t hGe r many hal t e di ti n1 940.

Endnot e s

1Luc yDawi dowi c z ,TheWarAgai ns tt heJe ws( Ne w Yor k:Bant am,1 986) ,403 2Te r m us e dt ode s c r i bet heor gani s e dmas s ac r eorpe r s e i onofapar t i c ul are t hni cgr oup,e s pe c i al l yJe ws .; Mor e ov e r , Sugi har a was unawar e of s uc h cut 8 ot r ows ki ,Pol and' sHol oc aus t :Et hni cSt r i f e , i ni t i at i v e s .Al ongwi t ht he i rc l ai ms ,t heMOFA r e - ThaddeusPi C o l l a b o r a t i o n Wi t h O c c u p y i n g F o r c e s a n d G e n o c i d e i n f us e dt oc oope r at ei ne f f or t sbybe ne f i c i ar i e st ot r ac k heSe c ondRe publ i c ,1 91 8–1 947( Nor t hCar ol i na:Mc Far Sugi har adown,whi l er umour se me r ge df r om t he t l a n d & C o mp a n y , 1 9 9 8 ) , 2 3 mi ni s t r yt hatSugi har a de mande d mone yi ne x3Roge rPul v e r s ," Chi uneSugi har a:manofc ons c i e nc e , " 9 c hangef ort hev i s as.Thr ough appr opr i at i on and TheJapanTi me s( 201 5) ,ac c e s s e dAugus t a20,201 5, c har ac t e r as s as s i nat i on,t he MOFA was abl et o ht t p: / / www. j apant i me s . c o. j p/ ne ws / 201 5/ 07/ 1 1 / nat i onal r e duc eSugi har a' sr ol et ot hatofac i v i ls e r v antf ol - /hi s t or y / c hi une s ugi har amanc ons c i e nc e / #. Ve s wgREr J l owi nggov e r nme ntpol i c y ,ac l ai mt hati ss t i l lbe i ng D9 1 0 madet oday . 4" Khas s i de yumothaol am"or" Ri ght e ousAmongt he Nat i ons "i sanhonor i f i cawar de dbyt heSt at eofI s r ae lt o n o n J e w s w h o s a v e d J e w i s h l i v e s d u r i n g t h e Ho l o c a u s t at 3de c ade saf t e rSugi har a' sde at h,hi sde e dsc ont i nue t h e i r o w n r i s k . S u g i h a r a w a s t h e o n l y J a p a n e s e t o r e c e i v e t or e mai nr e l e v ant .Thee xi s t e nc eofHol oc aus tde t h e a w a r d . ni e r s ,r angi ng f r om r i ght wi ng r adi c al st oe nt i r e har a:Cons pi r ac yofKi ndne s s .PBS,2000.Fi l m. 1 1 gov e r nme nt s ,t hr e at e nt he ge noc i de ' se xi s t e nc e . 5Sugi 6Se i s hi r oSugi har a,Chi uneSugi har aandJapan' sFor For ge t t i ngt hel i ke sofSugi har aandt hepe opl et hat e i gnMi ni s t r y:Be t we e nI nc ompe t e nc eandCul pabi l i t yt he ys av e d,s t r e ngt he nst her e v i s i oni s t s ' ar gume nt s , Par tI I ,t r ans .Nor manHu( Lanham:Uni v e r s i t yPr e s sof andput st heme mor yoft hemi l l i onswhope r i s he dat Amer i c a,2001 ) r i s k.No mat t e rhow c onv ol ut e dt he r e v i s i oni s t s ' 7Sugi har a,Chi uneSugi har aandJapan' sFor e i gnMi nc l ai msmaybe ,i ti snol aughi ngmat t e r ,gi v e nhow i s t r y:Be t we e nI nc ompe t e nc eandCul pabi l i t y-Par tI I , I i i i t he yhav et hes uppor tof40% oft heAr abwor l d12. 8Sugi har a,Chi uneSugi har aandJapan' sFor e i gnMi ni s t r y : B e t we e n I n c o mp e t e n c e a n d C u l p a b i l i t y P a r t I I , Thes i gni f i c anc eofChi uneSugi har ai sal s os e e ni n x I v i i x I i x t hec i r c ums t anc e st hatf or c e dhi mt oac t .TheHol ohar a:Cons pi r ac yofKi ndne s s .PBS,2000.Fi l m.; c aus ti spe r hapst hegr e at e s te xampl eoft hec ons e - 9Sugi Sugi har a,Chi uneSugi har aandJapan' sFor e i gnMi ni s t r y : que nc e sofunc he c ke de xt r e mi s m andr ac i s m.Wi t h Be t we e nI nc ompe t e nc eandCul pabi l i t y-Par tI I ,I i i i . t hepe r s e c ut i onoft heYaz i dipe opl ebyt heI s l ami c 1 0“ St or yofac our age ousdi pl omatofhumani t y,Mr . St at e and t he r i s e of r i ght wi ng r adi c al i s m i n Chi uneSugi har a, ”Mi ni s t r yofFor e i gnAf f ai r sof 1 4 Eur ope ,i ti sc l e art hate xt r e mi s mr e mai nsapr e v a Japan( 201 4) , l e ntt hr e ati nt oday ' swor l d. Re me mbe r i ngt heHol o- ht t p: / / www. mof a. go. j p/ r e gi on/ mi ddl e _e / i s r ae l / s ugi har ht ml c aus tandi t sl e s s onsi snow mor ei mpor t antt han a. 1 1Shi r z adBoz or gme hr ," I r anhos t sHol oc aus tc onf e r e v e rbe f or e . e nc e , "CNN. c om ( 2006) , t p: / / e di t i on. c nn. c om/ 2006/ WORLD/ me as t / 1 2/ 1 1 / i r a Ev e nwi t houtt hewi de ri mpl i c at i onsofSugi har a' s ht n . h o l o c a u s t / i n d e x . h t ml ac t i ons ,t hee xampl es e tbyt hedi pl omatasahuman 1 2SammySmooha,The2008I nde xofAr abJe wi s hRe be i ngi shar dt oi gnor e . Thes e l f l e s s ne s se xhi bi t e dby l at i onsi nI s r ae l :Mai nFi ndi ngsandTr e ndsofChange amanwhor i s ke dhi sl i v e l i hoodi nt hede f e nc eof ( Hai f a,Uni v e r s i t yofHai f a,2008) ot he r si s a qual i t yt hati s be c omi ng s c ar c e ri n 1 3JohnPal me r ," Ther i s eoff arr i ghtpar t i e sac r os s mode r ns oc i e t y .Thatal onei swor t hr e me mbe r i ng. Eur opei sac hi l l i nge c hooft he1 930s . " ,TheGuar di an ( 201 3) , ht t p: / / www. t he guar di an. c om/ c omme nt i s f r e e / 201 3/ nov / 1 5/ f ar r i ght t hr e at e ur ope i nt e gr at i on

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OBSERVI NG T HE

S I N G A P O R E E S T I V A L S I N G A P O R EF F E S T I V A L O F A N C E O FD D A N C E

Wa sS i ng a p o r er e a llya c ult ur a ld e s e r ti nt he1 9 8 0 s ?

Pr i y a d a r s h i n iD/ ONa g a r a j a h|a 0 1 1 5 0 1 4 @u . n u s . e d u and e nc our age dt hebl os s omi ng oft hear t ss c e nei n 5 Si ngapor e. I nt heope ni ng s pe e c h oft hee v e nt ,MrWan Jus s i n Zoohr i ,Par l i ame ntSe c r e t ar y( Cul t ur eandHe al t h)e xpl ai ne dt hatt hegov e r nme ntwi s he dt os how t hati twas s y mpat he t i ct oe f f or t sofc ul t ur algr oupsandwaswi l l i ng t opr omot ec ul t ur alac t i v i t i e samongs tt hec ommuni t y 6 v e r , t hr oughmut ualc oope r at i onandas s i s t anc e.Howe t hi sf e s t i v alwasdi s c ont i nue di n1 991t omaker oom f or 7 i nt e r nat i onalwor ks .

I n1 980,t he r ewasamar ke ds hi f ti ngov e r nme ntat t i t ude st owar dc ul t ur easc ul t ur alde v e l opme nti nSi ngapor ec oi nc i dewi t ht hegov e r nme nt ’ sai mt oc r e at ea 1 “ nat i onalc ul t ur e ” .I nMar c h1 982,l oc aldanc e r sand c hor e ogr aphe r se xc i t e dl yant i c i pat e dt hef i r s te v e rFe s t i v alofDanc e( pr oduc e d,pe r f or me danddi r e c t e dby l oc alar t i s t e s ) ,awayt odi s pe lt henot i onsof1 970sSi n 2 gapor ebe i ngac ul t ur al de s e r t. I twasi ns pi r e dbyI ndone s i a' sDanc eFe s t i v alhe l di nSe e mant r iBr oj one gor St adi um,Jakar t a,whi c h pr ov i de d oppor t uni t i e sf or ov e r1 00 gr oupst oe xhi bi tt he i rt al e ntand c r e at e d 3 s pac ef ordi s c us s i ononi mpr ov i ngt hel oc alar t ss c e ne . I nt hatr e s pe c t , t heDanc eFe s t i v al ofSi ngapor ehade nv i s i one dt hepr omot i onofl oc al ar t i s t st hr oughc r e at i ng av e nue sf ors t agi ngl oc al l ypr oduc e dwor ksande ngagi ng c ommuni t y s uppor tf or t he ar t ss c e ne i n 4 Si ngapor e .Thee v e ntwasor gani s e dbyt heNat i onal The at r eTr us t ,s uppor t e dbyt heMi ni s t r yofCul t ur e andSi ngapor eCul t ur alFoundat i ont hr oughf undi ng,

Thef e s t i v alwasi naugur at e d on 20 Mar c h1 982 and l as t e dt i l l24Mar c h;awhoppi ng4daye v e ntf orl oc al danc e r s .The r ewe r eat ot alof36danc egr oupst hatpe r 8 f or me de t hni cdanc e s ,danc edr amasandbal l e ti t e ms . Someoft hemor epr omi ne ntgr oupsf e at ur e dwe r et he Si ngapor eBal l e tAc ade my ,Si ngapor eI ndi anFi neAr t s Soc i e t yandBhas kar ' sAc ade myofDanc e , al l ofwhi c har e 9 s t i l lac t i v ei nt hear t ss c e nei nSi ngapor et oday .TheSi ngapor eChi ne s eGi r l s 'Sc hoolal s oputupadanc ei t e m 1 0 t i t l e d' Se mpr ePl uSpi r i t i e s e '. Thev ar i e t yi nt het y pe sof danc e st hatwe r ef e at ur e d,f r om t het r adi t i onalt ot he c ont e mpor ar y ,wasmi r r or e dbyt hee xpe r i e nc eandmat ur i t yoft hegr oupst hatpe r f or me di nt hef e s t i v al :t he r e we r edanc e r sf r om s c hool s ,c ommuni t ygr oupsandpr o f e s s i onaldanc et r oupe sal i ke .I nde e d,bot hmode r nand t r adi t i onall oc alar t i s t e shad pr oduc e d wor k ofhi gh s t andar dss uc has" TwoSi de sofMan" ,as hor tmode r n danc ec hor e ogr aphe dbyYanChoonLi anf ort heYout h Gr oupf r om KampongGl am CC,andBhas kar ' sAc ade my ofDanc e ,whodi s pl ay e di nnov at i ont hr ought heus eof 1 1 l i ght sandbac kdr ops . Thee v e ntwasc ons i de r e dahuges uc c e s si nt hear t i s t c ommuni t yasi tnotonl yat t r ac t e dov e r50gr oupst oaudi t i onandbe ne f i t t e dupt o500ar t i s t e s ,butac c or di ng t oor gani s e rMrMi c hae lLoke ,t heFe s t i v alofDanc ehad " f ul f i l l e di t sai mt os t i mul at ei nt e r e s ti ndanc eandt o 1 2ar ous eawi der angeofpar t i c i pat i on" .Headde dt hat t he r ewashopef ors uc hpr oduc t i onst obehe l di nt he f ut ur et or e c r ui tt al e nt sf orpr e s t i gi ouss howss uc has t heFe s t i v alofAr t s ,whi c hhos t e dr e nowne di nt e r nat i onalpe r f or me r s .

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Howe v e r , de s pi t et hegr e atboos tf ort hel oc al ar ts c e ne , t he r ewass t i l lage ne r als e ns eofapat hyf orl oc aldanc e r samongs tt hemaj or i t yofSi ngapor e ansast he r ewas noaudi e nc ee duc at i ont oac c ompanyt heat t e mptat 1 3 pr opagat i ngt hel oc alar t s .Paul i neWal ke rc l ai me d t hatf ore v e r ype r s oni nt e r e s t e di nt hef e s t i v al , about1 2 c oul dnotbebot he r e d,r e f e r r i ngt ot hege ne r alpe r c e pt i ont hatl oc aldanc ewasnotasac c ompl i s he dasi nt e r 1 4 nat i onalpr oduc t i ons . Endnot e s

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Istana Woodneuk: Heirloom from Malay Royalty Emily Eng | emuwie@gmail.com Photos taken by Christabelle Ong One might wonder what it is about old, dilapidated places that fascinate us so much. Perhaps it is the notion of transience that strikes us most, that time and nature will reclaim all things great and insignificant. Or perhaps it how we often seem to fight against transience by amassing what we see as most everlasting: wealth, status and power- and yet we never win. Arguably, old things are especially valuable to us, because as a nation constantly striving to keep up with the new, the old serves as a stark contrast to what we have and reminds of what we once were. The Woodneuk House is one of few such places left in Singapore. It is a trinket left behind by the Malay royal family, with whom Singapore’s history is intrinsically linked with, and serves as an embodiment of our Malay cultural roots. Having never been properly maintained, the house is on the brink of collapse. Despite its decrepit state, the House still retains some regality and solemnity in hollow hallways and winding stairwells, only barely hinting at its past grandeur. Over the years, it has attracted the attention of many, some of whom have braved the insects, the 15 minute1 forest hike and the risk of being caught trespassing private property in order to explore it themselves.

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Though not meant to be a palace, the Woodneuk House, was and is still commonly referred to as “Istana Woodneuk”, as it used to be the favorite dwelling of the Sultan of Johore and the Sultanate. It was very much raved about for its modern interior design, said to have been decided upon by the Sultanate herself. However, it is not to be confused with Istana Tyersall, another similarly forgotten Istana with a red roof built nearby. Gutted by a fire in 1905, the Tyersall has since been demolished after acquisition by the Singapore government in 19902. Istana Woodneuk was built by Sultan Abu Bakar in the late 19th century, and later passed on to his son, Sultan Ibrahim in 1895. In 1935, Sultan Ibrahim had Istana Woodneuk rebuilt for his wife, Helen Bartholomew, a Dutch girl he married in 1930.3 This was among many of the other loving things he did for her, such as having their portraits printed on Johor’s official stamps. However, this was not long lived, and they divorced when it was revealed that the Sultan had been maintaining an extramarital relationship with a cabaret dancer named Cecily Hill. With Hill’s death during the Second World War, the Sultan re-married a Romanian named Marcella Mendl, whom he lived with till his death in 19594.


Istana Woodneuk was not solely a residence for Malay royalty, as its function turned from one of a luxurious dwelling to that of a military command post with the start of World War 2. In 1940, Sultan Ibrahim allowed the British to use the Istana as a headquarters and barracks. It also doubled as a military hospital.5 At least 700 patients and medics were killed within its walls when the hospital was bombed by the Japanese in February 1942, at the height of the Battle for Singapore6. Istana Woodneuk continued to be used by the British military when they returned in 1945 and was only returned to the Sultan in 1948. With its slightly bloody history, Istana Woodneuk has since been visited by many paranormal investigators in hope of cashing in on some paranormal activities. On a more serious note however, the role of the Istana in the war only further reminds us of how far Singapore has come since the war. It reminds us of not only the bloodshed that came with the war, but also of the small beginnings of our nationhood as we fought alongside the British against the Japanese infiltrators, and thus began our journey towards Independence. Little was heard about the Istana Woodneuk’s use past the 1960s, and the grounds have since fallen into disrepair. It was bought over by the Singapore Botanic Gardens in 2004, although the future plans for the Istana are still unknown. A fire that broke out in 20067 destroyed the iconic blue roof8 of the Istana and further reduced the building’s overall stability. The dual stairway leading up to the second floor now threatens collapse, while parts of the ceiling have given way and debris is strewn across the halls. Upon comparison with previous pictures in old newspaper articles, the Istana Woodneuk is only a fraction of what it used to be.

One may think of many reasons why this old palace is forgotten: because it had been left to crumble beyond restoration after the war; because it is so well hidden and almost completely reclaimed by the forest; because its history has been forgotten by many, and to most it is merely a crumbling structure that is soon to be demolished and replaced. As forgotten as Istana Woodneuk may be, it seems that it is the bathtub overtaken by roots and moss, the ballroom with its wooden tiles strewn across the floor, and the bits of turquoise roof tiles that have fallen through during the fire is what gives it its eery charm. Even as new plans are laid by the Botanic Gardens, Istana Woodneuk remains as a reminder of our once close ties with Malaysia, a remembrance of the heritage left behind by the Malay royalty, and if you know of it, a mournful memory of those who perished behind its walls during the war. Endnotes 1 Smart, Bridget. "Tails from the Lion City.”: Istana Woodneuk. August 18, 2014. http://www.singaporetales.co.uk/2014/08/istanawoodneuk.html 2 “The Forgotten Palace." The Forgotten Palace. January 25, 2013. http://poskod.sg/Posts/2013/1/25/The-Forgotten-Palace 3 “Singapore Indian Troops Live In Sultan's Park." The Straits Times, May 2, 1940. http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/strai tstimes19400502-1.2.44.aspx. 4 “The Forgotten Palace." The Forgotten Palace. January 25, 2013. http://poskod.sg/Posts/2013/1/25/The-Forgotten-Palace 5 “Singapore Indian Troops Live In Sultan's Park." The Straits Times, May 2, 1940. http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/strai tstimes19400502-1.2.44.aspx. 6 Loh, Joy. "Istana Woodneuk & Tyersall House." Explore with Joy Loh. March 28, 2014. http://joyloh.com/blog/?p=5814 7 “Istana Woodneuk Guide and Photojournal - Haunted Singapore Places Explored." - TheSmartLocal. March 3, 2015. http://www.thesmartlocal.com/read/istana-woodneuk-guide 8 “Istana Woodneuk." Remember Singapore. October 10, 2011. http://remembersingapore.org/istana-woodneuk/

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Marshalling Singapore Maria Teo Bee See | marietbs@outlook.com The passing of Mr Lee Kuan Yew, celebrations of Singapore’s golden jubilee and the General Elections of 2015 have made this year nothing short of an invigorating whirlwind of events. We find ourselves at an important juncture in our national history, where important decisions, stirring contemplations and the uncertainty of “What’s next?” confront us head on. It is in this light that we come to a rather interesting character - Singapore’s first chief minister, David Saul Marshall. Mr Marshall served as chief minister for the brief period of 1955-56, for which he is most famously known. Interestingly, he happens to be the founder of the Workers Party, arguably the leading party at the forefront of opposition politics. As we stand at a crossroads with regards to the future of leadership and the debate over an opposition presence in parliament intensifies, it would not be ill-suited to contemplate one of the most fundamental tenets of Marshall’s political (and for that matter, personal) convictions: justice. Marshall’s characteristic propensity to refuse unjustified, knee-jerk authority had been evident from the time he was a young boy. His mother had enrolled him in the Talmud Torah Hebrew School where he was forced to learn Hebrew by memorizing the phonetic sounds of words without learning their actual meanings1. Naturally, this irked the inquisitive boy2. He continued to question the rites and customs of the religion, for instance only being allowed to consume mutton on rare occasions or when his mother would refuse to wash herself from the belief that contact with water would break her fast, which baffled and exasperated a young David3.

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However, it was when he began school that David’s intolerance for unjustified institutions appeared in the form of abhorrence for racism, and which would become one of the hallmarks of his anti-colonial pursuits. After 3 years in Baghdad where he accompanied his mother who longed to see her parents again and seek treatment for an illness she had been suffering, 9-year-old David returned to Singapore speaking not a word of English4. He was thus enrolled in the Convent of the Holy Infant Jesus where he began learning English5. Though he was only there for a year, David still managed to punch another student for making an anti-Semitic remark directed at him6. Racism reared its ugly head again when young David was purportedly expelled from SJI, where he attended after leaving the Convent, as a result of his absence from school to celebrate a Jewish holiday7. David recounts numerous experiences with racism throughout young adulthood, but the most profound of which came when he served as a prisoner of war during the Japanese Occupation. Over the course of three and a half years, he bore witness to the fallacy of racial superiority as he watched White men who were supposed to be unassailable, invincible and above all, superior, succumb to torture and incarceration8. Here, he captures this sentiment: “[on the] frailty of human beings, the absurdities of the status symbols of carrying a Captain's star or a Major's crown and turning out to be a long streak of piss. Whereas the cook who was the LanceCorporal turned out to be a really worthwhile human being9.”


Marshalling Singapore These experiences were greatly decisive in shaping the contours of David’s political convictions, and subsequently became a true force to reckon with as he fought against the injustice of racial distinction as grounds for derogatory treatment. It was precisely this passion that led to numerous heated fights with the British authorities, antics in the assembly (a la the famous bush jacket which David wore as an act of rebellion against the British tradition of donning the suit as a mark of respect for the formality of an occasion10), and ultimately, his resignation as Chief Minister in 1956 when talks with the British fell through. Marshall made many reflections in his later life on his time as Chief Minister. “I’ve been a vivid personality. But that doesn't mean I have leadership quality. I had the fire of anger, the excitement of great ideas, emotional approach almost uninhibited, but not the intellectual organizational approach of great leaders. That I didn't have, and don't... frankly, I don't think I would have been equal to the ramifications of running the country.11”

Nevertheless, Marshall’s personal and political life was governed by the simple, yet profound principle of upholding what was just. Perhaps faced with these difficult questions to answer, we would do well to remember that in his memory. Endnotes 1 Tan, Kevin. "Growing Up in Colonial Singapore." In Marshall of Singapore: A Biography, 21. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2008. 2 ibid 3 ibid, 20; ibid, 34 4 ibid, 16; ibid, 18 5 ibid, 22 6 ibid. 7 Tan, Kevin. "Growing Up in Colonial Singapore." In Marshall of Singapore: A Biography, 28. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2008. 8 Khoo, Kevin. "David Marshall: Singapore's First Chief Minister." National Archives of Singapore. http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/article/davidmarshall-first-chief-minister. 9 David Saul Marshall, Oral History Interview, Acc 000156, Reel 3 from Khoo, Kevin. "David Marshall: Singapore's First Chief Minister." National Archives of Singapore. http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/article/davidmarshall-first-chief-minister. 10 Tan, Kevin. "Into the Deep End." In Marshall of Singapore: A Biography, 246. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2008. 11 Khoo, Kevin. "David Marshall: Singapore's First Chief Minister." National Archives of Singapore. http://www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/article/davidmarshall-first-chief-minister.

What Marshall’s story reveals is this: though a rather disconnected history for most of our young, our roots struck the ground with force against injustice and unjustified rule by those whose hearts and minds were truly in the wrong place. Marshall sought to subvert this, but perhaps took a wrong turn down the emotional lane. We need to set aside our emotions and passionate feelings to make informed decisions and to earnestly contemplate what it means to elect rule by those whose hearts and minds are in the right

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Martial Arts in 20 Century Singapore Glenn Ong | glennokh@u.nus.edu Conventional notions of the martial arts invoke vivid images of discipline, gusto, and astounding feats of combative techniques.1 Such associations typically result in the personal and collective memories of martial artists being relegated or side-lined in favour of the more attractive narratives of victory and skill. In detailing the history of the martial arts and its practitioners, most extant literature devote their attention to the growth and development of techniques, the science of coaching and instruction, and their accompanying philosophical tenets. The history of martial arts as a chronicle of community formation, characterised by unique lived experiences and social memories, is one that has yet to be widely told, whether in Singapore or abroad. This article hopes to spark the discussion necessary to redress this imbalance, so as to highlight the importance of remembering salient aspects of their legacies. While the depiction of the martial arts in popular culture can be misleading at times, tales of practitioners punching sandbags and numbing their limbs with glass bottles, among other (seemingly) unorthodox practices, remain true artefacts of their training memories.2 Many other aspects, such as old training attires, injuries, as well as the traditional rituals and rules of engagement, continue to be conduits of memory that our pioneers adopt to connect us to the “good old days”3. These sharing of common norms, practices, and bodies of knowledge reflect our “consumption” of the martial arts “mythology” as a marker of identity and cultural uniqueness, contributing to the forging of an “imagined community” among practitioners.4 Yet, these are anecdotes that present-day students often hear of but have difficulty relating to. In this sense, the martial arts fraternity of the past and that of today are connected but distinct communities. While popular imaginations of the arts’ outward appearances have remained largely consistent, much of what the practitioners of old went through are hardly a part of our experiences today.5 This fragment has its roots in a complex web of influences, 18 both from within and without.

Institutions, cultures, and even systems of physical activity are not spared from the inevitable forces of transformation. “Change is the only constant,” so goes the trite adage. While some might view martial arts as possessing timeless and universal qualities, they are not monolithic, and certainly not averse to adapting to the times.6 Change has left an indelible mark on the practice of martial arts all over the world, and this has shaped the way the community in Singapore grew and developed over time and space.7 One way in which the process of time has shaped martial arts is taught and understood is the increasingly important role that scientific research occupies in pedagogy. As more research is conducted, the body of knowledge on human anatomy expands. This allows us to harness the body’s capabilities more effectively than previously imaginable, in order to achieve peak performance. Growing exposure to the field of sports science has allowed martial arts instructors to “structure and package” traditional training methods together with contemporary scientific processes, making the emphasis for holistic and empirical approaches to student-development more pronounced.8 In addition, many traditional martial arts like taekwondo, karate and judo have been reconceptualised into modern sportive contests, effectively integrating the competitive dimension with entertainment appeal.9 In terms of space, increasing affluence and the rise of the middle class in Singapore had profound effects on the scale and design of training venues. In the past, practitioners had little choice and comfort in training, often having to settle for garages or open outdoor spaces.10 Hence, training experiences in relation to physical space and location did not vary as widely as they do today. This provided for a more congruent identification of training experiences in terms of spatial orientation.11


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However, dojos and dojangs of today run the gamut from Community Centre basketball courts to airconditioned training centres with matted floors and mirrored walls. The result is that while much of the syllabus remains consistent across different schools, training experiences differ in terms of student-teacher ratios, the sophistication of teaching methodologies and equipment, and the intensity and difficulty of training sessions. This has created variances in learning experiences and resulted in inconsistent interpretations of what it means to be a “martial artist”, or what subscribing to this way of life entails. In other words, the sense of belonging that practitioners feel towards the same art is disparate between students of different environments. This is especially pertinent given the large number of affiliates and representative associations that each martial art has in Singapore, creating different experiences for practitioners of different socioeconomic groups. In turn, this changes the way they view themselves and other practitioners, resulting in the need for the constant re-negotiation of the community’s sense of identity. This means that the memories and identities of the past may be gradually forgotten in time to come. These tides of change have long grown entrenched, and are likely to gain even more traction in the future. While the pedagogical and social factors explained above have made immense contributions to the development of the martial arts scene in Singapore, they are likely to dilute, to varying extents, key martial tenets of perseverance, discipline, and 12 determination. These principles formed the cornerstone of training, and were especially privileged given the harsher conditions in which they were conducted.13 Students of martial arts/sports today must recognise that feats of extraordinary skill of past practitioners did not come from the safety of padded grounds and the comforts of specialised training facilities.

Students today rarely have to confront the full adversity of physical and mental conditions that once predominantly characterised martial arts training.14 It is essential to remember their legacy and unique way of life so that we will not lose ourselves in the competition for accolades, and allow the thrill of winning to overshadow the raison d'être of improving and developing the self, according to the principles and values that the martial arts were founded upon. Endnotes 1 Anthony Wee ed., “Gong Fu Stunts”, The Pugilist: The Martial Arts Magazine, 1984, 34-35 2 Leon Koh, Associate Lecturer in Sports Coaching at Republic Polytechnic, Interview by author, September 8, 2015. 3 Ku Ahmad bin Ku Mustaffa and Wong Kiew Kit, Silat Melayu: The Malay Art of Attack and Defence, (Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1978), 3-6, 53-54 4 Paul Bowman, Martial Arts Studies: Disrupting Disciplinary Boundaries, (London: Rowman & Littlefield International Ltd, 2015), 59; Bowman, Martial Arts Studies, 122; Wee ed., “Editorial”, The Pugilist, November 1983, 1; Wee ed., “Singapore Martial Arts Instructors' Association”, The Pugilist, 1984, 31 5 Koh, interview by author 6 H. Edward Kim ed., Taekwondo: The Spirit of Korea, (Seoul: Ministry of Culture and Tourism, 2000), 91; Bowman, Martial Arts Studies, 126-127 7 Ku Ahmad and Wong, Silat Melayu, 6, 72-73, 75; Wee ed., “Karate: Shitoryu's Promoter”, The Pugilist, 1984, 24; Bowman, Martial Arts Studies, 123, 125-127 8 Koh, interview by author 9 David Mitchell, The Overlook Martial Arts Handbook, (New York: The Overlook Press, 1997), 9; H. Edward Kim ed., Taekwondo, 7, 98; Wee ed., “Editorial”, The Pugilist, 1985, 1 10 Koh, interview by author 11 Wee ed., “Karate”, The Pugilist, 1984, 25 12 Mitchell, Martial Arts Handbook, 9; Koh, interview by author 13 Koh, interview by author 14 Lim Kwa Chwee (President of the Singapore Kendo Club), interview by correspondent, The Pugilist, 1984, page 23, 26; Wee ed., “Karate”, The Pugilist, 1984, 25

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“The First Lady of the World” Celebrating Eleanor Roosevelt’s Legacy Joey Chua | a0123934@u.nus.edu On November 9, 1962, American Ambassador to the United Nations Adlai Stevenson delivered a eulogy to the United Nations General Assembly. A lady was commemorated in his speech, being described as one who “embodied the vision and the will to achieve a world in which all men can walk in peace and dignity”.1 This lady was none other than former First Lady Anna Eleanor Roosevelt. It should be noted how the First Lady is usually much less famous than the President. She is deemed as having a “satellite status”2, a mere advisor to a man of power and prestige without her own power to create new laws or enact policy3. Yet, Roosevelt was able to achieve the moniker “First Lady of the World”, in recognition of her tireless efforts towards championing human rights domestically and internationally. She made the position of First Lady more public as well, through her daily publications and strong press coverage. Such actions had endeared her to the public, earning respect and acclaim from her contemporaries and future generations alike.

United Nations, Lake Success, New York: Mrs Eleanor Roosevelt (USA) holding the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a poster in English

Unfortunately, Eleanor Roosevelt’s actions were often forgotten over that of her more-celebrated husband Franklin. A case in point would be that despite her being the first White House official to publicly address the Attacks on Pearl Harbour on the radio on 7th December 1941, more people are familiar with her husband’s “Days of Infamy” Speech given the next day.4 Nevertheless, Eleanor Roosevelt was able to achieve political clout “in her own right”5, using her influential position to accomplish remarkable things that make her 20 deserve to be in public memory.

In addition, she is accredited with the creation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that defends civil liberties for all humans. Her unwavering effort of persuading and encouraging UN delegates, to the point of complaint, allowed the Declaration to be passed in the General Assembly6. Despite its nonbinding nature, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights has acted as as both “a yardstick to measure governmental performance”7 as well as a symbol of unity amongst victims of oppression around the world, determined to uphold their individual rights. Thus Roosevelt should be remembered for being credited as a defender of civil liberties, pulling no stops in reducing minority discrimination and ensuring equal rights for all. Eleanor Roosevelt’s contributions to society have certainly made her extraordinary. Her efforts to do what she believed was right, connecting with the people as well as understanding their needs and concerns were what made her famous and popular. Her standing legacy, in the form of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, ensures that her influence remains long after her death, continuing her desires to promote civil liberties for all. This is what makes her worthy of being commemorated as a heroine of the present day. Endnotes 1 “American Rhetoric: Adlai Stevenson -- Memorial Address for Eleanor Roosevelt at the United Nations." American Rhetoric: Adlai Stevenson -- Memorial Address for Eleanor Roosevelt at the United Nations. http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/adlaistevenso neleanorroosevelteulogy.htm, 2 Winfield, Betty Houchin, 1990, “The Legacy of Eleanor Roosevelt”
, Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 4, Modern First Ladies White House Organization, Page 699 3 Borrelli, Mary Anne, 2002, “The First Lady as Formal Advisor to the President”, Women & Politics, Volume 24 No. 1, Pages 27 - 32 4 “Pearl Harbor Radio Announcement - Pearl Harbor Oahu." Pearl Harbor Oahu Pearl Harbor Radio Announcement Comments. March 26, 2015. https://pearlharboroahu.com/pearl-harbor-radioannouncement/ 5 Winfield, Betty Houchin, 1990, “The Legacy of Eleanor Roosevelt”
, Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 4, Modern First Ladies White House Organization, Page 704 6 Gardner, Richard. "Eleanor Roosevelt's Legacy: Human Rights." The New York Times. December 9, 1988. 7 ibid.


Rendered Invisible: TOKYO’S HOMELESS COMMUNITY

Marcus Tan | grapesandpizza@gmail.com Travellers are routinely charmed by the order of Tokyo’s streets and the impeccable spirit of Japanese hospitality; more often than not, a month’s vacation in Tokyo can go by without having even seen one of the members of Tokyo’s homeless community. They may be indistinguishable from the tourist eye – they may work part-time, or go about collecting trash for recycling. Some even seek refuge in internet cafes, rendered invisible to the public eye. That said, however, their lives and struggles should not be glossed over. Their lack of fixed, regular, and adequate dwelling is a sign of social malaise, with echoes of past economic shocks and present acts of age-based discrimination plaguing the homeless of Japan. It is hard to pin down how exactly the homeless of Tokyo ended up in their present predicaments; the label of “homeless” belies a set of myriad problems. To begin with, however, men past the age of 50 form the most discernible subset of the homeless community. Some chose to live as “freeters” (part-time workers) in their youth, and are at present no longer able to engage in hard labour. Others are the victims of Japan’s economic downturn that has lasted since the 1990s - otherwise colloquially known as the Lost Decade. October 11, 1989 sounded the death knell for the highly speculative Japanese asset-price bubble economy 1 . In an effort to combat inflation, inter-bank interest rates sharply spiked - companies were unable to finance their loans. Banks were saddled with bad debt, and were unable to finance affiliated companies as well as before. A tale all too familiar to students of economic history, surely, but this wasn’t all. Economic restructuring meant that senior members of the Japanese workforce who were previously honoured for their lifetime commitment to the company had to be laid off. The issue here extends beyond the economic dimension to include the issue of loss of personal pride, and the loss of one’s place in society that one had, more often than not, taken for granted. And so, these men turned towards working part-time, where they faced yet another roadblock: demand for labour, even in industries that hire “freeters” (such as construction), had fallen as well. Provisions like the Discrimination in Employment Act (2001) failed at large at combating age discrimination in hiring policies because it allowed for “legal” forms of discrimination,

such as hiring only age-groups that understood their target market1.

Even since the reinforcement of said anti-age discrimination law in 2007, all that is legally obliged of hiring firms are to give all applications equal opportunity; whether they actually hire persons past even the age of 30 is unknown2. The end result: some members of the homeless population have resorted to collecting recyclable items to make ends meet. The issues plaguing the homeless of Tokyo are multidimensional. Not all of them were victims of the Lost Decade – some are, instead, patients of mental illnesses – and not all of them live in the same area. Some choose to reside in city parks, others in offshoot locations like the Tama River, between Tokyo and Kanagawa. It is beyond the scope of this piece to provide a comprehensive study; the point here is that the homeless community is far larger than the average tourist would imagine, and that devising policies for such a diverse group is a Herculean task. It’s not like Japan hasn’t attempted to confront the problem before, either. Works like Homeless Chuugakusei, or Tokyo Godfathers allow a subject-matter like this to be broached by the public, but beneath a veneer of comedy lies cruel realities – a life led in fear of even something as natural as the rain, snow, and heat waves3. On the flipside, not all is doom and gloom: companies like The Big Issue (Japan) offer a corporate response to the social phenomena of homelessness by working with homeless vendors to sell their newspapers, earning 180JPY per copy sold. As the situation stands, however, the old adage of “out of sight, out of mind” is a fitting description to which the Japanese approach the issue of their homeless population. With steadily decreasing numbers, what may seem positive to the casual observer may instead prove to be a sign of lost contact with the thousand-odd (possibly more!) homeless individuals in a city of 13 million. Endnotes

1 Sakuraba, Ryoko. The Changing Japanese Labour Market And Legal Adjustments: The Retirement System. P. 58. 2 Ibid. p. 61 3 [ホームレス中学生」- lit. Homeless Middle-school Student. Hiroshi Tamamura, 2007. Wani Books; 「東京ゴッドファーザー ズ」, Satoshi Kon, 2003. Madhouse.

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Grandfather Story: A sinseh of Pek Kio Choo Ruizhi | chooruizhi@gmail.com Brenda Yeoh and Lily Kong’s investigation of the intersections between the geographical imagination and the historical mind assert that “the making of a place is closely intertwined with individual biographies and collective histories”1. Place-making is inextricably reflective of lives, movement and philosophies of individuals and communities.

If places bear the memories and histories of the people who inhabit them; and these spaces have vanished so rapidly under the relentless banner of Development, then perhaps Singapore is in a continual process of forgetting, even as it gorges itself on visions of the future.

Closer to home and to our times, Yeoh and Huang have noted the Singaporean state’s promotion of multiculturalism through the restoration and re-presentation of old ethnic enclaves like Chinatown and Kampong Glam.2 In this way, the state is able to codify, naturalise and reify its vision of what Singapore should be.3 The (secular, approved) national narrative has not only been written into the textbooks and etched into the minds of schoolchildren; it has been inscribed into the very landscapes we walk through.4 The writing of this national narrative has not been without its costs. As local filmmaker Tan Pin Pin has drily pointed out in her 2001 film, Moving House, even the dead are not exempt from the country’s relentless drive for progress.

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Yet there are still places in Singapore which have, for the moment, escaped the relentless chisel of the developmental state. One of these places happens to be my grandfather’s Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) shop. Here, thus, is a small corner of Singapore that still looks and sounds and smells and feels like a Singapore several decades ago. It is a place forgotten by a nation that has been told to look ahead, because there is no other way to survive. It is a place that is actually in the process of being forgotten, a fading place that will be gone in about two decades. In great, red letters, from left to right, the shop’s signboard proclaims BAN UN CHAN in huge Chinese characters. Loosely, it translates to ‘Hall of Ten Thousand Generations’ (English interprets the language of the Chinese people rather dramatically sometimes).


Grandfather Story: A sinseh of Pek Kio My grandparents’ shophouse is a two-storey unit situated in the heart of the Pek Kio housing estate. Today, the bustling packed medicine hall is a breezy, quiet shell of its former grandeur. After my grandfather passed away of a sudden heart-attack in 2001, there was no longer anyone to continue the business. In the ruthless logic of the Chinese patriarch, Ah Kong (grandfather) had decided that there was no future in running a Chinese medicine hall, and had decreed that none of his children would learn his craft. In its heyday, Ban Un Chan was crammed full of patients seeking treatment or advice from the halfnaked sinseh of Pek Kio, my Ah Kong. My grandfather was a chain-smoking Chinese man, whose wiry frame belied a fierce strength capable of fixing dislocated shoulders, setting broken bones, and caning defiant little boys. Ah Kong was also conversant with herbal prescriptions. Today, there remains a whole wall of drawers inlaid with gold Chinese characters, which had once contained a whole cornucopia of strange ingredients: from strange-smelling grasses and herbs to dried bees, seahorses and deer horns. A handheld scale that measures herbs by the kati still hangs unused from a hook. There were hot, long afternoons I whiled away, chewing a piece of ginseng handed to me by Ah Kong, as I watched him patiently whittle away at an antelope horn with a cleaver. This was more than fifteen years ago, before my grandfather passed away. These moments exist now only in blurry memories, burnished by nostalgia.

Today, my grandmother runs the medicine hall in Ah Kong’s stead, selling generic medicinal supplies like Panadol, or Woods’ Cough Syrup, or Strepsils to the geriatric neighbourhood. It gives the cantankerous woman something to do, and people to interact with. If you sit down with her, her face will light up telling stories of the struggles she went through, raising a family with a man she has spent more than forty years of her life with. If you probe a little deeper, she will tell you her own stories: of her time as a seamstress, or her childhood on her father’s farm in Penggerang, Malaysia. She will tell you about people and places that don’t exist anymore, in a chirpy, exuberant Teochew dialect that her grandchildren can speak only awkwardly, if at all. Dusty, slow and unprofitable, BAN UN CHAN is a little bubble of Singapore that has been abandoned, and forgotten by the uncompromising parsimony of the developmental state. Personally, I hope it remains forgotten for just a little while more. Endnotes 1 Yeoh, Brenda, and Lily Kong. "The notion of place in the construction of history, nostalgia and heritage in Singapore." Singapore journal of tropical geography 17, no. 1 (1997): 52-65. 2 Yeoh, Brenda SA, and Shirlena Huang. "The conservation-redevelopment dilemma in Singapore: the case of the Kampong Glam historic district." Cities13, no. 6 (1996): 411-422. 3 Yeoh, Brenda, and Lily Kong. "The notion of place in the construction of history, nostalgia and heritage in Singapore.".1997: 61. 4 Moving House. Ojectifs Film Pte Ltd, 2001. Film.

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om c . l @gmai p u b l u r u n na i t s ah|qi l l dhi a F e t B a n i t s ulQi Nur I nanyc as e , t hegov e r nme nts oughtt oc ount e ri tbypas s i ngt heHous i ng&De v e l opme ntAc ti n1 960,t husc r e at i ngHDB6.HDBi mme di at e l ys e toutt oc ons t r uc tr e nt al f l at si ni t sf i r s tFi v e Ye arPl an,ai me datl owe r i nc ome f ami l i e s–orr at he r ,t hos el i v i ngi ns quat t e rs e t t l e me nt s –ands uc c e e de di nbui l di ngat hous andf l at si ni t sf i r s t 7 y e ar .Howe v e r ,manys quat t e r s ,e s pe c i al l yt hos ef r om Buki tHoSwe e ,r e f us e dt ober e s e t t l e dast he yf e l tt he c os tofl os i ngt he i rpl ac ei de nt i t ywasnotj us t i f i e de v e n byc os t f r e er e l oc at i ont one wl y c ons t r uc t e df l at s . Re s i s t anc ewass i gni f i c ant l ywi de s pr e adbe c aus eoft hei nf l uSur pr i s i ngl y ,publ i chous i ngi nSi ngapor ehadaf i e r y e nc eofor gani s at i onsl i ket heSi ngapor eWoode nHous e pas t ,wi t hr oot si nt heBuki tHoSwe ef i r e .Whokne w Dwe l l e r ' s As s oc i at i on ( SWDHA) i n mobi l i z i ng t he t hats uc hani c oni cs y mbolofSi ngapor e ' si de nt i t yor i gi - mas 8 s e s .He nc e ,t he s quat t e r sr e f us e dt ol e av et he i r nat e df r om c al ami t y ?Theac hi e v e me nt sofmode r nSi n- home s ,andt hewoode ndwe l l i ngsr e mai ne d. gapor ehav epos s i bl yc ol our e dourv i e w ofourhi s t or y , c ondi t i oni ngust obe l i e v et hatourpos t i nde pe nde nc e Ont he25t hofMay ,1 961 ,as mal lf i r ebr okeouti nt he pe r i odhadbe e nf i l l e dwi t hnot hi ngbutr oar i ngs uc c e s s Buki tHoSwe es quat t e rs e t t l e me nts ome t i meaf t e r3pm. e s-ac onc l us i ont hati sr e i nf or c e dbyt hepe r v as i v ena- Ai de dbys t r ongwi ndsandc ombus t i bl ef ue lf r om ne ar by t i onalr he t or i cof‘ f i s hi ngv i l l aget of i r s twor l dc i t y ’ .As war e hous e s ,t hef i r ee v ol v e di nt oani nf e r not hate as i l y t he ys ay ,i ti st hev i c t or swhowr i t ehi s t or y ,i nf l ue nc i ng t 9 or et hr ought hec l os e l y pac ke dat t aphous e s , s pr e adi ng t hec ol l e c t i v eme mor yofs oc i e t yf ort hebe t t e rorf or t oHav e l oc kRoadandt heLowe rDe l t aar e ai namat t e rof wor s e . hour s .Ati t spe ak,22f i r ee ngi ne swe r ei nv ol v e di nc ur -

Hous i ng De v e l opme nt Boar d ( HDB) f l at s - or 1 pi ge onhol e s,ac c or di ngt os ome ,t heaut hori nc l ude dar eac ommons i ghti nur bani s e dSi ngapor e .Ar ound 80%2ofSi ngapor e ' si nhabi t ant sl i v ei ns uc hac c ommodat i on, andi ti st hi spr e v al e nc eofpubl i chous i ngi nour dai l yl i v e st hatmake si te as yf orust ot akepubl i chous i ngf orgr ant e d.Af t e ral l ,i ti sunl i ke l yt hatmanyofus r e me mbe rt he e r a of s quat t e rs e t t l e me nt s ,a l a 3 kampungs ,i npos t c ol oni alSi ngapor e .

Kampungf i r e swe r ec ommonf r om 1 9581 964,s t ar t i ng 4 wi t ht heKampungKooChaiFi r ei n1 958.The ywe r e s y mpt omat i coft hes oc i ali l l spl agui ngs oc i e t yt he n,an e xampl ebe i ngt hebur ge oni ngpopul at i on c aus e dby t hemas s i v ei nf l uxofi mmi gr ant saf t e rt hewar . Thel ac k ofs pac el e dt ot hec r e at i on ofs quat t e rs e t t l e me nt s , whe r ewoode nhut sandt he i ri nhabi t ant swe r epac ke d t oge t he re xt r e me l yt i ght l y .The s ec ondi t i onspr e c i pi t at e duns ani t ar yl i v i ngc ondi t i onsandai de dt hee nt r e nc hme ntofgangs t e r i s m5,pos i ngs i gni f i c ants oc i al r i s kt os oc i e t y .He nc e ,i ti sunde r s t andabl ewhe nmany , e s pe c i al l yt hos ewhoe xpe r i e nc e di t ,c hoos et of or ge t aboutt hi spe r i od,asr e c onc i l i ngt hei mageofc ont e mpor ar y Si ngapor e wi t ht hi s ni ght mar i s hv e r s i on i s har de rt hans i mpl yf or ge t t i ngabouti t .

t ai l i ngt hef i r e . Thef i r ehadr az e dt ot hegr oundas c hool , 2 v ar i ousmi l l sands hopsi nanar e aofar ound0. 4km , l e av i ng4de adand1 5, 695pe opl ehome l e s si nas i ngl e day .Todat e ,i twast hebi gge s tf i r et ode v as t at epos t c ol oni alSi ngapor e . Att hi sj unc t ur e , kampungbl az e swe r ehar dl yne w. What wasdi f f e r e ntt hi st i me , wast hee xi s t e nc eoft heHDBand t hegov e r nme nt ' sc onf i de nc ei ni t 6,e l i mi nat i ngt hebur e auc r at i cr e dt apet hathadobs t r uc t e ds i mi l arat t e mpt s byt heHDB' spr e de c e s s or ,t heSi ngapor eI mpr ov e me nt Tr us t( SI T) .I r oni c al l y ,i twast hee xac te v e ntt hatt he HDBs oughtt opr e v e ntt hate nabl e di tt oac t ,byc ompl e t e l ye r adi c at i ngt hel as tbas t i onofoppos i t i ont oi t sr e s e t t l e me ntpr ogr ams .

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Unde rChai r man Li m Ki m San' sl e ade r s hi p,HDB e xpl oi t e dt hi sbr e akt hr oughbyr e l oc at i ngt hef i r ev i c t i mst o c ompl e t e df l at si n ne ar by Que e ns t own,Al e xandr i a, Ti ongBahr uandKal l ang10. I nt hene xtf ourye a r s ,HDBs uc c e s s f ul l ybui l tove r8000f l a t s i nBuki t HoSwe ea l one , a l l owi ngi t sf or me rr e s i de nt st or e t ur n t ot he i rhome t ownt ol i vei nf l a t si ns t e a dofs qua t t e rhous e s . Whe nj uxt a pos e da ga i ns tt hef i r e ,i ts e e msl i keana t ur a lbi ol ogi c a lr e f l e xt of oc usont hes uc c e s s e sofHDB ove rt he t r a umac r e a t e dbyt hef i r e .I ti sl i ke l yt ha tSi nga por e a nsdi d j us tt ha t ,uni nt e nt i ona l l ye r a s i ngt hel i nkoft hef i r et oHDB’ s c r owni ngmome nti nde ve l opi ngSi nga por e ’ spubl i chous i ng. Addi t i ona l l y,gi ve nt hef a i l ur eoft hegove r nme ntt opr e ve nt t hef i r e ,i twa si nt hef a vouroft hegove r nme ntt os ubt l ys hi f t t hef i r eoutofpubl i cvi e w.He nc e ,bot hf a c t or sc ont r i but e dt o t hede c e nt r a l i s a t i onofBuki t HoSwe e ’ sr ol ei nHDB’ shi s t or y, muddyi ngt hec ol l e c t i veme mor yofSi nga por e . As ma l l e rs e t t l e me nts pr ungupt he r ea ga i ns oona f t e r ,onl yt o 11 ber a z e di n1968 ,l e a vi ng3000pe opl ehome l e s s .I nt hee ye s oft hepopul a c e , t hi sf ur t he re mpha s i s e dt hede s i r a bi l i t yoff l a t s vi s a vi ss qua t t e rs e t t l e me nt s ,af a c tt ha tt hegove r nme ntus e d t oj us t i f yi t sur ba ni s a t i onpr oj e c t s . Byt he n, t hec ons t r uc t i onof f l a t si s l a ndwi dewa si nf ul l s wi ng,he l pe da l ongbyt hei mpo12 s i t i onoft heLa ndAc qui s i t i onAc tof1966 t ha te na bl e dt he gove r nme ntt oobt a i nl a ndc he a pl yf orpubl i cde ve l opme nt .

Today ,Buki tHoSwe et e e mswi t hbl oc ksoff l at s ,af i t t i ng moc ke r yt ot hef i r et hathadr age dt he r el i t t l emor et han f i f t yy e ar sago. I fany t hi ng, i ts e r v e sasapoi gnantr e mi nde rt hats ome t i me s , c r i s i si sane c e s s ar yc r uc i bl ef orr e ne walt ooc c ur .Publ i chous i ngi nSi ngapor ehasc omeal ong way ,andt oi gnor ei twoul dbeas l i ghtont hehar ds hi ps f ac e dbySi ngapor e ansi nv ol v e di nt hatj our ne y-bei tt he av e r agec i t i z e n,ort hepol i c y make r si nPar l i ame ntt he n.

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Endnot e s 1HDBf l at sar ename dass uc hbySi ngapor e anst ode s c r i bet hec r ampe dands mal ls i z eofs uc hdwe l l i ngs 2De par t me ntofSt at i s t i c sSi ngapor e .“ Lat e s tDat a”Ac c e s s e dSe pt e mbe r5,201 5, ht t p: / / www. s i ngs t at . gov . s g/ s t at i s t i c s / l at e s t dat a#20 3Ac l us t e rofwoode nhous e s ,i nnumbe r sl ar gee nough t of or m av i l l age . 4Re me mbe r SG.“ SCDFHe r i t ageGal l e r y–Si ngapor e ' s Fi r e f i ght i ngHi s t or y ” , ht t p: / / r e me mbe r s i ngapor e . or g/ 201 4/ 08/ 22/ s i ngapor e f i r e f i ght i nghi s t or y / 5Tan,KokYang.Fr om TheBl ueWi ndows :Re c ol l e c t i on ofLi f ei nQue e ns t own,Si ngapor ei nt he1 960st o1 97 0s . Ri dgeBooks ,201 3,pp70 6HDBI nf oWe b.“ HDBHi s t or y ”, ht t p: / / www. hdb. gov . s g/ f i 1 0/ f i 1 0320p. ns f / w/ About Us H DBHi s t or y ? Ope nDoc ume nt 7Channe lNe ws As i a.“ Fr om Kampongt oEs t at e– 1 960s ” , ht t p: / / www. c hanne l ne ws as i a. c om/ t v / t v s hows / we made t he ne ws / e v e nt s / ne wdoc ume nt / 693582. ht ml 8Loh,KahSe ng.Squat t e r si nt oCi t i z e ns :The1 961 KampongBuki tHoSwe eFi r eandt heMaki ngof Mode r nSi ngapor e .NUSPr e s s ,2008,pp8790 9Awoodl i kemat e r i alus e di nt hec ons t r uc t i onof hous e s ;pr i mar i l yus e dt obui l dr oof s . 1 0Li m,Be ngTe e .“ Ope r at i onShi f tGe t sI nt oSt r i de : 6, 000Vi c t i msRe hous e d” ,TheSt r ai t sTi me s ,4June 1 961 ., 201 5, ht t p: / / e r e s our c e s . nl b. gov . s g/ ne ws pape r s / Di gi t i s e d / Ar t i c l e / s t r ai t s t i me s 1 961 06041 . 2. 1 7. as p 1 1Re me mbe r SG.“ SCDFHe r i t ageGal l e r y–Si ngapor e ' s Fi r e f i ght i ngHi s t or y ”, ht t p: / / r e me mbe r s i ngapor e . or g/ 201 4/ 08/ 22/ s i ngapor e f i r e f i ght i nghi s t or y / 1 2Hi s t or y SG.“ LandAc qui s i t i onAc ti se nf or c e d–Si ngapor e ”, ht t p: / / e r e s our c e s . nl b. gov . s g/ hi s t or y / e v e nt s / 1 f 669e f f bc 8249d1 a27c 2624e 4c ab8c 6


Vietnamese Boat People Tan Hui Shan | hhhuishan@gmail.com I wanted to see exotic Vietnam... the crown jewel of Southeast Asia. I wanted to meet interesting and stimulating people of an ancient culture... and kill them. I wanted to be the first kid on my block to get a confirmed kill! -- Full Metal Jacket (1987) The representation of the Vietnam War in popular culture often emphasises on the role of American soldiers during the war; even the aftermath of the Vietnam War is centered around the impact of the war on Vietnam or America. Given that the Vietnamese refugee issue occurred shortly after Singapore's independence in 1965, the Vietnam War's political and social impact on Singapore's foreign and domestic policies should be given further consideration. 1 There are two main reasons why we need to evaluate the role of the Vietnamese Boat People in influencing Singapore's policies in the 1970s: firstly, the Vietnamese refugee issue occurred in the formative years of Singapore as a nation, which means that there were effects of the issue in how Singapore approached nation-building; secondly, the refugee issue has been largely overlooked in Singapore's historiography because of the focus on state-driven narratives on Singapore's development from independence. Hence, more attention should be given to the situation in the 1970s and its ramifications today. Although the Vietnamese diaspora has existed from the partition of Vietnam(then-Indochina) in 1954, the refugee issue became more pertinent to ASEAN-consequently, Singapore--after 19752. There were concerns that the immigrants from Vietnam could have been an 'invasion force from Communist Vietnam', worsened by the belief that many of the refugees were Chinese, or appeared to be so3. How did Singapore, within the first decade of its unprecedented independence, manage these concerns?

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Bearing in mind the Cold War context, the political implications of Singapore's foreign and domestic policies in relation to the Vietnamese refugees were particularly significant. Eventually, Singapore adopted realist principles and a neutral role in dealing with the issue-believing that taking in too many asylum seekers and granting them refugee statuses would pose a threat to state security4. In fact, then-Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew, commented that "You've got to have calluses on your heart or you just bleed to death." as a response to the Vietnamese refugee crisis in the 19704. The belief in the threat posed to state security was a real concern, given the newnation status of Singapore then. In fact, there was a possibility of the Vietnamese boat people as a Vietnamese political weapon--especially precarious in the region of Southeast Asia in the 1970s5. Termed by Lee, the 'political weapon' entailed the refugees potentially putting pressure on the infrastructure, supplies, creating stresses on the political structures of countries6. To reinforce Singapore's neutrality in the public domain, Lee further indicated in a press conference in 1979 that the refugee issue had resulted in a 'political benefit' for the Soviet Union7. Lee then emphasised the nature of the political game that was in play--the big players (the Soviet Union and China), with Vietnam as a third party, and that Singapore would remain a neutral party in the matter. The modus operandi of Singapore's stance appeared to be borne out of necessity; the country could not afford to align herself to any of the 'big players' as any action might have politically and socially destabilised the region.


Vietnamese Boat People Singapore's response to the refugee issue elicited disapproval from the West--in an interview with the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in 1979, Lee was asked why Singapore, despite its comparative prosperity, had 'done less to help the Vietnamese refugees' relative to other countries8. Evidently, the minimal-involvement policy taken towards the refugees had prioritised regional stability at the expense of international accreditation. Indeed, international pressure was rife in the rhetoric of many nations, particularly in the West, preaching the importance of 'human rights'; at the same time, there were great inertia and 'quasi-solutions' by various countries in response to the refugee issue9. Despite apparent accusations that Singapore was not doing enough in terms of the country's response towards the refugee issue, the country did allow 138 Vietnamese refugees on land after a sea rescue10. Even though Singapore's foreign policy has been established to not accept refugees seeking asylum, the sea rescue provided refugees with temporary aid--the least that Singapore could do as she was not granting asylumseekers citizenship. Interestingly, there is an attempt to strike a balance between managing the realist perspective and acceding to international pressure. As illustrated, the response of Singapore to the Vietnamese people provides the refugees with a more crucial role--by virtue of existing--in potentially altering the geopolitics of the region than addressed.

Endnotes 1 Ang, Cheng Guan. "Singapore and the Vietnam War." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 40.2 (2009): 353-84, 354. 2 Ahmad, Zakaria Haji. "Vietnamese Refugees and Asean." Contemporary Southeast Asia 1.1 (1979): 6674, 67. 3 Ibid, 72. 4 Lee, Chen Chen. "Refugee Policy is a Realist's Nightmare: The Case of Southeast Asia." Migration Letters 3.2 (2006): 137-49, 140. 5 Ibid, 137. 6 "The Vietnamese Boat People as a Vietnamese Political Weapon." The Papers of Lee Kuan Yew: Speeches, Interviews and Dialogues. Vol. 8: 19781980. (Singapore: Gale Asia, 2012): 335-345, 342. 7 Ibid, 337. 8 "The Vietnamese Boat People." The Papers of Lee Kuan Yew: Speeches, Interviews and Dialogues. Vol. 8. 1978-1980. (Singapore: Gale Asia, 2012): 345-50, 349. 9 Ahmad, Zakaria Haji. "Vietnamese Refugees and Asean.", 70. 10 1980. "138 Vietnamese Refugees Arrive in Singapore After a Sea Rescue." New York Times. 12 Sept. 11 Lee, Chen Chen. "Refugee Policy is a Realist's Nightmare: The Case of Southeast Asia.", 143.

The aftermath of the Cold War and the 'triumph' of Democracy over Communism have overshadowed the continuous tension that countries continue to face regarding refugee issues such from Syria, even today. In light of how many Southeast Asian states were beginning their nation-building and economic development in the 1970s, the presence of Vietnamese refugees was and remains a crucial element in the formation and nuances of Singapore's policies towards refugees within the realpolitik11.

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JAVA:

A Fleeting Culture, A Silent Language Nurul Afiqah Bte Sulaiman | fiqahs39@gmail.com In the early 19th century, the first wave of Javanese migrants arrived in the port of Singapore, searching for new beginnings. One of the largest ethnic groups from Indonesia, the Javanese, brought their culture, art and language along with them. Unfortunately, these traditions have been eroding with time, despite having been left in the hands of their descendants. As of 2010, there were 88,646 Javanese in Singapore, forming the second largest ethnic Malay group in the country1. However as of today, these Javanese descendants are no longer familiar with their race’s customs. Only a mere handful is still practicing the Javanese culture and language, and this group is getting smaller. Unless there are people who are willing to continue and uphold the Javanese culture, we may actually face a problem of a language that will soon be forgotten. Subsequently, without the Javanese language, its artistic landscape will be threatened and bonds between the different generations will be weakened. The roots of the Javanese language can be traced back to central and east Java, Indonesia. There is great history in the Javanese language. Yet at this point of time, its history seems lost to us. The demise of the Javanese language can be associated with the introduction of the bilingual education policy in 1966. In search of national unity, the government made it compulsory for students to learn a second language depending on their racial background: Bahasa Melayu, Mandarin Chinese or Tamil. These mother tongue languages were chosen from the respective major racial groups and sought to find a common language despite the presence of different dialect groups. As such, the Javanese language was only used for communication purposes in homes or within the community. Furthermore, the use of Javanese language was restricted to the Javanese community, hence could not be used for any official apparatuses within Singapore for fear of stigmatizing the other ethnic Malay communities. As the younger generation Javanese became more fluent in Bahasa Melayu, they developed a greater preference in using the common tongue.2 With Bahasa Melayu, it was easier for them to communicate with the other Malay ethnic communities or those from other races. The use of Javanese became increasingly limited. Over time, the focus in the type of language had shifted. In a way, it can be assumed that the Javanese language was ‘medieval’ in Singapore as it symbolized the times before independence.

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It may also act as a form of barrier to integration between the different communities and these Javanese descendants might have chosen to embrace localization instead. This may have contributed to the lack of interest in learning the language by the young generation, including the descendants in recent times. Moreover, the Javanese language reflects the Javanese culture and its arts. Javanese language is used to disseminate knowledge related to the Javanese community, such as their customs and practices, and pass on the myths and stories of the Javanese past. Without knowing the language, we may not be able to receive or appreciate the message and meaning behind such art and culture. These incredible artistic traditions include the Wayang Kulit (shadow puppetry) and the gamelan music. Taking the example of the Wayang Kulit, most Wayang Kulit is based on the Mahabarata and Ramayana stories from India. For the Javanese, they have combined the two Hindu tales with Buddhist and Muslim influence integrated into their own Javanese legends3. This will require the use of the Javanese language to bring these stories to life and allow the audience to fully immerse in it. These places are of considerable importance to the Javanese language, as knowing the language is quintessential to interpreting and telling the stories. Even though there may be English translations provided for such performances, translation may sometimes lose the essence of the show. Only a few are still practicing and keeping the Javanese arts alive. Thus, there is a need to raise awareness in encouraging more people to preserve this heritage. To the Javanese descendants (writer included), there is a need for us to remember and learn our language. We may not have gone through their trials and tribulations, or grown up in their footsteps. Yet, we should remember our roots and identity in remembrance of their sacrifices. By remembering the language, we can ensure the survival of the Javanese culture that will be passed down to our children and grandchildren. Our ancestors have left us a legacy and it is important that we keep the flame of this legacy burning. Endnotes 1 "Department Of Statistics Singapore." Statistics Singapore, From http://www.singstat.gov.sg/publications/publicationsand-papers/cop2010/census10_stat_release1 2 Masuri S. N. (1993, August 9). Hope must never die. The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.; "Language." Language. http://app.singapore.sg/society/our-people/language. 3 Bali & Beyond. (n.d.). Wayang Kulit of Indonesia. From www.balibeyond.com/wayang.html


b o o kr e v i e w ss e c ond c hapt e rpr ov i de sav e r yme t i c ul ous Jame s Fr anc i s War r e n,Pr of e s s orofSout he as t Hi kgr oundont hes i t uat i oni nJapanandChi na As i an Mode r n Hi s t or yi n Mur doc h Uni v e r s i t y , bac c hl e dt ot hei mmi gr at i onofmanywome ni nt o pr ov i de sav e r yde t ai l e dpi c t ur eofpr os t i t ut i oni n whi S i n g a p o r e f o r p r o s t i t u t i o n . Wa r r e n a l s o me n t i o n s Si ngapor edur i ngt hec ol oni ale r a.Ast hef i r s te di ngr e atde t ai lt heage nc i e st hatboughtandc ont i onoft hebookwaspubl i s he di n1 993, t he r ewasa i r ol l e dt he s ewome nt hr oughas i gni f i c antamount de f i ni t i v es hi f ti nSi ngapor e ’ shi s t or i ogr aphy , l e an- t t at i s t i c s . i ngt owar dsmor es c hol ar l yi nt e r e s t si nwr i t i ngt he ofs s oc i alhi s t or yofSi ngapor e .Thi swasdonet hr ough nt hes ubs e que ntc hapt e r s ,hef r ame st hepr os t i t headopt i on of“ i ndi ge nous ”s our c e st owr i t ea I ut e st oge t he rwi t hs e xualdi s e as e sandus e dt hat s oc i alhi s t or yofSi ngapor e .Thi si sc l e ar l yde mon- t odi s c us st hec ompl e xwor ki ngsoft hec ol oni al s t r at e di nWar r e n’ sbookwhe r eheus e sanar r ayof t e r nme ntt hr ought hepol i c i e st he yi mpl e me nt s our c e st opr e s e nthi shi s t or i c al nar r at i v eofpr os t i - gov di nanat t e mptt oc ont ai nt hi sne c e s s ar ys oc i al t ut i ondur i ngc ol oni alSi ngapor e .Fac e dwi t ht he e v i l . l ac k of s our c e sf r om pr os t i t ut e st he ms e l v e s ,e War r e nus e si nf or mat i onf r om or alhi s t or yi nt e r Thr oughoutt hef i r s ts e c t i onoft hebook,War r e n v i e ws ,c ol oni alr e c or ds . c ons t ant l yr e pe at showt heBr i t i s hc ol oni al st ol e r e dbr ot he lpr os t i t ut i on.I ts e e mshei si ns i nuat War r e ndi v i de shi sbooki nt ot wos e c t i ons ,oneon at ngt hatpr os t i t ut i onwasi ne v i t abl eandc annotbe br ot he lpr os t i t ut i oni nSi ngapor eandt heot he ron i e v e nt e di nSi ngapor e .Thi sc oul dal s obeus e dt o t hepe r s onall i v e soft heAhKuandKar ay uki San. pr e i nf or c et henot i ont hatt hepr os t i t ut e si nSi ngaFort hef i r s ts e c t i on,hes i t uat e sbr ot he lpr os t i t u- r ewe r es uc hi mpor t antac t or si n Si ngapor e ’ s t i oni nawi de rc ont e xtbye xami ni ngt hebr ot he l por hi s t or ydur i ngt hec ol oni alpe r i odal ongs i det he t r adebe t we e nSi ngapor e ,Chi naandJapan. de v e l opme ntofSi ngapor e ;he nc et he ys houl dbe s t udi e di ngr e at e rde t ai l .Subj e c t sl i kepr os t i t ut i on ar eof t e nav oi de di ns oc i e t yandmuc hl e s sme nt i one di nhi s t or y ,whe r ewr i t e r sof t e ngl or i f yt he e c onomi cpr ogr e s sofSi ngapor es i nc et he1 800s andl e av eoutt hemor eunc onv e nt i onaland‘ di s honour abl e ’ i ndus t r i e sandpe opl ei ns oc i e t y . Anot he rar gume ntt hatWar r e ni st r y i ngt omakei s t hats oc i alhi s t or yhast obewr i t t e ni nt hec ont e xt ofal ar ge rf r ame wor kt of ul l yc ompr e he nd t he s oc i als t r uc t ur e sandc ul t ur alpr i nc i pl e soft hes oc i e t y .Pl ac i ngt hemi c r ohi s t or yoft hepr os t i t ut e s i namac r ohi s t or ypoi ntofv i e wbyc onne c t i ngi tt o t hewi de rs oc i alc ont e xtofJapanandChi nae xpl ai nshowbot ht heChi ne s eandJapane s epr os t i t ut e sf unc t i ondi f f e r e nt l yi ns oc i e t yandr at i onal i z e ss omeoft hede c i s i onsmadebyt he s epr os t i t ut e si ndi f f e r e nts i t uat i ons . I nt hel at e rhal foft hebook,War r e nnar r owst he hi s t or i c alnar r at i v eoft hepr os t i t ut e sbyl ooki ngat t hel i v e sofAhKuandKar ay uki s an.

Ch r i s t a b e l l eOn gNi n g| c h r i s t a b e l l e . o n g n i n g @g ma i l . c o m

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A hk ua n dk a r a y u k i s a n : p r o s t i t u t i o ni ns i n g a p o r e1 8 7 0-1 9 4 0 Fr om t hec l i e nt soft he s epr os t i t ut e st ot he Thi sbookpr ov i de sane xhaus t i v eac c ountof t y pe sofr e l at i ons hi pt hatf l our i s he dwi t hi n AhKuandKar ay uki s ani nc ol oni alSi ngaandout s i det hebr ot he l s ,War r e nhasdonea por et hr ough t he e xt e ns i v e us e ofmany gr e atj obi nr e pr oduc i ngt hei mageoft hes e x s our c e st of i l lupmi s s i nggapsaboutmany s oc i e t yi nc ol oni alSi ngapor e .Whati smor e as pe c t soft he i rl i v e s .Ov e r al l ,t hebookc l e ar i nt r i gui ngwashow War r e nmanage st ode -c l e ar l yde pi c t st hes i l e ntpar tofc ol oni alSi nv e l opt hebi ogr aphi e soft he s epr os t i t ut e sby gapor ewhi c h manywoul d nott al k about . l ooki ngatt he i rl i v e sbe f or et he ye nt e rpr os t i - Though t hes ubj e c tofpr os t i t ut i on i sof t e n t ut i onandal s or e c r e at et he i rdai l yl i v e sasa s e e nast aboo,wes houl dal s oac knowl e dge pr os t i t ut ei nc ol oni al Si ngapor et hr ough t hatt he t he s e Ah Kusand Kar ay uki s ans e v oki ngt he i re mot i onsand f e e l i ngsi nt he pl ay e dahuger ol ei nc ol oni alSi ngapor ei n book.Hede l v e sde e pe ri nt ot he i rl i v e sand manydi f f e r e ntway s . Byv i e wi ngt hepr os t i t uc r e at e sane xt e ns i v eme moi roft he s epr os t i -t i oni ndus t r yaspar tofal ar ge rgl obalc ont ut e sbyf ol l owi ngt he i rj our ne ye v e n af t e r t e xt ,i twi l lbee as i e rt oe mpat hi z ewi t ht he t he yde par t e dt hei ndus t r y .AsWar r e nt r i e s pr os t i t ut e sand be t t e runde r s t and c ol oni al t opr oduc eav oi c ef ort he s epr os t i t ut e swho Si ngapor e we r ehi dde nf r om t hehi s t or yofSi ngapor e , hemanage st oac hi e v ehi sobj e c t i v ei nt r y i ng t oadv oc at ef or“ af ai r e r ,mor ebal anc e d,and 1 r e al i s t i cac c ountoft hepas t . ” Thi si sal s oan 1JamesFr anc i sWar r e n, “ Kar ay uki s anofSi ngap o r e : 1 8 7 7 1 9 4 1 , ” J o u r n a l o f t h e Ma l a y s i a n i mpl i c i tobj e c t i v ef ort hi si s s ueofMne moz i ne anc hoft heRoy alAs i at i cSoc i e t y62( 1 989) : –t oi l l us t r at eamor ebal anc e dpe r s pe c t i v eof Br 3 8 8 t hepas t .

f o r g o t t e nA l l y : C h i n a ’ swo r l dwa ri i Wr i t t e nbyRanaMi t t e r ,pr of e s s oroft I hehi s t or yandpol i t i c sofmode r nChi naatOxf or d Uni v e r s i t y , For got t e n Al l y : Chi na’ s WWI c ov e r st heSe c ond Si noJapane s eWarf r om 1 937t o1 945. I tas s e s s e st hec onf l i c t ’ sl e gac yon Chi na, he rne i ghbour s , andt heWe s t e r nAl l i e s , aswe l lasourownhi s t or i c alunde r s t andi ngof Chi na’ sr ol ei nt hewi de rgl obalc onf l i c tt hat wast heSe c ondWor l dWar . Mi t t e rof f e r sabr oad butr e l at i v e l yde t ai l e d l ook at Chi na’ s war t i me e xpe r i e nc e sf r om Chi na’ spe r s pe c t i v e . Al t hought hebr oadnar r at i v ef oc us e son t hel e ade r sl i keChi ang Kai She k,MaoZe dongandWangJi ngwe i ,For got t e nAl l yal s ode al swi t ht hel i v e sofor di nar y pe opl ei nChi nac aughti nt hec onf l i c tandt he i mpac tofwar .Wi t ht he s eac c ount s ,Mi t t e r doc ume nt sChi na’ sde s pe r at es t r uggl ef ors ur v i v ali nt hewaragai ns tJapan,f r om i nf amous mi l i t ar yde f e at sand at r oc i t i e sl i keBat t l eof Shanghaiandt heNanj i ngMas s ac r e ,

30

Li mXi uYu , J o s h u a . |a 0 1 2 4 6 6 6 @u . n u s . e d u t ot heoc c as i onal r ar ev i c t or i e sl i ket heBat t l eof Tai e r z huang,ande xt r aor di nar yf e at sl i ket he r e l oc at i onofv i t alwari ndus t r i e sf r om Shanghait ot hei nt e r i or . For got t e n Al l y al s oi l l us t r at e st he c onf l i c t ’ s i mpac ton mode r n Chi na and t hepos t war wor l d,ofwhi c hs t r ong ant i Japane s es e nt i me nt si nChi naands t r ai ne dSi noJapane s er e l at i onsar eapar tof .Anot he rwoul dbeMao’ s c ommuni s tt ake ov e rofChi nai n1 949,whi c h c ameatt hee xpe ns eofas e v e r e l ywe ake ne d Nat i onal i s tPar t yt hathadt obe art hebr untof t hewarwi t h Japan.Mi t t e ral s oar gue st hat Chi na’ sf e arofdi s or de rand t hene e df ora hi ghl ybur e auc r at i cs t at es t e msf r om i t swar t i mee xpe r i e nc e s .


b o o kr e v i e w TheCommuni s tt ake ov e rofmai nl andChi nai n1 949 andCol dWari mpe r at i v e st hats e tt hewe s tandt he ne w Chi naatoddswi t he ac hot he rf ur t he rr e l e gat e d Chi na’ sware f f or tt oame r es i de s howi nagl obalc onf l i c t .

Addi t i onal l y , For got t e n Al l y ’ s appr oac ht ot he s e c ondSi noJapane s eWari sduet ot hel ac kofat t e nt i onpai dt oChi na’ swar t i mee xpe r i e nc ebys c hol ar sout s i deChi naandt heChi nas t udi e sf i e l d.The l ar ges c al eoft hewart hatt ookpl ac ei n Chi nai s of t e nov e r l ooke d. Some20mi l l i onChi ne s el os tt he i r l i v e sdur i ngt hewar ,wi t hov e ra1 00mi l l i onmor e t ur ne di nt or e f uge e s .The s eal ar mi nghi ghs t at i s t i c s i sar e s ul toft hef ac tt hatChi nahadbe gunf i ght i ng t heJapane s el ongbe f or et heat t ac konPe ar lHar bor br oughtt heUSt oChi na’ sai d. Chi na’ sunde r appr e c i at e dr ol ei nt heSe c ondWor l d Wari ss ome t hi ngt hati sal s of or got t e n.Dur i ngt he Se c ondWor l dWar ,Chi nat i e ddownov e rami l l i on Japane s et r oopst hatc oul dhav ebe e nde pl oy e don ot he rf r ont s .Chi na’ sabi l i t yt ohol dhe rownagai ns t Japanf ors ol onge ar ne dhe rt he‘ gr e atpowe r ’ s t at us al ongs i det heUS,UK,andt heSov i e tUni on. Thats ai d,t he nat i onalhi s t or i e soft he we s t e r n powe r s ,v e r yof t e nt hemor epr e v al e ntnar r at i v e sof t heSe c ondWor l dWar ,ov e r l ookChi na’ swar t i me e xpe r i e nc e sand c ont r i but i ons .Asf arast he yar e c onc e r ne d, Chi na’ sc ont r i but i onsi nbl oodandt r e as ur epal ei nc ompar i s ont ot hedr amat i cAme r i c an at omi cbombi ngofJapani n1 945.

Anot he rf or got t e nas pe c toft heSe c ondSi noJapane s e Wart hatFor got t e nAl l yr ai s e si st hatofChi angKai She kandt heNat i onal i s tPar t y .Cur r e ntl i t e r at ur eon Chi naandt heSe c ondWor l dWarpor t r ayChi angand t heNat i onal i s t sasc or r upt , unpopul ar , andmor ei nt e r e s t e di ne l i mi nat i ngt hr e at st oi t spowe rr at he rt han f i ght i ngJapan.Howe v e r ,he r e ,Chi angi spor t r ay e di n as y mpat he t i cl i ght–asal e ade rhar dpr e s s e dbymi l i t ar yandpol i t i c aloddst omaket oughands ome t i me s c r ue lc al l st hatdi s r e gar de dt hehumanc os ti nv ol v e di n Chi na’ ss t r uggl ef ors ur v i v alagai ns tJapan.Thel ac kof f or t hc omi ngAme r i c ans uppor tandanac r i moni ousr e l at i ons hi pbe t we e n Chi angandGe ne r alSt i l we l l ,hi s Ame r i c anc hi e fofs t af fdi dnothe l p. For got t e nAl l ye m phas i s e st hatChi na ov e r c ame t he Japane s e whi l e unde rNat i onal i s tl e ade r s hi p,s ome t hi ngc onv e ni e nt l y gl os s e dov e rbyc ur r e ntChi ne s eaut hor i t i e swhe ne v e r t hewari sme nt i one d, ass hownbyt her e c e ntpar adei n Be i j i ng. Byt het i met hi sr e v i e wi spubl i s he d,t hec omme mor at i onsf ort he70t hanni v e r s ar yoft hee ndoft heSe c ond Wor l dWar( andt hes e c ondSi noJapane s eWar )woul d hav ec omeandgone .Whe r eChi na’ swar t i mee xpe r i e nc e sar ec onc e r ne d,t headage“ Hi s t or yi swr i t t e nby t hev i c t or ”hol dst r ue .If i ndFor got t e nAl l yawe l lwr i t t e n,gr i ppi ngat t e mptats e t t i ngt her e c or ds t r ai ght ,or atl e as tr ai s i ngs omei s s ue s ,aboutChi na’ swar t i mee xpe r i e nc e s .Ihi ghl yr e c omme ndt hi sbookt oany one whowi s he st ounde r s t andt heSe c ondWor l dWarf r om adi f f e r e nt ,andof t e nov e r l ooke dangl e .Af t e ral l ,t he Chi naweknow t odaywasv e r ymuc ht hepr oduc tof t hos eni nebr ut aly e ar sofwar ,asmuc hasi twast he r e s ul toff i v et hous andy e ar sofc i v i l i s at i on.

f o r g o t t e nA l l y : C h i n a ’ swo r l dwa ri i 31


Wh a t i ss o m e t h i n gy o uf o r g o t b u t e v e n t u a l l y d i s c o v e r e dwa si m p o r t a n t t oy o u ?KwokYiLing|publications@nushissoc.org I nt hi si s s ueofMne moz i ne , wewant e dt oe ngaget heaudi e nc ei namor epe r s onal waywhi l eof f e r i ngt he m anoppor t uni t yt oc ont r i but et ot hemagaz i ne .He nc e ,af or um s e c t i onwasi nc or por at e dwhe r et heaudi e nc ec ans e ndi nt he i rans we r st oaque s t i onr e l e as e dands e tr e l at e dt ot het he me .Wet hankt he s epar t i c i pant sf orgi vi ngMne moz i neas mal lpar toft he ms e l ve s ! Someans we r sar egr e at l yi nt r os pe c t i ve ,whi l eot he r ss i mpl y of f e rr e ade r she ar t f e l tand r e l at abl e ( s ome t i me shumour ous )i ns i ghti nt ot he i rdai l yl i ve s .Enj oy!

Be i nge xt r e me l ymy opi c ,wi t ha I h c p u r e s m c r i p w t i o o n h o f 9 d 0 e 0 r R e v a n o d c 8 s i 0 0 d L, y , l e e Ionl c ,f al e ami ur t ys xt e t r uc rt i kwhe e h t n ; s I f k o r o g o o t b t o d e d s l s mi br i ngmygl hewor ot as nt s e shomeasIhapngi i v rdi e t ,af I nt . e r c a s e p y i l t ywor as emyc ont booksl ac t s( dai l i eande e s ) ndl or bac sf ofKi i t k i f o t r n t h a e t w r e o e p k e n m i d . # w b l o i n h d b o d y e s e i v i al l e a r t p #ut ownwoe o beke s albookst c i o s t s phy n o i t a r ne orge donf e i r ar andc abouta Ke nnyHo|Ye g n i r b y ar3,Bi e h et ome aus di c c al l a t i omebe g c i d r i e h t E n t g a i n h e t e r i c n i g g a m f nd o ki . sdonot t par r e ount c ,FASS ar1 ai|Ye ChngShaoK

Imi s swr i t i ngi nm o Ihave n' ur tdonei yj nalwhi n c h awhi bus y ne l e s a sofc mi ds ol t t l h e t hej e g e l i our f e .Ent nals r i e e r s veasf i n ofmyi ondr nt e e mi r ac nde t i onwi r s l e s t s hpe onsl o e p a l e r n a t n , d w e as h i i c l hIt yf or hi got nkar t e nwhe e r i e sar nt he enot' s e me s e m al o e d' i nt hemom i nwr e nt i t i ng. WonJi aMi n|Ye ar1 ,FASS

ni ss s e omel c ,webe r de owol e m o Aswegr c .Webe ps hi ons i at l e nr ei r al e c c ni y ec g n i ,be mor e f i hl t dwi e ade p j o e .P l s r he ngofot i t us r st s e e b andl o t s an tme nwhati e t got or ef hav . e u r alandt e ober human,t ve i at t i ar2,Quant lTan|Ye Samue e nanc Fi

Punc t ual i t y .Whe nIl os tmy phone ,Ihadt oar r i v ee ar l i e rt han t heagr e e dme e t i ngt i mei nf e arof myf r i e ndst hi nki ngi twasa" no- Phonec al l swi t hf r i e nds .Wi t hi ns t ant s how" .Wi t hourphone s ,whi l ewe me s s agi ngapps ,c ommuni c a t i o n c anc onv e ni e nt l ynot i f yot he r st hat s e e mst ohav ebe c omes ome t hi ng wewi l lbel at e ,wef or ge tands ac r i t hatl ac kswar mt h.De s pi t e h a v i ng f i c et hev al ueofpunc t ual i t y . e mot i c onsi nt he s eappst oe xpr e s s ourf e e l i ngs ,oure mot i onsandf e e l YapJi ngWe n|22,For me rSt u- i ngsar es t i l lmut e d.If e e lt h a t p h o n e de ntofNUS c al l sar et hebe s twayt oc hatwi t h f r i e ndsands har eourt hought s .

y l ami ,myf r ounge Iwasy n e h t p W e . k s h d p n a da ogr ope l e Phot v osde opy eourphot dc ohav ,har r dt e e v e us w o bum.H l a o t o e h h t p r a e n v yi omeo nugl s st s e sandl s e l t e n r a o e t s m d s o ean phot ur apt yc l i as e d l u o ng c i r e u w d s s a s ar twa e y .I s phone t ar m s r u gs o n i h r mpor t i e h w t s twasi yga l mage i ami hati nt e t got Sundayf r l e o a f v i c i t d ' c p y I y a t m e r f v u o a o on oh i t c e pst l oneof i l o h c s d a n t e u i o r f k r o o o t antf t hpar aphs ogr hatmyaunt om bot t r ephot t onf i at c uni kandwhi c m a l m b o s s ' c i r h e h h t g a f ou hr and . s gr e ngt i t sago.Looki om r aade eof c c ngf n a ni c i f ar i om de e r n l f g t i s a h e t h n e dt t e s i l got a r e o r f y n e e d e ' r h I h T t e . r I y o , r s o m o t s y l e t phot ni nghi i i v i nf si ti m ofl as or p f e a us h s f t a e e r h s t h n o p a t a h n r t i k og al i nt e phot sbac s u s s e e d k a n t a t g a n h i t s d . ns e e v war i ousmii sal v deal e i e v i ov pr dgepr fourl e o l y w r o o t n s k c e a h t o ng i ngt i ,andbr t . s pas ake t y r o t s i H , 2 r a w |Ye neChe i l ar2, Ade ng|Ye m FangNi Li ogy hol yc Ps

Er i cNg|Ye ar1 ,FASS

For gott ol ov e .It hi nkIwas t ooc aughtupwi t hwor kand s c hoolt hatIf or gott ol ov e t hepe opl ear oundmeand t hec ommuni t y ! ShawnTe o|Ye ar2,Law andUSP

32


Forawhi l e ,If or gott hes i mpl i s t i cout l ook i nl i f et hats e e mst os l owl yf adeasone ge t sol de r .Ami dt hec haosi ndai l yl i f e ,I s ome t i me sf i ndi tr e f r e s hi ngt ot akeas t e p bac kandv i e wl i f ef r om t hec hi l dl i kei nnoc e nc et hatwasonc es of ami l i arnots o l ongago. Ti mot t yTay|Ye ar2,Hi s t or y

Li t t l ef r agme nt sofe v e r y dayl i f es ome onegi v i ngmeaMi l o,c l e ani ngt hes ui t ewi t hs ui t emat e s , doi nghome wor kt i l l3am,pl ay i ng f l oor bal lwi t ht het e am Se ow Yongz hi|Ye ar2,Pol i t i c s , Phi l os ophyandEc onomi c s ,Yal e NUS

If or gothowi mpor t anti twast os i t downf ordi nne rwi t hmyf ami l y , e s p e c i al l yaf t e ral ongdayi nourv a s t l y s e par at el i v e s .I tdi dn' tmat t e rwhat wewe r ee at i ng,orwhatwet a l ke d about ,be c aus ee v e r y one ' spr e s e n c e br oughtbac kas e c ur i t yandpe ac e f oundonl yathome . Gi naChe w |Ye ar2,Li t e r at ur e

If or gott hatIa pr obl e msor m notal one e s c nc .AsI hoola ount f ac e n r d e c i h n a al l l i l i f e s e nge et ,Ihav hati s i n e t b i shi e gun o havef g yp e r l t s hl e r obabl t t oo.Th ori f eot e l i he ngt i sknow e r s h e amew l e dgeha s be ay e nac ss o ons m e ol t i m at e i ont s ome Ze f anya . Ange l i c a|Ye ar2,B us i ne s s

e or nt ngope i eofbe anc t mpor hei gott or If k n i h t o t d e s u I . y l ami om myf r pf l nghe i v i e c eonmy f i nmyl ngi hi t y r e v ee dhandl oul Ic h t swi e i r r o w dmy e har ys l e ar ,r hus own,t d n a y t i s r e v i n u ng i r e nt re e t .Af y l ami myf om r kawayf e hewe soft eday v i ngf ndi pe s t or p p u s e h t n o e ymor l e or gant ,Ibe home g n i n e p o e l i h w y l ami om myf r hf ngt e r t ands m. he ot upt

Some t i me sIf or ge tt hes t hatmypa ac r i f i c e s r e nt s h a v emadet met husf o g e t ar ;t hes e ndof fat6am, t hel i f tt ot het r ai ns t at i ne on,t ve r he e ndi ngc a r e a n d mas c onc ke e di r n nnagsand r e mi i si nde nc r r s e . di I t bl yt ouc hi ngt howt or e al he i s ydi e dal lt hi sf ormewhi de al i ngwi l e t ht he i rownpr obl e m s i nl i f e . Mal c ol m Ravi ndr an|Ye ar3, Nur s i ng

s e nc e i eSc f ar2,Li aLe|Ye eJi Le

Myunde r we ar .The r ewe r et i me swhe nI f or gott opac ks uf f i c i e nts e t sofunde r we ar be f or egoi ngbac kt ohal lonSunday s .I ti s wi t hgr e ate xas pe r at i ont hatIt r udgebac k homet or e t r i e v et he m orwas ht hef e wI hav ei ns c hool . Hewhomus tnot( r e ad:doe s n’ twantt o) bename d.

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I nmyf i r s ty e arofNUS,Is pe ntt oomuc wor r y i ngov ht i me e rt r i v i ali s s u e s . I g o t v t i c r a i ousc p p e di y c n l eofe a xpe c t i ngt oomuc hofmy andbe s i ngdi e l f , s s at i s f i e dwi t ht her t hi e ngsIs s ul t sof e toutt odo.Now,Iu nde s e r l s f t c andt ar ei hat sv e r yi mpor t a n t . I r e s ol v mor e t o et s p i e mewi nd t ht hepe opl eIc ar eabouti n or de rt oke e pmegoi ng. WongWe iXi ang|Ye ar2,Che mi c alEngi ne e r i ng


Ni s h t aAn a n d a|n i s h t a a n a n d a @g ma i l . c o m

Fory ounge rSi ngapor e ans ,i ti sdi f f i c ul tt oi magi nea Si ngapor e di f f e r e ntf r om t he pe ac e f uland s e c ur e i s l andi ti sknownast oday .Whi l ewehav el i s t e ne dt o ourgr andpar e nt s ’ s t or i e s ,r e adabouti ti nourhi s t or y t e xt booksandc aughtgl i mps e sofi ti nage dphot ogr aphs ,t hes oc i alr e al i t i e sofSi ngapor e ’ se ar l yy e ar s hav ef ade df r om Si ngapor e ’ ss oc i alme mor y .Pr oduc e di nc onj unc t i on wi t h Si ngapor e ’ sj ubi l e ec e l e br at i ons , t hemov i e1 965e f f e c t i v e l yus e st heme di um off i l mi nor de rt odr amat i c al l yr e mi ndi t saudi e nc eof t he s ehi s t or i c als oc i alr e al i t i e s .Ast he r ewe r es pe c i al mov i es c r e e ni ngsf orpi one e rge ne r at i onSi ngapor e - AMal aywoman,Khat i j ah’ sl os sofhe ry oungs onwhe nt he y ans ,i twasal s oi nt e nde dt or e mi ndol de rSi ngapor e - we r ec aughti nar i otpr ov e st obet hes par kt hate nf l ame s ansoft hede f i ni t i v emome nt sofournat i on’ shi s t or yr ac i als us pi c i onsi nt hemov i easI ns pe c t orChe ngi sac c us e d t hatt he yl i v e dt hr ough. ofhav i ngnothe e de dhe rpl e asf orhe l p.Thepe r s onall os s e s St andi ngi ngr e atc on- and pai nf uls ac r i f i c e st hatourpi one e rge ne r at i on had t o t r as tt ot he pr e domi - s uf f e rwhe n Si ngapor ewasa dange r ouspl ac et ol i v ei n nant l y pe ac e f uls oc i al s houl dnotbef or got t e n.Manyf l e df r om Si ngapor edur i ng me mor i e s r e gar di ng t hi spe r i od,buti twasbe c aus eoft hos ewhoc hos et os t ayon l i f ei nSi ngapor e ,s t r i f e ands i nkt he i rr oot she r et hatSi ngapor ec oul dc ont i nuet o onc ef e at ur e d pr omi - gr ow. ne nt l yont hes t r e e t sof Si ngapor e . I l l e gal Be s i de st her i c hc har ac t e r i z at i oni n1 965,t hemov i ee f f e c hawke r s ,s e c r e ts oc i e t y t i v e l yt r ans por t si t saudi e nc e sbac ki nt i met hr oughi t sauac t i v i t i e s and v i ol e nt t he nt i cde pi c t i onofi t ss c e ne s . Whi l eSi ngapor e ’ shi s t or i cdi s r i ot swe r enotunc om- t r i c t sar enow pr i z e df ort he i rc ul t ur aldi v e r s i t yanduni que mon s i ght si nt hes i x- ar c hi t e c t ur als t y l e s ,i ti sof t e nf or got t e nt hati nf ac t ,t he t i e s . Pe opl el i v e d i n s t r e e t sofGe y l angSe r aiandChi nat ownwe r ewe t ,di r t yand f e arofgang r e pr i s al s l i t t e r e dwi t ht r as h. Ami ds tt hec haos , t hec i ne mat ogr aphyr e andi ns us pi c i on of v e al show t hes i mpl ec of f e es hopwasake yar e naf ors oc i al

i nt e r ac t i on–s ome t hi ngt hati se as i l yf or got t e nort ake nf or gr ant e dt oday . I nor de rt or e c r e at et hes e t t i ngofSi ngapor ei n t hes i xt i e s ,t het e am pai dat t e nt i ont oe v e nt hes mal l e s tde t ai l ss uc hast henumbe rpl at eoft hel andr ov e rt hatLe eKuan 1 Ye wus e dt ot ake ,whi c hwasac c ur at e l ymar ke d“ SK6069” . Thee nt i r epr oc e s sofr e c r e at i ngt hes i ght sands oundsofSi n gapor ei nt hes i xt i e swasanar duousoneandast hemov i e ’ s Pr oduc t i onDe s i gne rTommyChans ai d,“ Thei nt e ns i v er e s e ar c hpr oc e s sc amet oapoi ntwhe r et heNat i onalAr c hi v e s c omme nt e dt hatt her e s e ar c ht hatwedi dwasaboutt hr e e e ar ’ swor t hofr e s e ar c hmat e r i al ,ofwhatat y pi c almus e um Thef i l m’ smai ns t or y l i nei sc e nt e r e dont hede v e l op- y 2 ddoi nSi ngapor e . ” i ng r ac i al s us pi c i on and dange rt hat pav e d woul Si ngapor e ’ sr oadt oi nde pe nde nc e .Thel i v e sofe v e ni t se f f e c t i v et e l l i ngofac ompe l l i ngandaut he nt i cs t or yr e r y daySi ngapor e ansi sf ul l yf l e s he d outal ongs i de I at e dt oSi ngapor e ’ si nde pe nde nc e ,t hemov i e1 965r e mi nds t hec r i t i c alr ol et hatLe eKuanYe w andhi st e am l t s audi e nc e s t hat t he c i r c ums t anc e s s ur r oundi ng pl ay e di nor de rt oe s t abl i s haSi ngapor et hatwas i ngapor e ’ si nde pe nde nc ewe r emor ef r aughtwi t hpr obl e ms mul t i r ac i al ,i nde pe nde ntandpr ogr e s s i v e .Thef i l m Si hanpopul arnar r at i v e sal l owf or . Att hee ndoft hemov i e , i t s doe snots hyawayf r om di f f i c ul ts ubj e c t sofc ommu- t e nc e sar enotj us ts hownoneoft hemos ti c oni cmome nt s nal i s m,v i ol e nc eandl os s .Pol i c eof f i c e r ss t r ov et o audi i n S i n g a p o r e ’ s h i s t o r y , o f L e e K u a n Y e w ’ s b r e a k d o w n a t t h e c ar r youtt he i rdut i e swi t hi nt e gr i t yandc our age ,as e s sc onf e r e nc ewhe nheannounc e dt hes e par at i onofSi nt he yf ac e dr i ot e r sande v e nhadt oe nf or c eal aw i n pr ef r om Mal ay s i ai n1 965.Thec ame r al e ns e st ur nsi t s s e e mi ngoppos i t i ont ot he i rowne t hni cc ommuni - gapor f oc ust owhatLe eKuanYe ws ai daf t e rhec ompos e dhi ms e l f , t i e s . s ome t hi ngt hati snor mal l yf or got t e n.Hec ont i nue d,“ The r e snot hi ngt obewor r i e dabouti t .Manyt hi ngswi l lgoonj us t I ns pe c t orChe ng,t hel e ad c har ac t e r ’ smanyc on- i ual . Butbef i r m, bec al m. Wear egoi ngt ohav eamul t i f r ont at i onswi t hr ogue sputhi mi nt he i rbadbooks , asus ac i alnat i oni nSi ngapor e . . .Ev e r y bodywi l lhav ehi spl ac e : l e adi ngt ot heki dnappi ngofhi sy oungdaught e r .At r qual ;l anguage , c ul t ur e , r e l i gi on. ”I nde e d, t he s ewor dsc oul d t hes amet i me ,manyor di nar ySi ngapor e anss t r ug- e i ngt r ue ri nSi ngapor easi tt ur ns50. gl e dt omakes e ns eoft heongoi ngv i ol e nc eanddi s - notr or de rt hatc ons t ant l ydi s r upt e ddai l yl i v i ng. e ac hot he r ,de f i ne dpar t i c ul ar l yal ongr ac i all i ne s . Manys i mpl ywant e dt of e ndf ort he i rf ami l i e sand f e wt ookon t henobl et as koft r y i ngt oe s t abl i s h or de ri nc haot i cSi ngapor e ,i ns pi t eofgr e atr i s ks andpe r s onals ac r i f i c e s .Themov i e1 965e f f e c t i v e l y s t e ps away f r om t he popul ar di s c our s e s of Si ngapor e ’ sr oadt oi nde pe nde nc easi ts he dsl i ght ont hee xpe r i e nc e sofor di nar ype opl e ,wi t hi nt he gr ande rnar r at i v e .

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1" 1 965TheMa ki ngOf . "YouTube , ht t ps : / / www. y out ube . c om/ wa t c h? v =wkWZ933U4QE. 2I bi d.


TheFi nalEcho:

rememberance Kwo kYiLi n g|p u b l i c a t i o n s @n u s h i s s o c . o r g

nt hel oc als c e ne ,t hec e l e br at i onoft henat i on’ s50t h Fort hee ar l yGr e e ks ,t hegodsLe s mos y neandMne -I b i r t h d a y c a l l s f o r a r e v i s i t i n g o f o u r h i s t o r i c a l p o l i t i c a l mos y ne( nott hes ameme ani ngasMne moz i ne ,al be i t i gur e sl i keDav i d Mar s hal land hi sunknown,y e t s i mi l arpr onunc i at i on)whor e pr e s e ntf or ge t t i ngand f omme ndabl eadhe r e nc et ot r ut handj us t i c e . r e me mbe r i ngwe r ewi de l yagr e e dt obeani ndi s s oc i -c abl ec oupl e .The ywe r eunde r s t oodas“ e qual sr e qui r 1 me mbr anc ec omf or t s .I de al i s t i c al l y ,Iwoul dl i ket o i nge ac hot he r ” .Thi sme anst hatwi t houtf or ge t t i ng,Re hi nk t hatbyr ai s i ng t heunknown e xpe r i e nc e sof r e me mbe r i ngc annote xi s tandv i c ev e r s a.Whi l ewe t ome , i twoul dpr ov i deas s ur anc eandr e l i e ft ot he m as ge tt hatbot hf or ge t t i ngandr e me mbe r i nggohandi ns l last he i rl ov e done s .Thepor t r ay aloft hes or r y hand,t hi si s s uei sat t e mpt i ngt or e t r i e v eands ur f ac e we i ghtoft hehome l e s si nToky oandt hepos t Vi e t nam c e r t ai ns i gni f i c ant ,y e tf or got t e nl e gac i e st hatwoul d pl e t name s er e f uge e shope st oe l i c i ts y mpat hy hope f ul l ybee nl i ght e ni ngt or e ade r s . Jus tl i ket he WarVi a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g f r o m r e a d e r s . A l b e i t a l o n g s h o t , i t nameofourpubl i c at i on, Mne moz i ne , whi c hi sapor t oul dal s oi ns pi r er e ade r st os uppor tt he s eov e r l ooke d mant e auoft hewor ds“ Mne moni c ”( noun,al e ar ni ng c oupsofpe opl ei ns oc i e t yi nt he i rownway s . I fnot , at t e c hni que t hatai ds i nf or mat i on r e t e nt i on i nt he gr hev e r yl e as t ,t hepl i ghtoft he s epe opl ear emade mi nd)and“ Magaz i ne ” ,wehopet hi si s s uewoul dbea t ot hepubl i c .Ont heot he re ndoft hes pe c pl at f or mt hati l l us t r at e sar i c hbankofme mor i e st hat knownt t r um,t her e c ount i ngofat al eofane l de r l yc oupl eand woul de nr i c ht heaudi e nc e . t he i rTr adi t i onalChi ne s eMe di c i nes hopt uc ke daway nac or ne ri nSi ngapor ebr i ngsat i ngeofnos t al gi a Mor ei mpor t ant l y ,i mpl i c i ti nme mor i e si st hei de aof i ar t war mi ngf l av ouri nt ot hepubl i c at i onand r e me mbr anc e–s ome t hi ngwewi s he dandhav ebe e n andahe t sr e ade r s . t r y i ngt os howc as et hr oughoutt hi smagaz i ne .Ev e ni t houghr e me mbr anc ei st e r me dast heac tofr e me mbe r i ngs ome t hi ng,wehopet hi si s s uewi l lpr omot e ts i gni f i c ant l y ,r e me mbr anc eal l owsf ort heapt hev al ue se mbe dde dwi t hi nr e me mbr anc ei ns t e ad,Mos p r e c i a t i o n o f t h o s e me mo r i e s . P e r s o n a l l y , i t i st hi s name l y ,r e c ogni t i on and ( s ubs e que nt l y )appr e c i aal ueofappr e c i at i ont hati smos tappe al i ngaboutt he t i on.I not he rwor ds ,t hi si s s uehope st or e me mbe rv e ar ni ngofhi s t or y .Thes t udyoft hepas t ,whi c hi si nt hef or got t e n andge ne r at egr at i t udef ort hedi s r e -l t r i c a t e l y l i n k e d t o me mo r y ( b e i t c o l l e c t i v e o r e x c l ugar de dl e gac i e swi t hi nr e ade r satt hes amet i me . How s i v e ) ,t e ac he sust obegr at e f ulf orbot ht hepas tand s o? pr e s e nt ,f ort her i ghtandwr ongandofc our s e ,f ort he e me mbe r e dandf or got t e n.I tde v e l opsi nusac e r t ai n Re me mbr anc ec omme mor at e s .Byr e c al l i ngt hec on- r f o r m o f ma t u r i t y t h a t mo t i v a t e s u s t o q u e s t i o n t r u t h s , t r i but i onsoft hos ef or got t e n,wepayt r i but et oand nv e s t i gat er umour sandi nt hepr oc e s s ,s ur f ac et he honourt he m.I ti sac e l e br at i onofac hi e v e me nt st hat i s r e gar de danduns e e n. hav eunf or t unat e l ybe e nov e r s hadowe dbyot he r sor di f al l e nt hr ought hegapsofhi s t or y .Forone ,wef i nal l y t hought he s eme mor i e smaybeabs e nti nt hec ol l e c s ur f ac eEl e anorRoos e v e l t ’ sov e r l ooke di nv ol v e me nt Al i v eme mor y ,andwi l lpr obabl ys t ayt hatwayf ora i nt hepr omot i onofhumanr i ght sandant i di s c r i mi -t ongt i me ,t hi si sour( wr i t e r s ,e di t or s )t i nyat t e mptt o nat i on.Addi t i onal l y ,wi t h201 5mar ki ngt he70t han- l he dl i ghtont he s ef or got t e nl e gac i e sandt os howc as e ni v e r s ar yoft hec onc l us i on ofWWI I ,t he r ei sno s he s ei mpor t ant ,i mpac t f ul ,y e tunnot i c e ds pe c ksof be t t e rt i met hannowt or e me mbe rt heuns poke nand t nd.Fort heMne moz i net e am,i ti st hi st hati s s e l f l e s sc ont r i but i ons of Chi une Sugi har a, who manki t h e b e a u t y o f t h i s ma g a z i n e , a n d u l t i ma t e l y , o f h i s t o r y . be c amet hes av i ourofmor et han6000r e f uge e sand t he i rde s c e ndant st oday . 1 -Cas e y ,Edwar dS.Re me mbe r i ng:APhe nome nol ogi c alSt udy.Se c onde d. 1 2.

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Profile for HISSOC Publications

Mnemozine: Issue Eight  

A publication of National University of Singapore's History Society

Mnemozine: Issue Eight  

A publication of National University of Singapore's History Society

Profile for mnemozine
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