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generating remnants (remnants which are generated) / (remnants which generate)


“Study the past if you would define the future� - Confucious

Figure 1.

(Inner cover and opposite page background image)


Tristan Andrews S 3 1 9 4 9 5 0 RMIT University Design Research C a t a l o g u e M . L . A 2 0 1 3 Dedicated to my mother, Lee Andrews, who inspired my love of landscape & history, and to Emma Jeffery, with whom I have always shared my Landscape journey.


Figure 2.


generating remnants (remnants which are generated) / (remnants which generate)

1.

Design with/ from/ for history 2.

3.

How can place-specific spaces be created on sites with industrial pasts through the transformation of historical site understandings for design?


Title, S’title & R.Q.

1. With

Analysis of methods of design in relation to history

2. From

Positioning

3. For

Test

Site Selection

Site #2 Yorkshire

Site #1 Hustlers

Understanding Site Conditions

Historic Analysis

Site Analysis Tasks

Lens #1

Site Requirements / Constraints

Lens #2

Understanding Site Conditions

Lens #3

Resultant Design Drivers

Site Analysis Tasks

Site Requirements / Constraints

Design Phase

Esquisse #1

Esquisse #2

Historic Analysis

Lens #1

Lens #2

Resultant Design Drivers Resultant Design Drivers

Design Phase

Esquisse #3

Esquisse #1 Secondary Analysis

Esquisse #4

Esquisse #5

Esquisse #2

Identification of problems

Identification of problems

Assess

Re-visit Esquisse #5 REVISED

Assess Re-assess outcomes based on problems from original assessment phase Findings / Conclusions

Lens #3


Contents 09. Abstract 11. Framework / Approach 21. Test Site 01 - Hustlers Reef Reserve

23. About The Site 24. Site Analysis

35. Lens #1 - Geometric & Formal Analysis

45. Lens #2 - Process & Technique Analysis 53. Lens #3 - Relationships between Site + Context over time 61. Design Esquisses 71. Further Analysis 87. Esquisse #5

109. Test Site 02 - Yorkshire Brewery Site Development

111. About The Site 112. Site Analysis

117. Lens #1 - Geometric & Formal Analysis

121 . Lens #2 - Process & Technique Analysis

129. Lens #3 - Relationships between Site + Context over time 137. Esquisse #1

145. Further Analysis 149. Esquisse #2

161. Design Assessments 165. Re-visit Test Site #1 - Further Design 175. Conclusion 176. References


Figure 3.

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Abstract Remnant Design seeks to explore how an understanding of aspects of a site’s history can be employed to create design that satisfies the requirements of site whilst being responsive to site constraints and immediate urban context. This approach has the opportunity to create design outcomes that are relevant to contemporary site programmes and priorities whilst creating a link with the history of a site, resulting in unique and place-specific design outcomes for a site. This approach to design on sites with industrial pasts is important to explore due to the increasing relevance of this type of site being re-developed or repurposed as increased population pressures drive brownfield development in a response to the issue of urban sprawl. Ways of designing in relation to historical condition can assist in creating identity and sense of place for communities that is sympathetic to the history of an area or region whilst being propositional and enabling of new programmes and opportunities for a site. By utilising an in depth analysis of the site’s historic industrial conditions, and transposing this into new forms and design devices for the site, it is my intention to demonstrate how two very different test sites can be imbued with design interventions that are unique to their respective lineages, respectful of their existing conditions, current or proposed usage, and can allow for new and innovative ways to interact with the landscape.

9


10


FRAMEWORK / APPROACH Title, S’title & R.Q.

1. With

Analysis of methods of design in relation to history

2. From

Positioning

3. For

Test

Site Selection

Site #2 Yorkshire

Site #1 Hustlers

Understanding Site Conditions

Historic Analysis

Site Analysis Tasks

Lens #1

Site Requirements / Constraints

Lens #2

Understanding Site Conditions

Lens #3

Resultant Design Drivers

Site Analysis Tasks

Site Requirements / Constraints

Design Phase

Esquisse #1

Esquisse #2

Historic Analysis

Lens #1

Lens #2

Lens #3

Resultant Design Drivers Resultant Design Drivers

Design Phase

Esquisse #3

Esquisse #1 Secondary Analysis

Esquisse #4

Esquisse #5

Esquisse #2

Identification of problems

Identification of problems

Assess

Re-visit Esquisse #5 REVISED

Assess Re-assess outcomes based on problems from original assessment phase Findings / Conclusions

11


What is History? Any history is, by necessity, a subset of events occurring within a given timeframe set by that history’s author. The reason that this approach is necessary is that it would be impractical to attempt to record all known events that have occured on a given area of land. Even if this was possible, it would still not constitute a ‘complete’ history, as this would only cover events that have been witnessed and recorded. These recorded events only represent a tiny fraction of all that has occured through time. If one wishes to design in a manner which engages with the history of a site, one must embrace the specificity and limited scope of a given history, and understand that their reading of a site’s important events is a subjective activity. Once this is recognised and acknowledged, the specificity of a history can be a powerful tool for a designer, as it provides important boundaries and a degree of solidity to what would otherwise be a largely ambiguous subject matter to perform the role of driver for a design undertaking. The Generating Remnants project attempts to set out clear understandings of the chosen time-periods and viewpoints through which these historical events have occured. Readings of the histories of the chosen test sites for this project have endeavoured to refer only to events which are clearly documented, and bring aspects of these events and practices forward in an unbiased and objective fashion, without imparting weightings or value-judgements on past events on the sites.

12


Why History? Victoria at this moment in time is in the midst of a period of rapid re-appropriation of existing or ‘brownfield’ sites. Many of these such sites are industrial or commercial in background. These infill developments in longestablished suburbs operate as a means to curb outward suburb growth and the logistical and transport issues which accompany such expansion. Also of current prevalence is the re-designing or ‘upgrading’ of existing open space areas in pre-existing suburbs, often which possess long and complex histories of their own. Such infill and re-designing activities have great and clearly discernible benefits to their surrounding communities and for cities at a larger scale, providing denser and more efficient spatial uses, and adding to the multi-faceted nature of large cities. These types of activities also carry with them extraordinary opportunities for the creation of inventive, genuinely place-specific & iconic new spaces. One example of the full capitalisation on these opportunities in an open-space design context, is the High Line project in New York City. This new park, filled with direct physical connections and utilisations of the history of the site as an elevated goods transportation network has generated a series of unique and vibrant outcomes which is heavily utilised by people locally and from further afield and has even raised land prices along its alignment.

13


Three ways to design in relation to history: As refered to in the sub-title of the Generating Remnants project (Design with / from / for history) the notion that there are multiple ways to approach the act of designing in relation to a site’s history is clearly an important aspect of the framework for this project. As a way to understand and quanify the ways in which this project intends to interact with the history of a site, these three words are very important as they define the major modes of interaction with history, and allow this project to be positioned (and adjudged) by a hierachy of these modes that is specific to the project. As explained on the following pages, these three methods of engagement have been bestowed with rankings of importance to the project. These rankings are: 1. With (primary importance) 2. From (secondary importance) 3. For (tertiary importance) Designing with this hierachy of engagement types in place, I was enabled to clearly choose and prioritise the manner in which different design exercises that I undertook, engaged with the subject matter.

14


with/

1.

Designing with history refers to a design method in which

One example, as explored below, of this form of

elements of a sites history and existing fabric are utilised

engagement with history is the Highline project in New York.

to explore and create new design outcomes which satisfy

This project utilised and deployed infrastructural elements

contemporary requirements.

remaining from the site’s industrial past, and re-engineered them to perform functional, modern programmatic duties for the requirements of an inner urban linear park.

Example project

Highline Project, New York City James Corner Field Operations with Piet Oudolf & Diller & Scofidio Architects Rails also operate as edging for vegetation planting beds, another repurposing of an existic piece of infrastructural fabric

Existing rail infrastructure used as support frame for new sun lounges, thus changing the method of operation of both the original and proposed purposes for the space

Wooden slatted sun lounge design simple and strong, with configuration of stacked slats mimicing stacks of cargo on a freight train

Rail-line wheels convert sun-lounges into rolling stock, thus allowing flexibility of use, pushing together and pulling apart to create different configurations

15


from/

2.

Designing from history refers to a design method

of Scottish Worthies, by Charles Jencks. This project took

in which elements of a site, or area’s history are translated

elements of the material & structural aspects to 19th Century

to a new design for a site in a direct manner, without a

rail infrastructure and deployed these to perform functions for

transformation occurring in the process. An example of this

a new design intervention. This method is more literal and

method of engagement, as shown below, is the Rail Garden

direct than the Highline example in its engagement with its subject matter.

Example project

Rail Garden of Scottish Worthies Charles Jencks Landscape Architecture

Laser-cut metal panel with details & quote from particular historical figure

Grass covered mound half burying structure, these mounds create rhythm in landscape mimicing that of train travel & suggesting something being ‘uncovered’ Painted & riveted steel support structure referencing traditional steel-work techniques and the railway theme of overall design concept Upright, picket-style fencing enhances idea of stacatto rhythm of the sound of a train on a rail line

Image ref. - Figure 4. 16


for/

3.

Designing for history refers to a process in which design

example of approach, as interrogated below, is the Glass

is developed which is intended to preserve and protect

Floor at the Yorvik Viking Centre in York, England. This

aspects of a site and its fabric. This approach is commonly

intervention means that visitors can still engage with the

used where high cultural significance is afforded to the

historical remnants lying below, but the remnants in turn are

site and therefore the responsible parties are bound to

kept safe and in a controlled environment which preserves

protect aspects of the site from damage and decay. An

them for future generations. This is an example of design

Example project

Jorvik Viking Centre, Glass Floor York Archaeological Trust

which is for history as it is concerned with preservation and conservation, rather than proposition.

Delicate remnant building fabric and artifacts Halogen lighting system illuminates sub-oor level and exposes detail of remnant fabric

Support beams for protective trafďŹ cable layer above remnant ground level. Tempered glass panels protect delicate remnant fabric below and allow pedestrian trafďŹ c above to look and analyse the remnants without fear of damage Image ref. - Figure 5. 17


Defining Key terms: Generate To produce or create History A branch of knowledge that records and explains past events Heritage The past events or attributes associated with a person or place by its origin Industrial Relating to or characterised by industry Lens An object or device which focuses or otherwise modifies a subject, allowing the subject to be viewed or understood in a particular way Process A series of actions or steps taken in order to achieve a particular end Remnant A person, place, object or idea which exists as a surviving trace of a once greater whole Technique A way of carrying out a particular task

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Analysis through lenses: In order to clearly and effectively interrogate the

The lenses that I chose for my analysis were:

attributes and characteristics of the long and multi-

1. Geometric & Formal Attributes of the site’s past

faceted respective histories of the two chosen test

industrial conditions

sites; Hustlers Reef Reserve & Yorkshire Brewery, a

2. Processes & Techniques connected to past

specific method for analysis was concieved.

industrial operations on the site. 3. Relationships between site & context over time

This method categorised different aspects of the history of the sites into ‘lenses’ in order to understand

Analysing and documenting elements of the site’s

and document which aspects of that history are being

history in this manner have helped me very much in

interrogated in each exercise.

understanding more clearly aspects of how the site has operated in the past and how these aspects might

The idea of utilising analyses that operate based on

compare to today.

particular lenses emanates from my personal approach to design practice in which an endeavour is made to

Along with each piece of analysis is a uniquely

undertake design in a logical, process based manner,

codified symbol designating which lens or site

where design decisions are derived from clear and

analysis component the drawing belongs to and the

reasoned design drivers or tools.

particular drawing number within that lens or analysis component. This allows design iterations later on to be

Breaking the analysis of the history into lenses allows

documented with respect to which analysis elements

me to divide the different aspects of this original data

contributed to the design in each iteration. In turn,

up into segments that can more easily be utilised for

this allows the reader to discern shifts in thinking

design.

from one iteration to the next, and also to see which analyses were the most influential towards the design propositions. An example of each lens symbol follows:

Ge

1. Geometric & Formal

Pr

2. Processes & Techniques

Co

3. Site & Context over Time 19


Figure 20

6.


TEST SITE #1 Hustlers Reef Reserve Long Gully, Bendigo 3550 Title, S’title & R.Q.

1. With

Analysis of methods of design in relation to history

2. From

Positioning

3. For

Test

Site Selection

Site #2 Yorkshire

Site #1 Hustlers

Understanding Site Conditions

Understanding Site Conditions

Historic Analysis

Site Analysis Tasks

Lens #1

Site Requirements / Constraints

Lens #2

Lens #3

Resultant Design Drivers

Site Analysis Tasks

Site Requirements / Constraints

Design Phase

Esquisse #1

Esquisse #2

Historic Analysis

Lens #1

Lens #2

Lens #3

Resultant Design Drivers Resultant Design Drivers

Design Phase

Esquisse #3

Esquisse #1 Secondary Analysis

Esquisse #4

Esquisse #5

Esquisse #2

Identification of problems

Identification of problems

Assess

Re-visit Esquisse #5 REVISED

Assess Re-assess outcomes based on problems from original assessment phase Findings / Conclusions

21


Figure 22

7.


About The Site Huslters Reef Reserve, located in inner Bendigo,

The site chosen for this project, Hustlers Reef Reserve

approximately 150 kilometers from Melbourne, was the

is located on the site of the extraction and processing

site of one of the richest and most famous Gold mines

operations portion of the original mine lease. The

in the world.

residential area to the west of the site was the location of the majority of tailings (processed waste stone)

It was the subject of magazine articles, many

dumps as well as the later site of cyaniding operations

newspaper stories, illustrations and etchings circulated

to release any residual gold from this waste stone.

to domestic and international audiences. This fame was seen especially during the mine’s most profitable

Extraction of ore via shafts, the engine-houses for

period, from circa 1867-1890. During this period the

water pumps and the shaft cage lifting engines,

pure gold cakes that were turned out weekly often

stamping batteries for crushing ore, and the mine

fetched earnings numbering in the tens of thousands of

manager’s office were all located on the site chosen for

pounds sterling.

the Rich Veins project.

The mine conducted full operations continuously from

Currently, Hustlers Reef Reserve functions as informal

1865 - 1921, when company operations ceased, but

public open space, and is frequented by local dog-

cyaniding of tailings heaps on the site occurred from

walkers, joggers, amateur geological fossickers and

1933 to the mid 1950s.

local children using the reserve as informal play-space.

During operations, the mine created over thirteen

The City of Greater Bendigo is currently considering

kilometres of tunnels and 3 shafts, the main shaft of

nominating the site to Heritage Victoria as worthy

which is over one kilometre in depth.

of State Significance. It is currently listed as locally significant.

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Site Location Scales

Sit e

Si2

n tio a c Lo

ale al Sc n o i eg -R

Bendigo, VIC.

m

3k 15

Sit e

Melbourne, VIC.

ntio a c Lo

cale S y Cit

Site

1.5 km CBD

24


Site ry

nda

Bou Site Location - Local Scale 25


Site Photographs On these pages are a series of views of the site that capture some interesting and descriptive views of the reserve. The main aspects that these photographs seek to highlight are the materiality of the current landscape of the site, key views of and from the site, vegetation types and condition, and certain remnant elements such as the poppet head legs and the memorial to the 1914 mine disaster.

Overall site vie

w lo

oki

Site view show ing

l an

dfo r

m

th

an

ng So u

d ken

rds

bro

a tow

Q ua

mit sum

rtz sections

of Huslers Hill

Looking towar

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Poppet-head ort h

tip

cre t

e

f

.

of site

26

c on

g tin oo

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l eg


View looking n orth

Showing treed

eas ter

na rea e sit

d ing ow sh

of

te

acr os ss i

on ebris

ground

View looking n orth -

we

st a

Memorial carv ed f

ex ist

in

g

ss os

cr

ro m

ite an Gr

ding

o un urr landscape

27


Site Plan

This site context plan, and the detailed section of the site plan on the facing page depict the site, its immediate context in regards to houses and surrounding road alignments, together with path networks on the site, contour information and underground mining survey data. 200m

300m

400m

800m

100m

The plan begins to suggest the scalar relationships between these different informational overlays and illustrate the size and breadth of the workings centred around this site.

500m

Legend

800m

Si1

Underground workings depths: - 118 m (L3)

- 1050 m (L31)

700m

700m

- 374 m (L15)

Roads Site Area

Reda

re

et

400m

400m

500m

500m

600m

600m

Buildings

St

n Stre

An

300m

de

rso

n

St

300m

M

ich

els

on

et

re

et

rove

en G

200m 100m

Nie

ma nn

St

100m

ree

t

200m

Hus

tlers

Roa

d

Gold

0

DETAIL AREA 0

100m

200m

300m

Site context plan with underground workings. Scale 1:4000

28

400m

500m


St re et

Reda

n Stre

M

ich els o

n

et

An

de

rso

n

St

re

et

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en G

Nie

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tre

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rs Ro

ad

Gold

DETAIL AREA Site plan with underground workings. Scale 1:2000 100m

200m

300m

400m

5

29


4

Scalar Understanding

30

Empire State Building (443.2m)

Eureka Tower (297.3m)

Main Shaft (1.053 km)

The elevational scalar references and the axonometric view of the site and its remnant underground workings attempts to describe, through the medium of drawing, the size and depth of the mine workings on the site.

As an element of site that cannot be seen from the surface, this is critical in understanding the significance of the site and the position of this ‘other world’ that exists beneath the site’s surface

Burj Khalifa, Dubai (828m)

Si


Main Shaft

Hustlers Reef Reserve

Underground Tunnels: 23 levels surveyed Total length: 13,085m

31


Site Specific Glossary Throughout the research process I discovered and learnt a great deal of new vocabulary regarding mining, due to this forming the bulk of the site’s history since European settlement. The Cornish miners, who pioneered Quartz mining on the Victorian Goldfields, possess many unique words and phrases to describe elements concerning their craft and processes.

Auriferous Gold-bearing material Back* Term used to denote the roof of a level or section of the mine workings

To assist the reader in understanding the analysis I undertook, and also to operate as collative device for my own research and reference, I thought it appropriate and helpful to create a glossary compiling the mining terms that I discovered through my research and analysis process.

Mullock Waste rock extracted during exploration & extraction processes

Ore Rock containing mineral(s) that can be extracted and sold for money

Breaking Out* The act of breaking up a solid mass of rock for extraction. Can apply to expanding mine workings or for ore-extraction processes. Come-on* In relation to a body of rock. Describes

the stage of the rock’s ‘Breaking out’ where blasting is

Ore-body A defined volume of ore within the earth that can be profitably mined

Plat Enlarged chamber or lobby where a mine level meets the shaft

appropriate and holes can be drilled for the insertion of explosives.

Poppet Head* A type of headframe (see Headframe) allowing cages to be raised and lowered from mine

Cross-cut Mine level or tunnel driven across the strike

workings. Roughly A-frame in structure, with large

of rock strata or quartz reefs

wheel for cable to be wound over at the apex.

Cyaniding* The rinsing with Cyanide of tailings & sand

Retort A device used to remove Mercury from a

dumps to extract trace amounts of Gold.

Gold amalgam. The retort heats the amalgam to a temperature high enough to vaporise the Mercury. The

Drive Mine level or tunnel driven along the strike of

Mercury can then be re-captured by condensing

rock strata or Quartz reefs

Headframe Timber structure over a shaft to allow

Rise An upward shaft from a mine level to follow an

orebody or to connect to a level above for access or

men, ore and materials to be raised and lowered

ventilation. Opposite of winze

Level A mainly horizontal passage in an underground

Shaft Vertical or steeply inclined access passage to

Magazine* Two underground chambers within the

Stamp Battery Machine for crushing ore by

other, one holding a supply of detonation material such

poles or ‘stamps’

mine’s workings

mine’s workings, formed at a safe distance from each

the underground workings of a mine

sequentially dropping a series of heavy, metal-shod

as fuses, blasting caps etc, and the other holding a stockpile of explosives for use in the mine

Stope An underground excavation formed by the extraction of an ore-body

32


Stoping The process of breaking out ore contained in an ore-body for extraction

Winze A small shaft sunk in the floor of a mine level to follow down and test an orebody, or to connect to the next level for ventilation or access. Opposite of rise.

Strata Layers or beds of rock Strike Horizontal direction or trend of rock strata, or other linear features such as Quartz reefs

Tailings Residue left after the profitable materials have been extracted from ore

Tribute Contract to carry out mining for an agreed share of the mineral produced.

Tributor Miner who works for a share of the mine’s product rather than for wages

T-Rise* A rise that leads to a small horizontal tunnel

used for ore extraction. The completed spaces along with the rise form a T shape in the earth, hence the name. See also ‘Rise’ Washdirt Gravel, sand, clay or cement containing worthwhile amounts of Gold

Whim A large diameter wooden drum mounted on a

vertical axle and held steady by a timber framework. A horse harnessed to a beam beneath the drum rotates it by walking in a circle. A rope wound around the drum raises or lowers a bucket or cage in a nearby shaft. Winding Engine* A steam engine used to raise and lower cages in a shaft. Later and more technically advanced successor to the whim.

* Denotes definition from personal research All other definitions from material by the Bendigo Regional Archives Centre (B.R.A.C)

33


34


LENS #1 Geometric & Formal Analysis of Site’s Historical Conditions

Ge

35


Ge1 1a 1b Spatial Inventory This diagram seeks to create an inventory of the major different spatial typologies found above and below the ground on the site during its life as a gold mine. These spatial elements are then arranged based on their location (above or below ground) and connections are highlighted between different elements based dependencies (i.e. mullock heaps and underground mine workings) and then Te

Open, sparsely vegetated terrain

whether each fits into the ‘extrude’ category or the ‘intrude’ category in terms of what the effect is on the immediate context of where each of these spaces occurs. This concept of intrude versus extrude was very clear as being a major theme in the spaces and operation of a mine such as this, and as such became a driver for future design interventions. Po

Figure 8.

Tall poppet heads

Figure 9.

1a ex·trude / “An outward displacement from a solid body of equal and opposite force to the intrusion”

Ex

Operator: Extrude

Above Ground Below Ground By Product

Sh

36

Shafts / Deep vertical incisions in the earth

See next pages (38-41) for analysis

By Product


RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT: Future design interventions should operate in a manner where they ‘intrude’ into the ground, and the resultant material is ‘extruded’ into new forms on or above the ground. This also means no by-product material is wasted. Ae

Aerial tramways

Hp

Mullock & tailings heaps

Figure 10. By Product

1b

In

Operator: Intrude

in·trude / “To make incision into a solid body, resulting in void.”

By Product

Dr

Drives & crosscuts / Restrictive horizontal incisions through the earth

St

Stopes / ‘Rooms’ within the earth, ranging in size from a bathroom to the size of a church

37


Ge2

Spatial Typologies

The following analysis of spatial typologies attempts to model and understand the key space types apparent in the mine from prior research and modelling undertaken in the

site research stage of the project.This understanding and interrogation of spaces like this is imperative to a process such as in the RIch Veins project as it assists greatly in defining drivers for future design on site.

Crosscut / Drive (Figure 2)

Stope (Figure 3)

Shaft (Figure 1)

38


From these analyses were derived a key understanding of an underground mine’s spaces; that they essentially divide into ‘paths’ (either vertical or horizontally travelling) and ‘rooms’ such as stopes or ‘plats’ which are larger openings where a workings level meets the shaft. These form a key driver for future design concepts.

RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT: Future design interventions can adhere to the concept of the ‘path’ and ‘room’, and can become a segment and node type network of interventions.

Typology Summary:

The Shaft is best destribed as a restrictive, long and vertical path between the surface and the underground workings -

Mine-cage Cables:

2.

6.0m

0m

Vertical ‘PATH’

Cables allow the cages to be raised and lowered in the shaft

Figure 1:

Spatial Typology // Shaft

Shaft Cage:

3 of these cages operates in the main shaft of the mine. These cages are the method of transporting men and material to the workings of the mine. 39


The ‘face’: where rock is being broken and the workings are being extended

Bracing Timbers:

Constructed to brace mine workings in case of rock collapse, especially where rock is loose or unstable.

2.0-5.5m

1.5-3m

Figure 2: Spatial Typology // Drive & Crosscut Mine-cart Rails:

Mine cart infrastructure allows material to be efficiently and safely transported around the mine.

40

Typology Summary:

The Drive & Crosscut is best described as a restrictive, long and snaking, horizontal path through the earth -

Horizontal ‘PATH’


The ‘face’: where the Gold-bearing

ore (Quartz) is being broken out in order to be transported to the surface.

Broken Ore:

Ore that has been extracted from the Ore-body.Miners stand on this while continuing progress, in order to reach higher on the face without needing extra equipment.

Figure 3: Spatial Typology // Stope Stope Access: Typology Summary:

The stope, as a large, volumunous void within the earth, is best described as a ‘room’ within the earth -

‘ROOM’

Drives & Crosscuts formed under the stope location provide access to the work area for workers and transport routes for equipment and extracted material.

41


Ge3

Spatial Design Driver Diagram

Following on from the typology and inventory analyses shown earlier, this diagram attempts to show the key action / reaction drivers and document where each specific driver comes from and how these might co-exist with the path and room drivers developed from the typological analysis. This diagram also seeks to suggest what might happen to that material which is extracted from the tunnelling areas.

Precursor Work: Spatial Inventory Diagram

‘Action’ in·trude / “To make incision into

In

a solid body, resulting in void.”

Spatial Typologies Diagram

Shaft: Vertical ‘PATH’ Crosscut / Drive: Horizontal ‘PATH’

Open-Air Path

Underground Path

‘Circulation’

Stope: ‘ROOM’

‘Congregation’

42

Open-Air Room

Underground Room

Intrude


RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT:

RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT: Future design interventions should operate in a manner where they ‘intrude’ into the ground, and the resultant material is ‘extruded’ into new forms on or above the ground. This also means no by-product material is wasted.

&

Future design interventions can adhere to the concept of the ‘path’ and ‘room’, and can become a segment and node type network of interventions.

‘Reaction’ Ex

Extrude

ex·trude / “An outward displacement from a solid body of equal and opposite force to the intrusion”

Fill Volume

What can it become?

What can it become? Fill Volume

43


44


LENS #2 Process & Technique Analysis of Site’s Historical Conditions

Pr

45


Pr1

Process & Technique Diagram

This diagram seeks to interrogate and communicate the process of Quartz mining occurring on the site during the late 19th & early 20th centuries. It outlines the steps within the mining process, from prospecting through to sale and export. It also shows points where specific techniques, technologies, processes & re-use points occur within the overall mining process.

Exploration / Preparation Pr Prospecting / Find indicators that Gold exists below

This diagram has been very useful to me as, through drawing out the process of mining historically on site, I understood better the complexities and unexpected elements of the processes which were occurring. The main instances of this were; the realisation of the efficiencies and re-use points within the process, especially the re-use of mullock (waste rock) for other site purposes, and the

Discovery / Extraction Ra Raise / Raise ore in cages back to surface Te Technology/ Shaft Cage

Le Leasing / Purchase Crown mining lease

The shaft cage was crucial in the efficiency and safety of workings in an underground mine, allowing loads and people to be brought up and down from the surface safely and securely.

Te Technology/ Whim / Winding Engine The whim was the large horse-driven wheel used to pull up and lower the cages containing material, men and equipment between the surface and platforms within the shaft. Later, a steam powered winding engine was used for this purpose.

Sh Sink Shaft / Sink shaft to access bedrock

Te Technology/ Water Pumping Equipment The improvement of the steam engine in the late 1700s by James Watt paved the way for underground mining, as mines would naturally fill with water if they were deeper than 20-30m

Ps Push / Push carts back to shaft Te Technology/ Mine Cart

The Mine cart, a metal-box with wheels that runs on a miniature railway track was an essenti al element in the moving of heavy loads around a mine’s workings.

Lo Loading / Loading the broken ore

into mine-carts

Tq Technique/ Digging: Pick & Gad

The Pick & Gad were the primary tools for rock breaking in mining, and after Blasting became prevalent, still remained an important part of the mining process to this day.

Tq Technique/ Blasting

Blasting with explosives became prevalent after Alfred Nobel’s invention of Dynamite in 1867. This technique resulted in a huge increase in productivity and efficiency of underground mines and allowed Great Extended Hustler’s to prosper.

Bp By-product / Mullock

The waste soil and rock from the digging and blasting process (known as Mullock) was hauled out of the mine and dumped in large piles called Mullock Heaps

Ex Exploration / Exploratory Drives & Crosscuts 46

Br Breaking Out / Ore is broken out

along the reef

See next pages (54-55) for analysis Tq Technique/ Shrinkage &

Sub-level Stoping

Stoping is a technique introduced to Australian mining by Cornish Immigrants, and consists of breaking out ore to create a ‘room’ within the earth, and enlarging this space until the ore is exhausted or the space gets too large, and therefore unstable

Di Discovery /Auriferous (gold-bearing) rock found


RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT:

re-capture and use of mercury used in the retorting process for use again in the amalgamation process to separate the gold from the other rock. This meant that the same batch of mercury could be continually re-used many times over without wasting any or poisoning the surrounding environment.

Any future design interventions or operations occurring on the site should, wherever possible, demonstrate re-use and efficiency of space and material usage in the creation of new structures and programmes for the site.

Processing / Export Ca Cart / Ore carted from shaft to battery

Cr Crush / Ore is crushed at a stamp battery Te Technology/ Stamp Battery

In order to break the ore in usable sizes for the Gold extraction process, a steam powered stamp battery is used to crush the ore into a fine gravel. The battery is essentially a series of hammers that crash onto a base plate with the rock placed between. This breaks the rock into very small sizes.

Se Separate / Separate Gold from ore

Bp By-product / Tailings After the crushed ore had been mixed with Mercury, and the Gold-Mercury amalgam had been removed, what was left was the fine Gold-barren gravel and sand. This substance is known as Tailings

Re

Gold is separated from the other rock and minerals in the ore by a process where Mercury is added to the ore and mixed. The Mercury sticks to the gold to form a substance called an amalgam. This forms a large clump of Mercury & Gold which becomes solid. This substance can then be removed from the rest of the ore, leaving only the non-auriferous (gold-containng) rock behind;

Re-use / Mercury

Tq Technique/ Amalgamate

Ex Extract/ Extract gold from Mercury amalgam Te Technology/ Retort

A device called a retort separates the Gold from the Mercury. The Amalgam is placed in the device, heated in a furnace until the Mercury evaporates and leaves the Gold behind as a ‘cake’. The Mercury vapour is then re-condensed with cold water so it can be re-used.

Se Sell / The pure Gold is sold

Et Export / The Gold

is exported around the world after sale

£ 47


Pr2

Stoping Analysis Diagrams

From the process diagram shown on the previous pages, the stoping process of ore extraction within the mine seemed a process which warranted further investigation as it was the most important technique in the extraction phase of Quartz mining.

What I discovered when I researched these processes further through books such as the SME Mining Engineering Handbook was that there were two major types of stoping used in mines such as Hustlers, the sub-level type and the shrinkage type. As shown and annotated below these methods represent very different attitudes towards material and resource usage in order to extract ore.

Sub-level Stoping

er Fast rces sou e R e Mor ost C r e High Sub-level access:

After loading with ore, the mine carts are ‘run’ back to the shaft platform, where they are loaded into cages, raised to ground level and taken to the stamp battery for ore-crushing.

Ore-chute:

The broken ore drifts down the face of the stope, through one of the chutes and into awaiting mine-carts.

Scaffolding:

Because the sub-level stoping technique leaves much void-space, the upper areas of the ore-body are inaccessible without a scaffold structure. 48


What I disovered is that sub-level stoping requires much more equipment such as scaffolding and other resources to extract the ore, but can be done faster than shrinkage stoping. By contrast, shrinkage stoping requires hardly any large equipment as the men stand on their own broken ore to reach further up the rock face, but is slower to extract ore.

Shrinkage Stoping

RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT: Any future design interventions or operations occurring on the site should, wherever possible, employ methods and structures that demonstrate efficiency over speed, and less resource intensive options over more intensive ones.

er SLow rces ou s e r less r Cost lowe Sub-level access:

After loading with ore, the mine carts are ‘run’ back to the shaft platform, where they are loaded into cages, raised to ground level and taken to the stamp battery for ore-crushing.

Ore platform:

An amount of the ore that is broken out is kept in situ as a platform for the miners to stand on whilst working. This means that no scaffolding or other platforms are needed in the stoping process.

Breaking-out ore:

Ore is broken out at the face of the stope

49


Pr3 3 a 3 b

Process Inventory Diagram

This diagram seeks to create an inventory of featured process points and techniques occurring on the site, from the research already shown before in this chapter, and arrange these different elements in a way so as expose connections between these different points in the process in terms of their themes and concepts.

In effect, this diagram acts as a summary of what has been gleaned so far from the previous Lens #2 analyses. As shown, the main paradigms to emerge from the process research so far are those of speed versus efficiency. This is evident in a number of points in the overall process, from the re-use of mullock and tailings as structural material to level out the ground on sloping parts of the site, to the reuse of mercury in the retorting process, to the efficiency of shrinkage stoping versus sub-level stoping.

Above Ground Ru Re-use of extracted materials / Storage and eventual re-use of extracted by-product materials

Re Retorting / Use of a Retort to retrieve & re-use mercury in the Amalgamation process

Figure 11.

Re Re-use / Mercury

Tailings heap with mining equipment installed on top.

Se Separate / Separate Gold from ore

Paradigms: speed / “The preference for fastest completion time

Below Ground St Stoping / The process of breaking out ore from an ore-body for extraction

Sp

of an operation ahead of all other factors”

Stoping Types Diagram / Sub-level Te Technique

Speed

Stoping

Pr2 Scaffolding:

Because the sub-level stoping technique leaves much void-space, the upper areas of the ore-body are inaccessible without a scaffold structure.

Ore-chute:

Stoping Types Diagram tseterr es s FasFa rcce our su Reo es or M e Cost R e Sub-level Stoping Mor HieghrerCost h ig H

The broken ore drifts down the face of the stope, through one of the chutes and into awaiting mine-carts.

Sub-level access:

After loading with ore, the mine carts are ‘run’ back to the shaft platform, where they are loaded into cages, raised to ground level and taken to the stamp battery for ore-crushing.

Scaffolding:

Because the sub-level stoping technique leaves much void-space, the upper areas of the ore-body are inaccessible without a scaffold structure.

Ore-chute: ore: Breaking-out

Figure 3.

The isbroken down of the stope, through Ore brokenore outdrifts at the facethe of face the stope one of the chutes and into awaiting mine-carts.

Sub-level access: Ore platform: r Faste rces Resou More er Cost High

Te Technique / Shrinkage Stoping

Sub-level Stoping

Shrinkage Stoping

er SLow rces resou t less Cos lower

After loadingofwith the is mine cartsout areis‘run’ to as thea shaft An amount the ore, ore that broken keptback in situ platform platform, where into cages, to ground for the miners to they standare onloaded whilst working. Thisraised means that no level and taken to the stamp battery for ore-crushing. scaffolding or other platforms are needed in the stoping process.

Sub-level access:

After loading with ore, the mine carts are ‘run’ back to the shaft platform, where they are loaded into cages, raised to ground level and taken to the stamp battery for ore-crushing.

Breaking-out ore:

Ore is broken out at the face of the stope

Ore platform:

An amount of the ore that is broken out is kept in situ as a platform for the miners to stand on whilst working. This means that no scaffolding or other platforms are needed in the stoping process.

er SLow werrces Loou es rc rsesSs s resou t t s e le l CCooss wer er Shrinkage Stoping lowlo

50

Sub-level access:

After loading with ore, the mine carts are ‘run’ back to the shaft platform, where they are loaded into cages, raised to ground level and taken to the stamp battery for ore-crushing.

Pr2


RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT: Any future design interventions or operations occurring on the site should, wherever possible, demonstrate re-use and efficiency of space and material usage in the creation of new structures and programmes for the site.

Duplicate Process

Ci Ore-cartage / Circulation around site of material via mine carts

RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT:

&

Any future design interventions or operations occurring on the site should, wherever possible, employ methods and structures that demonstrate efficiency over speed, and less resource intensive options over more intensive ones.

Mu Multi-use / Multi-use of winding engine’s power for winding purposes across multiple shafts on the site

Figure 10.

Paradigms: Ef

Efficiency

eff·ici·ency / “Undertaking of an operation with preference

for efficiency of use of materials and resources instead of completion time”

Ci Ore-cartage / Movement through underground mine workings of broken ore to be taken to surface in carts on rails

51


52


LENS #3 Analysis of Relationships between Site & Context over time

Co

53


54

Victorian Gold Production (as percentage of domestic production) 1851-2004

Past Future

Initial mining operations on the site Great Depression in Australia

$18.93 US Average Yearly Gold Price Trends 1850-2011

erv

on s

for r nc ed il i eser for v nc rec lud e sit ati on rea e es as Ma tio sit e a ope np na n sp ge me urpo art spac s nt e of Pla es by Op nc en Cr om o ple wn ted for sit e

199 6-9 200 9 /Wo r 3 200 / F deveries em 6 / riend lopm erge sg en ab L 200 Spobbyin roup lot out pos sib 8 / ace S g pay bbies le 201 Si trate s of co sal eo 2 / te res gy f as c uncil fs ite erv to ou C

en eo ed old 00t o tio n at re ext n; sit y n the B Dy rac (yea e en na ow t r-e ed dig mi n . e d) So mp te oG 189 l df loy o l o 5/ ing dfi r 21 elds £15,0 Sh me 0 t aft n - o rea 0 rep 1 1 o ch 1 ort 00 nt ed h a e s 0ft s2 191 urf 42 0ft ace 3/ d eep 191 Sh wi aft 4 t h2 192 / A exte 6c 1 / n ex nded ros scu to Gr plos ts 3 ion eat 45 4 Ex k ft ( 192 ten ills 7 m 1.053 de 9/ km dH en 193 Th ) i us tle n the - its 3 / e Gr r ’s fin mi eat Cy a M De ine ne w l de an pt pre idi ork clo ng ssi s ing h e on s of s Ta ilin Begi ns gs & Sa nd Du 195 mp 2/ sb eg 4G ins old on mi sit e ne s in Be nd igo rem 197 ain , fr 0/ om Ae 37 ria 0+ lp in ho the to 18 sh 70 ow s s li ttle ch an ge on the sit e an

om p

185 1 185 / Gol d 3 185 / D discov 4 / iggin ered a g 186 T. Hu s begi t Gold n s e 1863 / L tler, La on the n Squa th re, s 5 at Be 186 / G ham & am & Wite nd igo ats 7 / reat E Wats on 187 A xte on bu lfr n e y 0 x d ac 187 / 1 ed No ed Hu perim lai 8, m b e s on 187 1 / 1 000oz el pate tler ’s Mnt with sit Go 06 e nts o 5 i . n r 188 / F 7kg ld fro his ing e pr 2 / irst m cake o m 14 new Co. f ocess i o i nv ,0 ng fG rm in C

Chronological Matrix: relationships of site and context, over time.

Victorian Gold Rush 2nd Bendigo Gold Mining Boom

2050

2000

1950

1900

1850

Co1

The chronological matrix presents the site’s history (and other related national / international events) as a series of discrete moments in time, periods of time and also various statistical graphs displayed over time. The reason for creating a drawing which overlays all of these various data sets in one singular unit is that by seeing these elements in concert with one another, trends and push-pull relationships are revealed which may not otherwise be evident.

Chronological Matrix

The discussion of a key example of this phenomenon is presented on the opposing page

Great Extended Hustler’s Mining Co. Operations

4,412,400t

$1,571.52 US

3rd Bendigo Gold Mining Period

5,246,079

94,200t Victorian Wheat Production Trends 1861-2011

94%

97,489 Victorian Population Figure Trends 1851-2007

4%


en om e ed old 00t o tio pa on t at re ext n; he ny sit ( y D r act e e Be yn no nd ed ar-en w a mi . i e g d S m te ) 18 old plo o G 95 for yin old £15 g 2 fiel /S d 1 ,00 s ha me to 0 ft r r n ep - 1 each 1o ort n t 1000 ed he as f 19 su t 242 rfa 13 0ft c e d eep 19 / Sh 14 aft wi th 19 / A exte 26 21 n e nd cro e ssc / G xplo d to uts s rea 345 ion tE 4 19 xte kills ft (1 29 .05 nd 3 ed 7 me 19 / Th Hu n in km) 33 s tl eG t er ’ he m its fi / C rea sM ine nal tD ya ine wo dep ep nid clo t res ing ses rking h s i o of n s Ta ilin Begi ns gs & Sa nd Du 19 mp 52 sb /4 eg ins Go on ld mi sit e ne s in Be nd igo rem 19 ain 70 , fr om /A 370 eri +i al ph nt he oto 187 sh ow 0s s li ttle ch an ge on the sit e Great Depression in Australia

on

19 96 -99 /W 20 or 03 20 / F deveries em 06 rien lop erg / L ds g men e ab ou ob rou t tp b 20 oss 08 Space ying p p lobbi ibl a S e / es y s t 20 r s c ale 12 Site r ategy off as ounc of sit / C eserv cou il to e 4,412,400t

the site Great Extended Hustler’s Mining Co. Operations

$1,571.52 US

2nd Bendigo Gold Mining Boom 3rd Bendigo Gold Mining Period

Timeline moment: As wheat production in Victoria fell (orange line) and the gold price rose dramatically (gold line beneath the red line), an opportunity was created for the site to supply jobs to local workers no longer employed in agriculture. 5,246,079 This opportunity was to work in mining where profitability was again healthy, and hence the mine re-opened this time for Cyaniding and processing of tailings heaps to extract residual gold.

s 1861-2011

This preceded the beginning of the great depression and the jobs created at Great Extended Hustlers mine (along with many others) helped to sustain the Long Gully region during this terrible economic period. Past Future

RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT:

That the site has always provided services to the surrounding residents, historically as a source of economic prosperity and security, and more recently as an important area open space in an ever-denser region; (see Vic population graph - blue line).

7

2000

1950

1900

Therefore: This service of the people of the surrounding area should continue and4% be enhanced through new design interventions.

2050

b

s

e

m

on 18 1 / 1 000oz el pate tler ’s Mnt with sit 75 06.7 Gol nts e o i n r 18 / F kg d fro his ing e pr 82 irs cak m new Co. oce ssi / C t min e of G 14,0 for inv ng m

,

for r nc ed il i eser s er for v nc va rec lud e sit tio ea es n M reat s sit ion an e a ope pu ag n sp em rpo art spac en s es e of tP Op b lan y en com Cro ple wn ted for sit e

tionships of site and context, over time.

55


Co2 2 a 2 b 2 c 2 d 2 e

Documentary Analysis

As the site has had a conservation management plan prepared for it in 2012, and it is an aim of this project not to compromise any significant elements of the site’s conditions through any future design interventions, it was necessary to

consider the documents recommendations and assimilate the most key ones into my framework as criteria that I check off each of the design concepts against.

H R

R

Document

Hustlers Reef Reserve

Conservation Management Plan (2012)

56


Recommendations / Objectives 2a 8.1 - Protect & Retain Historically Significant Fabric Including: - Mining artefacts, including covered mine shafts, poppet-leg pads, brick engine beds, concrete footings and floor sections, mullock walls, gravel or sand mounds

8.2 - Use of Reserve as park for 2 b passive recreation be maintained: - Any future uses respect at all times both the passive recreation role of the reserve, and its original role as a mining site

8.3 - Interpretation: Investigate a range 2 c of avenues to communicate heritage - Invesigate avenues to promote and communicate the mining importance of Husters Reef Reserve to the wider public. ‘Event’ for re-opening of reserve once interpretive / new design elements have been implement will help promote the site further

8.4 - Management: Staffing, Security & Maintenance

2d

- Mowing of grassed area, and removal of dumped material by nearby residents - Regular inspection scheme of reserve by council open space staff - Passive security opportunities kept by reserve i.e. sight lines from neighbouring and adjacent properties

8.5 - New Developments:

2e

- Where possible, new works to be designed to assist in recovering cultural significance of HRR by their siting, building envelopes, materiality or interpretive potential. - Erect a memorial to the 885 miners who died whilst working on the Bendigo Gold Field. - Erect a sheltered visitors facility such as an information hub, lookout tower, viewing platform or visitors centre.

57


Co3

Open Space Analysis

In order to understand the nature of other areas of open space located in and around Long Gully, where the site is situated, areas of open space were mapped and analysed as to their typology. These typologies were notated as formal parks or gardens, sports fields, and informal open space.

This helped to highlight the importance of the site’s current usage to the local area and hence made clear the need to protect the site from future development.

Sports Fields

Informal Open Space

Joins opposite page

Formal Parks / Gardens

What was found through the analysis plan (shown below) is that whilst there are other areas of open space situated in the local area, there are only small pockets of the informal open space typology (i.e. not a sports field or a formally arranged garden) other than the site itself.

N.T.S

58


RESULTING PROJECT CONCEPT: The role of the reserve as a provider of public open space be retained through the protection of the site from development pressures. This could be via a communication of the site’s historical importance via design interventions, and also via the enhancement and creation of new recreational opportunities within the site to make clear the degree to which the site is and can be utilised by its local community.

Joins opposite page

Site Location

59


Design Drivers & Concepts from Analysis Lenses: From all the lensed analysis work completed to this point, the following shows all of the design drivers emerging from the analysis, and these, as a set formed the framework for design interventions, with different drivers influencing each design intervention to lesser and greater levels.

RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT:

RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT:

Future design interventions can adhere to the concept of the ‘path’ and ‘room’, and can become a segment and node type network of interventions.

Future design interventions should operate in a manner where they ‘intrude’ into the ground, and the resultant material is ‘extruded’ into new forms on or above the ground. This also means no by-product material is wasted.

RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT: Any future design interventions or operations occurring on the site should, wherever possible, demonstrate re-use and efficiency of space and material usage in the creation of new structures and programmes for the site.

RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT:

That the site has always provided services to the surrounding residents, historically as a source of economic prosperity and security, and more recently as an important area open space in an ever-denser region; (see Vic population graph - blue line). Therefore: This service of the people of the surrounding area should continue and be enhanced through new design interventions and proposals

RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT: Any future design interventions or operations occurring on the site should, wherever possible, employ methods and structures that demonstrate efficiency over speed, and less resource intensive options over more intensive ones.

RESULTING PROJECT CONCEPT: The role of the reserve as a provider of public open space be retained through the protection of the site from development pressures. This could be via a communication of the site’s historical importance via design interventions, and also via the enhancement and creation of new recreational opportunities within the site to make clear the degree to which the site is and can be utilised by its local community.

RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT:

That the site has always provided services to the surrounding residents, historically as a source of economic prosperity and security, and more recently as an important area open space in an ever-denser region; (see Vic population graph - blue line). Therefore: This service of the people of the surrounding area should continue and be enhanced through new design interventions and proposals

60


Design Esquisses.

1 - Tunnel 2 - Platform 3 - Landforms 4 - Combination

61


Esquisse 1 - The Tunnel

In ‘the tunnel’ concept, the ‘path’ typology derived from the Lens #1 analysis work was transposed onto the site near the surface as a way of thinking about how design could be formulated based on the analysis work. The concept of ‘intrusion’ also from Lens #1 also influenced the underground nature of this design The tunnel was positioned as per the particular level’s footprint on site and moved vertically so that at one end it was level with the site surface, but then dug into the hillside forming an underground area in the site.

The next stage from this was to think about what could occur in this new underground space, and the idea arose to consider how the complex geology of the site, which brought it so much wealth historically, could be displayed in a new way via cut-outs in the tunnel walls revealing the rock strata at that depth. This programmatic side of the concept was the largest issue in the utilisation of heritage as a driver, where it can often generate form, but not much beyond interpretive elements in terms of programmes.

Level 04 - 447 ft

Analysis Influence Compound: 1

Ge Si

2

1a

2

Ge 3

Ge

Location Plan Scale: 1:1500 62

1

Co 2 2a 2c 2e

Co 3

Co

2b


Perspective 01 - Exterior View

Perspective 02 - Interior ‘Geological Viewing Gallery’ view

63


Esquisse 2 - The Platform In this second design concept, the idea of ‘extrusion’ and the spatial typology of the ‘path’ driver, both from Lens #1 were used to define the form of this intervention.

Because of this, it was aligned so that the structure of the tunnel began underground and then moved out above the landscape as the slope of the hill fell away underneath it, forming a platform.

The idea was similar to the first concept, except this level of the working had its footprint at the summit of the site.

It was envisaged that this platform could become a viewing space for the expansive vista of the surrounding country as the site is one of the highest points in Bendigo.

Analysis Influence Compound: 1

1

Ge Si

2

2

Location Plan Scale: 1:1500 64

Co 2 2a 2c 2e

Ge

Co

3

3

Ge

Level 02 - 338 ft

1b

Co

2b


Perspective 01 - Viewing Platform Area

Perspective 02 - Entry Area & Road Interaction

65


Esquisse 3 - The Landform This design proposed to utilise any material excavated in the tunneling processes of the first designs in new ways on site. The idea was to facilitate a new recreation for the site that could sequester earthen material for new purposes rather than just dumping the earth. The chosen recreation was

66

BMX biking and so it was proposed to create jump ‘nodes’ positioned through a subtractive process to determine the most appropriate areas for this to occur based on existing site considerations. This design connects to the ‘reuse of material’ concept found during the Lens #2 process analysis phase.

Constraint Layer 01: Built Remnant Elements Scale: 1:2500

Constraint Layer 02: Existing Vegetation Scale: 1:2500

Constraint Layer 03: Existing Informal Paths Scale: 1:2500

Combined Constraint Layer: Built Elements + Veg + Paths Scale: 1:2500


Analysis Influence Compound: 1

1.2m

Co 2 2a

2

Pr

4.2m

Terrain Node:

1

Pr

4.2m

3

Pr

5.8m

Si

3a 3b

Co

2b

3

Co

4

A

A

Perspective showing an area of active terrain nodes Terrain element layout plan with existing site element locations Scale: 1:2500 Gabion Sub-frame for strength and stability (ďŹ lled with excavated & sorted site stone of appropriate grade) Finer grades of excavated soil from other design interventions

Large grade stones from excavated areas used for stability of terrain node walls

Terrain element section - AA Scale: 1:50

67


Esquisse 4 - The Combination This 4th esquisse combined all three previous concepts into one whole concept, and this process forced me to deal with issues such as conflict points between different elements of the design. This was useful in terms of thinking about rule creation to navigate which elements over-ride others in a combined masterplan such as this.

Analysis Influence Compound: 1

Ge Si

2

2

Ge 3

Ge Si

1a 1b

Pr

Co

2

Pr

3

Pr

Site Boundary

1

1

3a 3b

4

Legend

Tunnel Entrance

2 2a 2c 2e

Exposed Platform

3

Underground Tunnel Buried Platform

Co Co

2b

Terrain Nodes Trees (unrestricted) Trees - to be retained Revegetation zone - can be removed but replanted elsewhere

Ru1

Conict zone

Ru2

Ru3

Ru4 Ru1

Ru1 Ru2 Ru4

Rules: Ru1 Rule #1: Paths > Tunnel, Platform & Terrain Nodes Ru2 Rule #2: Tunnel, Platform > Terrain Nodes Ru3 Rule #3: Built Elements & Retained Veg. > Tunnel, Platform & Terrain Nodes

Ru4 Rule #4: Tunnel, Platform > Unrestricted Veg.

68

Scale: 1:500


Scale: 1:500 69


70


FURTHER ANALYSIS.

71


Inventory Key

Level: #02 Level: #03 Level: #04 Level: #05 Level: #06 Level: #07 Level: #09 Level: #12 Level: #13 Level: #14 Level: #16 Level: #17

Level: #21 Level: #22 Level: #23 Level: #25 Level: #26 Level: #27 Level: #28 Level: #29 Level: #30

72

Level: #08


Workings Inventory The workings inventory seeks to understand and document the broader geometric forms of each level of the underground workings individually, so as to be able to make objective observations regarding the differences and similarities between each level’s characteristics. The characteristics chosen to anaylse were, depth from sill of shaft (surface) total length of tunnelling at level, number of individual lengths of tunnel (segments), average segment length for mine level, and orientations of each segment. By undertaking this analysis, one can compare the levels to one another and understand similarities and differences that can influence potential design drivers for new interventions on site.

Depth: 103m

Level: #02 Level: #02 Level: #02

Level: #02

Level:Level: #03 #02 Level:Level: #03 #02 Level:Level: #03 #02

Level: #03

Level:Level: #04 #03 Level:Level: #04 #03 Level:Level: #04 #03

Level: #05 Level: #05 Level: #05

Level: #05

Level:Level: #06 #05 Level:Level: #06 #05

Segments: 4 Level:Level: #06 Depth: 103m Length: 280m Segments: 4 Depth: 103m Ave. segment Length: 280m length: Segments: 4 Ave. segment 70m Length: 280m Level: length: Orientations: Ave. segment 70m Level: length: Orientations: Depth: 103mLevel: #07 70m Segments: 4 Level: Orientations: Depth:Depth: 118m 103mLevel: #07 Length: 280m Segments: 4 Segments: 3 Depth: 103mLevel:Level: #07 Depth:Length: 118m Ave. segment Length: 79m 280m length: Segments: 4 Segments: 3 Ave. segment Ave. segment Depth: 118m Depth: 103m 70m Length: Length: 79m 280m length: length:Orientations: Segments: 3 Segments: 4 Ave. segment Ave. segment 70m 26.3m Length: 79m 280m length:Length: length: Orientations: Orientations: Level: Ave. segment 26.3m 70msegment Ave. length:Orientations: Level: length: 118m Orientations: Depth: Level: #08 26.3m70m Segments: 3 Level: Orientations: Depth: 118m Orientations: Depth:Length: 136m 79m Level: #08 Segments: 3 Segments: Depth: 118m Ave. 6segment Level: Depth:Length: 136m 79m Level: #08 length: Length:Segments: 206m 3 Ave. Segments: 6segment 26.3m Depth: 118m Depth: 136m Length: Ave. segment length: 79m Length:Segments: 206m 3 Orientations: Segments: Ave. 6segment length:26.3m Length: 79m Ave. segment length: 34.3m Orientations: Length: 206m length: Level: 26.3m Orientations: Ave. segment Ave. segment 34.3m length: Orientations: Level: length:Depth: Orientations: 26.3m 136mLevel: #09 34.3mSegments: 6 Orientations: Depth: 136mLevel:Level: #09 Orientations: Length: 206m Segments: 6 #09 Depth: 136mLevel:Level: Ave. segment Length: 206m Segments: 6 length: Ave. segment Depth: 136m 34.3m Length: 206m length: Segments: 6 Orientations: Ave. segment 34.3m

#05

#06

#06

#06 #06

#07

#07 #07

#07

#08

#08 #08

#08

Ave. segment 155m Length: 930m length: Orientations: Ave. segment 155m length:Depth: 152mLevel: # Orientations: 155m Segments: 6 Level: # Depth: Depth: 176m 152m Orientations: Length: 930m Segments: 6 Level: # Segments: 5 Depth: 152m Depth: Ave. 176m segment Length: 930m Length: 317m length: Segments: 6 Segments: 5 Depth:Depth: 176m 152m Ave. segment 155m 930m Ave. segment Length: Length: 317m length: Segments: 5 Orientations: length:Segments: 6 Ave. segment 155m Ave. segment 63.4m Length:Orientations: 317m 930m Length: Le length:length: Orientations: 155m Ave. segment Ave. segment 63.4m Le Depth: Orientations: length:length: 176mLevel: # Orientations: 63.4m155m Segments: 5 Depth: 176m Level:Le# Orientations: Orientations: Depth: 197m Length: 317m Segments: 5 Segments: 6 176m Depth: Level:Le# Depth: Ave. 197m segment Length:Length: 528m 317m Segments: 5 length: Segments: 6 176m Depth: Depth: 197m Ave. segment Ave. segment 63.4m Length:Length: 528m 317m length: length: Segments: 5 Orientations: Segments: 6 Ave. segment Ave. segment 88m 63.4m Length: 528m Length: Le length:Orientations: length: 317m Orientations: Ave. segment 88m Ave. 63.4m segment Le length: Orientations: length: 197mLevel: # Orientations: Depth: 88m 63.4m Segments: 6 Le Depth: Orientations: Depth:Orientations: 219m 197mLevel: # Length: 528m Segments: 6 Segments: 19 Depth: 197mLevel:Le Depth:Length: 219m Ave. segment # Length: 1042m528m length: Segments: 6 Segments: 19 Ave. segment Ave. segment Depth: 219m Depth: 197m 88m Length: Length: 1042m528m length: length:Orientations: Segments: 19 Segments: 6 Ave. segment Ave. 88msegment 54.8m Length: 1042m528m Length: length:Orientations: length: Orientations: Le Ave. segment 54.8m 88m Ave. segment length:Orientations: length: 219m Orientations: Depth: Level:Le# 54.8m88m Segments: 19 Orientations: Depth: 219m Orientations: Level:Le# Depth:Length: 237m 1042m Segments: 19 Segments: 5segment Depth: 219m Ave. Level:Le# Depth:Length: 237m 1042m length: Length:Segments: 379m 19 Ave. Segments: 5segment 54.8m Depth: 219m Depth: 237m Length: 1042m Ave. segment length: Length:Orientations: 379m 19 Segments: Segments: 5segment length:Ave. 54.8m Length: 1042m Ave. segment length: 75.8m Orientations: Length: 379m Le length:Ave. 54.8m Orientations: segment Ave. segment 75.8m length: Orientations: Le length:Depth: Orientations: 54.8m 237m Level: 75.8mSegments: 5 Orientations: Le Depth: 237m Level: Orientations: Length: 379m Segments: 5 Level: Depth: 237m Le Ave. segment Length: 379m Segments: 5 length: Depth: 237m Ave. segment 75.8m Length: 379m length: Segments: 5 73 Orientations: Ave. segment 75.8m


ations:

ations: Level:Level: #08

#07 Level: #07

: 118m ents: 3 : 118m h: 79m m ents: 3 h:egment 79m : megment : ations: m ations: Level:

: 136m ents: 6 : 136m

#09 #08 Level: Level: #08

h: 206m ents: 6 mh: egment 206m m: megment : m ations: mt m ations:

Level: #09 Level:Level: #12 #09 Level: #12

m: 152mLevel: m ents: 6 152m m h: 930m ents: 6 t megment :: 930m egment Level: ations:

tions:

#12

#13

Level:Level: #13 #12

#13 #12 m: 176mLevel:Level: m ents: 5 176m m h: 317m ents: 5 t megment : 317m : egment m ations: Level: #14 m #14 #13 tions: Level:Level: 9 m: 197mLevel:Level: #14 #13 m 9 ents: 6 197m 2m 74 h: 9 528m ents: 6 t

Orientations: 88m Orientations: Level:

#15 #14 Level: Level: #14

Orientations: 76.6m Orientations:Level:Level: #23

# Level: #

Depth: 237m Depth: 219m Segments: 5 Segments: 19 Depth: 219m Length: Length:Segments: 379m 1042m 19 Ave. segment Ave. segment Length: 1042m length: length: Ave. segment 75.8m 54.8m length: Orientations: Orientations: 54.8m Orientations: Level:

Depth: 374m Depth: 404m Segments: 10 374m Segments: 4 Depth: Length:Length: 612m 406m Segments: 4 Ave. segment Ave. segment Length: 406m length: length: Ave. segment 61.2m 101.5m length: Orientations: Orientations: 101.5m Orientations:Level:

Depth: 237m Segments: 5 Depth: Depth: 300m 237m Length: 379m Segments: 5 Segments: 2 Depth:Length: 300m Ave. segment 379m Length:length: 104m Segments: 2 Ave. segment Depth: 300m Ave. segment 75.8m length: Length:Orientations: 104m length: Segments: 2 75.8m Ave. segment 52m Length: 104m Level: #16 length:Orientations: Orientations: Ave. 52msegment Level: Level: #17 #16 length: Orientations: 52m Level: #17 Depth: 321m Orientations: Segments: 5 Level: #17 Depth: Depth: 321m 300m Length: 263m Segments: 5 Segments: 2 Depth: 321m Ave. segment Depth: 300m Length:Length: 263m 104m length: Segments: 5 Segments: 2 Ave. segment 52.6m Ave. segment Length:Length: 263m Orientations: length: length: 104m Ave. segment 52.6m Ave. 52msegment Level: #21 Orientations: length: length: Orientations: 52.6m52m Level:Level: #21 #17 Depth: 344m Orientations: Orientations: Segments: 3 Level:Level: #21 #17 Depth: Depth: 344m 321m Length: 230m Segments: 3 Segments: 5 Ave. segment Depth: Depth: 344m 321m Length:Length: 230m 263m length: Segments: 3 Segments: 5 Ave. segment 76.6m Ave. segment Length:Length: 230m 263m length: Orientations: length: Ave. segment 76.6m Ave. segment 52.6m length: Orientations: Orientations:Level: #22 length: 76.6m 52.6m Depth: 374m Level:Level: #22 #21 Orientations: Orientations: Segments: 4 Level:Level: #22 #21 Depth: 374m 344m Length:Depth: 406m Segments: 4 Segments: 3 Ave. segment Depth: 374m Depth: 344m Length: 406m length: Length: 230m Segments: 4 Segments: 3

Depth: 404m Segments: 10 Depth: Depth: 434m 404m Length: 612m Segments: 10 Segments: 3 Depth:Length: 434m Ave. segment 612m Length:length: 133m Segments: 3 Ave. segment Depth: 434m Ave. segment 61.2m length: Length:Orientations: 133m length: Segments: 3 61.2m Ave. segment 44.3m Length: 133m Level: # length:Orientations: Orientations: Ave. segment 44.3m Level:Level: #26 # length: Orientations: 44.3m Level: #26 Depth: 580m Orientations: Segments: 4 Level: #26 Depth: Depth: 580m 434m Length: 125m Segments: 4 Segments: 3 Depth: 580m Ave. segment Depth: 434m Length: 125m 133m Segments: 4 length: Length: Segments: 3 Ave. segment 31.2m Ave. segment Length:Length: 125m Orientations: length: length: 133m Ave. segment 31.2m Ave. segment 44.3m Level: #27 Orientations: length: length: Orientations: 31.2m44.3m Level:Level: #27 # Orientations: Depth: 610m Orientations: Segments: 2 Level:Level: #27 # Depth: Depth: 610m 580m Length: 248m Segments: 2 Segments: 4 Ave. segment Depth: Depth: 610m 580m Length:Length: 248m 125m length: Segments: 2 Segments: 4 Ave. segment 124m Ave. segment Length:Length: 248m 125m length: Orientations: length: Ave. segment 124m Ave. segment 31.2m length: Orientations: Orientations:Level: #28 length: 124m 31.2m Depth: 640m Level:Level: #28 # Orientations: Orientations: Segments: 4 Level:Level: #28 # Depth: 640m 610m Length:Depth: 570m Segments: 4 Segments: 2 Ave. segment Depth: 640m Depth: 610m Length: 570m length: Length: 248m Segments: 4 Segments: 2 Ave. segment

#16 #15 Level: Level: #15

#25 # Level: Level: #


th:Length: 263m 104m ntations: h: Orientations: length: Segments: 2 Ave. segment segment m 52m Length: Level:Level: #21 #17 length: 104m ations: h: Orientations: 52msegment mAve. Level: Level: #21 #17 Depth: 321m Orientations: h: 344m length: tations: 52m ments: 3 Segments: 5 Level: Level: #21 #17 Depth: 321m h: Orientations: 344m th: Length: 230m 263m ments: 3 321m Segments: 5 Level: #17 Depth: segment h: 344m Ave. segment h: 230m 263m h: Length: Segments: 5 length: ments: 3 321m mDepth: segment 52.6m segment th:Ave. 230m Length: 263m h: ntations: Segments: 5 Orientations: length: segment m Ave. segment 52.6m 263m Length: Level:Level: #22 #21 h: length: tations: Orientations: mAve. 52.6m segment h: 374m Orientations: Level: Level: #22 #21 tations: length: Depth: 344m 52.6m ments: 4 Segments: 3 Level: #21 h: 374m Level: #22 Orientations: Depth: 344m th: Length: 406m 230m ments: 4 Segments: 3 segment Level: #21 Depth: 344m h: 374m Ave. segment h: 406m h: Length: 230m length: Segments: 3 ments: 4 5m segment Depth: 344m 76.6m Ave. segment th:Length: 406m 230m h: ntations: length: Orientations: Segments: 3 segment 5m Ave. segment 76.6m Length: h: length: 230m ations: #23 #22 Orientations:Level:Level: 5m 76.6m Ave. segment tations: length: Orientations: Depth: 374m Level: Level: #23 #22 h: 404m 76.6m Segments: 4 ments: 10 Level: Orientations: Depth: 374m Level: #23 #22 h: 404m Length: 406m th: 612m Segments: 4 ments: Depth: 374m Ave.10segment Level: #22 h: 404m 406m segment Length: length: h: Segments: 612m 4 h: ments: 10 101.5m Ave. segment Depth: 374m m Length: 406m segment length: Orientations: th: 612m Segments: 4 ntations: h: Ave. segment 101.5m segment m Length: length: 406m Orientations: Level:Level: #25 #23 h: ations: 101.5m Ave. segment mlength: Orientations: Level:Level: #25 #23 Depth: 404m tations: 101.5m Segments: 10 Orientations: Level:Level: #25 #23 Depth: 404m Length: 612m Segments: 10 Depth: 404m Level: #23 Ave. segment Length: 612m Segments: 10 length: Depth: 404m 61.2m Ave. segment h: 434m Length: 612m Segments: 10 Orientations: length: ments: 3segment Ave. 61.2m 612m Length: length: Level: #25 th:Orientations: 133m 61.2m Ave. segment segment Orientations: length: Level: #25 h: 61.2m m Level: #25 Orientations: tations:

h: 580m

Level:Level: #26 #25

Length: Length: 125m 133m Orientations: length: Orientations: length: Segments: 3 Ave. segment Ave. segment 31.2m 44.3m Length: Level:Level: #27 #26 length: 133m Orientations: length: Orientations: 44.3m segment 31.2mAve. Level: Level: #27 #26 Depth: 580m Orientations: Depth: length: 610m Orientations: 44.3m Segments: 4 Segments: 2 Level:Level: #27 #26 Depth: 580m Depth: 610m Orientations: Length: Length: 248m 125m Segments: 4 Segments: 2 580m Level: #26 Depth: Ave. segment Depth: 610m Ave. segment Length: 248m 125m length: Length: Segments: 4 length: Segments: 2 Depth: 580m 124m Ave. segment 31.2m segment Length: 125m Length:Ave. 248m length: Orientations: Segments: 4 Orientations: length: Ave. segment 124m Ave. segment 31.2m 125m Level: Level: #28 #27 length: Length: length: Orientations: Orientations: 124m Ave. 31.2m segment Depth: length: 640m Orientations: Level: Level: #28 #27 Orientations: Depth: 610m 31.2m Segments: 4 Segments: 2 Level: #27 Depth: 640m Level: #28 Orientations: Depth: 610m Length: Length: 570m 248m Segments: 4 Segments: 2 Ave. segment Level: #27 Depth: 610m Depth: 640m Ave. segment Length: 570m length: Length: 248m length: Segments: 2 Segments: 4 142.5m Ave. segment Depth: 610m 124m Ave. segment Length: Length: 570m 248m length: Orientations: length: Orientations: Segments: 2 Ave. segment 142.5m Ave. segment 124m Length: length: length: 248m Orientations: Orientations: Level: Level: #29 #28 142.5m 124m Ave. segment Orientations: Orientations: Depth: 640m Level: Level: #29 #28 Depth: length: 700m 124m Segments: 4 Segments: 3 Level: Orientations: Depth: 640m Level: #29 #28 Depth: 700m Length: 570m Length: 203m Segments: 4 Segments: Depth: 640m Ave.3 segment Level: #28 Depth: 700m 570m Ave. segment Length: length: Length: 203m 4 length: Segments: Segments: 3segment 142.5m Ave. Depth: 640m Length: 570m 67.6m Ave. segment length: Length: 203m Orientations: Segments: 4 Orientations: length: Ave. segment 142.5m Ave. segment 67.6m Length: length: 570m Orientations: Level:Level: #30 #29 Orientations: length: Ave. 142.5m segment 67.6mlength: Orientations: Level: Level: #30 #29 Orientations: Depth: 700m 142.5m Segments: 3 Orientations: Level:Level: #30 #29 Depth: 700m Length: 203m Segments: 3 Depth: 700m Level: #29 Ave. segment Length: 203m Segments: 3 length: Depth: 700m 67.6m Ave. segment Depth: 731m Length: 203m Segments: 3 Orientations: length: Segments: 4 segment Ave. 67.6m 203m Length: length: Level: #30 Length: Orientations: 407m 67.6m Ave. segment Ave. segment Orientations: length: Level: #30 length: 67.6m 101.7m Level: #30 Orientations: Orientations:

Length: Length: 235m 407m Orientations: length: Orientations: length: Segments: 4 Ave. segment Ave. segment 117.5m101.7m Length: length: 407m Orientations: length: Orientations: 101.7m Ave. segment 117.5m Depth: 792m Orientations: Depth: length: 865m Orientations: 101.7m Segments: 2 Segments: 3 Depth: 792m Orientations: Depth: 865m Length: Length: 384m 235m Segments: 2 Segments: 3 792m Depth: Ave. segment Depth: 865m Ave. segment Length: 384m 235m length: Length: Segments: 2 length: Segments: 3 Depth: 792m 128m Ave. segment 117.5m segment Length: 235m Length:Ave. 384m length: Orientations: Segments: 2 Orientations: length: Ave. segment 128m Ave. segment 117.5m235m length: Length: length: Orientations: Orientations: 128m Ave. 117.5m segment Depth: 931m Orientations: Orientations: length: Depth: 865m 117.5m Segments: 6 Segments: 3 Depth: 931m Orientations: 865m Length:Depth: 780m Length: 384m Segments: 6 Segments: 3 Ave. segment Depth: 865m Depth: 931m Ave. segment Length: 780m length: Length: 384m length: Segments: 6 Segments: 3 130m Ave. segment Depth: 865m 128m Ave. segment Length: Length: 780m 384m length: Orientations: length: Orientations: Segments: 3 Ave. segment 130m Ave. segment 128m Length: length: length: 384m Orientations: Orientations: 130m Ave. 128m segment Orientations: Orientations: Depth: 931m Depth: length: 992m 128m Segments: 6 Segments: 9 Orientations: Depth: 931m Depth: 992m Length: Length:Segments: 703m 780m 6 Segments: Depth: 931m Ave.9 segment Ave. segment Depth: 992m 780m Length: length: Length: 703m 6 length: Segments: Segments: 9segment 130m Ave. Depth: 931m Length: 780m 78.1m Ave. segment length: Length: 703m Orientations: Segments: 6 Orientations: length: Ave. segment 130m Ave. segment Length: 78.1m length: 780m Orientations: length: Ave. Orientations: 130m segment 78.1mlength: Orientations: Orientations: Depth: 992m 130m Segments: 9 Orientations: Depth: 992m Length: 703m Segments: 9 Depth: 992m Ave. segment Length: Segments: 9 length: 703m Depth: 992m 78.1m Ave. segment Length: 703m Orientations: Segments: 9 length: Ave. segment 78.1m 703m Length: length: Orientations: 78.1m Ave. segment Orientations: length: 78.1m Orientations:

Level: #30

Depth: 792m

75


Workings Analysis Once the inventory was completed, the data could be ordered and analysed to see what trends and patterns might be revealed. For the segment length analysis (as shown on this page) the information revealed that there are three major length categories to be found within the levels of the mine, and that the averages of these could be utilised as constraints for design interventions.

Level Number No. 2 No 3 No 4 No 5 No 6 No 7 No 8 No 9 No 10 No 11 No 12 No 13 No 14 No 15 No 16 No 17 No 18 No 19 No 20 No 21 No 22 No 23 No 24 No 25 No 26 No 27 No 28 No 29 No 30 No 31

Depth (ft) 337 388 446 498 578 646 717 777 846 915 985 1053 1127 1226 1324 1424 1523 1673 1807 1902 2000 2099 2197 2298 2398 2598 2837 3055 3256 3454

Depth (m) 103 118 136 152 176 197 219 237 258 279 300 321 344 374 404 434 464 510 551 580 610 640 670 700 731 792 865 931 992 1053

For the orientation analysis (shown opposite) the data demonstrated the two major directions that the miners chose to tunnel whilst looking for gold. These translate to the ‘drives’ which travel along the ‘strike’ of the reef (along the rock strata), and the ‘crosscuts’ which travel across the strike (across the rock strata). These confirm the navigational rules that the miners operate by when seeking out Quartz, and by extension, Gold.

Ave. Seg. Length (m) 70 26.3 34.3 155 63.4 88 54.8 75.8

52 52.6 76.6 101.5 61.2 44.3

31.2 124 142.5 67.6 101.7 117.5 128 130 78.1

Ordered Seg. Lengths 26.3 31.2 34.3 44.3 52 52.6 54.8 61.2 63.4 67.6 70 75.8 76.6 78.1 88 101.5 101.7 117.5 124 128 130 142.5 155

Averages of segment length:

Average segment lengths for each level of underground workings were calculated, then the resulting figures were organised into 3 size categories. From this, those size category number-sets were averaged resulting in the data shown below.

Short:

Medium:

Long:

(42m) (73m) (125m) 76


Averages of segment length:

Average segment lengths for each level of underground workings were calculated, then the resulting figures were organised into 3 size categories. Raw segment orientation From this, those size category number-sets were averaged resulting in thedata - the red lines are the compiled orientations of every drive data shown below.

Short:

and crosscut segment in each level of the underground workings.

Medium:

Long:

(42m) (73m) (125m) Most prominent orientation ranges:

Segment orientations were analysed and documented, then the resultant figures were compiled into one compass diagram and the angle zones of the highest density were highlighted. The results are shown below.

33

ive

Dr

30

° 6 4

70°

90°

270°

°

250

ut c ss ° o r 6 C 22

12

15 3°

180°

77


Narrative Analysis The following is an analysis of each ‘scene’ of an historic illustrated narrative about the world famous Gold mine located on the Husters Reef Reserve Site. It was published in ‘Australasian Sketcher’ on 17th May 1873.

It depicts the major stages in a human experience of the above and below stages of the Quartz mining process in a linear fashion. Being made in 1873 it captures an impression of the site when it was operating to its fullest capacity and at the height of its international fame. The diagram shown on the following pages attempts to understand key features about each scene neccessary in order to re-tell this story through a series of spatial experiences. It also, via the red linking lines, joins certain scenes together which are compatible with each other in a narrative context. These linked scenes form the framework for a series of spaces communicating the site’s industrial history.

Scene 01: General view of landscape Shot: Long / Wide Elevation: Above Ground Plane Spatial Configuration: Open landscape, elevated viewpoint

Scene 02: Going Down Shot: Close Elevation: Below Ground Plane Accompanying Text: ‘Going Down.’ –

Before descending a shaft it is well to put on some old clothes, for what with pipe-clay, grease, water, &c., good clothes would fair badly. At the Hustler’s, suits of diggers’ garments, from top to toe, are provided. Our representative describes himself as looking very much like a professional bushranger as he stepped on the cage to go down’.

Scene Connection:

Both requiring vertical movement to convey content; scene 01 for elevated view of landscape, scene 02 for delving down under the ground

Spatial Configuration: Vertical space, descending into the ground from above

Scene 03: Putting In A Shot Scene Connection: Shot: Close Both scenes take place in the Elevation: Below Ground Plane same space as each other, just Accompanying Text: ‘ Putting in a shot.’ – narrating different points in time in When a solid body of rock is “come on,”. when the same process pick and gads are no longer of use, blasting is resorted to, one man holding and turning the drill at every stroke from the heavy hammer of his mate. When the hole is a sufficient depth, a charge of powder is put in, “tamped”, and fired by means of fuse. When the smoke has cleared away, the miners commence to... (continued next scene)

Content: Boring holes in rock-face to insert explosives for blasting

78


Scene 04: Breaking Out Quartz Shot: Close Elevation: Below Ground Plane Accompanying Text: ... ‘Break out the quartz’ with pick and gad,

fill the trucks, and run them to the shaft, where they are placed on the cage and whirled to the top, where a man is ready to take and empty them on to a platform at the back of the battery. The quartz is shovelled sparingly into the stamper-boxes, and crushing commences.’

Content: Digging out Quartz with pick & gad to be loaded into a mine cart

Scene 05: Running Stone To The Shaft Shot: Close Elevation: Below Ground Plane Content: The cart is wheeled to the shaft entrance where it is loaded into the cage to be hauled to the surface Scene Connection:

Both scenes involve the transport of mine carts along linear paths as their main content, the difference being that one occurs underground and the other above it

Scene 06: Delivering At The Battery Shot: Mid Elevation: On Ground Plane Content: The cart is wheeled to an entrance at the rear of the Battery

79


Narrative Analysis continued Scene 07: Crushing Shot: Mid Elevation: On Ground Plane Content: The ore is crushed and mixed with mercury to separate the Gold from the other minerals

Scene Connection:

Both scenes take place inside a building existing on the surface of the site. In scene 07 this is the stamping house, and the other is the retorting house

Scene 08: Retorting Shot: Mid Elevation: On Ground Plane Accompanying Text: ‘Retorting.’ – When a sufficient quantity

of amalgam is collected it is put into a retort, the top screwed on, and placed in a furnace heated to white heat. The end of the pipe from the retort is put into a pail standing in a tub of water. A small stream of water is turned onto the retort-pipe, which condenses the quicksilver, and it falls into the bucket ready for use again. When all the quicksilver has been taken, the gold is allowed to cool, and then the rich cake is turned out’

Content: The Gold ore amalgam is put into a retort which releases gold and allows capture and re-use of the Mercury.

80


Summary of Resulting Intervention Modules Module A: Scene 01 & 02

01

Module B: Scene 03 & 04

02

Module C: Scene 05 & 06

03

Module D: Scene 07 & 08

04

Spatial Requirements: Underground & Aboveground Spaces, Vertical movement allowance

Spatial Requirements: Underground space, confined, narrowing space with dead end at one end.

Spatial Requirements: Linear space, unrestricted, with twin entrances / exits, near flat flooring surface

Spatial Requirements: Large above-ground space, with shelter to reflect interior nature of scenes.

81


Level 23 Workings Usage mine’s workings from this data. From these outputs, the resultant forms were analysed in relation to the requirements of the narrative scenes to determine which sections of the level 23 workings were most appropriate to each of the scenes. These results are shown over the this page and the opposite.

06. 01.

02.

03.

04.

07.

08.

09. 10.

11.

05.

Module C:

Comprising Segment 05 Describing Scene 05 Length: 59m Spatial Qualities: Long straight tunnel with twin entrances / exits. Could operated as ‘thoroughfare’ Location: Underground

03 Module A:

Comprising Segments 01, 02, 03 Describing Scene 01 & 02 Length: 50m Spatial Qualities: Tall ‘shaft’ segment with curved tunnel segment which immerses viewer in internal spaces. Location: Above & Underground

01

82

Joins opposite page

In order to derive new and more accurate formal configurations for design on the site, the original mine survey was revisited, and the cross section data for certain levels of the mine’s workings was digitally reproduced as a new and accurate tool for form generation. Shown below is the modelling resultant from reconstructing level 23 of the


09. 10.

Joins opposite page

08.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.19.

24. 22. 23. 21. 20.

Module D:

Comprising Segments 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Describing Scene 07 & 08 Length: 110m Spatial Qualities: Varied heights of profiles create interesting ‘roof’ pattern. Long nature of segments mean they can be stacked sideways to form a larger, ‘room’ type space. Location: On Ground

04

03 Module B:

Comprising Segments 08, 09, 10 Describing Scene 03 & 04 Length: 42m Spatial Qualities: Curved segment entices viewer visitor to explore around corner. Tapered profile height at one end enhances confined spatial characteristics. Location: Underground

02

83


BMX Jump Profiles As the idea of re-use of excavated material was an important theme for the project, research was conducted into what this material could be used for, and what was chosen as the most appropriate purpose in terms of providing recreational opportunities as well, was BMX jumps. Some research was conducted into what constituted safe proportions for different skill levels, and the below profiles were the result of this.

Mountain Bike & BMX Terrain Profiles Be

Beginner Profile

1000mm

30

°

900mm

3000mm

1550mm 1200mm 1550mm

In

Intermediate Profile

1000mm

30

°

1200mm 2000mm

Ad

1500mm

2000mm

5000mm

Advanced Profile

45

°

1200mm 1200mm 1500mm 1200mm

4000mm

Dimension source: http://forums.mtbr.com/trail-building-advocacy/dirt-jumps-specs-599573.html 84


Material Re-use Formula This diagram sought to clarify the process for creating new design interventions on site using the material excavated in the underground modules.

This volume determined by other interventions proposed on site

Xá

1.

Volume of material to be reused

2.

Total lineal metres required for sequestration of all excavated material

3. 4.

Storage capacity (per metre) of terrain proďŹ les

Aá

Resulting Segments orientated based on 2 most common angle ranges

Material not utilised in new terrain formations gathered on site

=

Y=

Segment lengths

Total lineal metres required for sequestration of all excavated material

Short

Medium

Long

A

42m 73m 125m

=

Resulting form can re-use excavated material from other design interventions whilst providing for new programmes

Divided between three areas in site and deposited in these areas for use by artists as material for sculpture (collab. with Bendigo Art Gallery)

85


86


ESQUISSE #5 Esquisse #5 sought to create a masterplan for the site that combined a series of spaces, underground and above ground, which allow the story of the site’s industrial history to be communicated whilst creating opportunities for other usages and programmes to occur. As a by-product of the underground spaces, the excavated material can be re-used to create a terrain park for BMX & mountain biking, whilst the interpretative spaces can also be used for temporary exhibitions and gallery spaces. Any material not utilised in the terrain park elements can be re-used for landform sculpture as parts of a series of sculpture-park spaces throughout the reserve. This combined design is driven by concepts and drivers derived from all three analysis lenses, plus the further analysis work, all combining to create a rich, integrated masterplan derived from an extensive palette of analysis outcomes that link the design closely with the site’s past to propose it’s future. Analysis Influence Compound: 1

Ge Si

2

2

Ge 3

Ge Si

1a 1b

1

1

Pr

Co 2 2a 2c 2e

2

Pr

3

Pr

3a 3b

Co

2b

3

Co

4

87


Interpretation placement constraint overlays

Existing Paths - N.T.S

Built Elements - N.T.S 88

Vegetation (Trunk Locations) - N.T.S

Topographic Opportunities - N.T.S


The placement of these modules within the site was determined by topographical ‘opportunities’ where the landform allowed semi/full burial of the interventions.

Placement of Interpretative Spaces

Opportunity for Module A (viewing platform & curved buried tunnel)

Opportunity for Module B (curved buried tunnel)

Opportunity for Module C (straight buried tunnel)

Opportunity for Module D (shelter pavillion)

Combined Constraints / Opportunities - N.T.S 89


Displaced material re-use diagram Earth Displacements: Module A

700m³ +

Module B

350m³ +

These diagrammes explain how the cut material from each of the intrusions in the earth is utilised elsewhere in the reserve for recreational programming. The diagrammes also explain how the orientations of different areas of the BMX jumps are calculated and finalised.

Module C 500m³ 1550m³ total

Be

Beginner Profile

Volume (per m.):

2.1m³ % of design: 1000mm

30

°

900mm

60% 690m³

1550mm 1200mm 1550mm

690m³

÷

2.1m³

length: 329m

In

Intermediate Profile

Volume (per m.):

3.6m³ 1000mm

30

°

1200mm 2000mm

1500mm

% of design::

40%

2000mm

860m³ 860m³

90

÷

3.6m³

length: 236m


329m

236m (quantify) Short:

Long:

m 42 m

m

m

42

(divide)

42

m

m 42 m

m

42

42

73

m

5m

Long:

(42m) (73m) (125m)

(42m) (73m) (125m)

12

Medium:

42

Medium:

73

Short:

3° ive Dr

33

30

°

46

70°

(orient) ° 250 t u sc ° os Cr 226

12

15

(combine)

91


BMX Jump constraint overlays

Existing Paths - N.T.S

Built Elements - N.T.S 92

Narrative Design Module Locations - N.T.S

Vegetation (Trunk Locations) - N.T.S


BMX Jump alignment with constraints

In this plan, where the proposed bmx jump footprints clash with the constraints placed on their possible locations (red lines), the material cannot be inserted at these points. The left over material from these clashes can then be used as material for new landform sculpture.

Combined Constraints with Terrain Form Outline - N.T.S

93


Overall Site Concept Plan

01

02

03

Scale 1:1500

94

04


Detail Plans

01 Module A:

Comprising: Segments 01, 02, 03 Describing: Scene 01 & 02 Length: 50m Spatial Qualities: Tall ‘shaft’ segment with curved tunnel segment which immerses viewer in internal spaces. Location: Above & Underground

02

Module B:

Comprising: Segments 08, 09, 10 Describing: Scene 03 & 04 Length: 42m Spatial Qualities: Curved segment entices visitor to explore around corner. Tapered profile height at one end enhances confined spatial characteristics. Location: Underground

Joins No. 3 (next page) 95


03

Module C:

Comprising: Segments 05 Describing: Scene 05 & 06 Length: 59m Spatial Qualities: Long straight tunnel with twin entrances & exits. Could operate as thoroughfare. Location: Underground

04

Module D:

Comprising: Segments 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 Describing: Scene 07 & 08 Length: 110m (total for unfolded segments) Spatial Qualities: Varied heights of profiles create interesting ‘roof’ pattern. Long nature of segments mean they can be stacked sideways to form a larger ‘room’ space. Location: On ground

96


Bicycle Jumps:

A network of linear terrain forms based on BMX jump profiles to enable BMX cycling to occur across the site in different locations and on differing terrain, whilst sequestering material excavated during construction of the interpretative installations.

Sculpture Areas:

Three areas within the reserve are supplied with 150 cubic metres of site soil & rock for arrangement and sculptural experimentation utilising this material. The resultant forms supply a public-art type purpose, and can be demolished and reconfigured every 6 months to allow for many different outcomes over time.

97


Elevations

Joins opposite page

01

Module A Elevation. Scale 1:100

Scale 1:50 98


Scale 1:50

99

Joins opposite page


Joins opposite page

02

Module B Elevation. Scale 1:100

Scale 1:50

100


Scale 1:50

101

Joins opposite page


Joins opposite page

04

Module B Elevation. Scale 1:100

Scale 1:50

102


Scale 1:50

103

Joins opposite page


Perspectives

01

Module A Perspective showing the Platform, tunnell exit and outline of the underground portion.

03

Perspective view underground in Module C 104


Perspective view showing BMX jumps in use Construction concept for BMX Jump profiles: Gabion Sub-frame for strength and stability (filled with excavated & sorted site stone of appropriate grade) Finer grades of excavated soil from other design nterventions Large grade stones from excavated areas used for stability of terrain node walls

105


Site Usage Diagram

This diagram sought to explain and outline the various existing and potential uses of the site by local residents and visitors from further afar. It also outlines which portion of the design proposition is used for each use, along with access time-frames Legend: Usage Type s.

Usage Status

Sport

n. Nature

C.

Current

p.

Proposed

a. Arts h. History

Usage Type

Site Area Used

Time-frame

Hours

s.

C.

Walking

Path Networks

All Times

All

s.

C.

Dog walking (on leash)

Path Networks

All Times

All

s.

C.

Jogging

Path Networks

All Times

All

n.

C.

Bird-watching

Dense Veg. Areas

All Times

All

n.

C.

Seed Collection

Dense Veg. Areas

All Times

All

n.

C.

Fossicking / Amateur Geology

Areas of exposed rock

All Times

All

s.

p.

BMX Biking

Jumps / Linear Tunnel

s.

p.

Mountain Biking

Jumps / Linear Tunnel

a.

p.

Satellite Exhibition Space Bendigo Art Gallery

Tunnels, Shelter & Paths

Bendigo Easter Fest. (Easter Weekend)

10-5pm Daily

a.

p.

Site Stone Sculpture Space Bendigo Art Gallery

Sculpture space on site

New sculptures erected Easter & Melb. Cup Wknds

All

a.

p.

15/15 Film Festival Exhibition Space

Tunnels

21st - 23rd May

10-5pm Daily

h.

p.

Guided walking tours of site Nat. Trust Heritage Fest.

Tunnels & new paths

Weekends between 18 April - 19 May

10-12pm 4-6pm Daily

h.

p.

Hustler’s Story Walk (Self-guided)

Tunnels & new paths

All times

All

106

All except event times All except event times

All All


107

Path & room network concept for site

Spatial Typologies Ge2

2

Documentary Analysis Co

Chronological Matrix Co1

Open Space Analysis Co3

Process Inventory Pr3

Parameter set for heritage sensitive design

Site provides services to residents throughout history (economic / recreation & space)

Protection of reserve as open space

Concept of re-use of materials to hand, efďŹ ciency of techniques and space

Intrude / extrude (cut & ďŹ ll) design concept

Spatial Inventory Ge1

Process Matrix Pr1

Intersecting underground workings though site area

Design Concept / Driver

Site Context Plan Si1

Analysis Drawing

Analysis - Design Linkages

Process Link Diagram

Sculpture Areas

Terrain Jumps

Module E: Linking Path

Module D: Shelter Structures

Module C: Dual entrance Tunnel

Module B: Single-entrance Tunnel

Module A: Tunnel & Platform

MASTER PLAN DESIGN:

Esquisse 3

Esquisse 2

Esquisse 1B

Esquisse 1A

DESIGN ESQUISSES:

Design Intervention


Figure 12. 108


TEST SITE #2 Former Yorkshire Brewery Site, Robert St. Collingwood 3066 Title, S’title & R.Q.

1. With

Analysis of methods of design in relation to history

2. From

Positioning

3. For

Test

Site Selection

Site #2 Yorkshire

Site #1 Hustlers

Understanding Site Conditions

Historic Analysis

Site Analysis Tasks

Lens #1

Site Requirements / Constraints

Lens #2

Resultant Design Drivers

Understanding Site Conditions

Lens #3

Site Analysis Tasks

Site Requirements / Constraints

Design Phase

Esquisse #1

Esquisse #2

Historic Analysis

Lens #1

Lens #2

Lens #3

Resultant Design Drivers Resultant Design Drivers

Design Phase

Esquisse #3

Esquisse #1 Secondary Analysis

Esquisse #4

Esquisse #5

Esquisse #2

Identification of problems

Identification of problems

Assess

Re-visit Esquisse #5 REVISED

Assess Re-assess outcomes based on problems from original assessment phase Findings / Conclusions

109


110


About The Site The Former Yorkshire Brewery site, located near

From here it passed hands a number of times until

the corner of Robert Street and Wellington Street in

Carlton & United Breweries bought it in 1910. From

Collingwood, possesses a long history of alignment

then on it was used as brewery for a time, then

with the brewing industry. Whether under the guise

cooperage for the other breweries, then a maltings

of a full brewery operation, as it was originally known

for malting barley for the other breweries, and finally a

for, or later as a cooperage (making and maintaining

storage site for equipment.

beer casks) and a maltings, ever since the beginning of industry in the area the site has, until recently

In 1995, after 85 years, CUB sold the site to

constantly held a clear connection with the beer

developers and since then it has been owned by a

industry.

number of different owners none of whom, until the latest one, has been able to have a plan successfully

A small, low technology brewing operation was

approved.

operated on the site from 1861 by John Wood, a prominent local builder and proprieter of the adjacent

As it stands today, the site is under demolition, as

Yorkshire Pub, for which he brewed beer. Wood

some of the later additions to the building structures

continued with the brewing business more seriously

such as the concrete silos and other outbuildings are

once giving up the pub and in 1877 the new and

torn down and cleared to ready the site for residential

improved, high-tech Yorkshire Brewery opens with its

development.

spectacular polychromatic brick brewing tower the tallest building in the suburb.

The opportunity on this site in terms of Landscape Architecture is to create a series of open spaces which

The site continued as a Wood family run brewery for

tie in with the proposed new residential development

many years until the 1891 financial crisis hit and James

whilst being contextually appropriate and sympathetic

Wood (The founder’s son and now brewery owner) and

to the site’s history.

his brothers decided to sell the business as times were tough.

111


Site Location Scales Site Location Plan

Si1

Site Location - Regional Scale

Melbourne, VIC.

Site Location m

2.4k

CBD

Site Location - City Scale

112


Si3

SITE BO

UNDAR Y

Site Location - Local Scale 113


Site Photographs On this page is a series of views of the site that capture some interesting and descriptive views of the site. As at the time of shooting, there was construction hoarding up and security fencing in place it was difficult to get some particular views of the site, and only external aspects were able to be captured, but the photos do at least give an idea of certain aspects of the site.

View of upper

floo r

The site visits were very helpful in understanding aspects of the site that would be opportunities or constraints to work around. An example of the finding of an opportunity for design in this process was the discovery that the prominent window sills along the facades presented a great opportunity for attachment of additional infrastructure to them. An example of a constraint found through the process was the lack of sunlight reaching the ground plane around the site extents even in the middle of the day.

Site view from

so fb rew R om r fr

lition site in foregrou nd emo gd win ho

we to

,s

Rob ert St ree t

obert Street

Brew tower lo

okin g

up

Waterloo Roa sh ow

cad ev iew , wi lls o infi rh

f orig

bricks

inal window-openin gs

matic hro lyc po ing

114

d fa


Site Specific Glossary Throughout the research process I discovered and learnt a great deal of new vocabulary regarding the brewing industry, due to this forming the bulk of the site’s history since European settlement.

To assist the reader in understanding the analysis I undertook, and also to operate as collative device for my own research and reference, I thought it appropriate and helpful to create a glossary compiling the brewing-industry related terms that I discovered through my research and analysis process.

Beer an alcoholic drink made from yeast-fermented

Malt barley or other grain that has been steeped,

malt flavoured with hops

germinated, and dried or roasted, used for brewing or distilling.

Brewing to make (beer) by soaking, boiling & fermenting

Malting the partial-germination, drying and roasting of

grains (most commonly barley) to release the sugars for Brew kettle large vessel to which heat is applied to

extraction and inclusion for brewing

added and the mixture boiled further to impart the hop

Malthouse a building in which malt is prepared and

boil the wort through and at this stage the hops are flavours into the wort Cask a large barrel-like container used for storing liquids, typically alcoholic drinks.

stored.

Mashing the mixing and breaking down of malt barley with water to form the thick sugary liquid known as ‘wort’, which is the unfermented stage of beer

Cooperage the construction and maintenance of

casks & barrels. Often connected to the brewing & winemaking industries.

Mash-tun a vessel in which mashing of grains occurs, ususally containing blades with metal wires on them to agitate and mix through the malt grain with the water

Fermenter vessel for the fermentation of wort into beer by the addition of yeast.

Sparging The re-rinsing of grains to extract any residual sugars and add these to the wort

Fermentation process of conversion of sugars into

alcohol through the addition of yeast to a liquid. Initial process in beer making usually takes 7-10 days, with

Wort the unfermented mixture of malt barley, water &

hops which is then turned into beer by the addition of

further fermentation occurring in-bottle later.

yeast to convert the sugars into alcohol

Hops a twining climbing plant native to north temperate

Yeast a microscopic fungus consisting of single oval

plant, which are used in brewing beer.

converting sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide

regions, cultivated for the flowers borne by the female

cells that reproduce by budding, and capable of

Lautering rinsing through the left over malt-grains to

extract the last remaining sugars, the resultant liquid is then added back to the main wort mixture Lauter-tun vessel with a series of perforated false

bottoms that the act of lautering is conducted within

Definitions from Oxford Dictionary of English (electronic version)

115


116


LENS #1 Geometric & Formal Analysis of Site’s Historical Conditions

Ge

117


1

Ge

Cooperage Analysis

RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT:

The second phase of the site’s industrial occupation was the operation of the site as a cooperage; making and maintaining hogshead casks for Carlton & United Breweries.

Wooden interlocking slat type construction method to be utilised for the construction of furniture and installation devices within any future landscape design for the site.

The analysis undertaken for this project attempted to understand aspects of the construction and function of the casks themselves, understanding how the wooden parts interlocked and imagining how these could be transformed for use as a landscape construction element.

675 mm

Type built & maintained at site 620 mm

890 mm

890 mm

1400 mm

540 mm

.

Barrel - 200L

Hogshead - 250L.

Pipe / Butt- 500L.

Head Head Hoop Chime Bilge Bilge Hoop

Stave

118


Unfurled hogshead cask

Oak stave cross section 50 mm

50 mm

20 mm

20 mm

50 mm

New proposed stave cross sections, coming in two sizes, original and large. These new stave types have exaggerated profiles on each end meaning they can fully interlock and maintain connection without need of fasteners.

50 mm 15 mm

15 mm

97.5 mm

97.5 mm 15 mm

15 mm

Interlocking stave module Interlocking proďŹ les stave (50module & 100mm) proďŹ les (50 & 100mm) 119


120


LENS #2 Process & Technique Analysis of Site’s Historical Conditions

Pr

121


1

Pr

Brewery Supply Chain

HO

POWER

YORKS

L TE

RE HI

STEAM ENGINE

SELL TO LOCALS

MILL

ER

BREWING T OW

CONSUMER PURCHASE

USE HO

SITE EXTENTS

ENGINE

This diagram attempts to unpack and describe the brewing operations processes and connections within and adjacent to the site during its operation as a brewery between 1877 and 1920

WATER STRAIN

SEPARATE

BOIL

STEAM

COOL & FILTER

TING HO EN

E US

FERMENT

STRAIN CLEANSE

FER M

AR

ER BE

BOILER

ED SK CA 122

SITE EXTENTS

CASK & AGE

BOILER

CE LL


PO WE R

L

WEL

LEGEND: REMAINING BUILDING FABRIC % (2013)

W A

PROCESS NODE COLD WATER

CO LD

ER POW

BUILDING

R TE

HOT WATER

RAISE

USE THO AL M

ROAST

STEAM POWER (BELT-DRIVE) BEER INGREDIENTS BOTTLED BEER CASKED BEER

GERMINATE

RA W

BEER

OUT

NT LA

FILL

EER B D E CASK

ST

CONSUMER EXPORT (BOTTLE)

COMMERCIAL EXPORT (CASK)

LES AB

CAP

BOT TLE DB EE R

TTLING P BO

LABEL

ING RE DI EN TS

IN

FUEL SUGAR YEAST HOPS BARLEY CASKS BOTTLES 123


2

Pr

Brewing Process

This diagram attempts to describe the brewing process operating within the Yorkshire Brewery during its period of operation for beer making after the brew tower was erected (1877) until brewing operations ceased in 1920

Ge Germinate / Barley steeped in water, drained, and left to partially germinate

Mi Mill / Malt barley is fed through a roller mill to be crushed into usable sizes Te Technology/ Roller Mill

The roller mill was crucial to allow cereal to be broken & flattened into small pieces. The cereal is passed in between two rollers which flatten and break it up for further processing.

Ro Roast / Barley roasted in large kilns

Te Technology/ Kiln

Ri

Wood or coal fired kilns were crucial for drying and roasting grain (in this instance barley), a major step in the brewing process for beer. The site at one point held three of these large industrial ovens.

Tq Technique/ Sparging

Sparging is the technique of rinsing the strained grains once more with hot water to draw out residual liquid or sediment which will add flavour (and food for the yeast) to the finished product. This action is crucial in ensuring maximum value is gotten from the mash mixture.

Ra Raise / Barley lifted to top of brewing tower

Te Technology/ Hydraulic Lift

Bo Boil / Wort fed into ‘coppers’ and boiled with hops for 1-3 hours Te Technology/ Copper

BREWING TOWER: GRAVITY DRIVEN STAGES

The brewery’s brick brewing tower contained a state-of-the-art hydraulic lift which allowed the brewers to bring the malt barley & other supplies up to the top level of the tower, where the gravity assisted brewing process could begin.

124

Rinse / Mash is ‘sparged’ with hot water to rinse out any residual liquid

The copper was a large open kettle that was utilised in the hop mixing stage, in which the ‘wort’ (malt-infused liquid) was boiled with hops to infuse the tartness expected from a good beer.


RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT: Gravity fed vertical processes to feature in the operation of future site design interventions. This could be utilised for water filtration for example.

BREWING TOWER: GRAVITY DRIVEN STAGES

Ex Export / Beer is delivered to suppliers / licensed venues

Ma Mash / Malt barley mixed with water in a ‘mash tun’

La Label / Capped bottles have their labels stuck on ready for export

Te Technology/ Mash Tun

The mash tun is a crucial tool piece of equipment in the brewing process even today. It is the vessel where the malt barley is mixed with hot water to draw out the flavour from the barley and let it pass to the water. Agitating arms inside the vessel helped with this process also.

Ca Cap / Filled bottles are capped with a capping machine Fi

Sp Sparge / Liquid strained from spent grains

Fill / Beer is poured into bottles with priming sugar to enable carbonation.

Ca Cask / Beer casked and left for a length of time. Fermentation continues and carbonation occurs creating the bubbles in the beer. Se Separate / Hops separated from wort Cl

Cleanse / Fermented wort (now known as beer) cleansed by addition of ‘finings’ which aids extraction of remaining yeast.

St

Strain / Mixture heated to high temp. to force yeast apart from liquid. Liquid then drained and yeast left.

Te Technology/ Hop Back

The hop back is a device that captures the now spent hops and lets the rich, infused wort to pass through and continue its processing into beer.

Te Technology/ Hop Presser A device called a hop presser squeezes any remaining wort from the hops and full isolation of the liquid from the solid matter has now been achieved.

Ft

Cool & Filter / Wort filtered with sieve & cooled Te Technology/ Refrigerator Not refrigeration as we know it today, this process involved running the filtered wort over a series of cooled pipes to transfer the heat to the pipes and out of the liquid.

Fe Ferment / Wort put into fermenting tanks & yeast added Te Technology/ Gyle

The gyle is the vessel used for the fermenting process. Completely sterilised and air-tight, these vessels allowed the fermentation process to take place uninterrupted by other bacteria or impurities. 125


3

Pr

Brewing Process

The diagram on this page attempts to visually represent each stage of the brewing process as a connected whole, abstractly envisaging the act of brewing as a continuous whole. Through this drawing it was possible to gauge the dependence on gravity to transport the materials through the process in order to generate the outcome of beer.

On the opposing page the actual act of brewing (albeit using liquid malt extract rather than un-processed malt) has been undertaken and documented in order to gain a clearer picture of the actual mechanics and specifics of brewing.

wing Process:

3

Pr GRAVITY FED SECTION

GRAVITY FED SECTION

operations process n 1877 - c1920

A. Fil

B. Ad to wa

C. Ad the w

D. M

126


RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT: Fermentation bubble patternation derived from brewing experiment process to be utilised as a formal design driver and as a tool for the division of space on site.

A. Fill bucket with water

E. Dispense into fermenter and fill with hot water up to 23 litre line. Reach temp. range (18-28c) B. Add malt extract & hop mixture to water to create the ‘Wort’

F. Add yeast to the wort & seal fermenter with airlock. Leave to ferment for 4-10 days

C. Add extra malts and sugars to the wort G. Test each day for Gravity values (fermentation level) When value stops changing, it’s ready.

D. Mix wort very well.

H. Pour beer into bottles & insert priming sugar to initiate carbonation. 127


128


LENS #3 Analysis of Relationships between Site & Context over time

Co

129


Joins opposite page

130

1950

7/

187 8 188 / 3/ 188 7/ 188 8/ 189 2/ 189 3/

187

6/

Yo ow rksh ne ire d & Bre op wer er a y o ted pe by ns o Joh n s n W ite, oo Lo d u an is P dl a ead steu s to r p inc ione rea ers sed ge Ne foc rm-t us heo bri w, m on c r & k br oder hy y an lar n e gie d ge win bre ne bo g t we ile r ower ry op , ce e lla ns w Fo r, s un tab ith de r Jo les hn Wo Bre od die Joh wer ss of n W y reud Wo oo op de nly od d’s ens thr no & So w ee ns son run s, u by Br nd Ou ewer er na (be tput y flo me er cap ate cas da a c ks ity s p -2 50L listed ublic vo as com At l. e 10 0 pa a) bre cent pe 0 ho ny we enn r w gsh ry ial eek ea wi ds ns exhib 4a itio Gl wa n ob rds in lea al for Mel ds Fin to a be bou su ncia er rne rge l C , Co in risi un s s du mpa em trik e t ny plo es oi ym Me mp ente en lbo act rs v t urn of olu glo nta e, ba r l fi y ad na m nc ini ial s cri tratio sis n

1/

187

186

1

1900

1860

Co

Chronological Matrix

The chronological matrix is a crucial tool in understanding relationships between time periods of the site’s industrial history. For this test site it was clear that, in comparison to the Hustlers site, there were a greater number of distinct separate periods of industry on the site, and the time period of industrial occupation of the site was greater in total length than the other, spanning up until 1995.

physical changes through eras detailed on following pages


Joins opposite page

131

2000

1950

/ 201 3

/

201 1/

199 5

/

2/

6/

198 4

196

195

4/

/

/

‘Co bre lone wi l Ba ng l at leng sit e u er ’ b nd uys er ‘Ba brew Ca r lle bre lton ng ery a we & er n & d be ry Un Co sit ite .’ n gins e, a d B am nd rew e op e era ries t b et u Bre he y th sit for wer eu e CU y si nti t Bb eb l1 rew ein 995 ing g us op ed era as Sit tio a co ns kn e con op ow ve er a n a rte ge d s ‘Y i n ork to sh a m ire a Ma ltho Co ltin use gs’ , th for ncret en ba e si rle lo y s co tor mp ag l e ex e rec ted 187 0 wa s c y f him or sec ney on stac db k arl dem ey roa olish Ma sti ed int lt pr ng t o s od kil o ma tor uc n ke ag tion es ite ceas for es eq at s uip ite Sit es me , co old nt nve for rte d de ve lop me nt Ne for w re me sid d b en y S tial MA de Pro velo jec pme ts. nt pla VC ns pla AT o At ns a rder s cu nd rre iss City nt, ue wo bu of Ya rks ildi rra ha ng p to a ve be ermi ppro gu ve n. t.

/

30

195

c19

191 0

190 7


2

Co

Site configurations through eras

This diagram details the major separate physical site configurations throughout the site’s industrial era of occupation. It was important to record these physical differences throughout the eras of the site, as these changes influence the way that the site’s history is viewed, and influence knowledge about how the site’s future configurations compare to these historical iterations.

1861 y er Brew Site Condition:

Scattered small buildings, small informal brewing operation

1877 y er Brew Site Condition:

More formalised, advanced brewing operation with gravity fed tower system and large boiler. 132


1936 rage e p o Co Site Condition:

Site still operating with same major buildings but re-purposed inside to operate as a cooperage, maintaining and building oak casks.

1962 gs Maltin Site Condition:

Site re-purposed again as a maltings, with less building density and addition of silos & drum rooms for germinating barley

2014 g in Hous Site Condition:

Site cleared and re-developed for high-density residential apartment living. Limited open space areas and only buildings from 1877 retained.

133


n Space Context Plan 3

Co

Open Space Analysis

owing site with surrounding open spaces

In order to understand the nature of other areas of open space located in and around Collingwood where the site is situated, areas of open space were mapped and analysed as to their typology. These typologies were notated as formal parks or gardens, sports fields, and informal open space.

Sports Fields

Informal Open Space

N.T.S 134

M K 1 Y

R

SITE DIS TAN CE BO UN DA

SITE DISTAN CE B OUN DAR Y

2K M

Formal Parks / Gardens

Informal Open Space

Sports Fields

S

Joins opposite page

Formal Parks / Gardens


al Open Space

Joins opposite page

135


Design Drivers & Concepts from Analysis Lenses: From all the lensed analysis work completed to this point, the following shows all of the design drivers emerging from the analysis, and these, as a set formed an initial framework for design interventions, with different drivers influencing each design intervention to lesser and greater levels. After this point, additional analysis resulted in others being added, but these three entail the initial design drivers present in the project.

RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT: Wooden interlocking slat type construction method to be utilised for the construction of furniture and installation devices within any future landscape design for the site.

RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT: Gravity fed vertical processes to feature in the operation of future site design interventions. This could be utilised for water filtration for example.

RESULTING SITE OPERATION CONCEPT: Fermentation bubble patternation derived from brewing experiment process to be utilised as a formal design driver and as a tool for the division of space on site.

136


ESQUISSE #1 The initial design esquisse for this project centered around the concept that two factors, gravity and water, have been the key aspects designed for within the site historically. Gravity was designed for (or was exaggerated) within the site historically through the erection of the polychromatic brick brewing tower in 1877, allowing materials to be processed from the top floor down through each floor to the ground. The other factor, water, was key to the site through the sinking of a well on site to extract large volumes of fresh water for use in the brewing process. Water is the largest volume ingredient in that particular industrial process. The design concept that was adopted in this esquisse was to contemporise the employment of gravity + water within the site through the use of these elements to filter and allow re-use of grey water from the residences located on upper floors of the re-developed site’s apartments. A series of filtration boxes affixed to the window-sills of each floor, and connected to each other via piping, meant that grey-water could be treated using filtration plants and then stored for re-use irrigating the productive community garden planter units at ground level. Analysis Influence Compound:

2

Pr

3

Pr

137


Waterloo Street Site Elevation This elevation, looking at the site and cut along Waterloo Street, shows the configuration and locations of the grey water filtration network, designed to filter the grey water from higher storey apartments within the new residential development of the site.

Elevation Detail (following spread) Elevation - 1:200 138

Joins opposite page

This concept was the that the filtration modules would bolt on to the facades at the locations of each window’s existing window sills, thus becoming in effect, productive window boxes that offer more than just aesthetic ennhancement for the interior of the apartments.


Robert Stre

Ped. R.O.W

Easement

Wellington Street

et

Waterloo Ro ad

Site Plan - 1:500

Joins opposite page 139


Elevation Detail

Joins opposite page

After being filtered through the window-box units via connecting drainage pipes, the now-treated water can then be utilised at ground level along the foot path for the irrigation of raised planting beds for community garden & on-site restaurant / micro-brewery usage.

Elevation Detail 1:50 140


Joins opposite page

141


Filtration Unit Design This exploded axonometric drawing demonstrates the basic configuration of a window-box filtration unit. The top layer contains free-draining soil / sand with bio-filtration plants contained in it (as detailed on opposing page). Then there is a fine gravel layer which again aids in removal of fine particulate matter from the water, and finally the water flows out through the bottom pipe and on to the next box, where the process is repeated.

Water entry

Soil Layer

Fine Gravel Layer

Planter box

Wat er

Exploded Axonometric Drawing

142

exit


ESQUISSE CONCLUSIONS:

Overall, whilst engaging with the gravity-feeding theme of the brewery’s operations system, this esquisse was very one dimensional in its connection with the site’s history, and in future design exercises it became a goal to make multiple connections with the site history through design outcomes.

Plant Palette: Lower Floors

Plant Palette: Upper Floors

Dichondra repens

Dianella tasmanica

Scleranthus biflorus

Lomandra longifolia

Veronica derwentiana

143


144


FURTHER ANALYSIS

145


Sun Studies This series of diagrammes charts the areas of the site that are subjected to full sunlight, at 1pm & 5pm, on the winter solstice (June 21) and in the middle of summer (Jan 21). This analysis helped immeasurably with the positioning of design interventions within the site.

For example, it was clear that a design which allowed for congregation and relaxation spaces which had winter sunlight in the middle of the day, but also allowed areas which were sheltered from the harsh mid-day sun in summer, was very important.

Sun-Areas

January 2121 @ 13:00 13:00 January June 21 17:00 Scale 1:500

Sun-Areas

June 2121 @13:00 13:00 June 17:00 Scale 1:500 146


Sun-Areas

January 2121 @ 17:00 17:00 January June 21 17:00 Scale 1:500

Sun-Areas

June 21 @ 17:00 147


Access Points Study In order to be able to design efficiently on the site it was important to understand where the points of access would exist within the new residential development of the site. This included pedestrian, vehicular and street to site access points.

LEGEND

s (Pedestrian)

Building Access (Pedestrian) Building Access (Vehicular)

ACCESS PLAN 1-500 148

Building Access (Vehicular) Site Access from Street

Site Access from Street


ESQUISSE #2. The concept surrounding the second design esquisse for the Yorkshire Brewery site was concerned mainly with applying a number of the design drivers / concepts which had been identified through the historical and site analysis techniques to a masterplan type design outcome. This was in order to establish how well the current set of design drivers could operate in relation to design for a set of open spaces accompanying a medium / high density residential development. Over the course of this chapter different aspects of the design outcomes proposed in this esquisse will be displayed and explained, as well as some comments regarding the positives and negatives of certain aspects of the design proposition. Analysis Influence Compound: 1

Ge 2

Pr

3

Pr

149


Fermentation Bubble Tracings

These tracings, and the subsequent distorted version (bottom), were drawn from imagery of the bubbles created during the fermentation stage when I experimented with brewing actual beer as part of the research on the brewery.

Original bubble tracing from brewing experiment

Distorted to increase bubble density in sun-light areas 150

They form the organisational structure for the open spaces on the site, the non distorted version acting as a network for the lighting system, and the distorted version acting a space division tool for the material surfaces on the gorund plane.


B.Y.O Lighting System The ‘BYO’ lighting system concept consists of a suspended catenary lighting system that covers the whole site area. This system consists of a stainless steel guide-wire network, with LED linear cluster lights suspended from the ends of wires hung from node points within the network.

The difference between this system and others is that the light shades for each lighting instance are made up of recycled beer bottles donated by local residents of the apartment complex and immediate surrounding community. They bring along a bottle each, choose a light node & can insert the shade of the lighting cluster with the help of a fliction-fit rubber washer to hold the bottle in place.

Distance below catenary wire structure determined by elevational interpretation of bubble design encompassing site High- tensile stainless steel wire with insulated core for electricity provision

varies

Rubber friction-fit stopper to secure bottle to wire without additional fixings

Bright White L.E.D Cluster light located at end of wire provides illumination of bottles at night Lighting units can be fitted with bottles of any colour, resulting in amber, green and clear lights across the site

151


Stave Construction Techniques

From the analysis work on the cooperage era of the site’s industrial occupation, the wooden stave construction method for barrel-making has here been re-imagined for the construction of a series of furniture and flooring typologies that allow for different interactions and programmes to be catered for.

Each configuration’s information panel contains information about which sizes of stave unit are employed in its design, a section of the module, and a view depicting the look of the completed module and its respective aesthetic attributes.

Decking Configuration

Table & Seat Configuration

Basic Benc

Stave modules used:

Stave modules used:

Stave modules

S

S

L

L

L

Section 1:20

Section 1:20

152

Section 1:20


Basic Bench ConďŹ guration

Full Bench ConďŹ guration

Stave modules used:

Stave modules used:

S

S

L

L

Section 1:20

Section 1:20

153


Overall Design Plan This plan shows the design interventions across the open spaces of the site. The annotations highlight key elements of the design concept, and communicate which intervention concepts have been implemented in which spaces.

Winter Axo. Detail Area

SECTION AA

VIEW 01

154

Joins opposite page

Winter activity area (receives mid-winter sun)


LEGEND

Summer activity area (receives late-afternoon sun & mid-day shade)

Barley Planting Areas

Catenary Lighting System

Decking & Furniture

Hop Growing Wires & Beds

Vegetation Areas

Stainless Steel Inlay

Summer activity area (receives late-afternoon sun & mid-day Winter activity area shade) Summer Axo. mid-winter sun) Detail AreaSummer (receives activity area (receives late-afternoon sun & mid-day shade)

Summer activity area (receives late-afternoon sun & Winter activity mid-day shade)area (receives mid-winter sun)

Joins opposite page

155


Exploded Axo Views The two exploded axonometric drawings shown on this spread detail outline the different aspects contained within the design of each of the summer & and winter activity areas within the overall site design concept.

Recycled ‘BYO’ Glass Bottle Lighting System

Wooden Stave Decking Feature Planting Area Type #2: Summer: Barley Growing (Shown) Winter: Food Growing for Residents

Concrete Floor Plates 156


Recycled ‘BYO’ Glass Bottle Lighting System

Feature Planting Area Type #1: Summer: Hop Growing (shown) Winter: Food Growing for Residents

Wooden Stave Decking & Furniture

Stainless Steel Accent Stripping

Concrete Floor Plates 157


Winter Activity Area

Joins opposite page

Section & Perspective Views -

SECTION AA 1:50

VIEW 01 - Winter intensity area 158


Joins opposite page

159


160


DESIGN ASSESSMENT Title, S’title & R.Q.

1. With

Analysis of methods of design in relation to history

2. From

Positioning

3. For

Test

Site Selection

Site #2 Yorkshire

Site #1 Hustlers

Understanding Site Conditions

Historic Analysis

Site Analysis Tasks

Lens #1

Site Requirements / Constraints

Lens #2

Understanding Site Conditions

Lens #3

Resultant Design Drivers

Site Analysis Tasks

Site Requirements / Constraints

Design Phase

Esquisse #1

Esquisse #2

Historic Analysis

Lens #1

Lens #2

Lens #3

Resultant Design Drivers Resultant Design Drivers

Design Phase

Esquisse #3

Esquisse #1 Secondary Analysis

Esquisse #4

Esquisse #5

Esquisse #2

Identification of problems

Identification of problems

Assess

Re-visit Esquisse #5 REVISED

Assess Re-assess outcomes based on problems from original assessment phase Findings / Conclusions

161


Design Proposal Assessment At this juncture, it seemed appropriate to re-visit and assess the design proposals put forward for each of the two test sites. This assessment was centered around the highlighting of issues that arose in the design projects through personal introspection and also through feedback provided in the

presentation of the work. The highlighting of issues with particular aspects of each project, and subsequent proposal of corrective courses of action are documented here, and helped to guide the further design trajectories for each site as depicted in the following chapter

Project Aspect

Test Project

Test Site #1 -Hustlers REPRESENTATION OF DESIGN ONLY AS FINISHED OBJECT

Site

Hustlers Reef Reserve’s design has been to this point represented and considered only regarding the finished outputs as they would be at the completion of construction.

nda

Bou ry

Si3

Site Location - Local Scale

Test Site #2 - Yorkshire FERMENTATION BUBBLE CONCEPT

This aspect of the Yorkshire site design was very abstract and generic to any liquid bubble structure, rather than specific to the site itself

SITE BO

UNDAR Y

162


Issue Description

Proposed Action

STATIC / DYNAMIC The proposed design freezes the history of the site at one particular moment in time, and then uses this statically for design, rather than dynamically.

Further design development for Hustlers Reef Reserve focusing on: Considering ways of community participation in re-using excavated material for design interventions in the site. (Construction AS programme)

TIME Not interacting with specifics of time and change over time and how this aspect of the site’s historical conditions can influence design

Designing new interventions that use this material in a way that enables a new long term programme for the site

Future design for Yorkshire site would focus on:

PHYSICALITY Design didn’t interact with the physical historic aspects of the site, only abstract notions related to historic occupation (Beer)

Proposing new site concept responding to & referencing physical aspects of sites historic industrial occupation directly.

163


Title, S’title & R.Q.

1. With

Analysis of methods of design in relation to history

2. From

Positioning

3. For

Test

Site Selection

Site #2 Yorkshire

Site #1 Hustlers

Understanding Site Conditions

Historic Analysis

Site Analysis Tasks

Lens #1

Site Requirements / Constraints

Lens #2

Understanding Site Conditions

Lens #3

Resultant Design Drivers

Site Analysis Tasks

Site Requirements / Constraints

Design Phase

Esquisse #1

Esquisse #2

Historic Analysis

Lens #1

Lens #2

Resultant Design Drivers Resultant Design Drivers

Design Phase

Esquisse #3

Esquisse #1 Secondary Analysis

Esquisse #4

Esquisse #5

Esquisse #2

Identification of problems

Identification of problems

Assess

Re-visit Esquisse #5 REVISED

Assess Re-assess outcomes based on problems from original assessment phase Findings / Conclusions

164

Lens #3


1

Ge Si

2

1a 1b

1

Co

2

2

Pr

3

Pr Si

1

Pr

3a

Co

2e 2b

FURTHER DESIGN CONCEPT

3b

4

After the assessment phase, in order to attempt to explore and rectify some of the issues that had been highlighted, a further design esquisse for one of the test sites was chosen. The chosen site for the further design test was Site #1 Hustlers Reef Reserve. For this site, the major issue to be rectified was that whilst a series of evocative spaces had been proposed, no exploration as to how these spaces could come into being had yet been conducted. It was very important to consider the construction phase, and how this could become a way of informing the site’s transformation into the future. This approach to design is eminently appropriate as so much of the site’s industrial history is concerned with extraction of material from the earth, sequestration of this material on the site surface and how this morphs and transforms the site over time. For this design esquisse, one spatial intervention element was chosen as a test subject to unpack the logistics involved with excavation and construction to create the finished product. The spatial intervention from Esquisse 5 which was chosen was Module B (see pages 100 -101 for details). The excavated material, through use of gabion cages, is then utilised for a new landform construction. In this case, a raised linear path that inter-links with existing path networks in some places, and forms a new, contour informed path alignment in others is constructed using this gabion construction method.

This new landform is proposed to be constructed by a community group made up of adjacent residents, the Friends of Hustlers Reef Reserve group (an energetic local organisation) and select paid contractors (funded by council) for select specialised tasks such as drilling and blasting for rock zones within the excavation site. Total construction time is 19 years, with sections of the construction being available for use as they are completed. This figure is based upon a projected average attendance at working bees of 18 persons, and an average number of working bees of 8 per year. Obviously the final completion date would change based on increases or decreases in involvement & also shifts in council funding to potentially speed up the process through greater professional input. What will be evidenced through the documentation of the proposed process over the course of the following section is the generation of a landscape that is utterly unique and place-specific, provides new programmes for the site which were not catered for previously (community building project, raised path system, panoramic viewing area) & that is flexible and transformable based on a response to the shifting context and realities of the site into the future.

The structure culminates at a large viewing structure which enables 180 degree panoramic views of the surrounding Bendigo landscape and beyond. As practically the highest spot in Bendigo already, the location is ideal for a viewing structure and would be an ideal place for visitors from further afield to travel to and use as a vantage point for the greater landscape.

165


Detail plan of a portion of the total site showing the intervention module location where excavation must occur, and then the alignment and formation of the landform construction which is proposed.

VIEW 01 p. 170

VIEW 02 p. 172

SECTION SECTION AA AA

PLAN 1:500 166


Excavation Phase Diagram

This diagram depicts the basic process that will be undertaken in order to extract and process the site material that is required to be removed.

04

Extracted rock mound fed into crushers to prepare for use in small gabion cages

Rock & Soil dispensed into wheel-barrows for transportation to construction zone of site

03

Extracted soil and rock assembled into separate mounds ready for next stage

02

01

Construction Phase Diagram

05

This diagram depicts the basic stages of the *Blasting landform require who will be used construction process, where the material excavated rock cannot be b in the previous diagram is in turn utilised for the new construction.

Final layers added and soil & clay capping layer added and compacted

04

Site soil & rock extracted from the ground through digging & blasting*

01

Materials gathered from mounds in wheelbarrows

Upper gabion layers filled & site-earth infilled between gabions

03

Exterior gabion layers filled with site-rock

02

Basic site preparation (rough levelling and removal of obstacles)

167


Extraction / Construction Section Drawing Section drawing showing the material to be excavated in order to install the proposed design intervention, this material is shown in 150mm bands (same thickness as gabion cage height) so as to give some sense of scale of the material volume. The section then depicts how much each ‘layer’ of this material could build of the new proposed landform construction. This then is shown against time revealing how long each segment of the construction would take to be completed

Layer Volume:

Earthbags Required:

Wheelbarrow Loads:

0.09m³ 0.44m³ 0.86m³ 1.33m³ 1.87m³ 2.48m³ 3.08m³ 3.54m³ 4.01m³ 4.51m³ 4.96m³ 5.41m³ 5.87m³ 6.35m³ 6.86m³ 7.41m³ 7.79m³ 8.62m³ 9.22m³ 9.65m³ 10.04m³ 10.43m³ 10.43m³ 10.82m³ 11.48m³ 13.38m³ 16.94m³ 16.95m³ 16.83m³ 16.79m³ 16.70m³ 16.59m³ 16.48m³ 16.36m³ 16.23m³ 16.10m³ 15.90m³ 15.83m³ 7.66m³

2 bags 10 bags 19 bags 30 bags 42 bags 55 bags 68 bags 79 bags 89 bags 100 bags 110 bags 120 bags 130 bags 141 bags 152 bags 165 bags 173 bags 192 bags 205 bags 214 bags 223 bags 232 bags 232 bags 240 bags 255 bags 297 bags 376 bags 377 bags 374 bags 373 bags 371 bags 369 bags 366 bags 364 bags 361 bags 358 bags 353 bags 352 bags 170 bags

1.38 loads 6.77 loads 13.23 loads 20.46 loads 28.77 loads 38.15 loads 47.38 loads 54.46 loads 61.69 loads 69.38 loads 76.31 loads 83.23 loads 90.31 loads 97.69 loads 105.54 loads 114 loads 119.85 loads 132.62 loads 141.85 loads 148.85 loads 154.46 loads 160.46 loads 166.46 loads 176.62 loads 205.85 loads 260.62 loads 260.77 loads 258.92 loads 258.31 loads 256.92 loads 255.23 loads 253.54 loads 251.69 loads 249.69 loads 247.69 loads 244.62 loads 243.54 loads 241.38 loads 117.85 loads

*Figures *Figures based based on on 8 working working bees bees

Segmental Construction Time (Days)

Joins opposite page

+19yr*

Overburden - to be restored in-situ at end of construction phase

per per year, year, with with 18 people people participating participating

SECTION AA 1:400 168

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0


gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

gs

+4 .5 yr

+6 .7 yr

+19yr* Segmental Construction Time (Days)

*Figures *Figures based based on on 8 working working bees bees

per per year, year, with with 18 people people participating participating

+ 0y r

gs

+1 .2 yr

gs

SECTION DETAIL 1:200

+4 .5 yr

gs

1.38 loads 6.77 loads 13.23 loads 20.46 loads 28.77 loads 38.15 loads 47.38 loads 54.46 loads 61.69 loads 69.38 loads 76.31 loads 83.23 loads 90.31 loads 97.69 loads 105.54 loads 114 loads 119.85 loads 132.62 loads 141.85 loads 148.85 loads 154.46 loads 160.46 loads 166.46 loads 176.62 loads 205.85 loads 260.62 loads 260.77 loads 258.92 loads 258.31 loads 256.92 loads 255.23 loads 253.54 loads 251.69 loads 249.69 loads 247.69 loads 244.62 loads 243.54 loads 241.38 loads 117.85 loads

+6 .7 yr

gs

Wheelbarrow Loads:

+19yr*

gs

per per year, year, with with 18 people people participating participating

Joins opposite page

gs

Segmental Construction Time (Days)

s :

*Figures *Figures based based on on 8 working working bees bees

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

169


Perspective view of viewing structure, depicting the form of the structure and also an idea of the panoramic viewing opportunity offered by the site in this location

170


171


172


Perspective view of raised path in location where it morphs to allow the unrestricted growth of an existing tree. This is one of the benefits of a modular, flexible construction technique such as the gabion method.

173


Title, S’title & R.Q.

1. With

Analysis of methods of design in relation to history

2. From

Positioning

3. For

Test

Site Selection

Site #2 Yorkshire

Site #1 Hustlers

Understanding Site Conditions

Historic Analysis

Site Analysis Tasks

Lens #1

Site Requirements / Constraints

Lens #2

Understanding Site Conditions

Lens #3

Site Analysis Tasks

Resultant Design Drivers

Site Requirements / Constraints

Design Phase

Esquisse #1

Esquisse #2

Historic Analysis

Lens #1

Lens #2

Resultant Design Drivers Resultant Design Drivers

Design Phase

Esquisse #3

Esquisse #1 Secondary Analysis

Esquisse #4

Esquisse #5

Esquisse #2

Identification of problems

Identification of problems

Assess

Re-visit Esquisse #5 REVISED

Assess Re-assess outcomes based on problems from original assessment phase

174

Findings / Conclusions

Lens #3


CONCLUSION

The Generating Remnants project has generated a number of interesting and valuable outcomes that are directly applicable to myself as a designer, and to many other designers undertaking projects on sites where whose history is an important feature (I would argue that this encompasses almost all sites). One of the key findings to emerge from the research is that the approach employed in this project is particularly successful when applied to certain sites, whilst on others it can present significant problems in terms of generating sufficient generational material to achieve an appropriate outcome. Through the undertaking of design exercises, a reflection upon the initial outcomes of these, and the subsequent re-design based on drawbacks of the original proposals, it has been demonstrated that one particular kind of historical context is far more spatially and functionally generative than the other context engaged with in the research. The first test site, Hustlers Reef Reserve in Bendigo, due to its inherently spatial history operating as a large scale industrial mining site, was demonstrated to be especially generative in terms of design outcomes, with no less than 7 distinct design drivers being generated by the conclusion of the initial lensed analysis stage. This transferred into 5 distinct design esquisses, followed by a further development of aspects of the fifth esquisse to constitute a sixth design iteration for the site. By contrast, the history of the Yorkshire site (the second test site) being primarily involved with the brewing industry, presented a particularly difficult historical background to act as a generator for design. Whilst its history possessed some interesting technical aspects, the lack of interaction with the ground plane, coupled with the site’s heavy reliance on buildings and structures for the functioning of its industrial process rather than the land-based processes of mining, made it extremely hard to design for without resorting to abstract and notional readings of aspects of the historical occupations of the site.

This discovery within the research has led to the realisation that the method of designing in relation to a site’s history presented in the Generating Remnants project is applicable to particular sites more than others, so it is fair to say that a different approach should be taken when designing on sites that do not possess a history which is inherently spatial. The kinds of analysis tasks which were undertaken in the project were clearly more suited to extracting interesting elements from the Hustlers site’s history, than the Yorkshire site. It could be suggested that the substitution of different analysis tasks within the existing lenses, or a changing of the lenses altogether, could be an effective method for the alleviation of some of the issues which plagued the design process on the Yorkshire site, however this has not been yet tested as it was beyond the timeconstraints of the current research project. On a different note, the last design esquisse for the Hustlers Reef Reserve site, involving accretive longterm landform construction demonstrates that the lensed analysis approach to designing in relation to history can generate design outcomes for a site which respond to that site’s lineage in a way that is not simply mimetic or translatory, but transformative instead. This method allows one to generate something that is entirely new to the site, but to do so in a way that is of history, and sympathetic to its particular mechanics. This aspect of the project demonstrates clearly that the design approach outlined throughout this document, when applied to a site with the right type of historical context, can generate results which are unique, site-specific, historically sensitive, but also new and propositional towards what the site could become in the future. It is the simultaneous fulfilling of these criteria through one design method which was the overall ambition of the Generating Remnants project, and in the case of Hustlers Reef Reserve, it is my opinion that this ambition has been achieved.

175


REFERENCES Historical & Current Site Information:

Image References:

Test Site #1: Lee Andrews & Assoc. Heritage Consulting 2012, ‘Hustlers Reef Reserve: Conservation Management Plan’

Figure 1. Whitelaw H.S. 1913, ‘ Plan: Great Extended

Test Site #2: Lovell Chen Architects & Heritage Consultants 2011, ‘Former Yorkshire Brewery 1-21 Robert Street Collingwood Conservation Management Plan’

Figure 2. Whitelaw H.S. 1913, ‘ Plan: Great Extended

Site Information Page on Yarra Council website at: http:// www.yarracity.vic.gov.au/Planning--Building/Majordevelopments/Former-Yorkshire-Brewery-site-1-21-RobertSt-Collingwood/

Figure 3. ‘Assorted scenes of operations at the Great Ex-

Tract Consultants 2011, ‘Yorkshire Brewery: Town Planning Landscape Design Report’

Figure 4. Internet Sourced Image at: http://farm5.static-

Historical Mining Information: Davey C.J. 1996, ‘The Origins of Victorian Mining Technology, 1851 - 1900’, The Artefact - Volume 19 P. 52 - 62 Web page, Viewed 7th June 2013: ‘Central Deborah Mine Information Bendigo’, http://www.central-deborah.com/ index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=46&Itemid=54 Darling, P. 2011, ‘SME Mining Engineering Handbook’ Kinglsey, T.k. 2006,‘Working in a gold mine, going down down, down’, ABC Central Victoria website, 23 May 2006 Historical Gold Price Information: Internet Sourced document at: www.nma.org/pdf/gold/his_gold_prices.pdf

Historical Brewing Information: Rodgers-Wilson, M. 2004 ‘Brewing Crafts - A handbook for Spirit, Beer & Winemaking’ Pearson, L. 2010 ‘Strategy for the Historic Industrial Environment - The Brewing Industry’ Web Reference: http://www.englandandenglishhistory. com/a-history-of-english-ale

176

Hustler’s Mine, Hustler’s line of reefs, Bendigo’. Geological Survey of Victoria: Bulletin No. 33, in Minerals Archive, Ref. DRS 554.45 - AUTHOR EDITED VERSION Hustler’s Mine, Hustler’s line of reefs, Bendigo’. Geological Survey of Victoria: Bulletin No. 33, in Minerals Archive, Ref. DRS 554.45 - ORIGINAL VERSION

tended Hustlers Mine’, Australiasian Sketcher 17 May 1873, Page 21, Reproduced in Lee Andrews & Assoc. 2012, p. 190-193 flickr.com/4009/4574259082_ff48ddfdcd_s.jpg

Figure 5. Internet Sourced Image at: http://www.

rma-themedattractions.co.uk/wp-content/gallery/show-lighting/jorvik-glass-floor-website-ready.jpg

Figure 6. Unknown Author, unknown date ‘Plan of Gt.

Extended Hustlers Mine Shafts & Crosscuts’, in Department of Energy & Primary Industry Library: Vertical File, Plan Ref. no. 307.2

Figure 7. ‘Miners Driving Along a Reef at the Great

Extended Hustlers Mine’ after c. 1868, Reproduced in Lee Andrews & Assoc. Heritage Consulting 2012, Page 189

Figure 8. Internet Sourced Image: Museum Victoria at http://museumvictoria.com.au/collections/items/770825/ negative-hustlers-hill- bendigo-victoria-1890

Figure 9. Internet Sourced Image at: http://www.bendigoweekly.com.au/?cat=62&paged=2

Figure 10. Caire, N., 1875, Photograph sourced at:

State Library of Victoria, Accession No: H32513/43; Image No: mp000424]

Figure 11. Caire N, 1875 ‘Photograph of Hustler’s Line of Reef’, looking south from Redan (Comet) Hill, 1875

Figure 12. Internet Sourced Image at State Library of

Victoria: http://digital.slv.vic.gov.au/view/action/singleViewer. do?dvs=1382010631047~795&locale=en_US&metadata_ object_ratio=10&show_metadata=true&preferred_usage_ type=VIEW_MAIN&frameId=1&usePid1=true&usePid2=true


Tristan Andrews DRC