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RE_CALIBRATE M LA - DESIGN RESEARCH CATALOGUE


M L A - DESIGN RESEARCH CATALOGUE »» The systematic series of actions

during coal extraction.

»» The marks left by industrial

consumption of landscapes and ecologies.

» »How can the processes behind industrial scarification be tweaked to accelerate its eventual RE ...NEWAL?

»»

»» The fine-tuning or adjustments

made to a complex system.

KEY TERMS R e - to d o s o m ethi ng agai n Ec o l o gi cal Su c c es s i o n - the p ro c e s s o f c hange i n s p eci es s tr uc tu r e o f a n e c o lo g ic a l c o m m uni ty. T hi s i s i n r ef er enc e t o t h e in it ia l c o l o ni s ati o n o f s p ac e. Ec o l o gi cal P r o gr es s i o n - T h e e x p a n s io n a n d d i ver s i f i cati o n o f fl o r a and fau n a w it h in a n eco l o gi c al c o m m uni ty. Sys tem s - a s et o f i nter acti ng o r i n t e rde p e n de n t c o m p o nents fo r m i ng an i ntegr a t e d w h o le . Cycl es - a s et o r s er i es o f ac t io n s t h a t a re regu l ar l y r ep eated i n th e s am e o r de r.

A r t if ic ia l - ma de o r p ro du c e d b y h u ma n b e in gs ra t h e r t h a n o c c u r rin g n a t u r a lly, e s p e c ia lly as a c o p y o f s o me t h in g n a t u r a l. I n t h is c a se a r t if ic ia l re f e rs t o a n e c o lo g y t h a t w o u ld w it h o u t h u ma n in t e r v e n t io n n e v e r o c c u r. E c o lo g y - t h e re la t io n s o f o r g a n is ms t o o n e a n o t h e r a n d t o t h e ir p h y s ic a l s u rro u n din g s . E me r g e n c e - c o mp le x s y s t e ms a n d p a t t e rns t h a t a ris e o u t o f a mu lt ip lic it y o f r e la t iv e ly s imp le in t e ra c t io n s . I n du s t ria l B ro w n f ie lds - A p ie c e o f in du s t rial o r c o mme r c ia l p ro p e rt y t h a t is a b a n do n e d o r u n de ru s e d a n d o f t e n e n v ir o n me n t a ll y c o n t a min a t e d.

P r o ces s es - “A s er i es o f ac ti o n s , c h a n g e s , o r fu ncti o ns b r i ngi ng ab o ut a re s u lt ”. I n t h is c as e p r o c es s es r efer to th e s erie s o f a c t io n s uti l i s ed i n th e extr acti o n o f c o al .

A R TI F I C I A L E C O LO GI E S

YEA R 1 4 0 - EX T ER NA L VI E W OF E COLOGIC AL D ISTIN C TION


» »RECLA M AT I ON - is the p r o c es s o f r es to r i ng

a n a rea of land to a mo r e p r o d uc ti ve s tate. Return ing di sturbe d land to i t’ s f o r m er o r o ther pro ductive use s.

» »REST OR AT I ON - “… A p r o ces s i n w hi ch a

d am ag e d re source i s renew ed . Bi o l o gi c al l y. St ruct ural l y. Functi ona l l y.” JOHN J. BER G ER . Res t o rati on focuse s on th e ec o l o gi cal h eal th f o r huum ans, wil dli fe , and p l ant c o m m uni ti es .

» »REME D I AT I ON - The r em o val o f p o l l u ti o n o r

co n t a minants from the envi r o nm ental m ed i a s uch as soil s, groundw ater, s ed i m ent, o r s u r fac e wa ter.

CONCEPTUAL COMPONENTS

Abstract

R ethink - to think about (something) again, especially with a view to changing one’s tactics or opinions Reformulation - To change or update an existing idea or plan Restoration - The removal of pollution or contaminants from the environmental media such as soils, groundwater, sediment, or surface water Reclamation - Reclamation is the process of restoring an area of land to a more productive state. Recalibration - The fine tuning adjustment of a complex system. Renewal - To start over

or

The design research operates through six key conceptual components that frame an approach to designing for post-industrial landscape: Rethink, Reformulation, Restoration, Reclamation, Recalibration and Renewal. The proposal describes the 140 year life-cycle of progressive industrial programs, the capacity for interaction and evolution over time in the context of the Yallourn mine: their interaction and evolution over time. The design research project results in an array of productive ecologies demonstrated through the six key conceptual components of the research. These concepts are defined by words with the prefix re. This is indicative of the potentials of adaptation and reconsideration of existing conditions. The Re-words act as different modes of the approach to suggest methods for simplifying the complexities of the landscape, yet simultaneously provide feedback to one another. The flexible and cyclical nature of the proposal allows for a simultaneous reciprocal exchange between formal elements, the site and its greater context focussing on ecological succession, progression and diversification.


201 3 - EX I ST I N G I N T E RNA L E COLOGY

Current industrial practices are impacting landscapes at an unprecedented rate. The research investigates the reformulation of wasteful and inefficient extractive systems to address the rehabilitation practices within the industry. The environmental impacts of the power industry are now being registered globally as well as locally. Mining, in reality, will continue as long as it is economically viable. However, through rigorous analysis of and alterations to a site and its processes, the future of coal fields can be addressed as a pre-emptive and pro-active engagement with site conditions, systems and contexts.

HIGH SOI L SA L I NI T Y


A C I DI C S O I L

IRON SULP HI D E WAT ER B OD I ES


RETHINK

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

200M

REFORMULATE

02

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

400M

1000M

EASTFIELD EXTENSION

MARYVALE FIELD EXTENSION

EXTERNAL HYDROLOGY

YEA R 1 4 0 - SI T E P LAN 6

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL » »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

VEHICLE ACCESS

AGRICULTURE

BUFFER EXTENSION

PEDESTRIAN ACCESS

EXISTING ECOLOGIES

FORESTRY

7


The first step towards the remediation of our environment is to rethink current processes. This research aims to test how through design we can address inherent issues within industrial Brownfields. The Latrobe Valley is Victoria’s power production hub containing 33 billion tonnes of the world’s retrievable brown coal deposits. The proposal investigates the existing systems of the Yallourn mine and explores the potentia l of adjustments to those systems to create opportunities for vast change within the indu strial landscape. The project is deployed through the existing Eastfield extension and proposed Maryvale-Field extensions of the mine as a demonstration site of an approach for the future of industrial brownfield sites. This research intends to alter the existing systems of coal mine rehabilitation to ultimately shift the identity of primary industries. This is achieved initially through manipulated geological layers acting as the catalys t for the evolution of artificial ecologies and consequential economic and programmatic diversification.

YEA R 6 0 - I NT ER N A L VI E W OF E COLOGIC AL D ISTIN C TION


B UF F E R E XTE N S I O N F I LTR ATI O N E XT E N S I O N


Y E AR 1 40 - I N TER N A L E C O LOG IES


The design deploys a repetitive linear form, produced by the Recalibration of on-site machinery, to act as the structural base for ecological evolution with soil as the catalyst. New ground is distributed in the same form to test and reflect the variations in ecology that emerge from changes in environments ov er time. This creates a series of distinct ecologies in close proximity to one another allowing each linear strip to reflect the environment during the time of its creation. Each linear strip of recycled environmental media signifies a period of coal extraction. It acts as a record of the environmental context during the establishment periods to tests the designs response to ecological evolution and environmental emergence.


01

Rethink

02

Reformulation

03

Restoration

04

Reclamation

05

Recalibration

06

Renewal

08


PA GE 1 6 - 29

PROC ES S ES C YC L ES EXT RAC T I ON S YS T EM S

PA GE 3 0 - 51

EXT RAC T I ON WH AT I S LOS T ? M ARYVAL E F I EL D R EH ABI L I TAT ED?

PA GE 5 2 - 61

S UC C ES S I ON BI O - REG I ON S E C O LO GI C A L V E GE TAT I ON C L AS S ES M I CRO - C L I M AT ES

PA GE 6 2 - 77

C ON T EXT S I N DUS TRY PROG RAM S CON S ERVAT I ON REC REAT I ON

PA GE 7 8 - 10 9

PA GE 1 10 - 1 27

PA GE 1 28 - 1 37

M AC H I N ERY DOM I N AN C E EM ERG EN C E R E H ABI L I TAT ED?

S CAL ES OF T I M E A R T I F I C I AL EC OLOGY R E F LE C T I V E REC ORD EM ERG EN C E

I N F LUE NT I AL W ORK S REF EREN C ES K EY T ERM S APPEN DI C ES


ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION

WATER COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION

ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION

SILVICULTURE

RETHINK

REFORMULATE

WATER COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION

STOCK PRODUCTION

SILVICULTURE

CROP PRODUCTION

STOCK PRODUCTION

RECREATIONAL / ECOLOGICAL RESERVE

CROP PRODUCTION

RECREATIONAL / ECOLOGICAL RESERVE

RESTORATION


ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION - is the observed process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time.

WATER COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION - Water collection and distribution refers to the harvesting of water through the mine as a catchment and the external hydrological links. - Also shown is other programs hydrological requirements

SILVICULTURE - the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values. Silviculture is a progressive and sustainably minded branch of forestry. RECLAMATION

RENEWAL RECALIBRATION

P R O JE CT C OMPONENTS

STOCK PRODUCTION - Refers essentially to agroforestry, an integrated approach of using the interactive benefits from combining trees and shrubs with livestock. Progressive industrial practices based on agro-ecology.

CROP PRODUCTION - Refers essentially to agroforestry, an integrated approach of using the interactive benefits from combining trees and shrubs with crops. Progressive industrial practices based on agro-ecology.

RECREATION / ECOLOGICAL RESERVE - Throughout the project the intention is to combine the future industries operating within the mine are reformulated to act as a demonstration site for progressive and sustainable

industries. The recreational elements of the project are centered around the ecological experiences created from the proposed programs. However, the industries utilised will operate alongside and interact with the recreational elements.


M L A - DESIGN RESEARCH CATALOGUE

_0 1 Rethink to think about (something) again, especially with a view to changing one's tactics or opinions

R e think aim s to a d d re s s v ar io u s sc ales o f t h e exist ing co nd i ti o n an d s eeks t o re cog n i se an d sim p lif y t h e lan d scap e as a co mple x inte rre l a te d s e r ies o f exc h an ges. Po w er pr o d ucti o n is a co mpl e x s ys te m . Th is r esear c h in t en d s t o a d d r e s s the m ul ti- fa ce te d i m p a ct s of t h e p o wer in d u st r y t h r o u gh r i go r o us un d er s ta nd i n g a n d a p p l ic at io n o f t h e o v er bu r den c o m po ne nts . T h e des ign u t i l i s e s fou r k ey elem en t s; p r o c esses, by- p r o d u cts , e c o lo gie s an d e n v i ron m en t s. Th e r ef o r m u lat ed elem e nts cr e ate an efficient s ys te m w h e r e ec o lo gic al t r an sf o r m at io n can o ccur as a r e s ult o f b y- p rod u ct r e-u se an d r e-ap p lic at io n . Thi s p r o v i d e s an u nde rs ta n d i n g of h ow lan dsc ap e ar c h it ec t u r al pr acti ce can approa ch p os t- i n d u s t ri al sit es an d t h eir c o n sequ e nce s o n a s eri e s of s ca l e s .

16


The importance, relevance and potential of ecologically based projects lie in contextual understanding at a series of scales and mediums. Throughout the design research there are two common threads that link the approach and begin to discuss how the drivers for design can develop over

time into tools for design development. This is where the project concept and methodology has become cyclical. Each element of the research link to others and can act as both a driver and a tool for design, development whilst simultaneously acting as criteria for evaluation.

RETHINK

01

SY ST EMS CYCL ES

P R OCES SES EX T R A CT I ON

REFORMULATE

02

R E H A B I LI TAT E D?

M A R YVA LE F I E LD

REMEDIATION

03

W H AT I S LO S T E XTR A C T I O N

BI O -R EG I ONS EVC’ S

MI CR O -CL I MAT ES SU CCES SI ON

RECLAMATION

04

I N DUS TR I E S C O N TE XT S

RECALIBRATION

05

C O N S E R VAT I O N R E C R E AT I O N

MA CHI NER Y

D OMI NA NCE EMER G ENCE I NT ER SECT

RENEWAL

06

TI M E S C A LE

A R T I F I C I A L E C O LO GY R E F LE C T I V E R E C O R D A DA P TAT I O N

17


RETHINK

02

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

+ 00 YE A R S

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

REFORMULATE

ORGANIC MATTER VERTEBRATES

ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION

GROWTH / DIVERSIFICATION

MICROBES

ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION

INVERTEBRATES WATER COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION

RECREATIONAL / ECOLOGICAL RESERVE

EXTERNAL VIEWPOINTS

EXTERNAL ACCESS ONLY 18


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

05

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

+ 20 YE A R S

04

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

PLANTING

WATER COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION SILVICULTURE

ROTATIONS SILVICULTURE

RECREATION / ECOLOGICAL RESERVE “I realised I wasn’t a radical, as much as I respect the people who chain themselves to bulldozers and actually believe that they bring around huge change. My realisation was that I wanted to bring change by engaging with companies, with governments and seeing whether or not within our current system we could move it towards a more sustainable world” Dorjee Sun, The Burning Season

STOCK PRODUCTION

WATER

INTERNALCIRCULATION

19


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

CONTEXT - ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE

COAL MINE GOLD MINE MINERAL SANDS / CLAY

» »G I P P S L A N D P L A I N S

» »O T WAY P LAI NS » »VI C T OR I AN GO LD FI E LD S » »V ICTO R I AN VOLC ANI C P LAI N » »DUN DA S TA B L E-LAND S

BENDIGO

FOSTERVILLE

YALLOURN

20

DOUGLAS

COSTERFIELD

LOY YANG

GOLD MINES

COAL MINES

MADDINGLEY

STAWELL

MORWELL

MINERAL SANDS

ANGLESEA

AXEDALE

LAL LAL

BALLARAT


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

M I N I N G LI C E N S E C UR R E N T E XT E N T E XI S TI N G O B DUM P E A S TF I E LD P I V O T P O I N T M A R YVA LE F I E LD E A S TF I E LD E XT E N S I O N F UT UR E E A S T F I E LD DUM P

21


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

MES SY LI NEAR SYSTEM CO2 VISUAL

ENVIRONMENTAL OUTPUT PHYSICAL OUTPUT NITROGEN HYDROCHLORIC POLYCHLORINATED HEAT CO2 NOISE

NOISE

CO2

DESTINATION

NOISE CO2

HEAVY METALS OIL RESIDUE VISUAL

VISUAL

VISUAL

HEATED H2O ASH VISUAL

T h e fir s t s t e p tow a rd s ad dr essin g m ul ti- layer e d g l ob a l e nv ir o n m en t al co n cer ns i s to re t h in k c u r r en t in d us trial s ys t e ms . S in c e the in d us trial re v ol u ti on t h e ext en t o f lan d used for ind u s try a n d co n sequ en t ial e n vironme n ta l d e g ra d a t io n h av e co n tinue d to e x p a n d . Th is r esu lt s in dra matic s h i fts i n t h e lan d sc ap e, s u c h a s d e s e rt i fi ca ti on wh ic h is creating 8 - 1 0 t on n e s of er o d ed so il pe r pe rs on p e r ye a r ( A lan S av o r y, 2 013). Coa l m i n i n g i s o n e o f t h e

22

m aj o r in du s tr i al co ntr i b uto r s whi ch im p ac t s on e xi s ti ng e co l o gi e s , h y dr o lo gy, env i r o nm e nt and h ab i tat. Ac k n o wled ging th at m i ni ng wi l l c o n t in u e as l o ng i t i s e co no m i cal l y v iable; t h is r e s e ar ch e xp l o r e s and r esp o n ds t o th e co nti nu i ng s e r i e s o f lin ear sy st ems , cycl e s and pr o ce s s e s . Th e design re s p o nd s to the e xi s ti ng c o n d it io n s and s ys te m s to o ffe r an alt er n at iv e wh e r e the h i s to r i cal o p er at io n s r e m ai n appar e nt thr o ugh t h e f o r m al and e xpe r i e nti al q ual i ti e s .


04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

RENEWAL

05

06

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

CO2

CO2 NOISE

NOISE

CO2

ORIGIN

RECLAMATION

HEAVY METALS OIL RESIDUE

SOIL ROCK PEAT

TREES ORGANIC MATTER

SI TE SYSTEMS DIAGRAM

E XI STI NG SI TE CONDITIONS

23


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

CHEMICALS

W AT ER

EMPLOYMENT POP : 74,270

THE LATROBE VALLEY INDUSTRIES

CO2

230 0.3%

SEDIMENTS SALINITY

CO2 HEAT

NOISE

FO

O

D

CO2

HEAT ISLAND CO2

SCRAP MEATS

592 0.8%

SUPERMARKET

HEAVY METALS OIL RESIDUE

NOISE

CO2

CO2

HEAT

FOOD WASTE PACKAGING

DESTINATION

HEAVY METALS

PESTICIDES

OIL RESIDUE

NITROGEN HYDROCHLORIC POLYCHLORINATE HEAT

CO

G Y

2

NOISE

CO2

ER

NOISE

EN

NOISE CO2

3,121 4.2%

HEAVY METALS OIL RESIDUE

VISUAL

HEATED H2O

VISUAL

VISUAL

ASH

ST

RY

VISUAL

GASES CHEMICALS

FO RE

HEAT ISLAND

NOISE CO2

1,141 1.5% HEAVY METALS OIL RESIDUE

VISUAL

VISUAL

OFF-CUTS

EL

S

OFF-CUTS

FU

GASES

FO SS

IL

GAS NAPTHA NOISE CO2

GASOLINE KEROSENE

600 0.8%

DEISEL LUBRICATING RESIDUAL HEAVY METALS OIL RESIDUE

24

NOISE CO2


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

05

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

06 CO2

B re a king d ow n com p lex in du st r ial l ands ca p e s ys t e ms on a lar ge sc ale to unders t a n d th e i r c o m p o n en t s, s tages , a n d comm on o u t p u t s.

VISUAL

CO2

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

ENVIRONMENTAL OUTPUT PHYSICAL OUTPUT

LANDUSE (HECTARES)

04

RENEWAL

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

1000ha

TREES ORGANIC MATTER

CO2 HEAT

BIO GAS NITROUS OXIDE

NOISE

METHANE

CO

2

CO2

MANURE PHOSPHATES

SCRAP MEATS

NITRATES

HEAVY METALS

1000ha

WATER CONTAMINATION

OIL RESIDUE

NOISE

2

CO2

HEAT

TREES PESTICIDES HEAVY METALS

ES

ORGANIC MATTER

EUTROPHICATION

OIL RESIDUE

REDUCED FERTILITY

ORIGIN

LAND DEGRADATION

CO2

CO2 NOISE

NOISE CO2

NOISE

CO2

1000ha

HEAVY METALS

AVY METALS

OIL RESIDUE

OIL RESIDUE SOIL

TREES

ROCK

ORGANIC MATTER

PEAT

CO2

NOISE CO2

1000ha

HEAVY METALS OIL RESIDUE TREES

VISUAL

ORGANIC MATTER

OFF-CUTS

CO2

NOISE CO2

1000ha

HEAVY METALS OIL RESIDUE

TREES ORGANIC MATTER

25


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

PROCES SES OF A CHICKEN CURRY CO2 MATTER

ENVIRONMENTAL OUTPUT PHYSICAL OUTPUT

CO2

HEAT STEAM

HEAT

HEAVY METALS

SEED CAKE PESTICIDES HEAVY METAL UPTAKE

CO2

HEAVY METALS

CO2

HEAVY METALS CO2

HEAVY METALS CO2

HEAT STEAM

HUSKS BRAN STUBBLE BROKEN RICE RICE STRAW

CO2

150 days

WATER PESTICIDES REDUCED FERTILITY

HEAVY METALS CO2

HEAT STEAM

HEAVY METALS

HAND HARVESTED

HEAVY METALS

CO2

D EST INAT ION

GAS USE

HEAVY METALS CO2

HEAVY METALS

CO2

HEAVY METALS CO2

HEAVY METALS CO2

HEAVY METALS

26

CO2

HEAVY METALS

CO2

HEAVY METALS STALKS

CO2

5-6 WEEKS

HEAVY METALS CO2

HEAVY METALS

CO2

HEAVY METALS STALKS


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

04

05

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

HEAVY METAL UPTAKE

06

NOISE CO2

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

ECOLOGY DESTRUCITON NOISE CO2

CO2

HEAVY METALS STALKS

REDUCED DIVERSITY PESTICIDES

REDUCED DIVERSITY

NOISE CO2

HEAVY METALS

FERTILITY

TED

RENEWAL

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

PESTICIDES EUTROPHICATION REDUCED DIVERSITY

NOISE CO2

EVAPORATION

NOISE CO2

REDUCED DIVERSITY

REDUCED DIVERSITY

NOISE CO2

REDUCED FERTILITY

I nd us tr i al i ne ffi ci e ncy a nd w a st e d i agr am m i ng. E xp l o r ing t he ha rmful e ffe cts o f co ns u mer indust ries. B r e aki ng d o wn complexit y a nd e xp o s i ng was te fu l cycles.

ECOLOGY DESTRUCITON NOISE CO2

REDUCED FERTILITY ECOLOGY DESTRUCITON NOISE CO2

REDUCED FERTILITY

ECOLOGY DESTRUCITON NOISE CO2

ORIGIN

HEAT

REDUCED FERTILITY PESTICIDES EUTROPHICATION REDUCED DIVERSITY

REDUCED DIVERSITY

NOISE CO2

ECOLOGY DESTRUCITON NOISE CO2

ECOLOGY DESTRUCITON NOISE CO2

HEAT

PESTICIDES EUTROPHICATION REDUCED DIVERSITY

REDUCED DIVERSITY

REDUCED FERTILITY

27


RETHINK

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

REFORMULATE

02

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

THE EXISTING PROCES S O B S TO R A GE (O P E N A I R ) OVE R B UR DE N M OV E M E N T ECOLOGICAL DEST R U CT I ON

EX T R A CT I O N

FeS2

pH

NaCl

OB MIX IN G

THE E X I S T ING P RO C E S S R ES ULT

Cu rrent ind u s tri a l p roce s ses h av e d ev elo p ed in t o lin ear s ys te m s ope ra ting be t w e e n ori g i n an d d est in at io n . Th ese lin ear s ys te m s ope ra te wit h va s t q u a n t it ies o f p h y sic al an d en v ir o nm e ntal b yproducts w i th cri t i ca l , so m et im es h id den , ef f ec t s that go far be y o nd the ob vi ou s vi s u al im p ac t s o f sc ar r ed , in f er t i l e gr o und . W hi ls t the a re a s of l a n d c o n su m ed by o u r en er gy d em and s can appe a r mini m a l i n com p ar iso n t o u r ban ised lan d occu p ati o n, phy s ical a n d e n vi ron m en t al dist u r ban c es c au sed b y m i ni ng e x tend fa r b e yon d t h e bo u n dar ies o f ext r ac t io n . T he d e s i gn e x p lo re s t h e re l a t i on s h ip bet ween t h e lin ear it y o f hum an in ter ventio n a n d th e org an ic c o m p lexit y o f t h e exist ing e co l o gy. T h i s cr e a te s s p a ce s fo r bio lo gic al an d ec o lo gic al d i v e r s i ty an d contr a s t. T h i s i s ac h iev ed t h r o u gh t h e r ef o r mu l ati o n o f ove rburden m a n a g e m e nt .

28

O

2

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

04

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

OB MOVEMENT OB STO R A GE

FeS2

FeS2

pH

NaCl

OB MIXING

O B R E- S H A P I N G

NaCl

pH

» »Fu r t h e r m o v e m e n t

O

2

FeS2

IRON SULFIDE WATER BODIES

NaCl

HIGHLY SALINE SOILS

pH ACIDIC SOILS

29


M L A - DESIGN RESEARCH CATALOGUE

_0 2 Reformulat ion To change or update an existing idea or plan

T h e Ya llou rn m i n e s h ow s t h at t h e r eh abilit at io n p has e r e q ui r e s the s ite to b e re tu rn e d , n o t t o it s f o r m er st at e, b u t to a b ar e m i n imum o f a e s th e t i c d i s gu ise ( TR U en er gy Yallo u r n r e h ab i l i tati o n pl an, 2 0 1 1) . T h e e x i s t i ng p r o c ess in v o lv es r ep et it i v e s h i fti ng o f e n vironme n ta l m e d i a b e i n g r ep eat ed ly p u sh ed by machi ne r y unti l it i s no lo n g e r re cog n i s a ble as a m in e. Th e p r o p o sal pr i o r i ti s e s s oi l and ge ol og i ca l con ser v at io n in st ead o f aest h et i c d e ni al , th e product o f th e e x i s t i n g p r ac t ic es. Th is is t h e c at aly st the d e s i gn o f a n ew, a rtif i ci a l e col og y d r iv in g t h e f u t u r e h ealt h an d functi o nal i ty of degra ded s i te s .

30


RETHINK

01

SY ST EMS CYCL ES P R OCES SES

EX T R A CT I ON

REFORMULATE

02 02

R E H A B I LI TAT E D?

M A R YVA LE F I E LD

REMEDIATION

03

W H AT I S LO S T E XTR A C T I O N

BI O -R EG I ONS EVC’ S

MI CR O -CL I MAT ES SU CCES SI ON

RECLAMATION

04

I N DUS TR I E S C O N TE XT S

RECALIBRATION

05

C O N S E R VAT I O N R E C R E AT I O N

MA CHI NER Y

D OMI NA NCE EMER G ENCE I NT ER SECT

RENEWAL

06

TI M E S C A LE

A R T I F I C I A L E C O LO GY R E F LE C T I V E R E C O R D A DA P TAT I O N

31


RETHINK

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

+ 20 YE A R S

01

REFORMULATE

ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION

PRUNING

SILVICULTURE

FERTILISERS

FODDER

INTERNAL ACCESS

INTERNAL TRAILS

32


RECLAMATION

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

+ 40 YE A R S

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

WATER COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION PRUNING

RECREATION / ECOLOGICAL RESERVE

AGRICULTURAL / RECREATION

33


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

YALLOURN REHABILITATION PLAN The cur re n t l on g t e rm r eh abilit at io n p lan is c en t re d ar o u nd fl oo d ing the mi n e s w i t h w at er t o bec o m e lak es. Th i s wi l l take 80-2 5 0 years for t h i s t o o c c u r n at u r ally will p o t en t ia l l y l e av e a w ater body th a t i s h i g h l y salin e, ac id ic an d c o n t am i nate d wi th i ron s ulphide .

8 0 - 250 Y E A R S

F LOOD ING THE MINES TO BECOME LAK ES

T h e pr opo s a l e m p l oys t h e c u r r en t an d f u t u r e m in e exte ns i o ns as a te s t ca s e for s u cce s s i v e r eh abilit at io n . Th e f u t u r e e xtr acti o n of the Maryv a l e F i e l d e x t en sio n w ill lo se lay er s o f so i l , e co l o gy, ha b ita t and h u n ti n g g rou n d f o r an im als ( Yallo u r n c oal fi e l d r e al i g nment E n v i ron m e n ta l r ep o r t , 2009) . Th e design r e co gni s e s tha t thes e “l os s e s ” can be r ef o r m u lat ed in t o by- pr o d ucts ca p a ble of a d d re s s i n g t h e d egr ad at io n o f t h e pr e ce d i ng E a stfield ex t e n s i on . A l on gside t h e ec o lo gic al im p o rtance r u ns the s o cial a n d e con om i c f u n c t io n alit y o f t h e lan d. T h i s i s no t a ju stificatio n of e col og i cal dest r u c t io n . It sim p ly r ec ogni s e s ho w the a rtificial ca n p rovi d e n ew o p p o r t u n it ies f o r lo st e co l o gi e s : the i r innate h a b i t a t a n d p r o d u c t iv e qu alit ies.

YA LLO UR N, R E HA I LI TATION PL AN

YA LLO UR N, R E HA B I LI TATE D ( 1994 - 2010) 34


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

2011 REHABILI TAT ED S I T E M I N I N G LI C E N S E OV E R B UR DE N DUM P M AYR VA LE F I E LD E A S T F I E LD E XTE N S I O N C O N V E YO R P I V O T DUM P R E H A B I LI TATE D (P R E- 1 99 4) R E H A B I LI TATE D (1 99 4 - 20 10 ) R E H A B I LI TAT E D (20 11 )

SI TE P LA N - R E HA B I LITATED AREAS

YA LLO UR N, P HO TO ’S TA K E N 2013, R E HA B I LI TATE D (1994 - 2010) 35


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

02

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

HORIZON / LE VE L

EXTRACTION PROFILES

V VEG ETATIO N - O RG ANIC MAT TE R » »L IV IN G » »N OT D E C AY E D » »L E AF L IT TE R » »F OD D E R » »H ABITAT

O H O RIZ O N - O RG ANI C MAT TER » »LOOS E » »PAR TLY D E C AY E D » »H IG H OR G AN IC M AT TE R

100mm

A H O RIZ O N - S U RFACE S O I L

300mm 1000mm

» »S U R FAC E S OIL » »M IN E R AL S OIL » »H IG H E S T OR G AN IC M AT TE R » »M OS T S OIL “L IF E ”

B H O RIZ O N - S U B S O IL 750mm

» »C L AY BAS E D » »C ON TAIN S IR ON » »ALU M IN IU M » »OR G AN IC C OM P OU N D S » »IL LU V IATION L AY E R

C H O RIZ O N - PARENT LAYER » »S OLU BL E C OM P OU N D S » »L AR G E U N BR OKE N R OC KS ( G E N E R AL LY )

1200mm

R E P E ATE D M OV E M E N T

T h e exis ting p roce s s re l eases a v ar iet y o f c o n t am i nants o n al re a dy depl e te d l a n d s ca p es c o n t r ibu t in g t o t h e ac id i fi cati o n of s oils , i n cre a s e d s a l i n it y an d t h e o xid isat io n o f p yr i te w hi ch tra nsforms i n to i ro n su lp h id e. Th is r esu lt s in the s o i l be i ng dry, e rod e d a n d l if eless. D esp it e t h is, so m e ar e as o f the mine wi th t h e s e ch ar ac t er ist ic s ar e c o n sid er e d to b e “reha bilita t e d ”. T h i s p ro p o sal m o v es bey o n d t h is r ati o nal e an d explo re s h ow th e ec o lo gic al f u n c t io n alit y can b e e m ula te d, ra th e r th a n s e t t lin g f o r su p er f ic ial t ec h ni q ue s o f di sguis e . T h i s re form u l a t io n allo ws f o r a m o r e p r od u cti v e , s u st a ina ble a n d a t t ra cti v e f u t u r e.

36


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

05

RE L AT IV E R E TEN T I O N VA LU E

HIGH

HIGH

PRE MIUM

ME DIUM

LO W

RENEWAL » »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

P O S I T I V E A N D N E G AT I V E VA LU E S »»

» »De ad , d yi n g , o r al i ve th i s o r g an i c l ayer is well w o r th p r o te c ti n g an d r e -u si n g . Natu r al s eed in g an d e c o l o g i c al su c c e ssi o n e l e m e n ts. » »Sm al l an d m i d -sto r e y p l an ti n g s th at are r e m o ve d w i l l b r e akd o w n an d su p p l y n utrien ts an d o r g an i c m ate r i al s to th e ar e a i n w hich they ar e l e f t. » »Natu r al m u l c h i n g an d l e af l i tte r. » »T h i s l aye r p r o m o te s h ab i tat f o r i n ve r tebrates an d ve r te b r ate s w h i c h i s e xtr e m e l y i m portan t to e c o l o g i c al h e al th an d th e ac c e l e r ation of e c o l o g i c al su c c e ssi o n .

O rga nic ma tter

- Is matte r compose d of organic compou nds tha t ha s come from th e re mains of once -living organis m s suc h as plants and animals and th e ir waste produ c ts i n the e nvironme nt

»»

Invertebra tes

- Familiar e xample s of inve rte brate s inclu de i nsec ts, worms, clams, crabs, octopu s, snails.

» »L o o se ae r ate d so i l w i th h i g h o r g an i c m atter e vi d e n t m e an s i t sh o u l d b e r e tai n e d w here p o ssi b l e . » »B u i l d i n g b l o c ks o f e c o l o g i c al su c c e s s ion .. » »I f p o ssi b l e i t sh o u l d b e r e tai n e d to ac celerate ve g e tati o n r e i n state m e n t. » »P r o m o te s m i c r o b e s , e sse n ti al to p l ant an d so i l h e al th c r e ate s n i tr o g e n , c ar b o n , o xygen , h yd r o g e n , p h o sp h o r u s, p o tassi u m .

»»

Vertebra tes

- Ve rte brate s mak e u p abou t 4% of all de scri b ed animal spe cie s; th e re st are inve rte brate s, wh i c h lack back bone s. Re ptile s, Birds, Fish , Mamma l s a nd amph ibians are all ve rte brate s

»»

» »W i th th e h i g h e st l e ve l o f o r g an i c m at ter this l aye r i s ve r y i m p o r tan t to th e e c o l o g i c al health o f th e m i c r o -e n vi o r n m e n t. » »Mi c r o b e s e vi d e n t i n th i s l aye r. » »B r o ke n d o w n o r g an i c m ate r i al .

E cologica l Succes s ion

- Th e proce ss of ch ange in th e spe cie s stru c tur e o f a n e cological commu nity ove r time . Th e commu n i ty b eg i ns with re lative ly fe w pione e ring plants and anim a l s a nd de ve lops th rou gh incre asing comple xity u ntil i t b ec o m es stable or se lf-pe rpe tu ating as a climax communi ty

» »C l ay b ase d l aye r. T h i s i s n o t i d e al f o r reu se . » »Po te n ti al l y c o n tai n s p yr i te w h i c h i n c r e as es ac i d i ty an d sal i n i ty. » »O xyg e n ati o n sh o u l d b e avo i d e d to p r e v en t tr an sf o r m ati o n o f p yr i te s i n to i r o n su l f i d es .

» »He avy c l ay an d r o c k b ase d l aye r. » »L o w r e tan ti o n val u e d u e to th e r e l e ase of h e avy c o m p o u n d s th at ar e ac ti vate d through m o ve m e n t an d ae r ati o n . » »Po te n ti al l y c o n tai n s p yr i te s w h i c h i n c r eas es ac i d i ty an d sal i n i ty. » »R e p e ate d m o ve m e n t o f th i s l aye r sh o uld b e avo i d e d w h e r e ve r p o ssi b l e to r e str i c t o xyg e n ati o n .

06

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

»»

Microbes

» » - A microscopic organism, wh ich may be a si ng l e c el l or mu ltice llu lar organism.

FeS2

»»

»»

pH

O

2

A cidity

- Th e soil pH is a me asu re of th e acidity or ba si c i ty in soils. Soil pH is conside re d a maste r variab l e i n soils as it controls many ch e mical proce sse s tha t ta ke place . It spe cifically affe cts plant nu trie nt ava i l a b i l i ty b y controlling th e ch e mical forms of th e nu trie nt.

»»

NaCl

Py rite

- Th e mine ral pyrite , or iron pyrite , is an iron sul f i d e with th e formu la Fe S2. Th is is th e basic comp o und tha t once e xpose d to oxyge n be come s transformed i nto I r o n Su lfide

Sa linity

» »- Salinity is th e saltine ss or dissolve d salt co ntent (su ch as sodiu m ch loride , magne siu m and ca l c i um su lfate s, and bicarbonate s) of a body of water o r i n so i l .

»»

O xy gena tion

- O xyge nation is th e proce ss of dissolving ox yg en conce ntration in soil or wate r. Not always a ne g a ti v e aspe ct. Howe ve r in th e case of h orizons B and C c a n be come an e nvironme ntal conce rn for soils an d p l a nts.

»»

Movement

- It is th e re pe ate d move me nt of soils and su b so i l s i n mining th at force s th e oxyge nation of ne gative el em ents.

»» “The contaminated soil may be dealt with

bioremediation or phytoremediation,which is the use of plants or other biological measures to remove, destroy or sequester hazardous substances from the soil and waste piles” (Eco restoration of a coal mine, p597) 37


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

THE MARVALE FIELD EXTENSION - WHAT IS LOST IN THE NEXT DIG

S EA

TF

IE

LD

EX

T

S EN

IO

N

553 ha

386 ha

M

38

AR

VA

LE

FI

EL

D

EX

TE

N

SI

O

N

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

04

RENEWAL

05

06

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS EA ST FI EL D EX T ENSI ON

-035

X

M A R YVA LE F I E LD E XT E N S I O N

-04

BIRD SPE C I E S

X

LOC AL EV C’ S

FLO O D I NG RI PA RI A N F LAT S Australian Magpie Gymnorhina tibicen

Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris

Grey Fantail Rhipidura fuliginosa

Silvereye Zosterops lateralis

White-eared Honeyeater Lichenostomus leucotis

Australian Magpie-lark Grallina cyanoleucav

Crimson Rosella Platycercus elegans

Grey Shrike-thrush Colluricincla harmonica

Southern Boobook Ninox novaeseelandiae

White-naped Honeyeater Melithreptus lunatus

Black-faced Cuckoo-shrike Coracina novaehollandiae

Eastern Rosella Platycercus eximius

Haliaeetus leucogaster white bellied sea eagle

Spotted Pardalote Pardalotus punctatus

White-throated Treecreeper Cormobates leucophaea

-1.0ha DA MP FO R ES T

Blackbird Turdus merula

Eastern Whipbird Psophodes olivaceus

Laughing Kookaburra Dacelo novaeguineae

Striated Thornbill Acanthiza lineata

White’s Thrush Zoothera dauma

Brown Falcon Falco berigora

Eastern Yellow Robin Eopsaltria australis

Pied Currawong Strepera graculina

Superb Fairy-wren Malurus cyaneus

Yellow-faced Honeyeater Lichenostomus chrysops

Brown Thornbill Acanthiza pusillav

Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis

Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons

Whistling Kite_Milvus sphenurus

Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus funereus

Common Bronzewing Phaps chalcoptera

Grey Butcherbird Cracticus torquatus

Rufous Whistler Pachycephala rufiventris

White-browed Scrubwren Sericornis frontalis

welcome swallow_Hirundo neoxena

- 006

X

R EP T I L E S

Delicate Skink - Lampropholis delicata

-012

X

-006

M AM M AL S

Antechinus Shrews - Antechinus agilis

European Rabbit - Oryctolagus cuniculus

X

A MP HI BI A NS

-1.8ha P L A I NS W O O D LA N D

-18.5ha

Common Froglet - Crinia signifera

D R Y FO O THI L L F O RE S T

Garden Skink - Lampropholis guichenoti

Black Wallaby - Wallabia bicolor

Gould’s Wattled Bat - Chalinolobus gouldii

Southern Bullfrog - Limnodynastes dumerilii

Lowland Copperhead - Austrelaps superbus

Chocolate Wattled Bat - Chalinolobus morio

Lesser Long-eared Bat - Nyctophilus geoffroyi

Striped Marsh Frog - Limnodynastes peroni

Metallic Skink - Niveoscincus metallicus

Common Wombat - Vombatus ursinus

Short-beaked Echidna - Tachyglossus aculeatus

Brown Tree Frog - Litoria ewingii Southern

Tiger Snake - Notechis scutatus

Common Ringtail Possum - Pseudocheirus peregrinus

Sugar Glider - Petaurus breviceps

Verreaux’s Tree Frog - Litoria verreauxi

Weasel Skink - Saproscincus mustelinus

Eastern Grey Kangaroo - Macropus giganteus

Long-Nosed Bandicoot - Perameles nasuta

Victorian Smooth Froglet - Geocrinia victoriana

-2.2ha -523

X

EUCALY PT U S S T R ZE LE C KII

39


RETHINK

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

REFORMULATE

02

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

FUTURE OVERBURDEN DUMP SITES

FOB_01

FOB_02

MINE LICENSE BOUNDARY

CURRENT MINE EXTENTS EXISTING OVERBURDEN DUMP OB DUMP PORTION MARYVALE FIELD EXTENSION EASTFIELD EXTENSION PROPOSED OVERBURDEN DUMP

40

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

RENEWAL

05

06

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

OVERBURDEN PROFILES

Future OB_01 - EASTIFELD EXTENSION

H O R I Z O N Q UA N T I T I E S

553 ha

» »V = ?

» »O = 553, 000M 3 100mm

300mm 1000mm

» »A = 1660, 000M 3 » »B = 4152, 000M 3

750mm

» »C = 6643, 000M 3 1200mm

Futue OB_02 - MARYVALE FIELD EXTENSION 386 ha

» »O = 386, 000M 3

100mm

300mm 1000mm

750mm

» »V = ?

» »A = 1159, 000M 3 » »B = 2897, 000M 3 » »C = 4636, 000M 3

1200mm

E xpl o r i ng the po te nti al mining cy cle al te r ati o ns . Ho w co u l d t he proposa l uti l i s e s e q ue nci ng as pa rt of t he r e fo r m ul ati o n. E ach m i ning ext ension co ul d b e uti l i s e d as pa rt of t he r e h ab i l i tati o n o f th e pr e c eding st a ge. 41


RETHINK

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

REFORMULATE

02

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

02:1 03:1 04:1 05:1 07:1 10:1

INDUSTRIAL WASTAGE

1.26 KM

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

MELBOURNE CBD 272ha

FOB_01

FOB_02

42

COAL : OV ER BUR DE N RATI OS


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

04

RENEWAL

05

06

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

SCALES OF SITE

Pivot Point_01 - TOWNSHIP FIELD 185 ha Highlighted axis is 12.8 hectares - equivalent to 2 x MCG stadium area » »A R E A = 6 . 9 5 h a

»»

x 2

Pivot Point_02 - TOWNSHIP FIELD 124 ha Highlighted axis is 1000 metres long - equivalent to walking for 12 minutes » »F L AT T E R R A I N » »N O R M A L H E A LT H » »AV E R A G E WA L K I N G S P E E D = 5KM PER HOUR

»»

12min

Pivot Point_03 - TOWNSHIP FIELD 94 ha Highlighted axis is 100 metres wide - It will take the average human 12-14seconds sprinting » »F L AT T E R R A I N » »AV E R A G E H E I G H T » »H E A LT H Y W E I G H T » »M I D D L E A G E D

»»

13sec

The am o u nt of overburden to b e e xtr act ed w ill ha ve i m p l i cati o ns o n t he out come o f th e pr o po s al. 43


RETHINK

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» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

REFORMULATE

02

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

EXTRACTION MODELLING R AT IOS

MODEL STAGE_01

25% R AT I O

5:1

MODEL STAGE_02

50% R AT I O

3.5:1

MODEL STAGE_03

75% R AT I O

2:1

MODEL STAGE_04

100% R AT I O

0.5:1

44

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

RENEWAL

05

06

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

25%

5:1

R ATIO

5:1

50%

T h e e x t ra c t io n m o del sh o ws h o w r ati o can b e u ti l i s e d a s a d ri ver f o r d esign o u t c o m es. In u nd e r s tand i ng th e p roce s s e s o f t h e sit e I bec am e in t er e s te d i n th e r ati o s o f coa l to ov er bu r d en . 75%

T h i s i s b a sed o n t h e am o u n t o f o v er b ur d e n m ate r i al yo u a re l e ft w it h an d t h e dif f er en t f o r m u lati o ns i t co ul d m ake .

0.5:1 R ATIO

0.5:1

100%

45


RETHINK

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

REFORMULATE

02

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

TH E TWEAKED P ROCES S V + O

E A STF I E L D E X TE N SI O N

A B C CONVEYO R PO SIT IO N

DEPOSIT CONVEYOR 01

DE PO SI T C O N V E YO R 02

T h e propo s a l w ork s a c r o ss sev er al d if f er en t sc al e s and m e diums . T h e p rop os e d c y c le o f ext r ac t io n lo o k s at t he q u al i ti e s an d chara cte ri s ti cs of th e so il h o r iz o n s p r io r t o exc avati o n and be gins to in v e s t i g a te h ow t h ese p r o c esses c o u ld be ad j u s te d to reduce fre q u e n cy a nd du r at io n o f so il h o r iz o n e xp o s ur e . T h e pr opo s e d e x tra ct io n p r o c ess dim in ish es fr e q u e ncy an d dur a ti on of e x p os u r e. Th is allo w s f o r t h e r e te nti o n o f the po s itiv e a t t ri b u te s w h ilst sim u lt an eo u sly r est r i cti ng th e ne g ative c om p ou n d s . T h is c o n c ep t io n is c o m p lime nte d b y the pre ce d e n t e x tra ct i on k n o wn as Cer r ej o n 6 Par t ( Ce r r e j o n, 2 013). T he re formu l a t i on o f t h e so il is essen t ially t h e s tr u ctur al ba se fo r th e fu tu re healt h , f u n c t io n alit y, an d eco l o gi cal e v olutio n o f t h e s i t e .

SOIL AS THE STRUCTURAL BASE FOR EVOLUTION 46

DE PO SI T C O N V E YO R 03

DE PO SI T C O N VEYO R 0 4


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

04

RENEWAL

05

06

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

MARYVALE FIELD EXTENSION

EXT RACT IO N 0 2

EXTRACTION 03

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

“Catalytic frameworks that enables a diversity of relationships to create, emerge, network, interconnect and differentiate” (Prominski, 2005, p.32).

EXT R A C TI O N 04

00 YE AR S

B + C

20 YE AR S

PROJECT_A INTERVENTION DESIGNING WITH TIME 47


RETHINK

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

REFORMULATE

02

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

LANDSCAPE ISLANDS IBA - Fürst-Pückler-Land The IBA Fürst-Pückler-Land was intended to act as a social, economic and ecological catalyst for the regeneration of the post mining region. Landscape islands works across nine different mines with 30 smaller scale project within. These projects are intended to operate under seven different categories:

“ In t er n ati o nal e B au aus s te l l ung ( I B A ) Fü r s t- P ü ckl e r- Land h as be e n acti v e i n s hap i ng th e p o s t- m i ni ng l and s cape in L u sati a ( B r and e nb ur g,E as t G e r m any) . B as e d o n I B A ’s exp er ie nce s , we hav e fo r m u l ate d te n pr i nci pl e s co nce r ni ng t h e t r eatm e nt o f po s t- m i ni ng l and s cape s . The go al i s to est ablis h a co m m o n und e r s tand i ng fo r hand l i ng po s tm in in g l and s ap e s ” ( Sch o l z , 2010, p .29)

1234567-

In du s tr i al h e r i tage Wat er s cape s E n er gy New te r r i to r y B o r de r U r ban Tr an si ti o nal

PROJECT 2: VI SI T ORS’ M I N E F 6 0 U ti l is ing th e p a s t op e ra t io n s f o r f u t u r e o p po rtunitie s .

1- I nd u s tria l herit a ge PROJECT 12 : LAKE SED L I T Z WAT E R S P O R TS C ENT RE Th i rty lake s a re t o b e creat ed througho ut t h e l i g n i t e m in in g d ist r ic t . C rea ting a n e w i d e n ti t y f o r t o u r ism .

2- Wa t ersca pes PROJECT 14 : WELZOW E N E R GY LA N DSCAP E Re -cre a ting th e l u s a t i a n “ en er gy reg i o n”. Refl e ct i n g th e p ast f o r t h e f u tur e .

48

3- E ne r gy L a ndsca pes


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

P R O JE CT 16: G E O PA R K MUS KAU CO A L CR E SCE NT Di s p l ayi ng the i nte r acti ons of na t ura l pr o ce s s e s and hum an ac t ivit y. Thi s p r o j e ct i nte nd s to prot ect t his a s a “cul tu r al l and s cap e ”.

4- Ne w Te r r i to r y P R O JE CT 15: FÜR ST- P ÜCK LE R - PA R K BAD MUS KAU 830ha o f p ar k. O ne s i d e of t he pa rk is o n ge r m an s o i l and the ot her ha lf lies o n po l i s h s o i l gi v i ng ne w mea ning t o th e “cu l tur al l and s cape ”.

5- B o r d e r Land s cape s P R O JE CT 7: LA K E TO WN SE NF TE NB ERG O nce a to wn i n d e ni al o f it ’s dust y co nte xt, as the l ake s fi l l , t he l and s cap e no w cr e ate s a new la keside ur b an i d e nti ty.

6- Ur b an Land s cap e P R O JE CT 26 : LA NDSCA P E A R T: “THE HAND” IN A LTDÖ B E R N O nce ne i gh b o ur i ng to wns sepera t ed b y m i ni ng p r o ce s s e s s e es t he r e s to r ati o n o f the i r r e l ati vit y t hrough th e ne w tr ans i ti o nal co nnect ive l and s cap e .

7 - Tr ans i ti o nal Land s cap e

49


RETHINK

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» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

REFORMULATE

02

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

CERREJON 6 PART

E XT RA CT ION P R E C E D E N T

STAGE_01

STAGE_02

STAGE_03

STAGE_04

STAGE_05

STAGE_06

50

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

R E S H A P I N G T H E D E P O SITS » »E v e n ou t , t i l l an d r esh ap e t h e o v er bu r den fr o m o l d pi ts » »A d d a l a ye r o f so il

M E R G I N G OV E R B U R D E N AND NE W S O IL » »S oft ra i n fa l l w ill bin d t h e o v er bu r d en p r o fi l e s » »P l ou g h a n d resh ap e again bef o r e h eav y r ai n e v e nts

S OW I N G T H E S E E D S » »H a n d - s ow n g r ass seed s ar e add ed an d mi xe d wi th n e w s oi l . » »E v e n D i s t ri b ut io n » »P rom ot e s g e rm in at io n

THE PLANTS GROW » »F i rs t G e n e ra ti o n o f p lan t s ar r iv es » »You n g e r s e e d s m ixed in so il ar e r ead y t o co m e afte r ini t i a l g row th » »P rot e ct s s oi l an d r ed u c es er o sio n » »C a rb on a d d e d t o r et ain wat er an d n u t r ients

BR I N G I N G BA CK THE NITR O G E N » »G ra s s e s u s e u p n it r o gen » »Le s s C om p e ti t io n » »A l l ow s t re e s a n d legu m in o u s sp ec ies t o gr o w » »T h e re p rod u ce n it r o gen an d c o n v er t it t o am m o ni a (cre a te s b a s i s f o r o t h er sp ec ies)

N E W G R OW T H AND SP E CIE S » »E col og y d i v e r sif ies » »H os t e n v i ron m en t c r eat ed » »A n i m a l s i n h a bit ar ea » »H u ma n i n te rven t io n r ed u c es 51


M L A - DESIGN RESEARCH CATALOGUE

_0 3 Rest orat ion “A process in which a damaged resource is renewed, Biologically, Structurally and functionally”. JOHN J. BERGER R e sto ra tio n focu s e s on ec o lo gic al h ealt h f o r h u m ans , wi l d l i fe , an d pla nt comm u n i ti e s . S h if t in g t h e m in d-set t h at h u m ans an d natur e a re s e p a ra t ed en t it ies allo w s u n de r s tand i ng of whe re we fi t w i th i n t h e r an ge o f ec o lo gic al pr o ce s s e s . Ch a nging p e rce p ti on s o f segr egat io n bet ween h u m ans and our e nvir on me n ts a l l ows p r io r it ies t o c h an ge. E co l o gi cal progre s s io n a n d con s e rv at io n , essen t ial t o o u r liv eli h o o d and de velopme n t , s h ou l d b e t h e m aj o r glo bal f o c u s. “ Not o nl y can the powe r of n a t u re a n d t h e p o wer o f t h e m an -m ade co e xi s t but they can b e b e tte r fo r do in g so ” ( B er r iz beit ia, A ni ta, p.7, 2 009)

B I O R E GI O N EVC M I C R O - C LI M ATE S

Th is in t e n t io n w ill b e a c h ie v e d o rig in a lly t h ro u g h t h e re f o r mu la t io n o f t h e e x t ra c t iv e p ro c e s s a s w e ll a s t h e p io n e e r in g o f t h e n e w e c o lo g ie s o n s it e . T h e p ro je c t is de p ic t e d o v e r a 14 0y e a r c y c le o f e c o lo g ic a l a n d p r o g ra mma t ic c y c le s . Th e in it ia l s t a g e s do min a n c e is c e n t re d a ro u n d t h e e c o lo g ic a l s u c c e s s io n o f b a r e g r o u n d. I t is in t e n de d t o b e t h e c a t a ly s t f o r a s e r ie s o f s o c ia l, e n v iro n me n t a l a n d e c o n o mic c h a n g e s . T h e o r e t ic a l e le me n t s de riv e d f r o m t h e p e rma c u lt u re mo v e me n t s o f e c o lo g is t s a n d e n v ir o n me n t a lis t a c c e le ra t e s t h e e c o lo g ic a l s u c c e s s io n w h ic h u n a s s is t e d c o u ld t a k e u p t o 15 0y e a rs a n d dimin is h e s t h a t t ime f ra me in t o 15 y e a r s . Th is e c o lo g ic a l s u c c e s s io n o c c u r s a s a re s u lt o f a n u mb e r o f p io n e e rin g s p e c ie s a n d c a n b e a s s is t e d b y do me s t ic a t e d p r o du c t iv e a n ima ls . A k e y f a c t o r o f t h e p ro p o s a l is t h e lin k b e t w e e n p ro du c t iv it y a n d e c o lo g ic a l s u c c e s s io n , p ro g re s s io n a n d div e r s if ic a t io n . T h is c r e a t e s v a ria t io n s in t h e e c o lo g ic a l s c e n a rio s o v e r t ime . Th e in t e n t io n is f o r t h e p ro je c t t o de p ic t h o w p ro du c t iv e in du s t r ie s w h e n ma n a g e d p ro p e rly c a n in f o rm e c o lo g ic a l b e t t e r me n t r a t h e r t h a n de g ra da t io n . T h e p ro je c t s f o c u s is o n t h e e c o lo g y a n d e n v iro n me n t . T h e b y- p ro du c t s o f t h is p r o c e s s is t h e p ro p o s a l p ro du c t iv e e le me n t s .

52


RETHINK

01

SY ST EMS CYCL ES P R OCES SES

EX T R A CT I ON

REFORMULATE

02

R E H A B I LI TAT E D?

M A R YVA LE F I E LD

REMEDIATION

03 03

W H AT I S LO S T E XTR A C T I O N

BI O -R EG I ONS EVC’ S

MI CR O -CL I MAT ES SU CCES SI ON

RECLAMATION

04

I N DUS TR I E S C O N TE XT S

RECALIBRATION

05

C O N S E R VAT I O N R E C R E AT I O N

MA CHI NER Y

D OMI NA NCE EMER G ENCE I NT ER SECT

RENEWAL

06

TI M E S C A LE

A R T I F I C I A L E C O LO GY R E F LE C T I V E R E C O R D A DA P TAT I O N

53


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

REGENERATVIE ECOLOGIES TOPOGRAPHY

W ith landscape arch ite cts be ing involve d from the b eg i nni ng we h ave more powe r to u tilise th e on site pro c esses f o r the de sign. Landscape sh ou ld not be an afte rth ou ght. The Bui l d i ng in th e CT wate r tre atme nt facility is minimu m 70% sub - g r a d e. Th e e xcavation of th e footprint of th e bu ildi ng a l l o wed f o r mate rial re -u se from th e proce sse s of constru c ti o n. ECOLOGY

Planting with a dive rse range of spe cie s and an und er sta nd i ng from th e Landscape arch ite ct th at Natu re canno t b e c o ntr o l l ed bu t sh ou ld be h arne sse d allows for th e de sign to a c t a s the bu ilding block s of e cology. MVV u nde rstands tha t the sp ec i es and th e ir dominance with e volve ove r time . MEADOW

Us ing tech n i q u e s a dap t ed f r o m r est o r at io n ec o l o gy and b i oe ngine e ri n g , th e l a n d sc ap e c r eat es a m ic r o co s m o f th e sur round i n g re g i on a l wat er sh ed, f r o m m o u n t ain s o ur ce to re s er vo ir. T h e re s u l t i s a r ic h , h u m an ely sc aled te r r ai n th at i n vites nei g h b ors t o e ngage w it h t h e lan d f r o m t h e pe r s pe cti v e of the wat e r th a t fl ow s t h r o u gh it .

Using te ch niqu e s from a range of landsca p e ty p o l o g i es h as allowe d for th e dive rsity of th e landsc a p e to ex tend fu rth e r from ju st spe cie s se le ction. Th is be co m es a str o ng e xpe rie ntial qu ality in th e de signs transitionry und er sta nd i ng . AGRICULTURAL GARDEN

Landscape typologie s ch ange and re spond no t o nl y to th e mse lve s bu t also th e ir conte xts. Moving wa ter thr o ug h variou s stage s of landscape typologie s allows f o r d i v er si ty to mak e impacts on landscape h e alth , wate r, and ha b i ta t. BY-PRODUCT RE-USE

Th is is one of th e driving force s for my o wn wo r k. to u nde rstand h ow conte xtu al practice s fu ncti o n a nd uti l i se th e m as drive rs for de sign is one of my approa c h to o l s. H o w doe s timing e ffe ct ou tcome ? CT WATER TREATMENT FACILITY MICHAEL VAN VALKENBURG

STAGING WATER

TOPOGRAPHY INFORMS WATER FLOW

BY-PRODUCT RE-USE ECOLOGY

BY-PRODUCT RE-USE

AGRICULTURAL GARDEN

MEADOW

ECOLOGY

CT WATER TREATMENT FACILITY, MICHAEL VAN VALKENBURG

T h e eco lo g i ca l p ri n ci p les p io n eer ed by M c Har g and l ate r re f i ne d a n d e x p a n d e d by m an y p r ac t it io n er s, i ncl ud i ng J a m e s Corn e r, s h ow i n g h o w r igo r o u s an aly sis i n d e s i gn de velopme n t ca n d e e p e n t h e r elat io n sh ip bet w een eco l o gi cal un d er s ta nd i n g , a p p l i ca t io n an d t h e ef f ec t o n s o ci al and e c o no mic c on te x t. T h i s i s d em o n st r at ed t h r o u gh t he l aye r i ng te c hniques i mp l e m e n te d in Fr esh K ills L if esc ap e b y Jam e s Corner.

54


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

04

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

“It’s evolutionary perspective is designed for 80years, but it is easily recognisable that this project will continue to evolve beyond this arbitrary time-frame” (Prominski, 2005, p30)

E NVI R O NM E NTA L » »Wate r q u al i ty » »So i l q ual i ty » »A i r q ual i ty » »Hab i tat

8 9 0 HA SO CI A L / CULTUR A L » »P ub l i c h e al th » »R e cr e ati o n » »Ci r cu l ati o n

FRESHKILLS CONTEXTUAL RELEVANCE

WA STE LA ND CO NVE R SI ON Fr e s hki l l s i s b e co m i ng e xempla ry o f r e s to r ati o n e co l o gy r edefining th e ur b an l and s cap e .

E CO LO G I CA L SUCCE S SION Cr e ati o n and d i v e r s i fi ca t ion over ti m e o f r e s to r ati o n e co l ogies.

“Thematics of organization, dynamic interaction, ecology and technique point to a looser, emergent urbanism, more akin to the complexity to the complexity of sities and offering an alternative to the rigid mechanisms of centralist planning” (Corner, 2006, p.23)

FRESHKILLS, STATEN ISLAND JAMES CORNER, FIELD OPERATIONS 55


RETHINK

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» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

REFORMULATE

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» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

THE GIPPSLAND PLAINS F la t lo w ly in g c o a s t a l a n d a llu v ial p lains Ge n t ly u n du la t in g t e rra in dominated b y b a rrie r du n e s F lo o dp la in s a n d S w a mp y f la t s Up p e r t e r ra in h a v e t e x t u re contrast soils (De r ma s o ls a n d C h r o w mo s ols) su p p orts Lo w la n d Fo r e s t e c o s y s t e m. Du n e s a re p r e do min a t e ly sandy soils (Po do s o ls a n dTe n o s o ls ) s u p p orts h ealth y Wo o dla n d a n d Da mp S a n d s H erb - rich Wo o dla n d e c o s y s t e m. Fe r t ile f lo o dp la in s a n d s w a mp s (H y drosols) S u p p o r t s S w a mp S c ru b , P l ains G rassy Wo o dla n d, P la in s Gr a s s y Forest, Plains Gr a s s la n d, Gilg a i We t la n d e c o sy stems.

La rge s cal e Bi ore g i ons ar e def in ed by geo lo g i cal and e n vironme n ta l ch a ra cte r ist ic s r at h er t h an p o lit ic al d i v i s i o ns . Bi or e gions d e s cri b e t h e o v er all lan d sc ap e f eat u r e s and la rge s cal e e n vi ron m en t al p r o c esses. Th e geo- phys i cal un d er s ta nd i n g of s p a c e is essen t ial in u n d er s tand i ng la n ds ca pe ch a ra ct e ri s t i c s, p at t er n s an d p o t en t ial e co l o gi e s of the are a . 56


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

LATROBE VALLEY COAL MINES

1,197 HA

HAZELWOOD

2,100 HA

YALLOURN

1,947 HA

LOY YANG 57


RETHINK

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

02

LATROBE VALLEY

4 MA JOR E C OLOG I C A L V E GE TATIO N CL AS S E S

YALLOURN

LOY YANG MORWELL

A t a s malle r s ca l e , E col o gic al Veget at io n Classes de velop ou t of a comp lex ser ies o f d if f er en t bi ol ogica l a n d e col og ic al p r o c esses f o r m ed ove r time a n d d e s cri b e sm all sc ale lan d sc ap e co n ditions , p l a n t com m u n it ies, c o n t ext an d oppo rtunitie s . M i cro- cl im at es o p er at e m u c h s m aller s cal e s a n d i n fl u e n c e, exp o se an d am p lif y di ff ere nt e n vi ron m e n ta l c o n dit io n s t h r o u gh o u t the des igns form . 58

REFORMULATE » »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

» »P LAINS WOOD L A ND

Ecological Vegetation Classes (EVCs) represented: -

P l ai ns G r as s y Wo o d l and ( E VC 55) Fl o o d pl ai n R i par i an Wo o d l and ( E VC 56) B o x I r o nb ar k Fo r e s t ( E VC 61) P l ai ns G r as s y Fo r e s t ( E VC 151) G i pps l and P l ai ns G r as s y Wo o d l and ( EV C 689)

» »FLOOD ING R I PA R I A N FL AT S

Ecological Vegetation Classes (EVCs) represented: -

Swam p Scr u b ( E VC 53) We tl and Fo r m ati o n ( E VC 74) R i v e r i ne E s car p m e nt ( E VC 82) Swam py R i par i an Wo o d l and ( E VC 83 ) Swam py R i par i an Co m p l e x ( E VC 126 ) R i p ar i an Scr ub ( E VC 191)

» »DRY FOOTHI L L FOR EST

Ecological Vegetation Classes (EVCs) represented: -

Lo wl and Fo r e s t ( E VC 16) Sh r u b b y Dr y Fo r e s t ( E VC 21) G r as s y Dr y Fo r e s t ( E VC 22) He r b - r i ch Fo o th i l l Fo r e s t ( E VC 23) Sh r u b b y Fo o thi l l Fo r e s t ( E VC 45) He ath y Wo o d l and ( E VC 48) Val l e y He athy Fo r e s t ( E VC 127) Dr y Val l e y Fo r e s t ( E VC 169)

» »DAM P FOREST

Ecological Vegetation Classes (EVCs) represented: -

R i p ar i an Fo r e s t ( E VC 18) Dam p Fo r e s t ( E VC 29) We t Fo r e s t ( E VC 30) Co o l Te m pe r ate R ai nfo r e s t ( E VC 31) War m Te m p e r ate R ai nfo r e s t ( E VC 32)

59


RETHINK

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

REFORMULATE

02

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

ECOLOGICAL SUCCES SION / PROGRES SION

EXISTING VS PROPOSED COLLAGE

T h e intentio n of th e p rojec t is t o c r eat e an a rtificial e col og y o n a ser ies o f s c a le s a nd t yp ol og i e s to div er sif y an d in tens ify t h e v a ri e d ec o lo gies an d co n ditions on s i t e . T h e m ic r o -c lim at es w i l l a s s is t i n th e fu nc t io n alit y an d di v ers ifica ti on of e col og ic al p r o c esses al l o w ing fo r v a ri a t i on s in t h e c r eat ed e c o lo gie s to b e re a d i n c lo se p r o xim it y an d s ha rp con t ra s t t o one an o t h er.

60


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

04

RENEWAL

05

06

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

STAGES OF THE PROCES S PERMAC U LT U R E

CLIMAX FOREST 10 + YEARS MATURE FOREST 5 - 10 YEARS

YOUNG FOREST 3 - 5 YEARS

SHRUBS 3RD YEAR

FeS2

HERBACIOUS 2ND YEAR

GRASSES 1ST YEAR

FeS2

FeS2

Th is dive r s i fi cati o n i n fo r m and c o n dit io n at d i ffe r e nt s cal e s al l o ws f o r t h e expans i o n and r e fi ne m e nt o f p lan t c o mm u ni ti e s , wi l d l i fe , hab i tat, an d ec o l o gi cal pr o ce s s e s . Di v e r s i ty is essen ti al to th e functi o nal i ty and ec o lo gic a l v al u e o f th e s p ace s cr e ate d t h r o u gh th e d e s i gn i nte r v e nti o n. The c o n dit io ns cr e ate d i n the d e s i gn ar e lin ear and r e pe ti ti v e . Th e i nte nt fo r t h is c o n ce pt i s to cr e ate a s e r i e s o f r ep et it iv e ar ti fi ci al s tr i p s th at co nne ct in t o t h e e xi s ti ng co nte xt. The l i ne ar i ty r ef lec t s t he p r o ce s s e s o f th e i r cr e ati o n wh ilst o ffe r i ng i d e al co nd i ti o ns fo r ec o lo gic a l s u cce s s i o n as we l l as

O

2

pH

2 O pH

pH

NaCl

NaCl

NaCl

th e pr o po s e d pr o d uct ive progra ms. The natur e o f the pr o posa ls crea t es an o p p o r tuni ty wh e r e t he effect of co nte xtu al e nv i r o nm e nt s on ecology can b e s i m u l tane o us l y recorded a nd e xp e r i e nce d . Thi s r e s u l ts in a series of d i s ti nct co ntr as ti ng ar ti f icia l ecologies th at can b e u nd e r s tood in close pr o xi m i ty. Th e d e s i gn tra nsforms w ha t wo u l d b e l e ft as a d am a ged la nd-form i nto a s e r i e s o f co nnect ive spa ces th at no w hav e the fo unda t ions for a pr o d ucti v e and s us tai nable fut ure.

61


M L A - DESIGN RESEARCH CATALOGUE

_0 4 Reclamat ion Reclamation is the process of restoring an area of land to a more productive state.

M o ving aw a y from ou r exist in g in d u st r ial p r acti ce s can trans form th e s i te s i n d u st r ial iden t it y in t o so m e th i ng that is the re for re cre a ti on an d ed u c at io n . Th e p r o p o s al s pans ac ro s s de ca d e s a n d ch a n ges t h e h ier ar c h y o f it s o ccupati o n, fun ctio n a n d form. A l l of w h ic h ac t as f u n c t io n al an d p r o d u cti v e la n ds ca pes, op e ra ti n g w it h t h e ec o lo gy as t h e ben e fi ci ar y. Th e proj e ct inten d s to cre a te a sp ac e t h at ac t s as a r efl e cti o n, a re c ord and a p roje ct i on o f it s p ast , p r esen t an d f u t ur e .

62


RETHINK

01

SY ST EMS CYCL ES P R OCES SES

EX T R A CT I ON

REFORMULATE

02

R E H A B I LI TAT E D?

M A R YVA LE F I E LD

REMEDIATION

03

W H AT I S LO S T E XTR A C T I O N

BI O -R EG I ONS EVC’ S

MI CR O -CL I MAT ES SU CCES SI ON

RECLAMATION

04

I N DUS TR I E S C O N TE XT S

RECALIBRATION

05

C O N S E R VAT I O N R E C R E AT I O N

MA CHI NER Y

D OMI NA NCE EMER G ENCE I NT ER SECT

RENEWAL

06

TI M E S C A LE

A R T I F I C I A L E C O LO GY R E F LE C T I V E R E C O R D A DA P TAT I O N

63


RETHINK

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

+ 40 YE A R S

01

REFORMULATE

PRUNING

HARVEST

30%

PLANTING

ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION

SILVICULTURE

FERTILISERS MATURITY FODDER CROP PRODUCTION

INTERNAL ACCESS

64


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

05

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXT » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

+ 60 YE A R S

04

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

WATER COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION

WATER

ROTATION

CROP PRODUCTION MULCH

RECREATION / ECOLOGICAL RESERVE

AGRICULTURAL / RECREATION

65


RETHINK

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

REFORMULATE

02

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

CONTEXT UAL LANDUSE

Si n gula r lan d u s e , l i k e m o n o c u lt u r e c r o p agr ic u lt ur e cr e ate s i ssu e s with i n l a n d s ca p e s. Th e sy st em ’s in v est igate d d i s p l ay the s e is s ue s t h rou g h t h eir by-p r o d u c t s, o f t en co ns i d e r e d a s wa s te . S i m p l e opp o r t u n it ies f o r m at er ial re - u s e and rea pplica ti on s a re ofte n n eglec t ed . It is t h is t h eo r et i cal e l e m e nt tha t a llows t h e p rop os a l t o p u sh bey o n d t h e o f t en r e s p o ns i v e a tti tudes to b row n fi e l d rem ed iat io n t o u n der st an din g l and s cap e a s an e vo l u t i on a ry s ys t em .

2 3 % o f la n d in Latrobe Ci ty i s d evo ted t o ag ricultural producti on. T he r egi o ns en v iro n m ent al l ows for high l y p r o d u c ti ve a g r i cultura l land. Howe v e r, r i s i ng d em and f or fo o d an d othe r agri cultu r al p r o d uc ts h a s s een large -scale cle aring o f natur al h a b it a ts to make room for intens i ve m o no cult ure s. Agricultural p r ac ti c es ar e r es po n s ible for around 14% o f gl o b al g r e e n ho us e gas e mi ssi ons. So u r ces i n c l u d e ferti l i ze rs, l i ve stock , w etl and r i c e cult iva tion, manure ma nagem ent, b u r nin g o f sav anna and ag r i c ul tur al r es i dues , pl owi ng and tran s p o r tati o n o f t h e pro d uce and l i ve stock. » »Gl o ba lly, t he agricultural s ecto r co n s ume s about 70% f r es h w ater » »S ed im en tati on in fre shwater and co as tal a rea s damagi ng habi ta t. » »Pes ticid es don' t just ki l l th e tar get p es t. B en efici al i nse cts can b e p o i s o ned o r killed, as can othe r ani m al s eat in g poi sone d i nse cts . Pes ti c i d es ca n a lso kil l soi l micro o r gani s m s . Pes t icide s pol l ute rive r s , l ak es and po is o n s spe ci e s, as wel l as p eo p l e. » »An y m o n o -culture land us e c r eates d eg ra dati on of l and an d ec o l o gi es

23% 66

9 % o f l and i n La t ro b e C it y is de v o t e d to Fo r es tr y. G ip p s la n d f o re s t r y in du s t ry o p er ati o ns r an g e f ro m A u s t ra lia ’ s l ar ges t p ul p an d p a p e r mill t o ma n y s m al l har d w o od mills . T h e r e g io n ’ s nati ve p l antatio n r e s o u r c e s a r e i m p o r tant to a ddre s s A u s t r a lia ’ s t ra de d ef i ci t i n w o o d a n d w o o d p r o du c t s , a s w el l as p o tentia l g r o w t h o p p o rt u n it ie s i n p l antati o n f o re s t r y a s s o c ia t e d w it h c ar b o n far m i ng . M u c h o f t h e t imb e r f r o m Vi cto r i a’ s p la n t a t io n s is u s e d f o r d i ffer ent p u rp o s e s (w o o d- p u lp ) t o nati ve f o r es t timb e r (s a w lo g s ). Th e t w o s o ur ces c o m p le me n t e a c h o t h e r. » »Ho w ever th er e a r e ma n y a dv e r s e effec ts o f f o r e s t r y s u c h a s ; » »D efo r es tati o n w h ic h c a n h a v e a g r e a t i m p ac t o n t h e w ildlif e o f t h e r e g io n » »Water r u no ff c a n in c r e a s e t h e e v e n t s o f m u d s l i d e s a n d f lo o din g . » »D ecr eas ed w a t e r qu a lit y t h r o u g h th e u s e o f p e s t ic ide s a n d la c k o f vegetati ve u n de r s t o ry. » »Cl ear ed l and de c re a s e s t h e a e s t h e t ic s o f th e l ands c a p e » »A ny m o no -cu lt u re la n d u s e c re a t e s d egr ad ati o n o f la n d a n d e c o lo g ie s

0 9%

2% o f la n d in La t r o b e C it y is de v oted t o Wa t e r S t o r a g e . T h e ma jo rit y of w a t e r da mmin g is t o s e rv ic e t h e many in du s t r ie s w h ic h re qu ire w a t e r in th e r e g io n . La k e N a rra c a n is lo c a t ed w ith in t h e c o n t e x t o f o u r s it e ; it is t h e larg est f r e s h w a t e r la k e in La t ro b e v a lle y. T h is is n o t u s e d f o r do me s t ic w a t e r s t orag e in V ic t o r ia . Th e a dv e rs e e f f e c t s o f damming water are; » »I t a lt e r s a n d r e s t r ic t s t h e f lo w rate of w a t e r f o r t h e r e g io n , b o t h i n th e h ig h e r c o n t o u r re g io n s a n d b elow th e da mmin g w a t e r t a b le . » »I t re s t r ic t s t h e a b ilit y f o r n a t u ral e v a p o r a t io n s w h ic h h a s e f fects on t h e c lima t e . » »De s t ru c t io n o f e x is t in g la n ds c ap e in c lu din g v it a l f lo ra a n d f a u na » »I n c re a s e d s o il e ro s io n » »C h a n g in g mic ro - c lima t e s du e to e v a p o ra t io n

02%


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXT » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

Th e s e cti o nal d r awi ng ( r i ght) s h o ws the m i ne i n i ts co nte xtual l and us e .

04 %

4 % o f la n d in La t ro b e C it y is de v o t e d t o b ro w n c o a l p o w e r p r o du c t io n . Th is la n d in c lu de s o p e n c u t min e s , t h e a s s o c ia t e d b u f f e r z o n e s a n d la n d o n w h ic h t h e p r o du c t io n a s s e t s a re f o u n d. T h e r e g io n g e n e r a t e s 8 5% o f V ic t o ria ’s e le c t r ic it y. Th e c u r re n t mo de o f t h in k in g is t h a t o n c e la n d h a s b e e n min e d it b e c o me s de g r a de d t o a p o in t w h e r e it b e c o me s u s e le s s , y o u e x t ra c t t h e min e r a l, g e t p a id o n c e a n d t h e la n d is u n a b le t o b e u s e d a g a in t o g e n e r a t e w e a lt h . C o mp a r a t iv e ly s ma ll. H o w e v e r, c o a l min in g f o r e x p o r t a n d e n e rg y p r o du c t io n h a s a dv e rs e e f f e c t s o n o u r e n v iro n me n t , w it h p la n s f o r e x p a n s io n a n d c o n t in u a t io n o f t h e c o a l min e s w e w ill w it n e s s ; » »A n a c c e le r a t e d lo s s o f v a lu a b le f e r t ile f o o d p r o du c in g la n d, re s ide n t ia l a v a ila b ilit y (re s u lt in g in re s t r ic t in g g ro w t h o f c o mmu n it ie s ), e c o lo g y lo s s (t h re a t e n in g t h e e x is t e n c e o f c e r t a in s p e c ie s o f f lo ra and fauna) » »T h e v is u a l a me n it y a n d t h e r e f o r e liv e a b ilit y w ill b e s u b s t a n t ia lly le s s » »I n c r e a s e d h e a lt h r is k s f o r a n ima ls a n d h u ma n s (in c re a s e s e n v ir o n me n t a l t o x in s ) » »De c r e a s e in t o u r is m

67


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

INDUSTRIAL DEGRADATION

AGRICULTURE

FORESTRY

MINING

POWER PRODUCTION

COMMON INDUSTRIAL CONTAMINANTS

As ARSENIC

Cu COPPER

Hg MERCURY

Zn ZINC

Pb LEAD

P

PHOSPHOROUS

Ni NICKEL

N

NITROGEN

Cd CADMIUM

H2CO3

CARBONIC ACID

Cr CHROMIUM CO2 CARBON DIOXIDE 68


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXT » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

ENVIRONMENTAL OUTPUTS

NOISE NITROGEN HYDROCHLORIC POLYCHLORINATE HEAT CO2

PHYSICAL BY-PRODUCTS / WASTE

FERTILISERS SHADE FODDER WATER QUALITY FEED NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY MULCH NUTRIENTS SOIL FERTILITY PHYSICAL OUTPUTS HEAVY METALS OIL RESIDUE HEATED H2O ASH SOIL ROCK ORGANIC MATTER PEAT

» »Co ns e r v ati o n i n the La t robe Va lley 69


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

INDUSTRIAL MAPPINGS L AT R O B E VALLEY LAND U SE

YALLOURN MINE

HAZELWOOD

» »C ONS E R VAT ION » »P UB L IC S PA C E

» »F OR E S T R Y

» »T OWNS HIP

» »P OWE R P R ODUC TIO N

» »A G R IC ULT UR E

70


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXT » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

THE EXISTING RESULT YA LLO U RN MINE

I NDUS T RI A L S CA R I F I CAT I O N

AGRI CULTU R E

MI N I NG

F OR E S TR Y

Th e p r o p o s al d e p i cts the rela t ionships and e v o l u ti o n o f e c ologica l a nd p r o gr am m ati c s ys te m s over a 140 ye ar cycl e . The d e sign exercises p r o gr am m ati c d o m i nance focused on e co l o gi cal s ucce s s i o n of ba re ground. Th e d e s i gn e m pl o y s Ecologica l s ucce s s i o n no t o nl y as t he ca t a ly st for s o ci al , e nv i r o nm e ntal a nd economic ch ange . I ns te ad the d esign posit ions the thr e e co nte xtu al fra mew orks a s p ar t o f the e co l o gi cal s uccession of t he d e s i gn. Th i s r e fe r e nces t he project s p o s i ti o ni ng th at th e co nnect ive la y ers o f l and s cape p r o d u ce effect on one ano th e r. 71


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

CONTEXT PRODUCTIVE SUCCES SION

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

»» The systematic series of actions

during coal extraction.

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

»» The marks left by industrial

consumption of landscapes and ecologies.

» »How can the p ro c e s s e s b e h i n d i nd u s t r i al s c ar i f i c a t i o n b e tweaked to a ccele r a t e i t s e v e nt u a l R E . . . . . . ? »» The fine-tuning or adjustments

made to a complex system.

Perm a cultu re p ri n c ip les ( B i l l Molli s on , 1 9 8 8 ) , assist e c o lo gica l s u cce s s i on t h r o u gh pi oneer ing s p e ci e s an d progre s s ive m a n a gem en t of do mest i ca te d p ro d u c t iv e an i ma ls . This a cce ler at es m a tur e e co lo gic al e sta blis hm e n t p er io ds di m inis hing from 1 5 0 y ear s do wn to 1 5 ye a rs . A k e y fac t o r o f the pr opo s a l i s th e l i n k bet ween productivity and e co lo gic al s u c ces s ion , p rog re s s i o n an d di v ers ifica ti on . T h e p r o p o sal ac ts a s a d e mon s tra ti o n sit e fo r ho w e xi s ti n g i n d u s t ri es c an be refo rmu l a t e d to comp lem en t on e a no ther t h rou g h t h eir byproduct re - a p p l i ca t i on an d uti l i sa tio n. T h i s i s d o n e f o r e c o lo gica l a n d e n vi ron m en t al be tte rment ra t h e r t h an de gr a datio n d e m on st r at in g progre s s ive p ra cti ce s wit h in

»»

t h e exist in g in du s tr i e s . “ W it h the ac c e ptance of in det er m in ac y, t h e ce l e b r ati o n o f p r o c esses an d t he p r o d u cti v e u se o f sy st em at ic r e l ati o ns hi ps for design purposes” ( P r o m in sk i, 2005 , p30) . The p r o p o sal u t ilises pr o d ucti v e p r o gr am s in lin ea r s tr i ps . Thi s in c r eases d iv er si ty o f l and u se an d allo ws th e p r o gr am s t o o p er at e as a cl o s e d l o o p w h er e t h e by-p r o ducts o f e ach p r o gr am c an assi s t th e o th e r p r o gr am s p r o du cti v e yi e l d s . Th is is ac h iev e d thr o ugh the p r o gr am s d o m i nance , f o r m al r eq u ir em ents , and fi e l d r o t at io n s.

R E CLA M ATI O N E CO LO G I CA L SUCCES S ION

PHYTOREMEDIATION / PROTECTION A B S O R P T ION A N D A C CU MU L AT I ON BY R OOT NET WOR KS I M M O BIL IS E S C O N TA MI NANT S . T HE T R EES AR E I NT END ED TO PR OV IDE F OOD, SHAD E , S HE LT E R AND PR OT E C T I ON F O R T H E A N IM A L S

MULCHING / FODDER TH E T R E E SP E C IE S H AVE B E E N S EL E C T ED B AS E D ON T HE IR PA LATA B IL IT Y T O P R O DU CT I VE ANI MAL S . AG R OFOR ES T RY I N C REA S E S B IO DIV E R SI T Y WHI CH I N-T U R N R E TAI NS S OIL H E A LT H A N D E C O LOG ICAL D I VER S I T Y.

CROPS I N I TI A L LY A C T IN G A S FOD D ER FOR T HE ANI MAL S T HE C R O P S WIL L E IT H E R BE E AT EN OR B R E AKD OWN D OW N TO M U L C H A N D R E T U R N NU T R I ENT S T O D E G R AD E D S OI LS

ANIMAL MANURE PR O P E R LY M A N A G E D ANI MAL S HAVE T HE AB I L I T Y T O R E TU R N N UT R IE N T S AND MI C R OB E S T O D E G R AD ED S O I LS .

72


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

04

RENEWAL

05

06

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXT » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

» »RECLAM AT I ON - i s t h e p r o c es s o f r es to r i ng

a n a rea of land to a mo r e p r o d u c ti ve s tate. Return ing disturbe d land to i t’ s f o r m er o r o ther pro duct i ve use s.

» »REST O R AT I ON - “… A p r o c es s i n w h i ch a

d am ag e d re source is re new ed . Bi o l o gi c al l y. St ruct urall y. Functi onall y.” JOHN J. BER G ER . Res t o ration focuse s on the ec o l o gi cal h eal th f o r huum ans, wi l dli fe , and p l ant c o m m uni ti es .

» »REME D I AT I ON - The r em o val o f p o l l uti o n o r

co n t a m inants from the envi r o nm ental m ed i a s uch as soi l s, groundwater, s ed i m ent, o r s ur fac e wa ter. » »PH YT OREM EDI AT I ON

» »F ODDER

CALENDULA

RUBUS

ROSMARINUS

THYME

BRASSICA

HELIANTHUS

ECHINACEA

MARIGOLD

ACHILLEA

LAVANDULA

MELISSA

ATRIPLEX

CHICKORY

HARDENBERGIA

PUMPKIN

COMFREY

HOREHOUND

RHAGODIA

FENNEL

ATRIPLEX

VENTILAGO

GARLIC

PARSLEY

WATERCRESS

JACARANDA

T R EES

EUCALYPTUS`

GLEDITSIA

GREVILLEA

ILLAWARRA

MORUS

POPLAR

SALIX

SCHINUS

TAGASASTE

BRACHYCHITON

UNDER -STO R EY

ACER

MID -STO R EY

» »F OOD

A G R O FO R E STR Y SYSTEM S ECTION 73


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

CONTEXT / CONSERVATION THE EXISTING / LOST / POTENTIAL ECOLOGIES »» The systematic series of actions

during coal extraction.

»» The marks left by industrial

consumption of landscapes and ecologies.

» »How can the processes behind industrial scarification be tweaked to accelerate its eventual RE ......? »» The fine-tuning or adjustments

»»

made to a complex system.

74

PLAINS WOODLAND

FLOODING RIPARIAN FLATS

DAMP FOREST

T h e ide ntifi ca ti on of th e exist in g p r o c esses s h o ws the a mou n t of w ast ed by-p r o du c t s an d e nvir on m e n ta l p ol l u t an t s ev iden t in the i r pr oduct i on . T h e d e sign em p lo y s n ew proces s es a m on g s t e x i st in g p r o gr am s t o uti l i se indu s tri a l b y- p rodu c t s an d m at er ials to functio n a s a l oop for exc h an ge bet ween ro tational l a n d u s e s . A s a r esu lt , t h is w ill re duce indu s t ri a l con s u m p t io n , wast e an d e n vironme n ta l i m p a ct s. P r o gr am m at ic in ter ventio n s h a ve b een based on appropr iati on s of th e exist in g p r o gr am s w i th in the s i t e , a n d t h e r ef o r e a sh if t in g o f the cur re n t s oci a l , cu l t u r al an d in du st r ial hi er a rchie s . T h e p rod u c t iv e p r o gr am s co n s is t of fore s t ry, l i v est o c k an d c r o p ag riculture w i th e a ch of t h eir r ef o r m u lat io n s an d by- p rod u ct s e n ablin g ec o lo gic al progre s s io n . T h e s e re fo r m u lat io n s in c lu d e progre s s ive t h i n k i n g for i n du st r ies in c lu d in g Ho l is tic ma n a g e me n t ( A lan S av o r y, 2013) as we ll a s S i l v i cu l tu ra l pr in c ip les.


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

04

RENEWAL

05

06

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXT » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

» »REST O R AT I ON - “… A p r o ces s i n

+??ha

» »DRY F O O T H IL L F O RES T

+??ha

+??ha

» »PL AIN S WO O DL AN D

+??ha

GRA S S E S / GRUO N DCOVERS

which a damage d re sour ce i s r enew ed . B io lo g icall y. Structurall y. Fu ncti o nal l y.” JO H N J. BERGER. Re stor ati o n fo cu s es o n t he ecologi cal he al th fo r hum ans , wild life, and plant commu ni ti es .

ACACIA

ACACIA

EUCALYPTUS

» »DAM P FOREST

» »FLOOD ING RIPARIAN FLATS

AUSTROSTIPA

GAHNIA

PANDOREA

AUSTRODANTHONIA

ISOLEPIS

POA

BAUMEA

LEPIDOSPERMA

RUBUS

CAREX

NOTODANTHIA

THEMEDA

ACACIA

PTERIS

GOODENIA

BANKSIA

CAPROSMA

INDIGOFERA

BANKSIA

CORREA

MELALEUCA

BURSARIA

DAVESIA

SOLANUM

EUCALYPTUS

EUCALYPTUS

EXOCARPUS

SYMPHYTUM EUCALYPTUS

S H R UB S

ACACIA

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

MELALEUCA

ALLOCASUARINA

EUCALYPTUS

NOTHOFAGUS

DRY FOOTHILL FOREST

HELIANTHUS

T R EES

ILEX

75


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

CONTEXT REHABILI TATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

»» The systematic series of actions

during coal extraction.

RESTORATION

»» The marks left by industrial

consumption of landscapes and ecologies.

» »How can the processes behind industrial scarification be tweaked to accelerate its eventual RE ......? »» The fine-tuning or adjustments

made to a complex system.

T h e fo rmu l a t e d s i te m ec h an ic s o f t h e exc h an ge s c he me wil l u l ti m a te l y hav e ef f ec t s o n all f ac et s o f the la nd. Th e s ys te m w i ll d ir ec t ly af f ec t t h e sit es soi l fe rti lity, prod u cti on yi e l ds, h abit at s, an d ec o lo gies but because i t i s d e s i g n e d t o be a c lo sed sy st em it i s in tended th a t th e s e p os i t iv e f ac t o r s will t h en in f lu en c e othe r run- on e ffe cts t o oc c u r w it h in t h e n et wo r k . Th is s u g ges ts th a t th e p rod u c t iv e p r o gr am m in g c an begi n to e nha nce t h e e col og i c al v alu es an d as a r esu lt be trans late d i n to a s p a ce f o r ec o lo gic al c o n ser v at io n an d re cre a t i on . On e th a t c elebr at es t h e ar t ic u lat ion an d e xplora ti on of a r t if ic ial ec o lo gies an d t he s eri e s of ch a n g e s t h e y w ill m ak e ac r o ss t h e v ar io u s e n vironme n ta l a n d e col o gic al sc ales.

PHYTODEGRADATION TH E B R E A K DOWN OF CONTAMI NANT S U R R OU ND I N G TH E P L A N T T H R OU G H T HE EFFECT OF COMPOU NDS PR O D U C E D BY T H E P L ANT S .

PHYTOVOLATILIZATION TH E P R O C E S S WH E R E PL ANT S TAKE U P C ONTAMI NANTS W H I C H A R E WAT E R SOLU B L E AND R EL E AS E T HE M I NTO TH E AT M OS P H E R E A S T HE Y T R ANS PI R E I N WAT E R .

PHYTOEXTRACTION A B S O R P T ION O F C ON TAMI NANT S FR OM S OI L FOL LOWED BY M OV E M E N T OF C ONTAMI NANT S T O T HE AB OVE GR O U N D PA R T O F P L ANT.

PHYTOSTABILISATION A B S O R P T ION A N D A C CU MU L AT I ON BY R OOT NET WOR KS I M M O BIL IS E S C ON TA MI NANT S . S TAB I L I S E S T HE S OIL TH RO UG H PREVENT C ONTAMI NAT I ON MI G R AT I ON TH RO UG H G R O UN D WAT ER L EACHI NG OR D I S PE R S I ON.

76

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

»»


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

04

RENEWAL

05

06

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXT » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

» »RE C LA M AT I ON - i s th e p r o c es s o f r es to r i ng

a n are a of land to a m o r e p r o d u c ti ve s tate. Returni ng di sturbe d l and to i t’ s fo r m er o r o th er pro ductive use s.

» »RE S T OR AT I ON - “ … A p r o ces s i n w hi ch a

d amage d re source i s r enew ed . Bi o l o gi c al l y. St ructural l y. Functi o nal l y. ” JOHN J. BER G ER . Res toration focuse s o n th e ec o l o gi cal h eal th f o r huumans, wi l dli fe , a nd p l ant c o m m uni ti es .

» »RE M E D I AT I ON - T h e r em o val o f p o l l u ti o n o r

co n taminants from th e envi r o nm ental m ed i a s uch as soil s, ground w ater, s ed i m ent, o r s ur fac e wa te r.

REMEDIATION COLLAGE PTERIS

SYMPHYTUM

ILEX HELIANTHUS

»»

POPLAR

VIOLA

JACARANDA

BRASSICA

FESTUCA

»»

HYDRANGEA

PANICUM

CERASTIUM ISOLEPSIS

MEDICAGO

»»

SCHINUS

QUERCUS

SALIX

MORUS

LUPINAS

ROBINIA

ACER GLEDITSIA

AMAZONICAS

TRIFOLIUM

CONTAMINANTS 77


M L A - DESIGN RESEARCH CATALOGUE

_0 5 Recalibrat ion The fine tuning or adjustment of a complex system.

“The term landscape no longer refers to prospects of pastoral innocence but rather invokes the functioning matrix of connective tissue that organizes not only objects and spaces but also the dynamic processes and events that move through them. This is landscape as active surface, structuring the conditions for new relationships and interactions among the things it supports� (Alex Wall)

T h e r e ca lib ra t i on of s ys t em s, p r o c esses, an d sp ac e r e fe r s to the re s e a rch i n t e n t t o s h o w h o w sim p le p r o c ess al te r ati o ns ca n produce g re a t e ffe c t . It is o n ly t h o r o u gh r es e ar ch and an alys is th a t w e ca n p ro p er ly u n d er st an d t h e sit e p r o ce s s e s , cha ra cte risti cs a n d p ot en t ial. It is t h at iden t if ic at ion th at can the n be e mp l oye d a s p ar t o f t h e c o n c ep t io n o f th e p r o j e ct. La n ds cape A rch i te ctu re is a f o r ef r o n t p r o f essio n wi th th e e m bo die d ca p a b i l i ti e s t o c r eat e im m en se c h an g e fo r th e e n vironme n t w e l i ve i n. R ec alibr at io n ext en d s thr o ugho ut the de s ign re s e a rch an aly sis, c o n c ep t io n , h y p oth e s i s and e x ecution. T h e Re ca l i b ra ti on op e r at es t h r o u gh m an y elem e nts o f th e propos a l bu t i s p re d om in at ely f o c u sed o n t h e exi s ti ng and s p e cific ma ch i n e ry for i t s d ep lo y m en t . Th is c o m p one nt o f the proj e ct e xp l ore s th e ca p abilit ies wit h in t h e exist in g sys te m s and proces s es for th e cre a ti o n o f n ew sp ac es an d o p p o r tuni ti e s .

78


RETHINK

01

SY ST EMS CYCL ES P R OCES SES

EX T R A CT I ON

REFORMULATE

02

R E H A B I LI TAT E D?

M A R YVA LE F I E LD

REMEDIATION

03

W H AT I S LO S T E XTR A C T I O N

BI O -R EG I ONS EVC’ S

MI CR O -CL I MAT ES SU CCES SI ON

RECLAMATION

04

I N DUS TR I E S C O N TE XT S

RECALIBRATION

05 05

C O N S E R VAT I O N R E C R E AT I O N

MA CHI NER Y

D OMI NA NCE EMER G ENCE I NT ER SECT

RENEWAL

06

TI M E S C A LE

A R T I F I C I A L E C O LO GY R E F LE C T I V E R E C O R D A DA P TAT I O N

79


RETHINK

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

+ 60 YE A R S

01

REFORMULATE

“the acceptance of indeterminacy, the celebration of processes and the productive use of systematic relationships for design purposes” (Prominski, 2005, p30)

PRUNING

ECOLOGICAL PROGRESSION

SILVICULTURE

MULCH FERTILISERS MATURITY WATER

80

ROTATIONS

FERTILISERS


RECLAMATION

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

+ 80 YE A R S

04

RECALIBRATION

PRUNING

WATER COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION

STOCK PRODUCTION CROP PRODUCTION RECREATION / ECOLOGICAL RESERVE

81


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

THE EXISTING CYCLE

YAL LOURN M I N E M A C H I NE R Y

PP_01

PP_02

PP_03

OB S PR E A D E R

82

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

04

RENEWAL

06

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

185HA

12.8HA

PP_01

PP_02 5.6HA

94

HA

A

124H 3.3HA

PP_03

Futue OB_02 - MARYVALE FIELD EXTENSION 386 ha

» »O = 386, 000M 3

100mm

300mm 1000mm

750mm

» »V = ?

» »A = 1159, 000M 3 » »B = 2897, 000M 3 » »C = 4636, 000M 3

1200mm

83


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

MACHINE RY RECALIBRATION PARA MET E R S A N D T E S TS

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

M A XI M UM E XTE NTS ARM01 + ARM02

M I NI M UM E XTE NTS ARM01+ARM02

A R M ATUR E _01

EX TEND AND RO TATIO N

A R M ATUR E _02

EX TEND AND RO TATION

P I VO T P O I NT_02

80 M

P I VO T P O I NT_01

80 M 160 M 360 M

DROP TYPE_01 HEIGHT: 25M RATIO - 07:1

DROP TYPE_02 HEIGHT - 20M RATIO - 05:1

DROP TYPE_03 HEIGHT - 15M RATIO - 04:1

DROP TYPE_04 HEIGHT - 10M RATIO - 03:1

DROP TYPE_05 HEIGHT - 5M RATIO - 02:1

84


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

RENEWAL

06

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

OVERBURDEN SPREADER - DROP TYPES

54 M

66 M

MODULE CONFIGURATION 01

HEIGHT: 25M RATIO - 07:1

40 M

DROP TYPE_01

DROP TYPE_03

13 M

HEIGHT - 20M RATIO - 05:1

26 M

DROP TYPE_02

HEIGHT - 15M RATIO - 04:1

DROP TYPE_04 HEIGHT - 10M RATIO - 03:1

DROP TYPE_05 HEIGHT - 5M RATIO - 02:1

MODULE 01 Si te p r o ce s s e s and cy cles hold o ppo r tu ni ti e s wi th i n their ma t eria ls, was te s and b y- p r o d u c t s. Ma t eria ls e m pl o ye d s h o w th e po t ent ia ls of reth i nki ng o uts i d e of st a nda rdised m ate r i al r e cycl i ng and life-cy cle e xte ns i o ns .

INI T I A L BU FFER Z ONES IN I TIAL FILTRATION Z ONES

MODULE 02

I t i s th e i ni ti al r e fo rmula t ion a nd s u b s e q ue nt r e cal i b r ati o n of t he exist ing e nv i r o nm e ntal m e d i a th at a ct s a s t he ke y catal ys t fo r p o s i ti v e and product ive change wi thi n th e d e gr aded indust ria l l and s cap e . Th e o nl y i m port ed ma t eria l i n th e pr o po s al i s the pla nt ing. Every o th e r fo r m al change o n sit e is a result of o v e r b ur d e n s e p ar ati o n o r infra st ruct ura l r e co nfi gu r ati o ns . The ma t eria l r e fo r m ul ati o ns i nv o l v e t he sepa ra t ion and r e - l aye r i ng o f o v erburden. The o r gani c s o i l ho r i z o ns w it h posit ive attr i b ute s ar e u s e d as c a pping t o t he m o r e ne gati v e s o i l h o r i z ons t ha t cont a in har m ful co ntam i nants .

Mod u l e i t e ra ti o n s based o n c r eat in g the i d e a l modu le f o r p r o gr am m at ic re q u i re m e n ts . 85


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

MACHINE RY RECALIBRATION

M AT ERIA L R E- U S E , R E- O R D E R ING AND R E-AP P L ICATI O N T h e o n- s ite ma ch i n e ry i s r ec o n f igu r ed t h r o u gh it s ope ra tio ns d u ri n g t h e p ro c ess an d it s p r o gr am m at ic s h i ft po s t- ex tra ct i on . T h e c o n v ey o r belt du r in g t h e e x tractio n i s re con fi g u r ed d u r in g t h e ext r ac t iv e proces s to a ct a s th e i n fr ast r u c t u r e f o r t h e c r eat io n of e a ch lin e a r s tri p . On c e c r eat ed it is t h en r eprogra mme d a n d re con figu r ed t o ac t as t h e br idge ne tworks ov e r th e rock s pillw ay s bet ween t h e r idges of ea ch mo d u l e . T h e p a ram et er s an d r ef o r m u lat io n of the ma ch i n e ry h a s been an in t egr al p ar t o f the des ign p roce s s t o u t ilise an d r e-t h in k t h e

e xi s ti ng s i te . Th e m achi ne r y r e cal i b r ati o n e xpl o i ts the o p e r ati o ns to cr e ate an al te r nati v e l aye r i ng o f e xi s ti ng b y- pr o d ucts . Thi s r e s u l te d i n v ar i o us p o s s i b i l i ti e s and o ppo r tu ni ti e s fo r th e cr e ati o n o f s p ace and an i d e al m o d ul e fo r o v e r b u r d e n d e po s i ts . Th e m o d u l e ul ti m ate l y acts as a b as e fo r th e e v o l uti o n o f the pr o po s e d p r o gr am s and e co l o gi e s . Th e fo r m s we r e e s s e nti al l y fo cus e d o n m axi m i s i ng p r o d u cti v i ty o f th e pr o po s e d pr o gr am s as we l l as th e cr e ati o n o f v ar yi ng m i cr o - cl i m ate s fo r E VC r e fl e cti o n and e co l o gi cal pr o gr e s s i o n.

PRO GRAMMATIC STRIPS

B U F F E R ZON E F I LTRATI ON ZON E H YD RO LO GY PRO GR A M S C I R C U LAT ION / A C C E S S H YD RO LO G IC A L M OV E M ENT C H O R I Z ON B H O RI Z ON A H O R I Z ON O H O RI ZON

20 M

10M

10M

10M 20M

5M

C O NNECT IV E M OD U LE - CU R R E NT CO NF IG U R ATION

86

5M


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

04

RENEWAL

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

FLOODING RIPARIAN FLAT

DAMP FOREST

BUF F ER ZO N E

F I LTR ATI O N ZO N E

F I LTR ATI O N ZO N E

PLAINS WOODLAND

DRY FOOTHILL FOREST

FLOODING RIPARIAN FLAT

BUF F ER ZO N E

F I LTR ATI O N ZO N E

CO NNE CTI VE M O DULE - CUR R E N T MACHINERY R ECAL IBRATION

M I CR O - CLI M ATE E VC R E FLE CTI O N / E CO LO G I CA L DIS TINCTION

CO NVE YO R B E LT R E CONFIGURATION 87


RETHINK

01 WATER COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

PROGRAMMATIC RECALIBRATION D O M INA NC E A N D PA R A M E TE R S SILVICULTURE

SLO P E S

ACCES S

DANGERS

STOCK PRODUCTION

AS SLOPE INCREASES = EROSION RISK INCREASES

BARRIER MAY BE NEEDED FOR ECOLOGICALLY SENSITIVE AREAS

DANGEROUS LANDSCAPE FEATURES NEED TO BE AVOIDED

CROP PRODUCTION

RECREATIONAL / ECOLOGICAL RESERVE

ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION

B UF F E R Z O N E

3OM

3OM

3OM

15M

15M

FILTR AT I O N Z ON E

S TOCK PROD U C T I ON PAR AM E TE R S WATER COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION

SLO P E S

B UFFERS

FILTERS

UM

SILVICULTURE

30

ES RE

UM

XIM MA

G

DE

30

ES RE

UM

XIM MA

G

DE

30

ES RE

XIM MA

G

DE

STOCK PRODUCTION

CROP PRODUCTION

B UF F E R Z O N E

2OM

FILTR AT I O N Z ON E

S I LVICU LT U R A L PA R A M E TE R S RECREATIONAL / ECOLOGICAL RESERVE

+ 00 YE A RS

88

2OM

2OM

1OM

1OM


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

The r e cal i b r ati o n o f sit e ma t eria lit y has b e e n fo r m al l y ad d r essed t hrough th e p h ys i cal r e q ui rement s a nd par am e te r s o f the pr o posed progra ms. I nv e s ti gati o ns i nto the s e requirement s b e cam e a d r i v e r fo r fi n a l form of t he d e s i gns ne w gr o u nd condit ions. The pr o gr am m ati c p ar am e ters ha ve a lso b e e n i nte gr al to the c rea t ion of t he pr o po s al b u ffe r s and filt ra t ion zones to d e s i gne d to m axi m i se hy drologica l he al th .

P R O G R A M M ATI C R ECAL IBRATION + 00 Y EAR S

P R O G R A M M ATI C DOMINANCE 89


RETHINK

01

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

T h e vario us z on e s of th e m o du le ar e in co n tinua l s h i ft. A s t h e w at er c o n t in u es to ris e the b u ffe r zon es def in ed ar e re quire d to s h i ft i n te rms o f t h eir z o n in g to pr ote ct t h e p e rm a n e n t w at er bo dies. Ov er time t h e s e b u ffe r z o n es c o n t in u e to sh ift clos e r tog e th e r u n t il t h e p r o j ec t m e e ts . In its m a tu re s t a t e t h e design is purely re - p u rp os e d a s an ec o lo gic al / re c re a tio nal re s e rv e .

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

+40YEARS

10M FILTR AT I ON S T R I P

+20YEARS

+00YEARS 20M B U F F E R S T R I P

90

REFORMULATE

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

04

RENEWAL

06

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

+120YEARS

+100YEARS

+80YEARS

M O DULE E VO LUTI ON OV ER TIME 91


RETHINK

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

REFORMULATE

02

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

FINAL CONNECTIVE MODULES

T H E LINEAR S T R I P S A N D E X TE NSIO NS T h e cr e a tio n of t h e s m aller sc ale m o d u le is the bas e for t h e n e x t s ca le o f in t er p r et at io n . E a c h mo dul e i s d e s i g n ed t o be c o n n ec t iv e an d r e a d a b l e a s a sequ en c e. O n c e co n ne cte d th e com p on en t s r ead as a lo n g li n e ar s trip w h i ch ca n t h en be u n d er st o o d as a l ar ger s ca l e mod u l e . T h e c r eat io n o f v ast li n e ar s trip s re s u l t s i n a n o p p o r t u n it y f o r t h e s ame variati on s of con d it io n t o be r ep eat ed in v e ry cl os e p rox i mi ty t o t h e p r ec edin g m o d ule . T h i s re s u l ts i n c o n dit io n s t h at c an be expe rience d t h rou g h v ar y in g t im e sc ales.

200M

400M

1000M

+ 60 YEARS

EASTFIELD EXTENSION

92


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

04

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

VEHICLE ACCESS

AGRICULTURE

BUFFER EXTENSION

EXISTING CONDITION PEDESTRIAN ACCESS

93


RETHINK

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

REFORMULATE

02

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

SITE LAYERING BU I LT FORM

+ 60 YEARS

NE W GR O UND

P R O GR AM S TR I P S

B U F F E R AND F ILTR ATI O N

HY D R O LO GY

94

AC CE S S

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

LINEAR EXTENSIONS

EVOLUTI ON OV E R T I ME

EXISTING CONDITION

E l e m e nts o f r e cal i b r ati o n ar e coupled w it h th e l i ne ar b u ffe r and fi l tr ati o n zones a ct ing a s e xte ns i o ns i nto th e e xi s ti ng e cologies of t he s u r r o u nd i ng co nte xt. The s e ext ensions a re d e s i gne d to i ni ti al l y act as bio-sw a les t ha t i nte r s e ct wi th the e xte r nal h ydrology of t he s i te . O v e r ti m e the i r pur po s e begins t o shift to al l o w fo r th e e xte r nal e co l o gies t o shift a nd e xp and i nto the s i te . The e v o l ution of t he linea r e xte ns i o ns e xp r e s s e s the i nt era ct ion a nd e ngage m e nt o f th e ar ti fi ci al e cology a nd t he e xi s ti ng e co l o gi e s o f th e co nte xt . The linea rit y o f the s tr i ps i s r e s po ns i v e to the needs of t he i nd us tr y fo r e ffi ci e ncy and s i mplicit y w hilst e xp l o i ti ng the pr o d ucti v e as s et of nort hern o r i e ntati o n. The fo cu s ho we v er is ult ima t ely th e r e p e ti ti o n o f th e s am e co ndit ions t ha t t he d e s i gn us e s to am pl i fy the co n t ra st s bet w een th e d i s ti nct e co l o gi e s that ar e crea t ed by t he m achi ne r y r e fo r m ul ati o n.

BUFFER INTEGRATION AND EVOLUTION 95


RETHINK

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

BUFFE R EX T EN SI O NS

96

REFORMULATE

02

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

97


RETHINK

02

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

+ 20 YE A R S

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

REFORMULATE

PRUNING

ECOLOGICAL PROGRESSION WATER COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION SILVICULTURE STOCK PRODUCTION CROP PRODUCTION

98

HARVEST

30%

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

+ 40 YE A R S

RECLAMATION

RECREATION / ECOLOGICAL RESERVE

99


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

CONTEXT UAL ENVIRONMENTS

TH E EVOLUT I ON OF S PACE AND S P E CIE S

T he e v ol u ti on a ry sy st em s d i scus s ed i n t h e re s e ar c h ar e evi dent th rou g h i n ve s t igat io n s a n d s pecu l a t i on s of th e p lan t in g d esigns r e s p on s e to the v ar io u s eme rgent fa ctors of t h e sit e. T hi s is e xp l ore d i n re fer en c e t o ch a nges i n cl i ma ti c c o n dit io n s d u ri ng e s t a b l i s h me n t an d t h e s ub sequent e col og i ca l v ar iat io n s in evo lutio n .

ACER

GREVILLEA

SALIX

JACARANDA

ILLAWARRA

BRACHYCHITON

EUCALYPTUS`

MORUS

QUERCUS

GLEDITSIA

POPLAR

ACER

GREVILLEA

SALIX

JACARANDA

ILLAWARRA

BRACHYCHITON

EUCALYPTUS`

MORUS

QUERCUS

GLEDITSIA

POPLAR

ACER

GREVILLEA

SALIX

JACARANDA

ILLAWARRA

BRACHYCHITON

EUCALYPTUS`

MORUS

QUERCUS

GLEDITSIA

POPLAR

ACER

GREVILLEA

SALIX

JACARANDA

ILLAWARRA

BRACHYCHITON

EUCALYPTUS`

MORUS

QUERCUS

GLEDITSIA

POPLAR

ACER

GREVILLEA

SALIX

JACARANDA

ILLAWARRA

BRACHYCHITON

EUCALYPTUS`

MORUS

QUERCUS

GLEDITSIA

POPLAR

30%

30%

30%

30%

10 0

LA N IN A E VOLU TIO N

30%

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

06

ACER

GREVILLEA

SALIX

JACARANDA

ILLAWARRA

BRACHYCHITON

EUCALYPTUS`

MORUS

QUERCUS

GLEDITSIA

POPLAR

ACER

GREVILLEA

SALIX

JACARANDA

ILLAWARRA

BRACHYCHITON

EUCALYPTUS`

MORUS

QUERCUS

GLEDITSIA

POPLAR

ACER

GREVILLEA

SALIX

JACARANDA

ILLAWARRA

BRACHYCHITON

EUCALYPTUS`

MORUS

QUERCUS

GLEDITSIA

POPLAR

ACER

GREVILLEA

SALIX

JACARANDA

ILLAWARRA

BRACHYCHITON

EUCALYPTUS`

MORUS

QUERCUS

GLEDITSIA

POPLAR

ACER

GREVILLEA

SALIX

JACARANDA

ILLAWARRA

BRACHYCHITON

EUCALYPTUS`

MORUS

QUERCUS

GLEDITSIA

POPLAR

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

30%

30%

30%

30%

EL N IN O E VOLU TION

04

RENEWAL

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

30%

101


RETHINK

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

REFORMULATE

02

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

CONTEXT UAL ENVIRONMENTS

T H E EVOLU T I ON OF S PACE AND SP E CIE S

+00

+10

+20

+0 0

+1 0

+2 0

ESTA BLI S H M E N T P E R IO D P L ANTING

10 2


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

+30 E L N I N O E VO LU TIO N

+4 0

LA N I N A E V O LU TIO N

+40

+3 0

103


YEA R 1 4 0 - I NT ER N A L E L NI NO E VOLU TION


YEAR 140 - IN TERN AL LA N IN A EVO LUTIO N


RETHINK

+ 100 YE A R S

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

ECOLOGICAL PROGRESSION WATER COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION SILVICULTURE

FINAL HARVEST

RECREATION / ECOLOGICAL RESERVE

10 6

REFORMULATE

02

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

+ 120 YE A R S

RECLAMATION

107


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGIES

P LA NT ING R E QU I R E M E N TS AND O P P O R TU NITIE S POS T FIRE COLONIS ATI O N

DROUGHT T OLERANT

FORESTRY PROD U CT

H AB ITAT VALUE

FOD D ER

NaCl

SALT TOLERANT

PHY TOREMEDIATING

COPPIC I N G

pH

ACID TOLERANT

FIRE TOLERANT

S EED -BA N K S

ACER PLATANOI DES

NaCl

pH

BRACHYCHI TON ACERI FOLIA

NaCl

pH

EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS

NaCl

pH

GLEDI TSI A TRI ACANTHO S NaCl

pH

GREVI LLEA ROBUSTA

NaCl

pH 10 8


RECLAMATION

04

RECALIBRATION

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

E l ni no and La nina sy st ems p r o d u ce very different e nv i r o nm e nts . The pla nt ing h as b e e n cho s e n ba sed on t he v ar i ab l e s i n th e i r r esponsiveness to th o s e d i ffe r e nt condit ions.

JACARANDA MI MOSI FOLI A

NaCl

pH

MORUS RUBRA

NaCl

pH

POPLAR SPP.

NaCl

pH

QUERCUS ROBUR NaCl

pH

SCHI NUS MOLLE

NaCl

pH 109


M L A - DESIGN RESEARCH CATALOGUE

_0 6 Renew al To start over

T h e projec t a i m s to a l te r t h e c u r r en t p er c ep t io n s o f th e Latr o b e Val l ey throu g h t h e p ote n t ial f u t u r es o f t h e c o al fi e l d s wi tho ut de n ying or d i s g u i s i n g t h e Valley p ast an d p r esen t o ccu p ati o ns . T h rough the a n a l ys i s an d u n d er st an d in g o f existi ng s i te and co n textua l p ra cti ce s w e c an begin t o ad dr ess t he s o ci al and cul tur a l ide n ti t i e s . I n u n d er st an d in g t h e c o n t ext of s i te we can be gin to dr a w u p on t h e exist in g so c ial, c u lt u r al an d e nv i r o nm e ntal e l e ments of s p a ce .

110


RETHINK

01

SY ST EMS CYCL ES P R OCES SES

EX T R A CT I ON

REFORMULATE

02

R E H A B I LI TAT E D?

M A R YVA LE F I E LD

REMEDIATION

03

W H AT I S LO S T E XTR A C T I O N

BI O -R EG I ONS EVC’ S

MI CR O -CL I MAT ES SU CCES SI ON

RECLAMATION

04

I N DUS TR I E S C O N TE XT S

RECALIBRATION

05

C O N S E R VAT I O N R E C R E AT I O N

MA CHI NER Y

D OMI NA NCE EMER G ENCE I NT ER SECT

RENEWAL

06

TI M E S C A LE

A R T I F I C I A L E C O LO GY R E F LE C T I V E R E C O R D A DA P TAT I O N

111


RETHINK

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

200M

REFORMULATE

02

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

400M

1000M

EASTFIELD EXTENSION

MARYVALE FIELD EXTENSION

EXTERNAL HYDROLOGY

YEA 11 2 R 1 4 0 - SI T E P LAN

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL » »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY in t e n de d » »tREFLECTIVE o reflect RECORD th e aim e c o lo g ie »s»ADAPTATION for fu nctionality.

Th e a rt if ic ia l e c o lo g y is o f t h e p ro je c t t o c r e a t e Th e s p e c ie s p a le t t e h a s b e e n de velop ed th rou g h in v e s t ig a t io n s in t o p la n t r e s p o n s e s t o v ariations w h ilst a ll o f f e rin g p r o du c t iv e e le me n t s with in silv icu ltu re a n d a g ro f o re s t r y. T h e ma jo rit y o f f e r th e ab ility for p h y t o re me dia t io n .

VEHICLE ACCESS

AGRICULTURE

BUFFER EXTENSION

PEDESTRIAN ACCESS

Th e t e rm a r t if ic ia l e c o lo g y r e f e rs t o th e p rop osed e c o lo g y mo v in g b e y o n d M c H a rg s rationalisations o n a p p r o p r ia t e p la n t c o mmu n ities b ased on e n v ir o n me n t a l c o n t e x t s . Th e p ro c e ss reformu lation in c h a p t e r t w o dis c u s s e s t h e re s t r ictiv e desire to dis g u is e t h e o p e ra t io n s o f t h e min e. T h e artificial e c o lo g y o p e ra t e s in mu c h t h e s a me fash ion. T h e a rt if ic ia l e c o lo g ie s p ro p o s e d h a v e t h e ab ility to reflect t h e e c o lo g ic a l v e g e t a t io n c la s s e s o f th e contex t w h ilst s t ill re ma in in g a p ro du c t iv e a n d f u nctional asset to t h e de s ig n . Th e p ro p o s e d e c o lo g ic a l interv entions are a n o p p o r t u n e c a t a ly s t f o r div e r s e f u t u res rath er th an a re s t r ic t iv e re f le c t iv e de v ic e o f h is t orical contex ts.

EXISTING ECOLOGIES

FORESTRY

113


RETHINK

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

REFORMULATE

02

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

+ 60 YEARS

YEA 11 4 R 7 0 - SI T E P LAN


RECALIBRATION

RECLAMATION

04

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RENEWAL » »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

+ 70 YEARS

+ 60 YEARS

+ 50 YEARS

+ 40 YEARS

+ 30 YEARS

+ 20 YEARS

+ 10 YEARS

EXISTING CONDITION

CONTEXT

+ 00 YEARS

Ye a r 6 0 B e c a u s e t h e lin e a r s t r ip s , e x t e n ding ov er 2 6 0 0 me t r e s , a re c re a t e d s e qu e n t ia lly b ased on p eriods o f e x t ra c t io n t h e y w ill b e a t dif f e r e n t stag es of th eir lif e - c y c le s imu lt a n e o u s ly. T h is in t ends to disp lay t h e s t a g e s o f t h e s t rip s e v o lu t io n s i mu ltaneou sly. At o n e e n d, t h e lin e a r s t rip w ill b e u nder constru ction w h e r e t h e p r o c e s s o f it s f o rma l c re a tion can b e seen b e in g u n de r t a k e n . E a c h s t rip t h e n d isp lay s different s t a g e s o f e c o lo g ic a l a n d p r o g ra m matic ev olu tion o f t h e p r o p o s a l u n t il t h e o lde s t linear strip w h ich is n o w u n de rs t o o d a s a lin e a r is la n d can disp lay a c o mp o n e n t o f t h e de s ig n a t a ma t ure state. T h is is w h e r e t h e p r o je c t is in t e n de d t o r e f le ct th e p rocesses o f it s c r e a t io n a n d e v o lu t io n a r y s y s t ems of sp ace and e n v ir o n me n t s c a n b e e x p e r ie n c e d s imu ltaneou sly. 115


RETHINK

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

02

EXTERNAL EVOLUTION

U N D ERSTA N D I N G P R OC E S S THR O U G H SPACE

YEAR 70 - THE PROCES S OF EVOLUTION

11 6

REFORMULATE » »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL » »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

117


EXTENSIONS AND ENVIRONMENT RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

T H E EVOLU T»I»SYSTEMS ON A N D I N TE R ACTIO N O F E CO LO GIE S » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

The s ite la ye ri n g occu rs as a seq u en t ial d e ve lo pme n t . E a ch s t r ip is c r eat ed at differ e n t t i me s thr o u gh o u t t h e ex traction. T h e p l a n s d esc r ibe t h e l a y er ing o f s i te a s a mat u r e sit e p lan . The zo om in p l a n ( ri g h t ) d isc u sses t h e evo lution o f th e l a ye rs as a m o m en t i n time (7 0 ye a rs ) . T he p lan sh o w s th e 1 0 ye a r s ta g e s of ev o lu t io n wh ic h i s a cce ler a te d a n d g u id ed by t h e h y dr olo gica l mov e me n t in st it u t ed by th e buffe r e x t e n s i on s .

11 8

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL » »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

+ 60 YEARS

+ 50 YEARS

+ 40 YEARS

+ 30 YEARS

+ 20 YEARS

+ 10 YEARS

CONTEXT

RECLAMATION

+ 00 YEARS

EXISTING CONDITION 119


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

INTERNAL EVOLUTION

U N D ERSTA N D I N G P R OC E S S THR O U G H E CO LO G ICA L DI STI NCTI O N

R OCK OVER B UR DE N S P I LLWAYS C O N V E YO R B R I DGE R E- P UR P O S I N G

Y EAR 1 4 0 - I NT ER N AL E COLOGI E S

Yea r 2 0 0 T h e s e que n ci n g of t h e l in ear st r ip s h as m ean t t h at the i r co ns tr ucti o n an d e s ta bli s h me n t p e ri o d s h av e o c c u r r ed at d if f er ent ti m e s . Di ffe r e nt pe ri ods o f ti m e ca n s e e ver y dif f er en t en v ir o n m en t s. T h e pr o j e ct e xpl o r e s the eme rgen t e ffe cts of en v ir o n m en t o n t h e ev o luti o n o f the l i ne ar s tri p s eco l og i e s . T h i s i s exem p lif ied t h r o u gh t h e co ntr as ti ng La Ni na an d El Nin o cl i m a ti c s cen ar io s. Th ese c o n dit io n s r e s u l t i n e co l o gi e s tha t evolve i n ve ry d i ffe r en t way s. E xt er n ally t h is wi l l r e s ul t i n a s e r i e s of dis tinct e col og i e s i n c lo se p r o xim it y t o o n e an o th e r that h av e th e ab i l ity to re fl e ct t h e e n v ir o n m en t du r in g t h e t im e o f the i r cr e ati o n. Ye t in ter nally wi l l a l l ow th e se d ist in c t ec o lo gies t o c r ea te gr e at v ar i ati o ns in the expe ri e n ce of t h e sam e f o r m . Th e r ep et it iv e fo r m i s what al l o ws the s e s pace s t o d i s p l a y an d r ef lec t ec o lo gic al p r o ce s s e s o v e r ti m e .

12 0

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL » »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

YEAR 140 - IN TERN AL EV C R E FL E C TIO N

121


RETHINK

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

REFORMULATE

02

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

FILT E R ST R I P S - EXT E RNA L I NT E RS E CTION 12 2

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL » »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

Th e pr o po s al r e fl e cts th e s i te opera t ions. E m e r ge nce i s a ke y facto r fo r designing w it h and fo r e v o l u ti o n. E m e r ge nce is “ t he w a y co m pl e x s ys te m s and patte r ns a rise out of a m ul ti p l i ci ty o f r e l ati v e l y s i m pl e int era ct ions” . Th e p r o j e ct atte m pts to ad d r e ss t his t hrough i ts cycl i cal natu r e and r e co gni ses t ha t st a t ic i ns tr u cti v e o u tco m e s ar e no t a pa rt of t he r e s e ar ch appr o ach .

123


RETHINK

01

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

02

T h e projec t d i s cu s s e s h o w t h e p lan t sc h ed u le an d co nse q u e n t i a l ec o lo gic al ev o lu t io n s ca n r e s po n d to u n fo r eseen v ar iat io n s in e n vironme n ts a n d e c o lo gies t h r o u gh it s re sp ons ive a n d d yn a m ic ap p r o ac h t o t h e e v olutio n o f s p a ce .

ECO LOGI C A L D I ST I NCT I ON 12 4

REFORMULATE » »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION


RECLAMATION

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL » »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

Project Conclusion The p r o acti v e and p r e - e m p ti v e ap p r o ach i d e nti fi e s e xi s ti ng o ppo r tu ni ti e s capab l e of ad d r e s s i ng i nd u s tr i al i s s u e s . The p r o p o s al d e s cr i b e s th e p o te nti al o f l and s cape ar ch i te ctur e b e yo nd th e fo r m al q ual i ti e s . I t e xpl o r e s th e r o l e o f th e l and s cape as an e v o l uti o nar y s ys te m of e xch ange s , cycl e s and p r o ce s s e s . Wo r ki ng th r o u gh e xi s ti ng pr o ce s s e s th e p r o p o s al s u gge s ts al te r nati v e s ys te m s , cycl e s and pr o ce s s e s to d i s cu s s an

appr o ach th at moves bey ond Land s cap e ar c hit ect ure a s an afte r tho ught . The resea rch e xam i ne s th e pot ent ia ls of d i v e r ge nce w it hin t he r e s e ar ch and a na ly sis of sit e co nd i ti o ns and sy st ems. The d e s i gn po r tr ays t he pot ent ia l o f s m al l s cale processes i nfo r m i ng v as t c ha nges w it hin the l and s cap e . This “ sma ll s cal e ” r e fe r s not only t o size b ut al s o r e l ati v e simplicit y a nd p e r ce i v e d i m po rt a nce of t hose p r o ce s s e s o r pa rt s of t he l and s cape s ys tem.

125


RETHINK

01

REFORMULATE

02

» »SYSTEMS » »CYCLES » »PROCES SES » »EXTRACTION

» »REHABILITATED? » »MARYVALE FIELD » »WHAT IS LOST? » »EXTRACTION

RESTORATION

03

» »BIO -REGIONS » »VEGETATION CLAS S » »MICRO -CLIMATES » »SUCCES SION

MADDINGLEY COAL MINE

ANGLESEA COAL MINE LOY YANG

MELBOURNE

14

0

28

42

56

HAZELWOOD

145 E

R a ti onal de ci s i on m a k i n g w it h in lan d sc ap e arc hitecture a n d e col og ic al m an agem en t an d pla nning w a s p i on e e r ed by Ian M c Har g throughout h i s t e a ch i n g an d p r o f essio n al practice. D e s i g n i n g wit h sp at ial an d e n vironme n ta l e vol u ti on is an in t egr al co n s ider a ti on of d e s i g n i n g t h r o u gh t im e. T h e Informe d s p e cu l a t io n o n ev o lu t io n re a cts to c on te x t a n d e n v ir o n m en t giv in g a stronge r u n d e rs t a n d i n g o f t h e p o t en t ials of s pa ce cre a t i on ov e r t im e. Th is r esu lt s in mo re con s i d e re d an d ap p r o p r iat e e n vironme n ta l ou t come . T h e des ign for t h e E a st f ield ext en sio n amplifies th e re l a t i on s h i p bet w een n at u r al proces s es a n d m a n - m a d e f o r m s c r eat in g ne tworks of e col og i ca l sp ac es o n ser ies of expa ndi n g s ca l e s . “L an dsc ap e is o n e 12 6

o f t h e m o s t co m pl e x d e s i gn s ub j e cts , c o m bin i ng v ar i o u s natu r al and cu l tur al lay er s wh i ch ar e i n co nti nuo us fl u x” ( P r o m ins ki , 2005, p26) . O ne o f th e elem en ts th at M cHar g’s s o m e wh at p l anar t h in k in g fai l e d to ad d r e s s i s the co m pl e xi ty an d c o nne cti v i ty o f th e v ar yi ng l aye r s o f lan dsc ape and th e i r e ffe ct o n o ne ano the r. Th e p r opo s al m o v e s b e yo nd the d i d acti c, so m et ime s d o gm ati c p r i nci p l e s of Mc Har g to ad d r e s s th e s o ci al , e co no m i c an d p r o gr am m ati c as a co m po ne nt o f th e ec o lo gi cal e v o l u ti o n o f th e d e s i gn. Thi s br eak s th e s e gr e gati o n o f hum ans and n at u r e to v i e w th e m b o th as p ar t o f the ec o lo gi cal pr o ce s s o f s pace .

YALLOURN

LATROBE VALLEY


RECLAMATION

05

» »MACHINERY » »DOMINANCE » »EMERGENCE » »REHABILITATED?

RENEWAL

06

» »TIME SCALES » »ARTIFICIAL ECOLOGY » »REFLECTIVE RECORD » »ADAPTATION

35 30’ E

04

» »INDUSTRY » »CONTEXTS » »CONSERVATION » »RECREATION

RECALIBRATION

145 30’ E

150 E

The r e s e ar ch e xpl o r e s an a pproa ch t o ho w l and s cape ar chi te cture ca n a ddress l ar ge s cal e d e gr ad ati o n t hrough t he M ar yv al e and E as tfi e l d e xt ensions of t he Yal l o ur n m i ne . The appr o ach h as the pot ent ia l for ad aptati o n th r o u gh a s e ries of sca les. The 6 fr am e wo r ks o f t he a pproa ch r e fe r e nce th e po te nt ia l for t he ad aptati o n and r e co ns i dera t ion of t he e xi s ti ng th r o u gh a s e r i e s of sca les. The i nte r v e nti o n i s p r o p o s e d a s pa rt of t he e xtr acti o n p r o ce s s ; al l o w ing pot ent ia l fo r ad aptati o n to ad d r e ss t he mine in i ts e nti r e ty as we l l as o ther coa l mining s i te s and d i v e r s i fi cati on int o ot her i nd us tr i al pr o gr am s th r o ughout L a t robe, Vi cto r i a, and o th e r e xtr ac t ive indust ries. 127


M L A - DESIGN RESEARCH CATALOGUE

P r ev io u s w o r k s h av e b e e n i ncl u d e d to d e s cr i b e the i r in f lu en c e o n t h e de v e l o pm e nt and r e fi ne m e nt o f the ap p r o ac h d isc u ssed. The s e pr o j e cts d e s cr i b e ho w th e ap p r o ac h c an be t r a ns l ate d thr o ugh d i ffe r e nt s co pe s and sit u at io n s. Th e v ar io u s p r o j e cts i ncl ud e d o pe r ate thr o ugh v ar iat io n s in sc ale, co nte xt and i nte nt b ut h av e co m m o n t h r eads t h r o u gh o u t t he i r u nd e r s tand i ng and ap p r o ach. A l l p r o j ec t s in v est igat e th e co nne cti v i ty and co m p l e xi ty o f elem en t s w it h in t h e la nd s cap e . Th e s e p r o j e cts ar e fo cu s s e d o n sim p list ic in t er v enti o ns and the i r p o te nti al e ffe cts wi th i n t h e gr eat er c o n t ext u a l s ys te m . Th ese p r o j ec t s h av e b e e n i ncl u d e d to u nd e r s tand the t r aj ec t o r y o f t h e appr o ach . Th e r e s e ar ch d i s cu s s e s the h o w t h e ap p r o ac h h as the p o te nti al to ad d r e s s i nd us tr i al d egr ad at io n . Th e ap pr o ach o utl i ne d wi l l u nd o u b te d l y change an d adap t bet w een p r o j e cts . Th e wo r ks ar e i nte nd e d to s h o w t h e p o t en t ial o f t h e ap p r o ach to co nti nue to d e v e l o p and q u est io n h o w t h e issue s and o p p o r tuni ti e s wi th i n v ar i o us lan d sc ap es c an be ad d r e s s e d . Th i s i s achi e v e d th r o u gh an u n d er st an d in g o f Land s cap e as a s ys te m co ns i s ti ng o f v ar io u s c y c les, pr o ce s s e s and co m p o ne nts th at ar e in t er r elat ed an d sim u l tane o us l y p r o v i d e fe e d b ack to o ne an o t h er.

128


APPENDICES

07

I N F LUE N T I A L W O R KS KE Y TE R M S REFERENCES B I B LI O GR A P H Y

129


TERRA_LANDER ALTERNATE ECOLOGIES

13 0

an d o r igin al exp er ie nti al j u n c t u r es in t h e lan d sc a pe . Th is h as been exp lo r e d t h r o u gh the idea of ‘E xt im ac y ’ t o o p er at e as an exp er im en t al t es ti ng o f o p p o r t u n it ies o f f er e d by t h e exist in g p r o c ess e s an d by-p r o du c t s o f the h igh ly en gin eer ed ar t if i ci al lan d sc ap e. Th e p r o p o s al i s t o m axim ise t h e ef f ic iency o f t h e in du st r ial lan d scape by u t ilisin g by-p r o ducts o f it s o w n m ak in g to im p r o v e en v ir o n m e ntal issu es, an d c re ate p o t en t ials gen er at ed by i ts p r o du c t iv e p r o c esses.

ACER AUTUMNAL pH REACTION

JACARANDA SPRING pH REACTION

pH LEVELS

T h rough re s e a rch i n g an d unde rs t a n d i n g the proces s es of th e C o al M i n e , Pow e r S ta t i on a n d co oling p on d a g e my in tentio n h a s b e e n t o ce l ebr a te a n d e n h a nc e the a rtif i ci a l e col ogy tha t it ha s cre a t e d . T h e de sign ut i l i s e s p l a n t i ng an d by- p rod u cts fro m the minin g p roce s ses an d powe r p rod u ct i on t o e n ri ch the e n v i ron m en t w hi l s t s i m u l ta n e ou s ly de scribing, d i s p l a yi n g an d a ffe cti n g th e e x i s ti n g s y stems an d p roce s s es. T h i s a uto n om ou s mi c r o e n vironme n t offe rs d i v e rse po ss ibilitie s for fl ora , fa un a

11.0 10.0 9.0 8.0 7.0

HYDRANGEAS YEAR ROUND pH REACTION


TRANSITING_CITIE S THE UNI-CYCLE

» »KEY TERMS » »REFERENCES » »BIBLIOGRAPHY » »INFLUENTIAL WORKS

Lar ge s cal e Latr o b e r e m e d i ati o n p l an. Cl o s i ng the l o o p o n i nd us tr i al cycl e s fo r m axi m um e ffi ci e ncy. B y- p r o d u ct and was te pr o d uct r e appl i cati o n. Se l f r e fl e cti v e s ys te m s o f e co l o gy. P l ant s e l e cti o n r e fl e cts the s ucce s s o f the i nte r v e nti o n as i t e v o l v e s . Cr e ati ng a ne w i d e nti ty fo r Latr o b e . E nv i r o nm e ntal l y d r i v e n I nd u s tr y.

THE UNI-CYCLE MASTERPLAN - NETWORKING INDUSTIRAL WASTE

THE UNI-CYCLECOLLAGE - UTILISING INDUSTRY / INFRASTRUCTURE

6502

4502

2502

0502

8402

6402

4402

2402

0402

8302

6302

4302

2302

0302

8202

6202

4202

2202

0202

8102

6102

4102

2102

REFLECTIVE SYSTEM PLANTING

131


69_70 COMPETITION_VRLA ENTRANT MEMBER TRA N SF O RMABLE MOD U LE S FOR SPAT I A L A CT I VAT I ON

V R LA A d a p t a b l e s i m p list ic in f r ast r u c t u r e t h at can pe r fo r m va ri ou s fu n cti o n s d ec id ed by t h e u ser. The cr e ati o n o f th e s e a s comp o n en t s o f sp ac e t h at ar e re l ate d to o ne a n ot h e r a cross t h e u r ban f abr ic o f Salt Lake Ci ty to cre a te a n e t w o r k o f exc h an ge.

13 2


» »KEY TERMS » »REFERENCES » »BIBLIOGRAPHY » »INFLUENTIAL WORKS

E XTI M A CY: E xti m acy i s the i d e a that complex s ys te m s ar e co m pr i s e d of cod e p e nd e nt i nfl ue nce s . They opera t e b e twe e n th e s ys te m as a w hole, ho we v e r what und e r s to od a s a pa rt a t o ne s cal e m ay b e u nd e r st ood a s t he wh o l e at ano the r s cal e . Ea ch pa rt ha s i ts o wn i d e nti ty, ye t s i m ult a neously o pe r ate s thr o ugh s p e ci fic r e l ati o ns hi ps wi th o the r pa rt s t o inform th e wh o l e . Who l e , Par ts a nd cont ext ar e e xti m ate wi th o ne anot her even a s e ach e xce e d s th e o th e r. Ext ima cy is a s ys te m o f i nfl ue nce b e tween pa rt s a nd wh o l e . ( P hi l i p B e as l e y) 133


HYBRID LANDSCAPE ELEMENTAL CHANGE 5.00pm

6.00pm

+

7.00pm +

5.30pm

ZONE 1 ENTRANTS TIME

6.30pm

+

+

+

+

ZONE 2 ENTRANTS TIME

+

+

EXISTING CONDITIONS

x0

x 5-10

x 25+

x 25+

x 10+

ANALYSIS DIAGRAM

DESIGNING THE ATMOSPHERIC - INSTALLATION T h e pr ojec t w a s i n t e n d e d t o r u n as a tempora l te s ti n g g rou n d f o r t h e e ff ect o f th e a tmos p h e ri c an d h o w e x ti macy m i g h t w ork i n t h e f o r m o f e l e menta l c h a n g e . T h e c o n c ep t o f the pr oject i s to m a k e one sim p le cha nge to a s p a ce to t e s t t h e t h eo r y of e xtima cy a n d t h e i d e a o f r u n -o n e ff ects in sp a ce . T h i s diagr a m ( b ot t om l e f t ) w as a proj e ctio n of w h a t t h e p r o j ec t c o u ld be . T he ide a of t h e i n s t allat io n w as in tended to d e p i ct th e fr am ew o r k s o f cha os a nd e x ti m a cy a n d sh o w h o w m uch po te n ti a l l i e s i n s i m p le design de c is io ns . T h i s d i a g ra m desc r ibes w ha t i am r e fe rri n g t o a s t h e in it ial s p a rk for th e a tmos p h e ri c c o n d it io n to then dev e l op from . T h e diagr am s s h o ws the p ote n t i a l s e ri es o f so c ial an d eco lo g i ca l re a cti on s f r o m o n e cha nge to t h e “a t m os p h e r ic ” .

13 4

+

x 10 +

+

+

+ +

x

n

xn

x

n

xn

+

DESIGN DIAGRAM


THE UNI-CYCLE NETWORKED INDUSTRIES

STEP_01

1892

STEP_02

» »KEY TERMS » »REFERENCES » »BIBLIOGRAPHY » »INFLUENTIAL WORKS

STEP_03

STEP_04

STEP_05

STEP_06

2013

THE EVOLUTION OF A UNICYCLE The e v o l uti o n o f the Uni -Cy cle ha s s e e n p r acti cal l y no ch anges bey ond i t’s m ate r i al i ty s i nce i t’s origina l cr e ati o n i n 1892. Th i s i s beca use it ’s d e s i gn i s b as e d o n ab s olut e necessit y. E v e r y co m p o ne nt i s co mplet ely e s s e nti al and al l par ts s imult a neously pr o v i d e fe e d b ack to o ne-a not her. Thi s i d e a o f the Uni - Cycle ha s been i ncl ud e d as a pr e ce d e nt t o t he ap p r o ach. M y i nte nti o n for t he project i s to q ue s ti o n h o w th e i ndividua l linea r s ys te m s i n o u r i nd u s tr i al la ndsca pes co ul d b e r e - wo r ke d to crea t e a unified ne two r k o f e xchange . 135


BIBLIOGRAPHY / REFERENCES

TEXT

WEB REFERENCES

OTHER

» D e sig n in g Landscape s as Evo l u ti o nar y Sys tem s .Martin P romi nski, 2 0 0 5 , p 2 6 , p 3 0 , p.32, p33

» http ://w w w.w o rldc o a l. o r g / c o a lthe-envi r o nm e n t / c o a l- min in g - t h e envi r o nm ent/

» E c o-res t o rati on of a high-s u l p h ur co a l m in e o ve rburde n dump i ng s i te i n n or t h eas t India: A case stud y, J D o w ar ah , H P Deka B oruah, J Gogoi , N Pathak , N Sa i kia an d A K Handique

» http ://w w w.d p i. v ic . g o v. a u / e a rt h r es o u r ces /coa l

» Go u r me t Fa r me r, S e a s o n 1 » h t t p : / / me dia . t h e a g e . c o m. a u/ex ecu tiv es t y le / s t riv e / t h e - b ig - b u s in e s s -of- sav ing t h e - p la n e t- 4 15 75 43 . h t ml DO R J EE S UN » Th e B u rn in g S e a s o n , Do c u m entary,2 0 1 0 » Th e Du s t b o w l Do c u me n t a r y, 2 0 1 2

» T h e La n d s cape Urbanism R ead er, Ja m es C o rn e r, 2006, p.23) » U ncert a in Parks: Disturbe d s i te, C i t i zen s , a n d Ri sk Soci e ty, El i z ab eth K . M eyer, 2006, p.60) » Te n Prin cipl e s for the Tre atm ent o f Po s t M i n i n g L an dscape s, Brigitte Sch o l z » Pro gram m ing the ur ba n Sur fa ce, Alex Wa ll, 2 008, p.233) » » M i ch ael Van Va lk e nburg h Asso ciates, R econ s truc t ing Ur ba n La n d sca p es. New Haven: Ya le Unive rsit y Press. p. 7 » »M e gan B or n, 2012, Dir t, MIT Press, Pen n s yl va nia .

13 6

» http ://w w w.u n it y min in g . c o m. a u / » http ://tr ar alg o n s o u t h e n v ir o n me n t . w o r d p r es s .com » http ://w w w.i a s . a c . in / je s s / o c t 20 09 / d8 je 4 6 .p d f - th e m in e re s t o r a t io n in in dia » p er m acu l tur e - h t t p : / / d eep gr eenp e r ma c u lt u re . c o m/ p er m ac ul tur e / p e r ma c u lt u re - de s ig n p r i nci p l es /8 -a c c e le r a t in g - s u c c e s s io n and -evo l uti o n / » »http ://w w w.g e o f f la w t o n . c o m/ s q/ 15 44 9geo f f-l aw t o n » »http ://m i l kw o o dp e rma c u lt u re . c o m. a u / » »http ://w w w.e n e r g y a n dre s o u r c e s . vi c . go v. a u / _ _ da t a / a s s e t s / p df _ f i l e/0 0 0 6 / 3 75 18 / B r o w n - C o a l- 05 07 10 . pdf » »http ://r egen a g . c o m/ w e b /

» TE DTa lk s A la n S a v o ry - h t t p ://w w w.ted. c o m/ t a lk s / a lla n _ s a v o r y _ h o w _to_g reen_ t h e _ w o rld_ s _ de s e rt s _ a n d_ re verse_ c lima t e _ c h a n g e . h t ml » Ge o f f La w t o n , Gr e e n in g t h e Desert h t t p : / / t v. n a t u r a ln e w s . c o m/ v. » » A n e v e n in g w it h A la n S a v o r y. Reg enag / M ilk w o o d p e rma c u lt u re lectu re and w o rk s h o p w it h A la n S a v ory


» »KEY TERMS » »REFERENCES » »BIBLIOGRAPHY » »INFLUENTIAL WORKS

PRECE DENT REFERENCES

MINE RESEARCH

» ht t p: / / w ww.iba-se e 2010 . d e/en/

» T R U ener g y Ya llo u rn S o c ia l a n d Envi r o nm e n t a l Pe rf o rma n c e S u mma r y, 2011

» ht t p: / / w ww.fie ldope rati o ns .net/ » ht t p: / / w ww.dothe gre e n th i ng.co m /bl o g/ card bo a rd_to_cav i ar

» Co al Mi n in g H e rit a g e S t u dy » Ear th On A c id, 20 12

» ht t p: / / w ww.mvv ai nc.co m /p r o j ect. php? id=13

» Yal l o ur n C o a l F ie ld R e - a lig n me n t P ro je c t Envi r o nm e n t R e p o r t , 20 10

» ht t p: / / w ww.landscape - ar ch i tects . eu /

» Ec o l o gi c a l A s s e s s me n t : Ya llo u rn c o a l f i el d d eve lo p me n t , M a ry v a le F ie ld E a s t e rn Extens i o n , 2 00 8

» ht t p: / / w ww.ce rre jon.com /s i te/engl i s h/

» T R U ener g y S u s t a in a b ilit y R e p o rt , 20 12 » L atr o b e Va lle y 2 10 0 C o a l R e s o u r c e s P r o j ec t, 2 00 5

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