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CHARLIE ALLEN S3197401

URBAN CATALYST

ADAPTIVE FRAMEWORKS FDESIGN O RRESEARCH U R BCATALOGUE A N A -CMLAT I V AT I O N


URBAN CATALYST

ADAPTIVE FRAMEWORKS FDESIGN O RRESEARCH U R BCATALOGUE A N A -CMLAT I V AT I O N


“Central Christchurch will become the thriving heart of an international city. It will draw on its rich natural and cultural heritage, and the skills and passion of its people, to embrace opportunities for innovation and growth through a adaptive approach. It is through local communities that resilience is built in response to a city that is in a contant state of transition.� CHARLES ALLEN


CHAPTER 04

DEMOLITION

60

Initiate..................................................68 CHAPTER 01

INTRODUCTION

6

Preface..............................................6 Introduction........................................8 Approach............................................10 Precedents......................................14 Glossary of terms................................16 CHAPTER 02

THE PROBLEM

18

Damage + Effects................................18 Effects...............................................22 CBD physical damage.........................26

IMAGE SOURCE_ buildingguide.co.nz

CHAPTER 03

THE OPPORTUNITY

Mobalize.............................................................69 Reinstate.............................................................70 Reuse // Recover.................................................74

32

Why recover.........................................34 Christchuch Recovery Plan...................36 Reaction against // reaction with...........37 Design Principles.................................40 Vision / goals........................................44 Stakeholders......................................44 Typologies of temporary space..........46 Clusters of temporary use................50 Shifting urban condition........................52 Recovery approach..............................58

Enable.................................................80 Sidewalk.............................................................81 Mobile Garden....................................................82 Parallel Park........................................................83

CHAPTER 05

RESTORATION

CHAPTER 06

RECONSTRUCTION

Coach................................................132

Confine + Connect............................................134

Support...........................................138

Integrate............................................................139 (Re)form.............................................................140

CHAPTER 07

CONCLUSION

88

Claim..................................................98

Evolving Green Space.........................................99 (Re)Assemble....................................................112

Formalse...........................................114

Pop-Up Laneway...............................................115 Pavement to Plaza.............................................120

124

148

Conclusion.........................................150 CHAPTER 08

APENDIX OF MISUNDERSTOOD EXPLORATIONS Overview............................................152 Apendix.............................................154 References / bibliography...................164


CHARLIE ALLEN s3197401 MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE PROJECT B_2013 DESIGN RESEARCH CATALOGUE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE + DESIGN RMIT UNIVERSITY

PRE FACE

URBAN CATALYST Adaptive Frameworks For Urban Activation

RQ

How can transitional strategies activate the urban landscape of the disaster prone environment of Christchurch in order to aid it’s recovery and potentially to reconsider it’s future? ‘Transitional’ can be defined as the passage from one form, state, style, or place to another. It is a series of sentences connecting one part of a discourse to another.

This research investigates the opportunities presented in a disaster prone environment in order to design strategies to activate the urban landscape. Drawing upon a bottom-up approach, this research looks for ways to generate an adaptive and dynamic landscape that supports the shifting needs of the affected areas as it moves through the recovery phase. ‘Temporary Use’ becomes the motor for urban transformation, generating a city that is potentially never fully recovered. The earthquake that devastated Christchurch in 2011 was one of the nation’s deadliest peacetime disasters, causing widespread damage across the central city and Canterbury region. Following the earthquake 80% of the buildings have been removed, leaving large vacant and under utilized spaces across the shattered city. The central city is currently experiencing a succession of phases, from demolition to reconstruction. The current approach for redeveloping the city invites communities to engage in a process that is fundamentally broken, rather than being asked to contribute to incremental change at the neighborhood scale, residence are asked to react to proposals they don’t understand, and at a scale for which they have little control. This challenges the idea that development can be a deliberate, phased approach that brings on a new form of ‘temporary urbanism’ that investigates change through an innovative, responsive and collaborative approach to design.

URBAN 8 CATALYST

The ability of this city to adapt to the challenges it has faced may go beyond the issues of urban planning, but further, provide the opportunity to test new ideas and concepts that will enhance its future development, aid it’s recovery and subsequently inform new ways of relating to the central city. The aim of this research is to develop transitional networks that can be formed within communities and which work to build resilience in response to economic instability. My approach for redeveloping the city follows 3 phases of demolition, restoration and reconstruction, which embodies temporary strategies. This creates adaptive frameworks, which respond to changing circumstances and that allows the city to be in a constant state of transition. Each framework is made up of a series of temporary strategies, which move through different urban spaces, activating encounters between people and challenging everyday life practices. Key words: Christchurch – disaster – temporary urbanism – transition – catalyst – urban activation – future growth – landscape – strategies – adaptation

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INTRODUCTION

My intention from the outset of this research was to investigate how I can develop a design practice by understanding how temporary use can inform new ways of urban development. I believe that informal activation gives a city its identity through the social and cultural programs that occur after a disaster event. The project engages the City of Christchurch as the laboratory for this approach. The research investigates the idea of temporary urbanism as the catalyst for reactivating vacant and under-utilized sites around the central city. The designs aim to reconnect business and people through a responsive and collaborative approach to help form a new urban model for developing cities. The research aims to generate networks for social, cultural and economic recovery through the urban environment, which aims to reinstate stability for everyday life. This research has emerged from a strong interest in environmental conditions, post-disaster design and the landscape architecture systems of time, space and cycle. The initial driver of this research came about after experiencing the Japan 311 earthquake and tsunami first hand in 2012. This experience framed my thinking how community resilience can build frameworks for urban activation in a disaster prone environment. Through this research the approach begins to form a set of strategies that aim to develop adaptive frameworks for future growth. Through each of the strategies, the research investigates different lenses of temporary cycles, looking at a range of spaces over time, which aims to inform new conditions that are responsive to disaster events. Recovery strategies can be organized into typical phases of demolition, restoration and reconstruction that indicate what to expect as the community moves from the emergency response to longer-term recovery. If there is another earthquake at any point, the strategies are set in place to deal with immediate recovery needs and are adaptable to ground conditions. Through the idea of temporary urbanism, the research provides an opportunity to test new ideas and concepts and apply them to a real life crisis scenario in Christchurch. The research will not only aim to help revitalize urban spaces, but further, have a lasting impact on the reconnection of communities and people that live and work there.

CHRISTCHURCH

PEOPLE

PROGRAM

_PROJECT TIME LINE STAGE 01

STAGE 02

STAGE 03

(FEBRUARY - JUNE)

(JUNE / JULY)

(JULY - NOVEMBER)

- APPLICATION OF THREE ANCHOR SITES -SPECULATIONS

- ON SITE TESTING AND EXPLORING IN CHRISTCHURCH

- APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT OF STRATEGIES

PLACE

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The ‘strategies’ reflect the community’s wishes for the central city. They replace facilities that have been destroyed, stimulate other development, attract people, and aim to regenerate and improve the urban form of the city. Each ‘strategy’ has the potential to discover new urban patterns of growth and form social networks. This will inform new ways for people to relate to the city and add to the public and cultural identity that once existed.

THE PROBLEM

DEMOLITION

THE OPPORTUNITY

STREET / PEDESTRIAN / CIRCULATION / ACCESS

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DAMAGE + EFFECTS

CHRISTCHURCH

SHIFTING URBAN CONDITION

FEBRUARY 2011 EARTHQUAKE

INITIATE MOBILIZE

RECONSTRUCTION

RECREATION / COMMUNITY

ECONOMIC

REINSTATE

COACH

EVOLVING GREEN SPACE

REUSE//RECOVER

(RE) ASSEMBLE

NP LIA TRA

+

EVALUATION

CHRISTCHURCH

= HUMAN SCALE

LARGE SCALE FRAMEWORK

POSITIVE - Chance to rebuild urban strategy

INFRASTRUCTURE

RETHINKING THE CITY

REACTION AGAINST // REACTION WITH traditional urban development

- Bring community closer - New Identity for the city

ENABLE

END RESULT EXTENT OF EXISITNG CBD

HOW IT CAN BE ACHIEVED?

NEGATIVE EXTENT OF PROPOSED CBD

SIDEWALK

FORMALISE MOBILE GARDEN

POP-UP LANEWAY

PARALLEL PARK

EXPLOIT PAVEMENT TO PLAZA

- Loss of lives / buildings

HOW IT CAN BE ACHIEVED?

- Reduces local character

(RE) FORM

REFLECTION

END RESULT

INFORMS NEW URBAN CONDITION

DESIGN PRINCIPLES: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES

STRATEGIES - DYNAMIC AND OPEN - ADAPTABLE IN RESPONSE TO CHANGING CIRCUMSTANCES. - UNDERSTANDING POTENTIALS - SHAPING FORM TO MAXIMISE EFFECTS

URBAN CATALYST Adaptive Frameworks for Urban Activation

How can transitional strategies activate the urban landscape and contribute to the resilience of the disaster prone environment of Christchurch to aid it’s recovery and potentially reconsider it’s future?

URBAN CATALYST

INTEGRATE

transitional urban development

- Cost of rebuild

12

CONFINE + CONNECT

LATE

- Environmental conditions - Post-disaster design - Japan 311 - Landscape architecture systems time, space + cycle - Temporary Urbanism (bottom-up)

RESTORATION CLAIM

US

The process I have used to investigate how temporary use can appropriate spaces is through the use of urban strategies, which attempts to develop adaptive frameworks for future growth. These frameworks aim to build stability in local economic structure and reconnect people with the urban environment. The process of strategies are adaptable to different urban conditions which allows a flexible and responsive city that is able to deal with challenges it is faced.

APPROACH

O-A

This diagram acts as a navigational tool for this research, which outlines the approach and strategies used to investigate the city of Christchurch to reactivate the urban landscape. The current research explores the positive and negative aspects of the disaster that has caused wide spread damage across the city. Using the cycles of events over the last 2 years as the opportunity to rethink and reactivate the city for individuals, residents and tourists.

IND

RESEARCH STRUCTURE

RULES: utilise unused + vacant space

integrated transportation

create nodes of program

re-appropriation of form

environmental condition

relationship to context

active + passive

green space

intimate public space

REACTS TO

URBAN CATALYST

13

URBAN CATALYST

14

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The research investigates my interest of reactivating cities that have vacant or under-utilised urban spaces from ‘YEAR ZERO’. It may form similarity with cities that experience urban change with result from the death of an industry, like that of the American motor industry in the city of Detroit. This page shows some of my precedent interests in landscape architecture and how their thinking has framed my approach for design. This has helped to develop an approach for resilience strategies for large and small-scale interventions.

PEOPLE

Le Corbusier

PROJECTS

PARC DE LA VILLETTE | BERNARD TSCHUMI Tschumi did not design the park in a traditional mindset where landscape and nature are the predominant forces behind the design. Rather he envisioned Parc de la Villette as a place of culture into a state of constant reconfiguration.

LOUIS HAY - TIN TOWN, NAPIER

Louis Hay, one of the architects responsible for the rebuilding of Napier into Tin Town, a temporary shopping precinct after the M7.8 earthquake of 1931. Faced, like Christchurch, with the wholesale rebuilding of the city centre.

THE SPONTANEOUS CITY The process of ‘The Spontaneous City’ became a powerful inspiration to my project in the early stages. The idea that inhabitants are dealt in a never ending process of transformation and adaptation to accommodate the contemporary culture. This made me think about how temporary activation can become more long term and have a greater impact on the city. The diagram to the right looks at the urban functions and cycles of everyday life and how that is constantly changing.

LITERATURE

PROJECT JAPAN REBUILDING / REIMAGINING THE NATION

The Metabolist movement within Japan provided a built framework for a new urban thinking initiative during the 1960/70’s. This mindset has been used as a way to approach the rebuild after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami that affected 500 towns and villages along the southeast coastline of Japan. This reading was a way for me to compare and contrast the damage and rebuild approach with that of Christchurch. Koolhaas, R, & Obrist, H.U. (2011). Project Japan: Metabolism Talks.pp 660-698

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Jan Gael

Rem Koolhaas

BRUCE MAO WITH REM KOOLHAAS - OMA DOWNSVIEW PARK PROGRAM DIAGRAM

OMA Downsview Park program diagram creates a framework through which a landscape or city is allowed to incrementally develop. Current trends tend to focus on designs that can operate at a variety of scales.

PUBLIC FARM ONE, NEW YORK WORK ARCHITECTURE COMPANY This temporary installation is an attempt to bring the qualities of the countryside into the city, by growing fruit and vegetables in large cardboard tubes above a communal area. The space became so successful that is was made a permanent fixture for the city.

CHRISTCHURCH: LIVING IN LANDSCAPE - JOHN WALSH

A

CRISIS

This reading discusses the physical and emotional effects of dealing with the disaster after the Christchurch Earthquake of 2010 and 2011. The reading helped me to understand the extend of damage, not only to the CBD but to the thousands of people that have lost there homes, businesses and each other during this thematic event. It raises the question now whether people have the courage to stay and rebuild or simply pack their bags and leave.

Bernard Tschumi

James Corner

THE ABANDONED CITY OF DETROIT

The study of abandonment must convene upon Detroit at one point or another. No other city has undergone such a dramatic level of population decline, abandonment, and urban decay over the past few decades. The city is a case study for methods of dealing with shrinking cities.

WILLIAM H. WHYTE SOCIAL LIFE OF SMALL URBAN PLACES

TEMPORARY LANDSCAPES - JAMES MAYO

This reading started my thinking of temporary as more than just a short term installation. It made me realise that temporary projects are an integral part to the system of the city and landscape. The reading also helped me look at temporary spaces in different time scales from a day, week or year. Mayo, P (2009). Journal of Architecture and Planning research. pp 125 - 135

Walsh, J (2011). Christchurch: Living in a Crisis Landscape. TOPOS. Vol 76, pp 86-89

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS

DESIGN ACTION

Below are a list of key terms which are relevant to the process of my design research

CATALYST / cat·a·lyst One that precipitates a process or event, especially without being involved in or changed by the consequences

TEMPORARY / tem·po·rar·y Lasting for only a limited period of time. Passage from one form, state, style, or place to another.

DISASTER / dis·as·ter An occurrence causing widespread destruction and distress; a catastrophe

ADAPTATION / ad·ap·ta·tion To make suitable to or fit for a specific use or situation.

Temporary aspects which generates activation based on ground condition Mobile and pop-up structures which transition around the city activating encounters with people and challenge everyday life practices

strategies become responsive to ground condition

The process of urban spaces becomming adjusted to new condition

RESILIENCE / re·sil·ience Resilience is the term often used to describe the process of helping communities to be better prepared to withstand and rapidly recover post shock or event.

BOTTOM-UP / bott·om Up Of an approach to a problem that begins with details and works up to the highest conceptual level.

STRATEGY / strat·e·gy A plan of action or policy designed to achieve a major or overall aim.

STAKEHOLDER / stake·hold·er A person or group that has interest or concern in an organisation or project

INFRASTRUCTURE / in·fra·struc·ture URBAN 18 CATALYST

The basic physical and organizational structures and facilities needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.

Recovery actions through temporary urbanism

Involvement from multiple individuals on a local scale rather than one large-scale guiding principle

Support in the recovery of the urban landscape

Individuals and agencies that assist in the process of redeveloping the city

The social and economic infrastructure of a city including buildings, roads and power supply

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(02) APPROACH

THE PROBLEM

DEMOLITION

THE OPPORTUNITY

RESTORATION

STREET / PEDESTRIAN / CIRCULATION / ACCESS

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DAMAGE + EFFECTS

CHRISTCHURCH

SHIFTING URBAN CONDITION

FEBRUARY 2011 EARTHQUAKE

INITIATE MOBILIZE

ECONOMIC

CLAIM REINSTATE

COACH

EVOLVING GREEN SPACE

REUSE//RECOVER

(RE) ASSEMBLE

CONFINE + CONNECT

-AUS

TRAL

IAN

PLAT

E

- Environmental conditions - Post-disaster design - Japan 311 - Landscape architecture systems time, space + cycle - Temporary Urbanism (bottom-up)

RECONSTRUCTION

RECREATION / COMMUNITY

INDO

+

EVALUATION

CHRISTCHURCH

= HUMAN SCALE

LARGE SCALE FRAMEWORK

POSITIVE - Chance to rebuild urban strategy

INFRASTRUCTURE

RETHINKING THE CITY

REACTION AGAINST // REACTION WITH traditional urban development

- Bring community closer - New Identity for the city

END RESULT EXTENT OF EXISITNG CBD

HOW IT CAN BE ACHIEVED?

NEGATIVE EXTENT OF PROPOSED CBD

ENABLE SIDEWALK

FORMALISE MOBILE GARDEN

POP-UP LANEWAY

PARALLEL PARK

EXPLOIT PAVEMENT TO PLAZA

INTEGRATE

(RE) FORM

transitional urban development

- Loss of lives / buildings

HOW IT CAN BE ACHIEVED?

- Reduces local character - Cost of rebuild

REFLECTION

END RESULT

INFORMS NEW URBAN CONDITION

DESIGN PRINCIPLES: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES

STRATEGIES - DYNAMIC AND OPEN - ADAPTABLE IN RESPONSE TO CHANGING CIRCUMSTANCES. - UNDERSTANDING POTENTIALS - SHAPING FORM TO MAXIMISE EFFECTS

RULES: utilise unused + vacant space

integrated transportation

create nodes of program

re-appropriation of form

active + passive

environmental condition

relationship to context

intimate public space

REACTS TO

green space

THE PROB LEM damage + effects

CHAPTER 02


THE PROBLEM The February 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a powerful natural event that severely damaged New Zealand’s second-largest city, killing 185 people in one of the nation’s deadliest disasters. The magnitude 6.3 earthquake struck the Canterbury region in New Zealand’s South Island at 12:51 pm on Tuesday, 22 February 2011. The earthquake brought down many buildings previously damaged in the September 2010 earthquake, especially older brick and mortar buildings. Much of this rubble can be recycled for street pavements, elements, furniture and new buildings in the future.

The city’s population has declined by 13,500, or 3.6 per cent, from the 380,000 people it had before the 6.3-magnitude earthquake. Some have left by choice; others because they had nowhere left to live and work. 40% of businesses left the central city for the outer suburbs, it is through this research that it aims to re-establish economic structure and everyday life back in the central city. The central city is the heart of Christchurch and use to provide a strong commercial and cultural core with less dense surrounding areas of residential, educational, industrial, and green open space. The earthquakes have provided an unprecedented opportunity to rethink, revitalize and renew central Christchurch. The area can be built back better than it was before, increasing its value to the wider city, the Canterbury region, and New Zealand as a whole. IMAGE SOURCE_ http://0.tqn.com/d/architecture/1/0/ w/y/Christchurch-Earthquake-LG.jpg

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XXXL

XXL

SOUTH ISLAND, NEW ZEALAND

The earthquake was centered 10 kilometers southeast of the center of Christchurch. The earthquake occurred during lunchtime, when many people were on the city streets. Due to the geographical location of Christchurch, the city is quite

CANTERBURY REGION

9.5 CHILE

9.2 U.S.A

INDONESA 9.1

9.0 JAPAN

6.3 CHCH

Over 400 aftershocks of a magnitude of 3.5 or greater occurred since the 2010 quake.

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CHRISTCHURCH CITY

M

INNER CITY

CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT

ESTIMATED AGE OF THE HARDEST HIT POPULATION

CHRISTCHURCH_NEW ZEALAND

One of the nation’s deadliest peacetime disasters ever recorded

L

susceptible to earthquakes making the implementation of built infrastructure challenging. A design that is both transitional and adaptable in response to changing conditions creates a framework that is self-sufficient.

THE EARTHQUAKE

MAGNITUDE

XL

AGES 0-9

AGES 10-19

16.2% GEOPHYSICAL IMPACT

THE TSUNAMI

Initial reports suggest the earthquake occurred at a depth of

3.5 m (11 ft) tsunami waves in Tasman Lake, following quaketriggered glacier calving from

5kms

LIQUEFACTION Soil liquefaction and surface flooding also occurred. Road surfaces were forced up by liquefaction, and water and sand were spewing out of cracks

10 kilometres south-east of the centre of Christchurch. Revealed a previously unknown faultline running 17 km east-west from Scarborough Hill in South Eastern Christchurch to Halswell, at depths of 3–12 km

BUILDING DAMAGE

80%

of the buildings in Christchurch’s Central Business District are to be demolished. 100,000 houses in the city have been damaged and 10,000 houses are to be demolished.

23.8%

AGES 20-39

30.4%

AGES 40-59

AGES 60+

24.5%

5.1% HARDEST HIT POPULATION

1102

1618

40% < 20 years old

2068

1666

367,700

DEATHS

Power had been restored to 82% of households within five days

INJURED

6,800

6,800

DAMAGES + EFFECTS

CASUALTIES

185

347

Homes without electricity

51,520

Homes without water

103,810

Homes damaged

ESTIMATED ECONOMIC LOSS

$52-61 BILLION DOLLARS

The total cost to insurers of rebuilding alone has been estimated at NZ$15 billion

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IND

O-A US TRA LI A NP LAT E

Figure 01: _2011 EARTHQUAKE AFTERSHOCKS

POSSIBLE NEW FAULT LINE

10 km

3.0 - 3.9 4.0 - 4.9 5.0 - 5.9

5 mi

AFTERSHOCKS FROM 23/12/2011

AFTERSHOCKS 22/02/11 - 13/06/11

AFTERSHOCKS 13/06/11 - 22/12/11

AFTERSHOCKS 04/09/10 - 22/02/11 POSSIBLE NEW FAULT LINE

CHRISTCHURCH

Figure 02:

_AREAS WITHOUT POWER AT 1.3.11

Figure01: This plan shows the extent of the aftershocks around the Canterbury area. As a result of the 2010 + 2011 earthquakes a new fault line as emerged running west towards the existing Indo-Australian plate.

EPICENTER 22 FEBRUARY 2011 MAGNITUDE: 6.3

EPICENTER 4 SEPTEMBER 2010 MAGNITUDE: 7.0

Figure02: Diagram expressing the areas without power 2 weeks after the 2011 quake. 4

URBAN 26 CATALYST

6

8

SCALE:

POWER RESTORED

1 km

NO POWER

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PHYSICAL DAMAGE

The plan to the left shows the amount of damage that was caused to the CBD of Christchurch. The red dashed line is indicative of the cordon off area after the 2011 quake. This plan was done as a way of understanding the transformation the city has gone through, in terms of buildings to be retained and removed. This revealed the extent of Vacant lots and the potential to (re)develop, now and in future.

VACANT SITES

76%

BUILDINGS TO BE RESTORED

8.5%

VICTORIA SQUARE

15.5% REMAINING BUILDINGS

WORCESTER PARK CHRISTCHURCH CATHEDRAL

COLOMBO STREET REDEVELOPMENT

Re:START MALL

TEMPORARY ACCOMMODATION

AVON RIVER

IMAGE SOURCE_ news.com.au

N LEGEND:

Wednesday 13/03

CBD RED ZONE BOUNDARY BUILDINGS TO BE RETAINED BUILDINGS TO BE REMOVED RUBBLE CARPARKING OPEN SPACE

T

Transitional Landscapes

ST A shift in re-stabilisation of resilient communities How can the discipline of Landscape Architecture

RQ provide a transitional approach for reconstructing urban spaces within disaster stricken cities?

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ROAD AND BRIDGE CLOSURES AT 1.3.11

CHRISTCHURCH POPULATION DEMOGRAPHIC 1996

35,000

2006

2016

2026

2031

Residential Population

30,000

25,000

20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

0 85+

80-84

75-79

70-74

65-69

60-64

55-59

50-54

45-49

40-44

35-39

30-34

25-29

20-24

15-19

10-14

5-9

0-4

Age groups

Figure 01: The photos to the right show the spatial conditions of the CBD before and after the earthquake.

CBD CORDON REDUCTION PLANS

FEBRUARY 2011

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FEBRUARY 2012

APRIL 2013

URBAN 31 CATALYST


â&#x20AC;&#x153;

We are more aware than ever that cities are, like life, always transitional. We have been offered an extraodinary opportunity to embrace this impermanence and find original, economic, and appropriate solutions to the very real challenges we all face. â&#x20AC;? Barnaby Bennett 2012

URBAN 32 CATALYST

IMAGE SOURCE_ keithwoodford.wordpress.com

URBAN 33 CATALYST


(03) APPROACH

THE PROBLEM

DEMOLITION

THE OPPORTUNITY

RESTORATION

STREET / PEDESTRIAN / CIRCULATION / ACCESS

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DAMAGE + EFFECTS

CHRISTCHURCH

SHIFTING URBAN CONDITION

FEBRUARY 2011 EARTHQUAKE

INITIATE MOBILIZE

ECONOMIC

CLAIM REINSTATE

COACH

EVOLVING GREEN SPACE

REUSE//RECOVER

(RE) ASSEMBLE

CONFINE + CONNECT

-AUS

TRAL

IAN

PLAT

E

- Environmental conditions - Post-disaster design - Japan 311 - Landscape architecture systems time, space + cycle - Temporary Urbanism (bottom-up)

RECONSTRUCTION

RECREATION / COMMUNITY

INDO

+

EVALUATION

CHRISTCHURCH

= HUMAN SCALE

LARGE SCALE FRAMEWORK

POSITIVE - Chance to rebuild urban strategy

INFRASTRUCTURE

RETHINKING THE CITY

REACTION AGAINST // REACTION WITH traditional urban development

- Bring community closer - New Identity for the city

END RESULT EXTENT OF EXISITNG CBD

HOW IT CAN BE ACHIEVED?

NEGATIVE EXTENT OF PROPOSED CBD

ENABLE SIDEWALK

FORMALISE MOBILE GARDEN

POP-UP LANEWAY

PARALLEL PARK

EXPLOIT PAVEMENT TO PLAZA

INTEGRATE

(RE) FORM

transitional urban development

- Loss of lives / buildings

HOW IT CAN BE ACHIEVED?

- Reduces local character - Cost of rebuild

REFLECTION

END RESULT

INFORMS NEW URBAN CONDITION

DESIGN PRINCIPLES: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES

STRATEGIES - DYNAMIC AND OPEN - ADAPTABLE IN RESPONSE TO CHANGING CIRCUMSTANCES. - UNDERSTANDING POTENTIALS - SHAPING FORM TO MAXIMISE EFFECTS

RULES: utilise unused + vacant space

integrated transportation

create nodes of program

re-appropriation of form

active + passive

environmental condition

relationship to context

intimate public space

REACTS TO

green space

THE OPPORT UNITY rethinking the city

CHAPTER 03


Wednesday 10/04

T

WHY RECOVER?

Year Zero_Public Catalyst

ST Enriching a transition overtime The central city is the heart of greater Christchurch. Although the earthquakes caused widespread damage, the city’s physical and social infrastructure remains strong. Proposals to relocate the city center elsewhere, to avoid future damage, were considered both uneconomical and unnecessary.

How can transition be used as a design tool or

RQ catalyst for improving urban spaces within disaster stricken cities?

A thriving, vibrant central city is critical to the recovery of greater Christchurch. City centers are engines of productivity and innovation, because the higher density of people and businesses makes sharing ideas and establishing connections easier, encourages competition, and reduces some of the costs of doing business. The dislocation of businesses following the February 2011 earthquake has already had a substantial cost to the economy, with preliminary estimates suggesting that the lack of a central city is costing the New Zealand economy between $200 and $400 million per year.

1909

HISTORY OF CHRISTCHURCH

1880 1867

godley statue unveiled on present site

1855

square reserve transferred to church property trustees

christchurch founded

first trams (steam) ran from square to railway station

1866

bank of new zealand opened on hereford st / cathedral square site

1864

commercial hotel opened

first electric trams run in christchurch

cathedral chambers built

fourth floor added to warners hotel

1962

square is used as a road intersection

1932

1917

liberty cinema built in warners hotel

womens rest room opened

1963

1937

1900

1925

1881

christchurch cathedral consecrated

1878

first dalgetys building erected in square facing hereford st

1882

chancery lane put through square

1906 1901

extentions to post office + Bank buildings

new warners hotel opened

1915

1924

colonial lane formed everybody’s theatre opened

1972

all roads into square closed

bank of new zealand demolished

war memorial unveiled

footpaths were laid and sealed, and a cabstand was installed

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1905

1885

1875

1850

1849

1910

central post office opened

site for square set aside for educational + ecclesiastical purposes

My approach for redeveloping the city follows 3 phases of demolition, restoration and reconstruction, which embodies temporary strategies. These phases indicate what to expect as the community moves from emergency response to longer-term recovery. Working with a bottom-up approach to redevelop the city enables a community lead approach that is dictated by the needs for the people that live and work there. “temporary solutions are immensely valuable because they promote experimentation and innovation; provide opportunities to do something useful; and importantly, temporary activities help balance the hasty demand for progress with the time needed for careful planning” (Valance, 2012, p.402) The identity of the urban landscape will redevelop as strategies are situated to reinstate business and peoples reconnection to the city.

christchurch press building opened

1879 1851

The central city was also the location for many social, cultural and recreational facilities that helped to make greater Christchurch a great place to live, work, play, visit and invest. Christchurch needs to offer the facilities, services and amenities that would be expected in any equivalent city worldwide. Individuals and organisations are likely to view what recovery means in different ways. Their views will be shaped by how the earthquakes have affected them, through the social, cultural, economic and urban environmental impacts.

1950

1954

trams replaced by buses

2000

1995

tourist tram begins operation

The Chalice modern sculpture installed

2011

square blocked off due to february, 2011 earthquake

1975

2000

2025 2012

november: walkway into Cathedral Square open

1967

new bank of new zealand opened

1996

1965

road across cathedral frontage closed

cathedral visitors centre opened

1994

public toilets opened on site

2006

human size Chess board installed in square

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CHRISTCHURCH CENTRAL RECOVERY PLAN

REACTION AGAINST // REACTION WITH

THE PROPOSED BLUEPRINT PLAN

From the community’s responses, five key changes formed the basis of the draft Central City Plan: Green city, Stronger built identity, Compact CBD, Live, work, play, learn and visit and a Accessible city

CERA / CCDU / NEW ZEALAND GOVERNMENT / CHRISTCHURCH CITY COUNCIL

It was a fundamental aspect for the research to look at the current master plan that is proposed for the city and how the city council has approached the rebuild. The City of Christchurch has formally been branded as ‘the garden city’, which could effectively turn the city into a giant suburb, where by everything is self-sufficient. This is something that should be considered when redesigning the framework for the city as it can support greater networks of programs. The city of Christchurch is in a current state of transition. Large-scale transformations, such as stadiums, museums, convention centers and arts prescient are taking over capital priorities. Yet, such projects require a substantial investment of time, as well as political, social and cultural aspects. Moreover, the long-term economical and social benefit cannot be guaranteed.

Compact core • A more compact central city core • Well-designed streetscapes, Redeveloped civic buildings, ultra-fast broadband and free Wi-Fi • Car parking buildings and bus routes around the Core Live, work, play, learn and visit • High-quality inner city housing • New metropolitan sporting facilities • A new central library • New public art and performing arts venues • Playgrounds Accessible city • A city that is easy to get to and around for all age groups

EXTENT OF EXISITNG CBD

• Excellent walking and cycling paths and high-quality public transport Embrace cultural values

Below is the current process that Christchurch is going through in order to recover the central city. Currently temporary projects are seen as merely ‘gapfillers’ before development occurs and they have no lasting footprint on the cities urban landscape. Temporary projects allow a city to develop incrementally. It is based on adaptability, which alone can enable blighted neighborhoods to thrive in difficult economic times. ‘Temporary’ becomes equal to words as ‘informal’, ‘unplanned’ and ‘spontaneous’ that forms a city that is tailored to the needs and requirements of the people that live and work there.

EXTENT OF PROPOSED CBD

After looking at the proposed blueprint master plan it revealed to me that the implementation of temporary projects has been completely ignored in official policymaking and city planning. The current master plan takes in no consideration of the cultural and social temporary aspects that have been generated as a result of the hard work of agencies, landowners and individuals.

In the pursuit of expiable progress, communities are invited to engage in a process that is fundamentally broken, rather than being asked to contribute to incremental change at the neighborhood scale, residences are asked to react to proposals they don’t understand, and at a scale for which they have little control.

DESIGN PRINCIPLES: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES EXISTING STRATEGIES FOR RE-DESIGNING CHRISTCHURCH

• A city for all people and cultures • Recognise Ngāi Tahu heritage and places of significance • A commitment to enhance an urban environment for future generations. • Cultural revitalisation as a catalyst for urban regeneration and prosperity. Green city •A revitalised Ōtākaro/Avon River corridor • New street trees, improved surface stormwater treatment and a new network of parks that encourage outdoor activities • A greener, more attractive central Christchurch, which includes measures against climate change Stronger built identity • A lower-rise city with safe, sustainable buildings that look good and function well • Strengthened heritage buildings that can be used for contemporary purposes • An urban building fabric that speaks to our sense of place, our identity, our shared cultural heritage

IMAGE SOURCE_ ccdu.govt.nz/the-plan The Blueprint was developed by a professional consortium working with CERA’s Christchurch Central Development Unit over a 100 day period. A key focus of the Blueprint Plan is to

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consolidate a central area so that it functions more effectively. A spatial Blueprint Plan has been produced based on design principles that address the challenges identified.

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CURRENT APPROACH BEFORE

AFTER

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DESIGN PRACTICE HOW THE PROCESS SHOULD LOOK

01

02

CHRISTCHURCH APPROACH

03

MY APPROACH

traditional urban development

transitional urban development

END RESULT

HOW IT CAN BE ACHIEVED?

HOW IT CAN BE ACHIEVED? Traditional urban planning begins by designing the end result and then considers how that result can be achieved (top down approach). Where as a transitional approach towards urban development takes on a bottom up process.

END RESULT MONDAY 22/04

T

04

05

06

The recovery process should follow the stages as outlined above. Attracting people back into the central city should be one of the first steps in implementing the recovery plan. The Christchurch approach showed this stage at the very end, which suggests the design, is implemented without taking into consideration the needs of people there. There is a massive disconnection in communication that currently exists between the community groups and the City Council. I believe the development needs to address a stronger connection to the initiatives and programs that has dictated the urban landscape in vacant and under-utilised sites since the 2011 earthquake. A lot of these temporary projects generate platforms for businesses to re-establish themselves in the central city. The current way of designing is to abundant these temporary site after a period of time and rebuild formal infrastructure which loses the social and cultural aspects that was generated.

Temporary urbanism goes beyond exhorting what should be done. It focuses is on what can be done by creating tangible and adaptable temporary alternatives. The temporary nature of these transformations enable citizens to think ‘outside the block’ and use the spaces as testing grounds for new ideas about urban living. In the process, it encourages cities to move beyond developer’s empty lots and engage residents about their city’s future. Improving the livability of cities commonly starts at the street or block scale. While larger scale efforts do have their place, small-scale improvements are increasingly seen as a way to stage more substantial investments. This approach allows for a range of stakeholders to test new concepts and designs that allows incremental development, using existing economic and social networks as its basis. This is where I started my investigation into a bottom up temporary approach in order to develop strategies for a transitional network for Christchurch.

Urban Catalyst

ST Case Study: Christchurch How can human scale interventions generate an

RQ adaptive framework that will re-activate the urban 42

URBAN CATALYST

landscape in vacant or under-utilised sites in the city of christchurch?

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VISION + GOALS

ECONOMIC Revitalise christchurch central city as the heart of a properuous region for business, work, education, and increased investment in new activities

SOCIAL Strengthen community resilience, safety and wellbeing, and enhance quality of life for residents and visitors.

URBAN

COMMUNITY

Restore the urban environment to support biodiversity and economic prosperity.

CULTURAL Renew greater Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity and its vitality expressed through sport, recreation, art, history, heritage and traditions

URBAN 44 CATALYST

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STAKEHOLDER TYPES My approach has been positioned amongst the stakeholders as a way to challenge traditional urban development with a transitional approach. Currently Cera and Christchurch City Council have complete control over the master plan and working in isolation from the needs of people that live and work there. Using a bottom-up community approach places the key responsibility onto groups like ‘Life in Vacant spaces’, ‘Greening the Rubble’, and ‘Gapfiller’. This was an important step in my research process, as it helped me define who the key stakeholders are and what they are doing to help the city.

Life in Vacant Spaces encourages the productive, temporary use of vacant land and buildings around the city. They see temporary use of vacant space as a key social, economic and cultural driver for the city.

Greening the Rubble is a community group that creates temporary public parks and gardens on sites of demolished buildings. GtR are characterised by an urban ecology philosophy to bring more biodiversity into the city. In an attempt to show that better use could be made of these urban grey-­ field sites

Gap Filler aims to temporarily activate vacant sites within Christchurch with creative projects for community benefit, to make for a more interesting, dynamic and vibrant city.

Consultant DAVE CORNEY

Coordinator RHYS TAYLOR

GtR Coordinator RACHAEL ANNAN

Gap Filler Director CORALIE WINN

Sites Supervisor JONATHAN HALL

Project Co-ordinator RICHARD SEWELL Project Co-ordinator TRENT HILES Director KAILA CORBIN

Sites Supervisor DARCY ARNOLD

The Christchurch City Council has launched a new service to provide a tailored programme of assistance to property and business owners, as well as investors, looking to redevelop or relocate to the Central City

Head Landscape Architect JENNY MOORE

CEO ROGER DENNIS

REBUILD CENTRAL Environmental Manager TRACY WALSH

The Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority (CERA) is the agency leading and coordinating the ongoing recovery effort following the devastating earthquakes of September 2010 and February 2011.

Lead the rebuild of Christchurch central and they deliver the vision in the Central City Plan prepared by the Christchurch City Council for a distinctive, vibrant and green 21st century city.

Founder CAMIA YOUNG

Transitional City Projects Advisor LAURA TAYLOR

General Manager JASON PEMBERTON

STAKEHOLDER NEEDS MOST IMPORTANT

LEAST IMPORTANT

Design Lead - Urban Design PIERS TAYLOR TRANSPORT

PUBLIC SPACE

PROFIT

DEVELOPMENT

ENVIRONMENT

COMMERCIAL/ RETAIL

CULTURAL PROGRAM

END USER NEEDS MOST IMPORTANT

LEAST IMPORTANT

TRANSPORT PUBLIC SPACE

URBAN 46 CATALYST

ENVIRONMENT

CULTURAL PROGRAM

COMMERCIAL/ RETAIL

DEVELOPMENT

PROFIT

URBAN 47 CATALYST


TYPOLOGIES OF TRANSITIONAL SPACE CHRISTCHURCH CBD + SURROUNDING

12.

This diagram shows the different typologies of temporary spaces around the city of Christchurch. This was done in order to gage the current approach in activating vacant space. There are currently 18 temporary spaces around the central city, which I have categorized into 5 different typologies that explore the function and program.

03. Outdoor cinema 04.

STAND-IN

01.

Novel Street

02. Worchester St

03. Outdoor cinema 04.

12. 09.

Some projects share multiple typologies and shift category over time as it develops and generates new identities. The one thing that these project share in common is the fact that they are all built on a shortterm basis and have no longterm impact on place.

Mini golf

CONSOLIDATION

04.

M

Stand-In looks at the idea of temporary use having no lasting effect on placeCONSOLIDATION

05.Colombo Street 06. Re:STAR

IMPULSE Temporary use becomes established in long-term.

05.Colombo Street 06. Re:START Mall

07. Gloucester St 08.

The S

07. 09.

11.

After doing this plan it gave me a great understanding of the dis-jointed urban environment and revealed the intent and future aim behind each temporary project. This then lead me to think about how I can design temporary spaces as a greater network and intern form clusters of development to re-activate the central city.

04.

02.

12.

09. New Regend St 10. Oxford T Temporary use may inform surrounding context dependent on it success.

IMPULSE

08. 02.

13. St 08. 07. Gloucester

The Square

11. Manchester st 12.

Pallet P

07. 11.

09. New Regend St 10. Oxford Terrace

08. 02.

02.

12.

16.

13.

11. Manchester st 12.

FREE FLOW

Pallet Pavilion

13. cardoard cathedral 14.

06.

16.

05

13. cardoard cathedral 14.

18.

10.

03. 06.

Free flow looks at a shift in a new location of program as development DISPLACEMENT grows.

15.FREE FLOW

14.

10.

14.

High Street

15.

01.

15.

DISPLACEMENT

05

Liverpool St

16.

18. 01.

17.

15.

Liverpool St

16.

17.Council Building 18.

Sports oval

LEGEND

EXISITNG GREEN SPACE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT RED ZONE - MAY 2013 ANCHOR SITES

20 Tuam st

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URBAN 48 CATALYST LEGEND

Spor

Displacement encounters a shift from the usual temporary location 17.Council Building 18. 20 Tu

17.

03.

High


FOLIE_01

The series of follies below suggests a process of re-organizing new township settlements and a shift in program over time. Through adaptation, the follies are used to show how people can influence / change the programs and activities that occur in the public realm. The first follie is looking at a centralized space where people (poly balls) inform where public space (rubber bands) is used.

WHAT IS TRANSITIONAL?

WHAT IS FIXED?

WHAT IS MOVING?

The above folie shows how people circulate around different hubs of public space, it created techniques that explored the thinking of landscape as transitional. Folie 3 below looks at the idea of programs becoming more spread out and shifting to where people inhabit - this starts to show how a transitional space can become more / less usable over time.

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MONDAY 13/05

T

Urban Catalyst

ST Case Study: Christchurch How might temporary components activate the

RQ urban landscape in vacant or under-utilised sites to

generate an adaptive framework to stimulate future developments?

CLUSTERS OF TRANSITIONAL USE These drawing below explore the idea of transitional use informing long-term development. They were generated as a result of the spatial organizational qualities that were tested in each of the folies. The plans then started to question the idea of how temporary spaces develop.

temporary use as a shelter + refuge out of public realm

experience space alongside everyday working life

greater social intergration + connection

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SHIFTING URBAN CONDITION After the 2011 earthquake 40% of businesses were displaced to the outer suburbs of Christchurch. Business as Usual continues current trends and spreads retail and commercial businesses to around the CBD until infrastructure is re-build in the central city. By 2018, 80% of businesses will be resettled in the central city. The temporary strategies help to activate 1200 businesses back into the CBD in a 5-year time frame.

NORTHLANDS

THE PALMS MALL FENDALTON

MERIVALE

LEGEND OLD BUSINESS LOCATION BUSH INN MALL

RE-LOCATION OF BUSINESSES

EASTGATE MALL

RICCARTON

URBAN ZONE RESIDENTIAL ZONE OPEN SPACE

WESTFIELD MALL

BUSINESS IN CBD FEB 2011 = 5710 BUSINESS IN CBD FEB 2013 = 3426 (40% LOSS) SYDENHAM

FERRYMEAD

By 2018, 80% of businesses will be resettled in the central city

WOOLSTON ADDINGTON

NEW LOCATION : FERRYMEAD EASTGATE MALL WOOLSTON MERIVALE ADDINGTON SYDENHAM NORTHLANDS WESTFIELD MALL RICCARTON FENDALTON BUSH INN MALL

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MONDAY 20/06

T

Urban Catalyst

ST Adaptive Frameworks for Urban Activation How can key anchor projects be designed as cataRQ lysts for activating the urban landscape in vacant or under-utilized sites?

LEGEND MAIN ROADS EXISTING URBAN AREA REDEVELOPMENT NEW HOUSING CHRISTCHURCH BOUNDARY

DEVELOPMENT OF HOUSING

NTS

As a result of the limited housing within the inner city, development spreads out around the Greater Christchurch area in new subdivisions, with some housing in urban renewal developments. This plan to the right indicates areas where development would generally occur. As activation begins to occur again in the central city, it will provide the opportunity to facilitate medium density housing around community and retail areas. This will be a way to bring people back and create lively neighborhoods of interaction.

PEGASUS BAY RANGINRS WOODEND

KAIAPOI

OHOKA

WAIMAKARIRI DISTRICT

BELFAST

MARSHLANDS

YALDHURST WEST MELTON

BURNHAM

PREBBLETON POLLESTON

URBAN 56 CATALYST

LYTTELTON

LINCOLN

SELWYN DISTRICT

IMAGE SOURCES_ news.com.au

HALSWELL

TAI TAPU

BANKS PENINSULA DISTRICT

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MONDAY 20/08

T

Urban Catalyst

ST Adaptive Frameworks for Urban Activation RQ How can temporary urban strategies activate the landscape in vacant or under-utilized sites?

large grain TYPOLOGY OF URBAN FABRIC As a way of understanding the extent of vacant sites, the diagram to the right, attempts to unpack the typology, which the sites comprise of. It shows that there is an even spread of building grain through the central city. Neighborhoods are no longer defined by only one or two activities. City dwellers are increasingly seeking a fine-grain urban fabric, with a mixture of culture, commerce and housing. A lot of the vacant sites will host a range of programs on the one block and therefore change the footprint of the urban fabric in the future.

small grain

buildings

vacant sites rubble URBAN 58 CATALYST

URBAN 59 CATALYST


temporary activities form in clusters in specific areas within the central city

MONDAY 18/09

1

Urban Catalyst

Legend

ST Adaptive Frameworks for Urban Activation

temporary projects

creates the identity for the city

ECONOMIC stability in local 3 Builds communities and neighborhoods,

links / connections

landscape of the disaster prone environment of Christchurch inorder to aid itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s recovery and potentially to reconsider itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s future?

RECONSTRUCTION seeks to reestablish and improve infrastructure, housing and pre-disaster services and social conditions.

2 PUBLIC + PRIVATE development

council / agency projects

RQ How can transitional strategies activate the urban

public + private developm creates the identity for the

clusters

RECOVERY APPROACH

temporary activities form in clusters in specific areas within the central city

My approach for redeveloping the city follows 3 phases of demolition, restoration and reconstruction, which embodies temporary strategies. These phases indicate what to expect as the community moves from emergency response to longer-term recovery. If there is another earthquake at any point, the strategies are set in place to deal with immediate recovery needs and are adaptable to ground conditions.

public investment provides the catalyst for private development linking development precincts

public + private development creates the identity for the city

RECONSTRUCTION

temporary projects council / agency projects

ORAT

links / connections

temporary projects council / agency projects links / connections

1

public investment provides the catalyst for private development linkingfocuses development precincts RESTORATION on public and social services, livelihoods, education and making changes needed due to the disaster impact.

REST

clusters

temporary activities form in clusters in specific areas within the central city

CE SCEN QUIE

ION

T

public investment provides the catalyst for private development linking development precincts

public + private development AFTER creates the identity for the city

of longer-term landscape 2 Implimentation strategies which gives local ownership

RESPONSE

humanitarian activity with longer 3 Linking term development plans.

DE

MO

clusters

1

MITIGATION

RECOVERY BEFORE

PREPARATION

LIT

ION

CT

PA

M E-I

PR

Ongoing RESPONSE focuses on reducing vulnerability and meeting basic needs e.g. family tracing, food, nutrition, health care, sanitation, water, shelter.

2 DEMOLITION of rubble takes place over a number of months

ACTIVITIES begin to form 3 TEMPORARY in specific areas of the city.

temporary activities form in clusters in specific areas within the central city

public investment provides the catalyst for private development linking development precincts

pu cre

temporary projects council / agency projects links / connections clusters

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(04) APPROACH

THE PROBLEM

DEMOLITION

THE OPPORTUNITY

RESTORATION

STREET / PEDESTRIAN / CIRCULATION / ACCESS

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DAMAGE + EFFECTS

CHRISTCHURCH

SHIFTING URBAN CONDITION

FEBRUARY 2011 EARTHQUAKE

INITIATE MOBILIZE

ECONOMIC

CLAIM REINSTATE

COACH

EVOLVING GREEN SPACE

REUSE//RECOVER

(RE) ASSEMBLE

CONFINE + CONNECT

-AUS

TRAL

IAN

PLAT

E

- Environmental conditions - Post-disaster design - Japan 311 - Landscape architecture systems time, space + cycle - Temporary Urbanism (bottom-up)

RECONSTRUCTION

RECREATION / COMMUNITY

INDO

+

EVALUATION

CHRISTCHURCH

= HUMAN SCALE

LARGE SCALE FRAMEWORK

POSITIVE - Chance to rebuild urban strategy

INFRASTRUCTURE

RETHINKING THE CITY

REACTION AGAINST // REACTION WITH traditional urban development

- Bring community closer - New Identity for the city

END RESULT EXTENT OF EXISITNG CBD

HOW IT CAN BE ACHIEVED?

NEGATIVE EXTENT OF PROPOSED CBD

ENABLE SIDEWALK

FORMALISE MOBILE GARDEN

POP-UP LANEWAY

PARALLEL PARK

EXPLOIT PAVEMENT TO PLAZA

INTEGRATE

(RE) FORM

transitional urban development

- Loss of lives / buildings

HOW IT CAN BE ACHIEVED?

- Reduces local character - Cost of rebuild

REFLECTION

END RESULT

INFORMS NEW URBAN CONDITION

DESIGN PRINCIPLES: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES

STRATEGIES - DYNAMIC AND OPEN - ADAPTABLE IN RESPONSE TO CHANGING CIRCUMSTANCES. - UNDERSTANDING POTENTIALS - SHAPING FORM TO MAXIMISE EFFECTS

RULES: utilise unused + vacant space

integrated transportation

create nodes of program

re-appropriation of form

active + passive

environmental condition

relationship to context

intimate public space

REACTS TO

green space

DEMO LITION

manual CHAPTER 04


The demolition phase happens at a point when it is safe to return to the central city. With road works and the distant sounds of machinery, the city center becomes alive again with activity. After the earthquake event, contractors begin to demolish unsafe and damaged buildings as well as make safe building. This is where my project comes in, with the 6 of the 13 urban strategies activating vacant blocks that have been cleared and under-utilized streetscapes. The demolition phase aims to repair, patch and plan for the future. Firstly basic human needs are addressed with regards to health and safety. It is then the objective to provide spaces and activities that reconnect people with the central city. This is a way to offer commercial services, activate public spaces and help local people earn an income. During this time after the earthquake it is deeply disorienting. The recognition of street names and intersections are relevant but spaces will completely change. The urban strategies are a direct response to the neighborhoods desire for more green spaces and spaces that facilitate activities. These small-scale interventions contribute to the larger urban landscape to form networks of activation.

PHASES OF DEMOLITION

4 MONTHS

6 MONTHS

8 MONTHS

6 MONTHS

During the 10-month phase of demolition 50% of streets are closed due to trucks coming in and out clearing rubble. As shown above the demolition of buildings takes place in 3 phases, this allows for certain streets to be activated with temporary programs while demolition can occur around. Pedestrians are able to circulate and access around particular streets, which enables them to engage with the city that once existed and also show how the redevelopment will occur through the temporary strategies.

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JAMES M. MAYO

URBAN 66 CATALYST

COUNCIL -

CONFINE + CONNECT

CITY AGENCIES -

POP-UP LANEWAY

LAND OWNERS INVESTORS -

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS ARCHITECTS PLANNERS NON-PROFITS ENTREPREUNERS -

STAKEHOLDERS

“TEMPORARY LANDSCAPES ARE PLACES THAT EXPRESS CURRENT EVENTS THAT MAY OR MAY NOT BE REPEATED. TEMPORARY SPACES CAN BE DEFINED AS THE DISTINGUISH BETWEEN SOCIAL EVENTS AND PHYSICAL ALTERATIONS TO THE LANDSCAPE. SOME TEMPORARY LANDSCAPES ARE SEASONAL AND WE EXPERIENCE THEM ON AN ANNUAL BASIS, OTHERS HAVE TEMPORARY CONDITIONS THAT WE ENCOUNTER EVERY WEEK OR EVERY DAY. THE OCCURRENCE OF PREPARING A PLACE, HOLDING AN EVENT AND RECONVERTING A PLACE TO ITS LONG-TERM USE CREATES A SERIES OF CONDITIONS THAT ARE UNIQUE”

LOCAL ACTIVISTS COMMUNITY GROUPS -

PARALLEL PARK

(RE)FORM

PAVEMENT TO PLAZA

EVOLVING GREEN SPACE

SIDEWALK

REINSTATE

(RE) ASSEMBLE

MOBALISE

ARTISTS -

MOBILE GARDEN

REUSE // RECOVER

STRATEGIES UNSANCTIONED

LAND OWNERS

CITY AGENCIES

COMMUNITY GROUPS

COUNCIL

HYBRID

SANCTIONED

As particular activation and planning begins to happen throughout the demolition phase, key stakeholders are engaged to execute the projects. These range from individuals to private landowners to community groups and city agencies. Each of these has a major role in the recovery process of the central city. My approach engages community groups, which become the key project managers and act as mediators between land owners, the city council and agencies.

URBAN 67 CATALYST


MOST IMPORTANT

The strategies are a way for my project to investigate new avenues towards an alternative form of urban development. The strategies are a reflection of the community’s wishes for a more sustainable, green and adaptable city and are able to be deployed at any stage during the rebuild. The focus of this approach is the designing of spaces by users with little capital who become active in their own right. The goal in this research is to synchronize the stages of formal planning with the phases of informal activation. The process aims to establish incremental development, which is build through the social and cultural aspects in local communities.

ENVIRONMENT

PUBLIC SPACE

CULTURAL PROGRAM

SOCIAL

Renew greater Christchurch’s identity and its vitality expressed through sport, recreation, art, history, heritage and traditions

Restore the urban environment to support biodiversity and economic prosperity.

ECONOMIC

COMMERCIAL/ RETAIL

Revitalise christchurch central city as the heart of a properuous region for business, work, education, and increased investment in new activities

Strengthen community resilience, safety and wellbeing, and enhance quality of life for residents and visitors.

DEVELOPMENT

LEAST IMPORTANT

CULTURAL

URBAN

STAKEHOLDERS

ORDER OF EVENTS

NEEDS

TRANSPORT

PROFIT

1

Establish new social and health support and service delivery models

2

Heritage Identification

3

Begin demolition of damaged buildings

CITY AGENCIES

REBUILD CENTRAL LAND OWNERS

4

Planning and supporting community resilience

5

Begin restoration and adaptive reuse of heritage features

6

Complete decisions of land zones + geotechnical issues

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS

7

Continue repair of infrastructure and make decisions about longterm repair

CONTRACTORS

8

Restore access to all transportation networks in central city

9

Begin recovery plan (including master plan for central city)

INVESTORS

PLANNERS

ARCHITECTS

COMMUNITY GROUPS

ENTREPREUNERS

10 Recovery programs

DEPLOYMENT OF STRATEGIES MOBILIZE

LAND OWNERS

INITIATE

REINSTATE

AGENCIES

INFORMS NEW CONDITION / CATALYST THAT IS RESPONSIVE TO DISASTER

LAND OWNERS

INITIATE

SIDEWALK

LAND OWNERS

AGENCIES

ACTORS

EARTHQUAKE EVENT

ENABLE

REUSE//RECOVER

AGENCIES

INITIATE

LAND OWNERS

ACTORS

MOBILE GARDEN

MEDIATORS

ACTORS

ACTORS

LAND OWNERS

ENABLE

PARALLEL PARK

MEDIATORS

ACTORS

AGENCIES

ENABLE

Engage established and new communities and inform about future planning

DEMOLITION OF BUILDING BEGINS

Make safe or demolish unsafe and damaged buildings

IDENTIFY BUILDINGS

Investigate, scope and initiate recovery programs and initatives

ON-GOING RESPONSE

Address health and safety issues

IMMEDIATE RELIEF

Provide basic human needs and support services

STRATEGIC REVIEW + PLANNING

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SHORT TERM PROVISION OF EMERGENCY SERVICES

RESPONSE

YEAR 0

Establish new social and health support and service delivery models

Continue demolition of damaged buildings

Begin restoration and adaptive reuse of heritage features

Complete decisions of land zones + geotechnical issues Start insurance claims for buildings and land

Planning and supporting community resilience Continue repair of infrastructure and make decisions about long-term repair

Restore access to all transportation networks in central city

Finalise recovery plan (including master plan for central city)

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URBAN STRATEGY

MOBILIZE

01

PART 01

INITIATE

RECYCLABLE CONTAINER WHICH CAN BE CONVERTERED INTO RETAIL SHOPS ONCE DEMOLITION HAS COMPLETED

PORTABLE CONSTRUCTION HUB Self-sufficient unit which services demolition sites.

IN spaces for contested activities. creates new cultural + social programs

The first step in reactivating the city involves a process that happens post earthquake through to the restoration phase. These strategies help residents, construction works, visitors, agencies, property owners and community groups, whose goal is to revive a sizeable urban area with in the central city. They set parameters to which urban activity can occur which attracts a wide variety of users. Within this framework, there then arises a cluster of extremely diverse activities, whose profile and programmatic orientation set networks for future activation to occur.

AMENITY: - power generator - lighting - kitchen - toilet

PART 02

PORTABLE WATER DESALINATION SYSTEMS

WATER STORAGE TANK

DESALINATION SYSTEM

SOLAR PANELS

Portable water purification units provide a reliable supply of fresh drinking water for isolated communities.

TRACKING SYSTEM

PART 03

MOBILE FOOD CARTS

Supplies food and drink to workers / visitors in areas of need

Vendors play a key role in animating the various spaces of a city. This became one of first elements that get introduced back after the earthquake as a way to activate vacant sites for construction workers and visitors. This diagram below shows the clear and simple vending regulations that operate in New York City. This helped me to gage the extent mobile food carts can offer back to the city. IMAGE SOURCE_ http://candychang.com/street-vendor-guide/

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URBAN STRATEGY

02

REINSTATE Lighting is used as a way to light-up streetscapes and construction sites. The portable solar streetlights can easily be transported around to different sites, as it is needed. SOLAR LIGHTING FOR PAVEMENT - used as a wayfinding device

PORTABLE SOLAR STREET LIGHTS

- used by demolition workers and council implementation for streetscapes and vacant spaces where activity occurs

HERITAGE BUILDINGS

88–92 CASHEL STREET

93 CASHEL STREET

682–690 COLOMBO STREET

84 HEREFORD STREET

URBAN 72 CATALYST

88 HEREFORD STREET

47 HEREFORD STREET

128 OXFORD TERRACE

URBAN 73 CATALYST


Solar lighting is used in new pavement on streetscape to light up areas at night. This forms a wayfinding device and starts to set limits on where people can go to during the demolition phase.

URBAN 74 CATALYST

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URBAN STRATEGY

03

REUSE//RECOVER

ass l /gl stee te concre er / b m ti

POSITIVES REDUCE WASTE SAVES PRIMARY RESOURCES

/c on cr et e ks

During my time in Christchurch I cam across a company call ‘Rekindle’ which support communities to utilize their wood waste fully and in doing so, maximize the benefits of the purposeful work involved. In making furniture with waste wood Rekindle develops employment opportunities and actively enables youth to gain real and transferable work skills. This established my thinking about reusing materials from the rubble for form elements in streetscapes.

MATERIAL STORAGE SITE

URBAN 76 CATALYST

CASHEL STREET

br ic

PAVING CONNECTION BETWEEN TEMPORARY PROJECTS AS A WAY-FINDING STRATEGY

M

The rubble from demolition sites is recycled to form materials for new streetscapes and open space areas. On each city block there is one material storage site, where rubble is dumped and sorted into skip bins dictated by its type. Once the material is sorted the skip bin can be easily transported to where it is needed. This strategy begins with neighborhood activists but has the potential to transform into a non-profit funded by the city council. This is short-term action can create long-term change.

URBAN 77 CATALYST


GABION WALLS / SEATS / PLANTING SYSTEM

USING RUBBLE

+

=

MATERIAL MATRIX SEATS

TABLES

PAVING

WALLS / FENCES

CONCRETE 20% recycled 5% landfill 75% downcycle

TIMBER

26% recycled 58% landfill 16% downcycle

STEEL

99% recycled 1% landfill

ROOF TILES

BRICKS

GLASS

IMAGE SOURCE_ streetplanscollaborative/docs/tactical_urbanism_vol_2_final

URBAN 78 CATALYST

URBAN 79 CATALYST


IDENTIFY AREA FOR ACTIVATION This perspective shows the existing road service lane being activated with modular tree planters and recycled bricks from the rubble. This under-utilized area forms an activation node which sets a frameworks for future economic development.

CITY AGENCIES

LAND OWNERS

CONSTRUCTION OF PEDESTRIAN LINK

LAND OWNERS

CONTRACTORS

COMMUNITY GROUPS

STREETSCAPE ELEMENTS

COMMUNITY GROUPS

EXISTING SERVICE LANE

FOOD VANS

CASHEL STREET + KIVERS LANE

CHARACTERISTICS COMMUNITY GROUPS

VACANT LAND

Does the vacant site have characteristics that recommend it for a specific function?

YES

NO

DEMOLITION SITE................................................................... (IN)ACTIVE INDUSTRIAL LAND................................................ LAND DAMAGED BY EARTHQUAKE......................................... OPEN SPACE........................................................................... PUBLIC TRANSPORT.............................................................. DENSITY.................................................................................. LAND VALUE............................................................................ AMENITIES.............................................................................. INVESTMENT (PUBLIC + PRIVATE)......................................... VACANCY.................................................................................

current environment condition? no power / water demolition site

does current infrastructure support new activity?

what function should be assigned to the site?

SOCIAL

moderately damaged highly damaged

is the site cleared?

CULTURAL

active areas vacant areas

is there develoment potential?

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

ACTIVATING SPACE This diagram was done in order to show the process of activating a vacant site. It shows the order in which different characteristics and environment conditions change the function of particular sites. Particular areas become recalibrated fast than other based on the ground condition.

URBAN 80 CATALYST

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

how TEMPORARY is the intervention?

MO

MOBILIZE

RE

REINSTATE

RR

REUSE//RECOVER

EV

EVOLVING GREEN SPACE

RA

(RE) ASSEMBLE

CO

CONFINE + CONNECT

SI

SIDEWALK

MG

MOBILE GARDEN

PA

PARALLEL PARK

PO

POP-UP LANEWAY

PA

PAVEMENT TO PLAZA

RF

(RE) FORM 1-9M

10-19M 20-28M

who OWNS these intervention?

PRIVATE

PUBLIC

UNASSIGNED URBAN 81 CATALYST


URBAN STRATEGY

SIDEWALK

04

ACTIVATE THE BUILDING // ACTIVATE THE LANDSCAPE

TURNS SCAFFOLDING ON THE SIDE OF BUILDINGS INTO POP-UP PARKS BY UTILISING ELEMENTS SUCH AS CHAIRS AND PLANTERS.

ENABLE EN activate an urban area to form stronger connections between existing buildings and vacant sites

At this stage in recovery is about enabling and forming clusters of temporary uses for sizable unused areas. The possibilities for activating derelict spaces are pointed out and publicized, access to these spaces is made easier, communication between property owners and potential users is improved. Through the strategies they start to set limits on where people can go to during the demolition phase. This offers spaces, which are adaptable to changing ground conditions and are reactive to after-shocks.

ELEMENTS - PLANTERS + VERTICAL CLIMBERS SEATS LIGHTS COUNTER

The initial step in this strategy is identifying heritage and key buildings that will be restored. As a way of activating the frontage of these buildings, this strategy ‘sidewalk’ aims to turn scaffolding into green vertical gardens, which also allows an area for street furniture including moveable chairs and planters. This area allows for pedestrians to engage with the development of the city as it happens.

STAKEHOLDERS COMMUNITY GROUPS

SHELTER

BUS STOP

BIKE RACK

CONTRACTORS

CITY AGENCIES

LAND OWNERS

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URBAN STRATEGY

URBAN STRATEGY

05

06

MOBILE GARDEN

PARALLEL PARK

SHORT TERM ACTION // LONG TERM CHANGE

RECLAIM SPACE DEVOTED TO CARS , AND INCREASE THE VITALITY OF STREET LIFE

POSITIVES

POSITIVES

NEGATIVES

ENCOURAGES COLLABORATION AMONGST COMMUNITY PROVIDES SPACES FOR ACTIVITY AND LEISURE

CONFLICT WITH THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PROPERTY OWNERS + CHCH COUNCIL

GENERATES NEW CULTURAL + SOCIAL IMPULSES ENCOURAGES COLLABORATION AMONGST COMMUNITY

NEGATIVES CONFLICT WITH THE OBJECTIVES OF CHCH COUNCIL

ELEMENTS

PROVIDES SPACES FOR ACTIVITY AND LEISURE

TIME

MONTH N

D

J

F M

O S

A M A

J

J

20

22

24

2 4

18 16

6 8 14

12

10

01_GREEN SPACE

PROGRAMS

SITE 01 // COLOMBO STREET

// MEETING PLACE // SEATING AREA // ART PROJECTIONS // TOURIST INFORMATION // BICYCLE PARKING

MOVES THROUGH DIFFERENT SPACES, ACTIVATING ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN PEOPLE + CHALLENGING EVERYDAY LIFE PRACTICES

SITE 02 // HIGH STREET

OCCUPIES FORMER PARKING SPACES, STREET MEDIANS, TRAFFIC TRIANGLES, TRAVEL LANES AND PARKING LOTS OR EXCESS ASPHALT SPACES

PLANTER

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MODULAR BENCHES

MODULAR SEATS

TIMBER PALLET SEATS

URBAN 85 CATALYST


REINSTATE

REUSE//RECOVER

MOBILE GARDEN

MOBALIZE

SIDEWALK

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URBAN 87 CATALYST


LEGEND FOOTPATH VACANT SITE RUBBLE COLOMBO STREET

MATERIAL SITES REUSE // RECOVER MOBILE GARDEN 4 MONTH PHASE

PARALLEL PARK

ARMAGH STREET

SIDE WALK (RE) ASSEMBLE EVOLVING GREEN SPACE MOBALISE GLOUCESTER STREET

POP-UP RETAIL

6 MONTH PHASE

POP UP LANEWAY PAVEMENT TO PLAZA

0

N

WORCESTER STREET

8 MONTH PHASE

40m

80m M

SCALE 1:2000 @ A0 CONTEXT MAP

M

HEREFORD STREET M M

M M

M

M

ss l /gla stee ncrete r /co timbe

M te

M

ick

s

/c

on

cre

CASHEL STREET br

REFER DETAIL 01

bricks / concrete

M

M

A

A

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COLOMBO STREET

LICHFIELD STREET

6 MONTH PHASE

URBAN 89 CATALYST


(05) APPROACH

THE PROBLEM

DEMOLITION

THE OPPORTUNITY

RESTORATION

STREET / PEDESTRIAN / CIRCULATION / ACCESS

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DAMAGE + EFFECTS

CHRISTCHURCH

SHIFTING URBAN CONDITION

FEBRUARY 2011 EARTHQUAKE

INITIATE MOBILIZE

ECONOMIC

CLAIM REINSTATE

COACH

EVOLVING GREEN SPACE

REUSE//RECOVER

(RE) ASSEMBLE

CONFINE + CONNECT

-AUS

TRAL

IAN

PLAT

E

- Environmental conditions - Post-disaster design - Japan 311 - Landscape architecture systems time, space + cycle - Temporary Urbanism (bottom-up)

RECONSTRUCTION

RECREATION / COMMUNITY

INDO

+

EVALUATION

CHRISTCHURCH

= HUMAN SCALE

LARGE SCALE FRAMEWORK

POSITIVE - Chance to rebuild urban strategy

INFRASTRUCTURE

RETHINKING THE CITY

REACTION AGAINST // REACTION WITH traditional urban development

- Bring community closer - New Identity for the city

END RESULT EXTENT OF EXISITNG CBD

HOW IT CAN BE ACHIEVED?

NEGATIVE EXTENT OF PROPOSED CBD

ENABLE SIDEWALK

FORMALISE MOBILE GARDEN

POP-UP LANEWAY

PARALLEL PARK

EXPLOIT PAVEMENT TO PLAZA

INTEGRATE

(RE) FORM

transitional urban development

- Loss of lives / buildings

HOW IT CAN BE ACHIEVED?

- Reduces local character - Cost of rebuild

REFLECTION

END RESULT

INFORMS NEW URBAN CONDITION

DESIGN PRINCIPLES: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES

STRATEGIES - DYNAMIC AND OPEN - ADAPTABLE IN RESPONSE TO CHANGING CIRCUMSTANCES. - UNDERSTANDING POTENTIALS - SHAPING FORM TO MAXIMISE EFFECTS

RULES: utilise unused + vacant space

integrated transportation

create nodes of program

re-appropriation of form

active + passive

environmental condition

relationship to context

intimate public space

REACTS TO

green space

RESTO RATION manual CHAPTER 05


RESTORATION The restoration phase is about claiming and formalizing spaces for cultural, social and recreational activities. This becomes the catalyst for economic activity and growth in the future. This works to build resilience in local communities and form networks that are self-sufficient. These areas form a social platform in which many different groups participate including individuals, landowners, community groups and local councils. At this phase in the rebuild more people are beginning to occupy to central city and it is now that people need more open spaces to live, work and play. The restoration phase is made up of 4 urban strategies, which builds from the previous demolition phase but also sets up frameworks for future activation.

URBAN Restore the urban environment to support biodiversity and economic prosperity.

CULTURAL Renew greater Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity and its vitality expressed through sport, recreation, art, history, heritage and traditions

VACANT LOT CAR PARKING

SOCIAL Strengthen community resilience, safety and wellbeing, and enhance quality of life for residents and visitors.

ECONOMIC Revitalise christchurch central city as the heart of a properuous region for business, work, education, and increased investment in new activities

Landowners see the potential for their land to become car parks while they wait for insurance money to begin development. This is an easy way for them to develop a small amount of revenue in the short-term. My approach is challenging these landowners to rethink the program of their city blocks to accommodate spaces for cultural, social and recreational activities. This consequently has an impact on the duration of the activities that occur there and makes the landowner reconsider the future of his lot. Building a pocket park or community garden has a greater value to the city as a whole and as a result attracts businesses to setup surrounding this program.

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LE CORBUSIER - URBAN ACTIVATION Temporary space use is a good way to deal with the city at this very moment in time. Le Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work with new forms of urbanism inspired me to think about urban development in new and innovative ways. His drawing below portrays the idea of how temporary use can act as catalysts for activate the urban landscape to inform new ways of relating to a city.

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URBAN 95 CATALYST


BLOCK TYPOLOGIES

ENVIRONMENT

ORDER OF EVENTS MOST IMPORTANT

NEEDS

PUBLIC SPACE

CULTURAL PROGRAM

1

Establish new social and health support and service delivery models

2

Engage communities about future planning

3

Continue restoration and adaptive reuse of heritage features

4

Planning and supporting community resilience

5

Open space + community restoration

6 7

COMMERCIAL/ RETAIL

TRANSPORT

PROFIT

LEAST IMPORTANT

DEVELOPMENT

STAKEHOLDERS

CITY AGENCIES

REBUILD CENTRAL LAND OWNERS INVESTORS

PLANNERS

Begin to generate nodes of activity through programs

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS

Continue repair of infrastructure and make decisions about longterm repair

CONTRACTORS

8

Restore access to all transportation networks in central city

9

Continue recovery plan (including master plan for central city)

large grain

small grain

ARCHITECTS

buildings

COMMUNITY GROUPS

ENTREPREUNERS

10 Begin to build economic structure

vacant sites

rubble

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SHIFTING URBAN CONDITION The restoration phase facilitates for 50% of the 1200 businesses that were displaced due to the earthquake. The central city is alive with activation again making it a destination for not only residence but tourists as well.

NORTHLANDS

LEGEND

THE PALMS MALL FENDALTON

OLD BUSINESS LOCATION

MERIVALE

RE-LOCATION OF BUSINESSES URBAN ZONE RESIDENTIAL ZONE OPEN SPACE

BUSINESS IN CBD FEB 2011 = 5710

BUSH INN MALL

EASTGATE MALL

RICCARTON

BUSINESS IN CBD FEB 2013 = 3426 (40% LOSS) By 2018, 80% of businesses will

WESTFIELD MALL

be resettled in the central city

SYDENHAM

FERRYMEAD

NEW LOCATION : FERRYMEAD EASTGATE MALL WOOLSTON MERIVALE ADDINGTON

WOOLSTON ADDINGTON

SYDENHAM NORTHLANDS WESTFIELD MALL RICCARTON FENDALTON BUSH INN MALL

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URBAN STRATEGY

07

EVOLVING GREEN SPACE 7.1

TRANSITONAL SPACE FOR COMMUNITY USE

CLAIM

COMMUNITY SPACE

‘Evolving green space’ is a strategy that brings temporary public green spaces to the devastated city. This aims to improve areas that are likely to be vacant for periods of time. The targeted interventions facilitate the initial activation of individual spaces resulting in the acceleration of transitional urban communities. These spaces offer ammenties such as urban agriculture, events, markets, cafe, exhibition / artist works, play / performance space, seating area, and street vendors.

CL Cluster of users into existing open space areas as catalyst for growth

The first stage in the restoration phase is about claiming spaces for cultural, social and recreational activities, which sets up the framework for economic activity in the future. This is based on a programmatic idea that generally stands in conflict with the objectives of the property owner and city planning authorities. The intention is to create new public spaces that generate new cultural and social impulses. These projects form a social platform in which many different groups participate including individuals, landowners, community groups and local councils. This presents the opportunity for employment to arise in both the construction and commercial industries.

POSITIVES

MATERIALS

ENCOURAGES COLLABORATION AMONGST COMMUNITY

GRAVEL MULCH TIMBER STONE GRASS STEEL CONCRETE BRICKS

ENABLES SMALL BUSINESSES TO SET UP AGAIN INVITE PEOPLE TO SIT, RELAX, AND INTERACT AND IMPROVES BIODIVERSITY

ELEMENTS GABION STRUCTURE WALLS

TIMBER PALLET BENCH SEATS

RAISED PLANTERS

URBAN 100 CATALYST

FUTURE CAFE SPACE

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LAND OWNERS

CITY AGENCIES

NON-PROFITS

ENTREPREUNERS

URBAN AGRICULTURE // COMMUNITY SPACE

This perspective above shows how vacant lots can become hubs of activation. In this instance a vegetable garden is formed which generates community engagement on a range of scales. This can form small market and the potential for restaurants and cafe to utilize the produce.

USERS

VICTORIA GREEN

148m2

102 URBAN VICTORIA GREEN SITE Victoria St and Salisbury St CATALYST

PRE EARTHQUAKE Corner pocket park

POST EARTHQUAKE

Fenced off from general public

COMPLETED SITE th 12 January 2012

Victoria Green was the first temporary park at the prominent corner of Victoria Street and Salisbury Street. This project was the start of my thinking about activating vacant sites and the process involved with temporary use. This project showcased how a temporary installation can efficiently reactivate a site in the short term, which then has a long-term effect on development surrounding it.

URBAN 103 CATALYST


PROCESS FOR ACTIVATING GREEN SPACE

COMMUNITY VALUE

01 IDENTIFY SITE

TRANSITION OF GREEN SPACE

METHODS

4-12 MONTHS _ DEMOLITION CONSULT LAND OWNERS. AGREEMENT WITH CERA FOR LEASING TERMS

URBAN GARDEN, BIODIVERSITY

LEGEND 13-24 MONTHS _ RESTORATION 25-36 MONTHS _ RECONSTRUCTION

02 GABION WALLS FRAMING. USES RUBBLE FROM BUILDING SITES. NON-PROFIT + COMMUNITY GROUPS FORM. ENGAGE VOLUNTEERS

SOIL RETENTION, SEATING, SAFETY, DIVIDER

03 PAVING + GRASS GRID. AVAILABILITY FROM RUBBLE SITES OR OTHER EVOLVING GREEN SPACES

ACCESSIBILITY, SAFETY

04 RAISED PLANTERS COMPARABILITY, SPATIAL ANALYSIS.

GARDEN, WILDLIFE SEASONALITY, SOCIAL RECOVERY

05 GARDEN BEDS COMPARABILITY, SPATIAL ANALYSIS.

GARDEN, WILDLIFE SEASONALITY, SOCIAL RECOVERY

06 TIMBER BENCH SEAT LINES, TRANSECTS, MEASUREMENT

SEATING, GEOMETRY

07 TEMPORARY CAFE

REBUILD BUSINESS CULTURAL ASPECT, WORKERS + VISITORS

URBAN 104 CATALYST

BUILT ON NEEDS OF LOCAL AREA. CONSULT LOCAL BUSINESSES

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ACTIVITIES: NECESSARY ACTIVITIES - have to take place (going to work or school, or waiting for a bus) OPTIONAL ACTIVITIES - are those that take place if ‘there is a wish and time’ (going for a walk or bike ride) SOCIAL ACTIVITIES - depend on the presence of at least one other person (social events, performing arts and outdoor entertainment)

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1. ENVIRONMENTAL – GREEN AND

RU ST

COMMUNITY SPACES

UR CT

TRANSITONAL SPACE FOR COMMUNITY USE

E

2. SOCIAL – PROVIDE AREAS FOR

sk

roll er b lad ing

tram

bus

train

ate bo

– PROMOTES ACCESSIBILITY

nn

4. ACCESSIBILITY AND

wa

in

in g

ru

co ot er

ng

3. HEALTH AND RECREATIONAL

s

ard ing

cl i cy

Pocket parks are created to provide a place to stop, rest, and play. They act as attractors along the street. The pocket parks take advantage of open lots or derelict properties in the area to create small parks between buildings. The program for the parks relate to the adjacent businesses, and can promote things like outdoor cafes, playgrounds, urban beaches, skate parks, and other activities.

e rbik

INTERACTION

car

to mo

FORMAL AND INFORMAL SOCIAL

POCKET PARKS

The diagram shows the public space requirements that the 3 phases of rebuild require in relation to transportation and programs. This diagram helped me to establish an order of programs that are required as different times during the cycle of rebuilding.

A FR IN

EVOLVING GREEN SPACE 7.2

FUNCTION

g

lki

CONNECTIVITY – PROVIDES THROUGH-BLOCK PEDESTRIAN

fe

ca

gro

LINKAGES

cer

ban

5. AMENITY – OFFERS SHELTER

elec

AND SHADE

cafe /

art g

ng

y

trics

ition

allery

restau

a

em

r cin

doo

out

ks

exhib

rants

bars

play space

clothes / fashion

furniture

interactive wall

art pro

jection

BL

PU

CE

PA IC S

UIR

Q RE

S

perfo

NT

E EM

rma

sea

tin

BB

Q

sk

at

e

01 E

AS

E0

3

E0

2

AS

AS

PH

IO

N_

N_

PH

PH

N_ IO IT OL

TIO

AT

rea

are

a

CO

M

UN

IT

Y

RE

CO

NS

TR

UC

OR ST

ga

n

M

ce

de ar

als

tiv

fes

rg

ye

ra

sic

RE

spa

M

/p

mu ary

libr

street vendors

garden

e

spac

vegetable

ting

mee

DE

rk

ch ur

ch

pa

nce

s

SITRIC ROAD? ART AND LIVABILITY – LEAVE YOUR TAG BELOW The Sitric Compost Garden Community (SCGC) has proposed a community based action research project to develop a proposal for local area regeneration: A feasibility study to explore the benefits of pedestrianising a section of Sitric Road (at the Arbour Hill end between Lilliput Press and Arbour Hill) to create a ‘Pocket Park

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BERGES DE SEINE - PARIS MODULAR BUILDINGS BY SHIGERU BAN: Japanese architect Shigeru Ban devoted most of his officeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s resources to helping the displaced find shelter after the 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami. This community, in the town of Onagawa, gave earthquake survivors a place to live as their town was being rebuilt. Stacked shipping containers supply 1800 units of temporary housing, and one very beautiful community center provides meeting space. This precedent helped to establish my understanding of moveable structures that are adaptable and resilient to earthquake events.

Paris is transforming an utterly urban area along the River Seine to a cleaner, greener space. A new Left Bank promenade called the Berges de Seine (Banks of the Seine) was unveiled last month, and is quickly drawing crowds of walkers, cyclists and urbanites seeking a bit of nature.

REBECCA WALK - MARKET & RETAIL Rebecca Walk is Melbourneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new artisan market and retail/ service precinct. Offering small businesses and individuals an exciting opportunity to operate their business and/or practice their craft out of a unique working environment.

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RE:START CONTAINER MALL The Re:start mall was originally set up for a 6 month period with the potential for the containers to transition and reactivate other vacant sites around the central city. Since the mall has been so successful it has become a permanent fixture, and had formed the identity of the cities main shopping precinct. Re:START is built on the site of the old Cashel Street pedestrian mall. Made up of 60 shipping containers -

stacked and placed in various configurations and painted in a bright and cheerful palette, which has been fitted out as 27 high-end shops and cafes. The Re:START mall is a tiny purpose built city in the middle of a vast wasteland. People sit, chat, drink coffee, listen to music and the spaces are intimate, sheltered, on a human scale â&#x20AC;&#x201C; they find a receptive public. It is an area where people can feel safe and enjoy the normality of everyday life again, and for a while forget the great strangeness of its context.

FLUX OF PEOPLE

6am

12pm

6pm

12am

FIGURE 01: Perspectivies showing the spatial conditions of the container mall from the point of view of a person walking. They reveal the intimate and exposed public spaces that are formed around the containers container pedestrian movement connection of programs scale of programs density of people

_WHY PEOPLE GO THERE

_No. RETAIL STORES FURNITURE CLOTHES + FASHION BARS CAFE ART GALLERY ELECTRICS BANKS GROCERY

INTIMACY DRINK

FOOD

SHOPPING

_WHAT MAKES IT SUCCESSFUL

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spaces are intimate + sheltered / liverly + cheerful / mix of retail and food / people feel safe + they relax / proximity to street /

MUSIC

SEATING

WALKING

TALKING

CYCLING

FIGURE 02: Diagram which shows the density of people, scale of programs and pedestrian movement around the container mall.

URBAN 113 CATALYST


URBAN STRATEGY

08

TYPES OF BUILDING STRUCTURES EXISTING SHOPS

(RE) ASSEMBLE PROMOTE TEMPORARY USE OF VACANT RETAIL SPACE OR LOTS

POSITIVES ENCOURAGES COLLABORATION AMONGST COMMUNITY

01 Christchurch will be able to facilitate more businesses within the central city and present opportunities for existing businesses to grow. There are 3 different types of building structure, exist shops, container structures and flat pack timber structures. These structures are set up surrounding open space and community areas as a way facilitate a range of programs. The duration of the lease is based on agreements with the landowners.

ENABLES SMALL BUSINESSES TO SET UP AGAIN

TYPES OF BUSINESSES

1

ARTISTS/ARTISANS BIKE SHOP/HIRE DESIGNER STORE (BOUTIQUE FASHION, FURNITURE ETC.) FLORISTS FOOD & BEVERAGE OUTLETS (BAR/CAFÉ/RESTAURANT) FRUIT AND VEGETABLE RETAILER GIFT SHOP ICE CREAMERY JEWELLERS JUICE BARS PERSONAL TRAINERS PHOTOGRAPHY STUDIO TOURISM BOOKING OFFICE

CONTAINER STRUCTURE

2

02

3 4 5 6 7 8 FLATPACK TIMBER STRUCTURE

This strategy aims to build resilient structures that are adaptable to changing ground conditions, which allow businesses to get back on their feet. Through the Berges de Seine precedent the notion of renting out spaces on a short term basis was applied to community spaces. The containers provided an obvious solution to the problem of building a temporary shopping area in an earthquake zone. They’re strong, modular, ubiquitous and most importantly exude a sense of safety in a city fraught with architectural danger.

URBAN 114 CATALYST

03 SPACES FOR RENT

no. 1 - 10 TIME LIMIT

1

hour

2

hours

1 day 2

1

day

1

week

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URBAN STRATEGY

09

KIVERS LANE // CHRISTCHURCH

POP-UP LANE WAY PROVIDE PEDESTRIAN LINKS THROUGH CITY BLOCKS HARDWARE LANE // MELBOURNE

FUNCTION 1. ENVIRONMENTAL – GREEN AND

FORMALISE

COMMUNITY SPACES 2. SOCIAL – PROVIDE AREAS FOR FORMAL AND INFORMAL SOCIAL INTERACTION 3. HEALTH AND RECREATIONAL – PROMOTES ACCESSIBILITY

FO Potential for long term use and improvement to urban condition at certain locations

4. ACCESSIBILITY AND CONNECTIVITY – PROVIDES THROUGH-BLOCK PEDESTRIAN LINKAGES 5. AMENITY – OFFERS SHELTER AND SHADE

Successful temporary uses have generated specific identities for certain areas, and there is now a desire to use their potential for the longer term. Improvised, informal solutions give way to lasting structures such as leases and planning permits. The goals in this stage are to develop business models in the service of an economic interest; forming the collaboration between neighborhood areas and the programs they can facilitate. Along with the re-settlement of new businesses, these areas enable a stronger connection through the city to form networks.

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Kivers Lane is an existing service laneway, which was previously used for cars and trucks. With the activation of the strategies reuse // recover, mobile garden and (re)assemble the space will be transformed into social strip of cafes, retail and events. The spaces allow for business to be reinstated and grow according to the need of the area.

URBAN 117 CATALYST


PATTERNS OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT __MELBOURNE CBD BLOCK

New York City adopted the Commissioners’ Plan of 1811 for a more extensive grid plan. Each block is roughly 82m wide by 320m long and comprizes of corresponding street patterns which are all one-way apart from the arterial roads at either end

Melbourne’s central grid patterned layout, known as the Hoddle grid, was first laid out in 1837. Each block contains main arterial road / laneways / service roads. All major streets are 30 m in width, while all blocks are exactly 10 acres - 201 m × 201 m.

CASHEL STREET

Existing tram line

Existing tram line

Vacant site

Vacant site

Former bus exchange (carpark on rooftop)

CASHEL STREET

The city centre of Christchurch is laid out in a grid pattern, interrupted only by the curvilinear alignment of the Avon River, and the two diagonals High Street and Victoria Street. Each block is made up of one-way streets and the avenues which is reflective of English society.

URBAN 88CBD BLOCK __CHRISTCHIRCH CATALYST

The city centre of Christchurch is laid out in a grid pattern, interrupted only by the curvilinear alignment of the Avon River, and the two diagonals High Street and Victoria Street. Each block is made up of one-way streets and the avenues which is reflective of English society.

MELBOURNE CBD BLOCK

CHCH CBD BLOCK The city centre of Christchurch is laid out in a grid pattern, interrupted only by the curvilinear alignment of the Avon River, and the two diagonals High Street and Victoria Street. Each block is made up of one-way streets and the avenues which is reflective of English society.

__MELBOURNE CBD BLOCK

CASHEL STREET

URBAN 88 CATALYST

__CHRISTCHIRCH CBD BLOCK

Melbourne’s central grid patterned layout, known as the Hoddle grid, was first laid out in 1837. Each block contains main arterial road / laneways / service roads. All major streets are 30 m in width, while all blocks are exactly 10 acres - 201 m × 201 m.

Melbourne’s central grid patterned layout, known as the Hoddle grid, was first laid out in 1837. Each block contains main arterial road / laneways / service roads. All major streets are 30 m in width, while all blocks are exactly 10 acres - 201 m × 201 m.

PATTERNS OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT

__CHRISTCHIRCH CBD BLOCK

The city centre of Christchurch is laid out in a grid pattern, interrupted only by the curvilinear alignment of the Avon River, and the two diagonals High Street and Victoria Street. Each block is made up of one-way streets and the avenues which is reflective of English society.

New York City adopted the Commissioners’ Plan of 1811 for a more extensive grid plan. Each block is roughly 82m wide by 320m long and comprizes of corresponding street patterns which are all one-way apart from the arterial roads at either end

__NEW YORK CBD BLOCK

New York City adopted the Commissioners’ Plan of 1811 for a more extensive grid plan. Each block is roughly 82m wide by 320m long and comprizes of corresponding street patterns which are all one-way apart from the arterial roads at either end

URBAN 88 CATALYST

NEW YORK CBD BLOCK

PATTERNS OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT

__NEW YORK CBD BLOCK

PATTERNS OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT

CASHEL STREET

Former bus exchange (carpark on rooftop)

Carpark

LICHFIELD STREET

Carpark

LICHFIELD STREET

LICHFIELD STREET

LICHFIELD STREET

0

N 10m

20m

SCALE 1:1000 @ A0

URBAN 118 CATALYST

URBAN 119 CATALYST


KIVERS LANE RETAIL AREA This perspective attempts to display how the laneway operates as a pedestrian retail strip. The containers provided an obvious solution to the problem of building a temporary shopping area in an earthquake zone. Theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re strong, modular, ubiquitous and most importantly exude a sense of safety in a city fraught with architectural danger. This area offers a space where by workers; tourists and locals can migrate to, which attempts to reinstate a sense of normality once more.

INTIMACY

retail shop

URBAN 120 CATALYST

pedestrian walkway

retail shop

DRINK

FOOD

SHOPPING

MUSIC

SEATING

WALKING TALKING CYCLING

existing building

URBAN 121 CATALYST


URBAN STRATEGY

10

STREETCORNER IN BROOKLYN phase 01 (3MONTHS)

PAVEMENT TO PLAZA

vacant site since 2005

HI

G

RECLAIM UNDER-UTILISED AREA AS PUBLIC SPACE GENERATES NEW CULTURAL + SOCIAL IMPULSES ENCOURAGES COLLABORATION AMONGST COMMUNITY

ST

RE

ET

NEGATIVES CONFLICT WITH THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PROPERTY OWNERS + CHCH COUNCIL

Mini mart (to be restored)

PROVIDES SPACES FOR ACTIVITY AND LEISURE

REIMAGINE THE POTENTIAL OF STREETS ENCOURAGE PEDESTRIAN ACTIVITY FOSTER NEIGHBORHOOD INTERACTION SUPPORT LOCAL BUSINESSES

antique store (to be restored)

Business offices (to be restored)

Vacant spaces can often be “rough” areas, and in certain places can become bad neighborhoods. The use of temporary activities can therefore help to give a new life to these areas. As an example, a street corner in Brooklyn, New York, was occupied by prostitutes and drug dealers until the local merchants and community decided to turn it into a “pedestrian plaza”, drastically reducing crime in the area. This precedent informed the notions that make up the pavement to plaza strategy as a way to reclaim under-utilized areas as public space.

EXISTING GARDEN BED

MANCHESTER STREET

POSITIVES

H

HIGH STREET TRIANGLE

office building (to be restored)

Java coffee houe (to be restored)

Majestic theatre (to be restored)

PLAZA SPACE FOR PEDESTRIANS + BICYCLISTS

BICYCLE LANE

LICHFIELD STREET

TIMES SQAURE

N

LEGEND lane way strip with cafe’s and retail shops (to be reconstructed)

existing building to be restored

VACANT SITE USED FOR CARPARKING (previously food court building)

building in progress to be reconstructed vacant site existing concrete paving garden bed

0

PREVIOUS CONDITION

3 wise men pub (to be restored)

mexician restaurant to be restored

previously pizza bar (to be reconstructed)

20m

SCALE 1:1000 @ A0

phase 04

phase 03

phase 02

10m

PROGRAMS

TEMPORARY CHANGES TO TIMES SQUARE, NYC

URBAN 122 CATALYST

// MEETING PLACE // STREET VENDORS // SEATING AREA // ART PROJECTIONS // EXHIBITIONS // CAFE // BICYCLE PARKING

Temporary cafe

Bus stop

URBAN 123 CATALYST


LANEWAY CONNECTION breaking the city grid

0

20m

10m

SCALE 1:1000 @ A0

N

economic generators 1 2 3 4

NEIGHBORHOOD / COMMUNITY ACTIVITY AREA

5 6 7 8

v5

BASKETBALL MARKETS CAFE / BARS RETAIL LANEWAY PEDESTRIAN ACTIVE ZONE OPEN SPACE STAGE / EVENT VEGETABLE GARDEN PLAYGROUND ARTIST WORKS FOOD VANS

EXISTING BUILDINGS / LANEWAY

BUILDING RETAIL LANEWAY PEDESTRIAN PASSIVE ZONE

v1

INTERSECTION POCKET PARK

MIXED-USE OPEN SPACE SEATING AREAS ARTWORK / PASSIVE ZONE BICYCLE NETWORK FOOD VANS MOBILE GARDEN MEETING POINT

v4

v3

PEDESTRIAN SHOPPING STRIP

PEDESTRIAN LANEWAY MULTI-USE FACILITY CAFE RETAIL PASSIVE ZONE

LEGEND v2

STREET TREES

EXISTING TREES EXISTING BUILDINGS TRANSIENT BUILDING STRUCTURE RECYCLED BRICKS TIMBER PLATFORM MULCH VACANT BLOCK MODULAR PLANTERS GRASS RUBBLE CARPARK FOOTPATH

124

URBAN CATALYST

ROAD

URBAN 125 CATALYST


(06) APPROACH

THE PROBLEM

DEMOLITION

THE OPPORTUNITY

RESTORATION

STREET / PEDESTRIAN / CIRCULATION / ACCESS

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DAMAGE + EFFECTS

CHRISTCHURCH

SHIFTING URBAN CONDITION

FEBRUARY 2011 EARTHQUAKE

INITIATE MOBILIZE

ECONOMIC

CLAIM REINSTATE

COACH

EVOLVING GREEN SPACE

REUSE//RECOVER

(RE) ASSEMBLE

CONFINE + CONNECT

-AUS

TRAL

IAN

PLAT

E

- Environmental conditions - Post-disaster design - Japan 311 - Landscape architecture systems time, space + cycle - Temporary Urbanism (bottom-up)

RECONSTRUCTION

RECREATION / COMMUNITY

INDO

+

EVALUATION

CHRISTCHURCH

= HUMAN SCALE

LARGE SCALE FRAMEWORK

POSITIVE - Chance to rebuild urban strategy

INFRASTRUCTURE

RETHINKING THE CITY

REACTION AGAINST // REACTION WITH traditional urban development

- Bring community closer - New Identity for the city

END RESULT EXTENT OF EXISITNG CBD

HOW IT CAN BE ACHIEVED?

NEGATIVE EXTENT OF PROPOSED CBD

ENABLE SIDEWALK

FORMALISE MOBILE GARDEN

POP-UP LANEWAY

PARALLEL PARK

EXPLOIT PAVEMENT TO PLAZA

INTEGRATE

(RE) FORM

transitional urban development

- Loss of lives / buildings

HOW IT CAN BE ACHIEVED?

- Reduces local character - Cost of rebuild

REFLECTION

END RESULT

INFORMS NEW URBAN CONDITION

DESIGN PRINCIPLES: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES

STRATEGIES - DYNAMIC AND OPEN - ADAPTABLE IN RESPONSE TO CHANGING CIRCUMSTANCES. - UNDERSTANDING POTENTIALS - SHAPING FORM TO MAXIMISE EFFECTS

RULES: utilise unused + vacant space

integrated transportation

create nodes of program

re-appropriation of form

active + passive

environmental condition

relationship to context

intimate public space

REACTS TO

green space

RECON STRUCTION manual CHAPTER 06


ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

RECONSTRUCTION After the phases of demolition and restoration there is a substantial amount of activity happening around the city and it is now that users and interested parties are given support and linked together into networks. The reconstruction phase seeks to stimulate development through informal and strategic urban regeneration. Targeted interventions facilitate the initial activation of individual spaces resulting in the acceleration of transitional urban communities.

Temporary use as a catalyst

Business are reformulated in areas that have strong cultural and recreational networks, further, creating joint platforms for programs to occur. The networks comprise of business, recreation and community programs, which enables a greater framework for economic recovery. At this stage fostering neighborhood interaction is key to recovery processes.

Catalyst business start up Increase footfall

Surrounding buildings benefit from increase in people

People begin to congregate

Result of temporary use

This phase challenges landowners to reevaluate and rework the function of their site for future use. It places them as the key project manager to actively design the city, which further reduces the responsibility of city agencies and council.

$$$

Opportunity for small business / markets stalls in-between catalyst

URBAN Restore the urban environment to support biodiversity and economic prosperity.

URBAN 128 CATALYST

CULTURAL Renew greater Christchurchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity and its vitality expressed through sport, recreation, art, history, heritage and traditions

SOCIAL Strengthen community resilience, safety and wellbeing, and enhance quality of life for residents and visitors.

ECONOMIC Revitalise christchurch central city as the heart of a properuous region for business, work, education, and increased investment in new activities

Market stalls become permenant People begin to congregate

Catalyst business start up Increase footfall

$$$

Looking at the economics of growth and how that influences future development is a fundamental aspect of my design process. The idea that vacant sites are activated with a program then becomes the catalyst to generate growth. This has a flow on effect as the site will continue to change over time. As people begin to congregate around these spaces, they have the opportunity to dictate the success or failure of sites becoming activated.

Temporary use as a catalyst Temporary use as a catalyst Catalyst business start up Increase footfall

Surrounding buildings benefit Surrounding buildings benefit from increase in people from increase in people Opportunity for small business / markets Result of temporary use Result of temporary use stalls in-between catalyst

People begin to congregate People begin to congregate

Catalyst business start up Increase footfall

Market stalls become permenant

Temporary Temporary use as use a catalyst as a catalyst People People beginbegin to congregate to congregate

Catalyst Catalyst business business start start up up Increase Increase footfall footfall

Temporary Temporary use as use a catalyst as a catalyst

Surrounding Surrounding buildings buildings benefit benefit from from increase increase in people in people

$ $$$$ $

People People beginbegin to congregate to congregate

Result Result of temporary of temporary use use Market Market stallsstalls become become permenant permenant

$$$

Catalyst Catalyst business business start start up up Increase Increase footfall footfall

$ $$$$ $

Opportunity for for Opportunity smallsmall business / markets business / markets stallsstalls in-between catalyst in-between catalyst

People People beginbegin to congregate to congregate

Result Result of temporary of temporary use use

Temporary Temporary use as use a catalyst as a catalyst

Surrounding Surrounding buildings buildings benefit benefit from from increase increase in people in people

Catalyst Catalyst business business start start up up Increase Increase footfall footfall

Result Result of temporary of temporary use use Opportunity Opportunity for for smallsmall business business / markets / markets stallsstalls in-between in-between catalyst catalyst

$$$

Surrounding Surrounding buildings buildings benefit benefit from from increase increase in people in people

$ $$$$ $

Temporary Temporary use as use a catalyst as a catalyst

Surrounding Surrounding buildings buildings benefit benefit from from increase increase in people in people

Opportunity Opportunity for for smallsmall business business / markets / markets stallsstalls in-between in-between catalyst catalyst

Temporary Temporary use as use a catalyst as a catalyst People People beginbegin to congregate to congregate

Catalyst Catalyst business business start start up up Increase Increase footfall footfall

Result Result of temporary of temporary use use

$ $$$$ $

Temporary Temporary use as use a catalyst as a catalyst Catalyst Catalyst business business start start up up Increase footfall Increase footfall

People People beginbegin to congregate to congregate

Catalyst Catalyst business business start start up up Increase Increase footfall footfall

Result Result of temporary of temporary use use

Surrounding Surrounding buildings buildings benefit benefit from from increase increase in people in people

People People beginbegin to congregate to congregate

Surrounding Surrounding buildings buildings benefit benefit from from increase increase in people in people Result Result of temporary of temporary use use

Market Market stallsstalls become become permenant permenant

Opportunity Opportunity for for smallsmall business business / markets / markets stallsstalls in-between in-between catalyst catalyst

$ $$$$ $

Market Market stallsstalls become become permenant permenant

$ $$$$ $

Market Market stallsstalls become become permenant permenant Opportunity for for Opportunity smallsmall business / markets business / markets stallsstalls in-between catalyst in-between catalyst

Opportunity for Opportunity for small business / marketssmall business / markets stalls in-between catalyststalls in-between catalyst

Market Market stallsstalls become become permenant permenant

Opportunity for for Opportunity smallsmall business / markets business / markets stallsstalls in-between catalyst in-between catalyst

Market Market stallsstalls become become permenant permenant

Market stalls become permenant Market stalls become permenant

URBAN 129 CATALYST


ENVIRONMENT

large grain

ORDER OF EVENTS

NEEDS MOST IMPORTANT

BLOCK TYPOLOGIES

PUBLIC SPACE

1

Continue rebuild and reconstruction of urban areas

2

Further communities about future planning

3

Planning and supporting community resilience

5

Economic structure nodes of activation

PROFIT

LEAST IMPORTANT

TRANSPORT

REBUILD CENTRAL LAND OWNERS INVESTORS

through PLANNERS LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS

7

Continue to construct transitional buildings for entertainment and retail

CONTRACTORS

8

Restore access to all transportation networks in central city

9

Continue repair of infrastructure and make decisions about longterm repair

small grain

buildings

CITY AGENCIES

Continue to implement recovery programs

6

DEVELOPMENT

Continue restoration and adaptive reuse of heritage features

4

CULTURAL PROGRAM

COMMERCIAL/ RETAIL

STAKEHOLDERS

ARCHITECTS

COMMUNITY GROUPS

ENTREPREUNERS

10 On-going develop to urban condition

vacant sites

The majority of vacant site become activated in the reconstruction phase, as shown above.

URBAN 130 CATALYST

URBAN 131 CATALYST


SHIFTING URBAN CONDITION By the reconstruction phase 80% of all businesses are set up again in the central city. The 20% of businesses are happy to not return as they are set up in their current location.

NORTHLANDS

LEGEND OLD BUSINESS LOCATION

THE PALMS MALL FENDALTON

RE-LOCATION OF BUSINESSES

MERIVALE

URBAN ZONE RESIDENTIAL ZONE OPEN SPACE

BUSINESS IN CBD FEB 2011 = 5710 BUSH INN MALL

BUSINESS IN CBD FEB 2013 = 3426

EASTGATE MALL

RICCARTON

(40% LOSS) By 2018, 80% of businesses will be resettled in the central city

WESTFIELD MALL

NEW LOCATION : FERRYMEAD

SYDENHAM

FERRYMEAD

EASTGATE MALL WOOLSTON MERIVALE ADDINGTON SYDENHAM NORTHLANDS

WOOLSTON ADDINGTON

WESTFIELD MALL RICCARTON FENDALTON BUSH INN MALL

URBAN 132 CATALYST

URBAN 133 CATALYST


COACH CO spaces are linked together into flexible network of joint platforms

After the phases of demolition and restoration there is a substantial amount of activity happening around the city and it is now that users and interested parties are given support and linked together into networks. This leads to the creation of joint platforms, which increases the network’s public presence and lend its members greater weight for carrying out their objectivities. The networks comprise of business, recreation and community links, which enables a greater platform for economic recovery, which fosters neighborhood interaction. ‘Coach’ aims to build transport and pedestrian links around the central city that reconnect nodes to the greater network.

“There has been relatively little analysis of the importance of interim, short-term or ‘meanwhile’ activities in urban areas. In an era of increasing pressure on scarce resources, we cannot wait for long-term solutions to vacancy or dereliction. Instead, we need to view temporary uses as increasingly legitimate and important in their own right. They can be a powerful tool through which we can drip-feed initiatives for incremental change — as and when we have the resources — while being guided by a loose-fit vision.” Peter Bishop

URBAN 134 CATALYST

URBAN 135 CATALYST


11

5 min walk

URBAN STRATEGY

PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT 4 min walk

CONFINE + CONNECT BUILD CONNECTIONS BETWEEN EXISTING + NEW NODES 2 min walk

EDGES:

THEY ARE BOUNDARIES BETWEEN TWO PHASES, LINEAR BREAKS IN CONTINUITY.”

10 min walk

CONSIDERED AS PATHS BY THE OBSERVER.

5 min walk

‘Confine + Connect’ aims to build connections and relationships between existing and new nodes around the central city. This strategy’s intent is to target social, cultural and business nodes which are disconnected from the greater network of the city.

“ARE THE LINEAR ELEMENTS NOT USED OR

2 min walk

DIVIDING LINES BETWEEN DISTRICTS-

6 min walk

1 min walk

LIMITS ON PUBLIC SPACE DEFINES EDGES / BOUNDARIES OF PLACE ENCOURAGE PEDESTRIAN + CYCLING ACTIVITY

4 min walk

6 min walk

5 min walk

AVERAGE WALKING SPEED - 5KM PER HOUR

SCENARIO 01

AVERAGE RUNNING SPEED - 12KM PER HOUR

This scenario explores the adaptation of an existing green space into an outdoor cafe space as dictated by it’s contextual identity. Because of the cafe’s success it then becomes a larger cafe / dining facility which forms a meeting place for people and activity.

AVERAGE CYCLING SPEED - 25KM PER HOUR

CLAIM

ENABLE

identify area for development

temporary cafe program introduced

FORMALIZE

form connection between spaces

COACH

SUPPORT

cafe program implemented for long term

cafe extended into dining + meeting space

temporary cafe

EXISTING CONDITION

cafe space extended

TEMPORARY PROGRAM

2 YEAR PREDICTION

SCENARIO 02 Scenario 02 shows the transformation of an existing art gallery into temporary artists works. This in-turn becomes part of the streetscape and dictates the future development around it. The artist works then generates programs as cafes and a performance space

CLAIM

ENABLE

identify area for development

temporary artist work installed

FORMALIZE

build connection between ‘hotspots’

COACH

SUPPORT

artist works become part of streetscape

streetscape dictated by artist works

existing art gallery art gallery rebuilt

EXISTING CONDITION

URBAN 136 CATALYST

TEMPORARY PROGRAM

2 YEAR PREDICTION

URBAN 137 CATALYST


INCREMENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF A STREETSCAPE CATHEDRAL SQUARE

LEGEND PEDESTRAIN BICYCLE CAR TRAM EXISTING BUILDINGS NEW DEVELOPMENT 600m WALKABLE CATCHMENT

HEREFORD STREET

This plan to the left shows the overall spatial layout of High Street. Each red circle indicates a 600-meter walk able catchment from a key area. Each area can facilitate a range of mix-use programs that work in with each other. The sequence of plans below explore the notion of incremental development based on the recovery process through cultural, social and economic structure.

souvlaki bar

coffee club subway pharmacy cafe / dining space

COLOMBO STREET

RE:START MALL

cafe

retail centre + office

office + cafes

all seasons hotel

surf shop

restaurant

m

hunters + collectors

CARPARK

600 accountants cafe

majestic theatre

HI H G ET

RE

ST art gallery

cafe

music school

URBAN 138 CATALYST

URBAN 139 CATALYST


12 INTEGRATE URBAN STRATEGY

BUILD NEIGHBORHOOD INTERACTION SUPPORT - position projects so that development opportunities are created around them

SUPPORT

ATTRACT - Invite and attract people as a place to live, work, play, learn, visit and Invest

(RE) ASSEMBLE

EX

FOSTER NEIGHBORHOOD INTERACTION BUILDS SOCIAL + CULTURAL PATTERNS

Pursuing interest in certain program which has a direct relationship with context

‘Support’ brings together a variety of art, food and retail uses to a single location. This is done to generate needed revenue for the landowner / developer, raise the community’s awareness about the neighborhoods long-term potential, and to build a resilient community while supporting local entrepreneurs. This aims to pursue interest in certain programs, which have a direct relationship with it surrounding context.

MOBILIZE RE-LOCATABLE BUSINESSES. CONTAINERS CAN BE RECYCLED / REUSED / REFORMATED IN OTHER AREAS OF THE CITY. THEY CAN BE PUT TOGETHER IN DIFFERENT NUMBERS AND BECOME A REUSABLE RESOURCE FOR THE CITY.

PHASE 01

roads + footpaths

URBAN 140 CATALYST

PHASE 02

social + cultural

PHASE 03 economical

PHASE 04

future framework

PHASE 05

joint platform

URBAN 141 CATALYST


URBAN STRATEGY

(RE) FORM

13 figure 02__LOCATION PLAN

BUILD CONNECTIONS BETWEEN EXISTING + NEW NODES

figure 03__EXISTING ANALYSIS OF PROGRAMS

FIGURE 04__PROPOSED PROGRAMS

RELATIONSHIP TO STREET PEOPLE FEEL SAFE UNDER TREES PEOPLE USE STEPS AS SEATS PEOPLE WONT STOP IN LARGE SPACES TO TALK INTIMATE SPACE The successful aspects of projects are exploited to give a greater connection between programs. This builds a framework based on contextual identity for future development

FIGURE 02: Location plan of vacant site which connects onto the west side of the Re:START mall and interacts with the streetscape

FIGURE 03: Diagram showing the scale of existing programs that currently occupy this vacant site.

FIGURE 04: Diagram showing the scale of proposed programs on site.

FIGURE 01__SCALE OF PROGRAMS STREET FURNITURE (bins / seats / signs) SMALL GRAIN BUILDINGS / PROGRAM

utilise unused + vacant space

re-appropriation of form

integrated transportation

relationship to context

create nodes of program

STREETSCAPE LARGE GRAIN BUILDING / PROGRAM CARPARKING

environmental condition

active + passive

green space

intimate public space

FIGURE 01: This diagram was done in order to understand the grain of programs that is occurring at the scale of the city block. As shown by the grey circles, there are defined areas with the same scale happening. In order for this block to function well it would be better if there were a greater combination of programs happening in the same space.

URBAN 142 CATALYST

URBAN 143 CATALYST


EXISITNG BUILDING

EXISITNG BUILDING

TEMPORARY RUGBY OVAL

TEMPORARY CARPARK OUTDOOR CAFE EXISITNG BUILDING EXISITNG BUILDING

RETAIL STRIP

LINK TO RE:START CONTAINER MALL EXISITNG BUILDING

OUTDOOR CAFE EXISITNG BUILDING

MOVABLE PLANTER

LANDSCAPE BUFFER EXISITNG BUILDING

BIKE PATH EXISITNG BUILDING

EXISITNG BUILDING

TRAM TRACK EXISITNG BUILDING

RAISED PLANTER MOVABLE PLANTER

URBAN 144 CATALYST

URBAN 145 CATALYST


ADAPTABLE NEIGHBOURHOODS This perspective shows how open space and retail areas interact with the streetscape. This leads to the creation of joint platforms, which increases the networkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s public presence and boosts economical growth. future land for development

retail shop

road

footpath

LAND OWNERS

CITY AGENCIES

NON-PROFITS

USERS

PHASE 01

roads + footpaths

URBAN 146 CATALYST

PHASE 02

social + cultural

PHASE 03 activation

PHASE 04 economical

PHASE 05

joint platform

URBAN 147 CATALYST


HOTEL

BALLANTYNES SHOPPING CENTRE

SCHOOL

RETAIL

BANK

A

A

RETAIL / OFFICES

MIXED-USE

FOODCOURT

CARPARK

CARPARK

BUS EXCHANGE

MASTER PLAN

N

0

10m FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

SCALE 1:500 @ A0

FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

SECTION AA

5m

RETAIL

RETAIL

FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

FOOTPATH

FOOTPATH

RETAIL

RETAIL

STREET


APPROACH

THE PROBLEM

DEMOLITION

THE OPPORTUNITY

STREET / PEDESTRIAN / CIRCULATION / ACCESS

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DAMAGE + EFFECTS

CHRISTCHURCH

SHIFTING URBAN CONDITION

FEBRUARY 2011 EARTHQUAKE

INITIATE MOBILIZE

RECONSTRUCTION

RECREATION / COMMUNITY

ECONOMIC

CLAIM REINSTATE

COACH

EVOLVING GREEN SPACE

REUSE//RECOVER

(07)

(RE) ASSEMBLE

CONFINE + CONNECT

-AUS

TRAL

IAN

PLAT

E

- Environmental conditions - Post-disaster design - Japan 311 - Landscape architecture systems time, space + cycle - Temporary Urbanism (bottom-up)

RESTORATION

INDO

+

EVALUATION

CHRISTCHURCH

= HUMAN SCALE

LARGE SCALE FRAMEWORK

POSITIVE - Chance to rebuild urban strategy

INFRASTRUCTURE

RETHINKING THE CITY

REACTION AGAINST // REACTION WITH traditional urban development

- Bring community closer - New Identity for the city

END RESULT EXTENT OF EXISITNG CBD

HOW IT CAN BE ACHIEVED?

NEGATIVE EXTENT OF PROPOSED CBD

ENABLE SIDEWALK

FORMALISE MOBILE GARDEN

POP-UP LANEWAY

PARALLEL PARK

EXPLOIT PAVEMENT TO PLAZA

INTEGRATE

(RE) FORM

transitional urban development

- Loss of lives / buildings

HOW IT CAN BE ACHIEVED?

- Reduces local character - Cost of rebuild

REFLECTION

END RESULT

INFORMS NEW URBAN CONDITION

DESIGN PRINCIPLES: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES

STRATEGIES - DYNAMIC AND OPEN - ADAPTABLE IN RESPONSE TO CHANGING CIRCUMSTANCES. - UNDERSTANDING POTENTIALS - SHAPING FORM TO MAXIMISE EFFECTS

RULES: utilise unused + vacant space

integrated transportation

create nodes of program

re-appropriation of form

active + passive

environmental condition

relationship to context

intimate public space

REACTS TO

green space

CON CLUSION CHAPTER 07


REFLECTION ON TEMPORARY APPROACH DESIGN FRAMEWORK + APPROACH

CONCLUSION

PROJECTION + DISCUSSION

Testing the approach through strategies enabled the research to explore different ways of addressing urban activation in a post disaster context.

STRENGTHS social engagement

social capital and culture are enhanced, as well as a feeling of identity and belonging. Social engagement makes people feel active and empowered. meeting to volunteer or spend time around transitional projects enables residents to talk together.

community involvment

temporary projects directly question the needs of residents

quality of urban space

has improved immediately from rubble to public space + events

the user is in the centre of the approach

an approach allowing to test, with the participation of the users, the use and functionality of a layout, giving the opportunity to improve the final result

an urban laboratory

quick installations and adaptability of different material, and within a short period of time

improve the quality of place

a qualitative approach, allowing an improvement in quality in spaces and people’s well being.

visibility

makes people aware of the proceedings in development

a changing period

prepares the residents + workers for the changers to come and makes the transition phase less negative.

maintain cultural identity

temporary projects pay respect to the social and cultural identity that once existed in the city.

connections

greater connections + relationships have been formed between council and community groups.

creation of new ideas

chance to respond creatively to the damage as well as experiment with new forms of urban development to create temporary and ephemeral activities in grey-field sites.

WEAKNESSES fragile

fragility of used equiptment doesn’t help to build confidence in the projects

need of good communication

often there is a lack of understanding and communication between the council, cera and the community groups

greater responsibility

as it stands transitional projects have been secondary to the master plan and there is a need to give temporary projects a greater responsibility in development of the urban context

OPPORTUNITIES urban transformations

increase value of temporary grey-fields and maintain the urban continuity

flexibility of the approach

allow new thinking and new theories, and question the master plan

allows exploration of new thinking ways

challenges current ways of designing to activate different urban conditions

challenge master plan

the current blue print plan for the central city provides the opportunity for temporary projects to dictate development as it occurs

overcome

give the opportunity for people to come back to the city centre and overcome their traumatic experience.

The earthquakes have provided an unprecedented opportunity to rethink, revitalize and reconsider current ways of approaching urban reconstruction. The design research undertaken explores the opportunities presented in a disaster prone environment in order to develop and define strategies for designed activation of the urban landscape. Using Christchurch as the laboratory for testing an approach, the research aims to build resilience in response to economic instability. These strategies, whilst designed for activation, ultimately contribute to the revitalization and renewal of the post-disaster city. The transitional approach adopted in this research discusses landscape architecture beyond the static and begins to enable a more adaptive and dynamic urban condition. This alternative condition seeks to stimulate development through informal and strategic urban regeneration. Targeted interventions facilitate the initial activation of individual spaces resulting in the acceleration of transitional urban communities. Social and cultural recovery forms a responsive landscape that contributes to incremental development on a large and small scale. Business developers, municipalities and property owners are now aware that sustainable and successful development of urban life cannot be achieved without consideration of contextual aspects. The design research explores the adaptability inherent in this approach. The original objective for the research addressed Christchurch as the Post-disaster case study for the reconfiguration of urban fabrics. Redefining and refining the approach allowed for the proposal to move beyond the temporary landscape, shifting to a new form of ‘temporary urbanism’. This refinement allowed the research to alter the scope to other forms of vacant sites. These strategies begin to suggest how landscape architecture has the ability to pro-actively engage with large-scale urbanism not only in the post-disaster landscape but in abandoned and under-utilized urban areas as well. This forms stronger connections between people and challenges everyday life practices, now and in the future, forming a responsive and resilient urban landscape.

RISKS jeopardise the final project

strong attachment to a project

too much change

fast modification of the space and use can be overwhelming

too complex

fantasise about a dream and forget reality

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APPEN DIX

CHAPTER 08 1.0 - CITY BLOCK TESTS

2.0 - CATHEDRAL SQUARE 3.0 - STAKEHOLDER STRUCTURE


CITY BLOCK TESTS

The city block is located southwest of Cathedral square and abuts the Avon River to the west. Cashel Street to the south was formally one of the cities main shopping mall precincts, which connected to High Street. The program of this however has now been converted into the Re:Start container mall which now occupies 6 lots on either side of the street. The rest of the block is now currently used at car parking but will soon change as developers and investment begins to happen.

TRANSITION OVER-TIME

BUILDINGS TO BE DEMOLISHED

BUILDINGS TO BE DEMOLISHED

CONSTRUCTION OF CONTAILER MALL

TEMPORARY CARPARK

The city block was a way of testing how one temporary space can enable development around the context of the site. This process engaged with the idea of time over a 2 year period to understand the transformation that has occurred and how this temporary program has influenced the development surrounding.

TEMPORARY CARPARK

NEW BUILDINGS

OPEN SPACE

OPEN SPACE

OPEN SPACE

__TRANSITION OVER TIME HEREFORD ST

Rubble to be removed

Building to be removed (Restaurant)

OXFORD TCE

Rubble to be removed

Building to be removed (Bar)

Rubble to be removed

Retail

Rubble to be removed

_YEAR ZERO

OPEN SPACE

Cafe

Rubble to be removed

Warehouse

TEMPORARY CARPARK

Retail

Carpark

Restaurant

Restaurant + Bar

Restaurant + Offices

Rubble to be removed

Building to be removed (Offices)

Building to be removed (Retail)

Restaurant

CASHEL ST

CONSTRUCTION OF CONTAINER MALL

HEREFORD ST

Office Building

Offices

Building to be removed (Restaurant)

Restaurant + Offices

Retail

COLOMBO ST

OXFORD TCE

Cafe Restaurant

Warehouse Restaurant + Bar

TEMPORARY CARPARK

NEW SHOPPING MALL

COLOMBO ST

Office Building

RE:START CONTAINER MALL

Carpark

Retail

Restaurant

_YEAR ONE

CASHEL ST

These sections follow the sequence of plans as shown on the previous page, which aim to represents the change in built form over the 20-year period. The sections show how the city block is dictated by the Re:start container mall and how that has informed development surrounding.

HEREFORD ST

Office Building

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Restaurant + Offices

Retail

COLOMBO ST

Cafe OXFORD TCE

The sequence of sections and plans show the transition of development over the 2-year period from the 2011 earthquake. Already as a result of the Re:start mall a temporary soccer and rugby oval has been developed to the north of the mall. This already indicates there is a certain demographic of people that are using this space on a day to day basis.

Offices

Restaurant

Warehouse Restaurant + Bar

Retail

_YEAR TWO

Restaurant Re:Start + OfficesMall

Carpark

Restaurant

CASHEL ST

N

50 m

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ADD + SUBTRACT SUBTRACT

_BUILDING OFFSET FALL ZONES

ADD

_NO BUILD AREAS

_AREA FOR DEVELOPMENT

The areas shown in black are the building offset fall zones where only carparks or open space may occur

Add + subtract is a technique that I developed to determine where future area for development can occur. This is based on the building offset fall zones from existing and new building which have a direct relationship with the public realm. The idea that for every story of a building there is a buffer zone on the ground of 3 meters where new buildings cannot be built. In the case of another disaster this will ensure pedestrians at the ground level are always a safe distance from infrastructure.

RE-BUILD CYCLE

78

88

HERITAGE BUILDING

112

112

699

Oxford Terrace

Colombo Street

128

HERITAGE BUILDING

HERITAGE BUILDING

97 81

699 691

Colombo Street

691

128

84

HERITAGE BUILDING

Oxford Terrace

84

HERITAGE BUILDING

The re-build cycle, shown below, is a timeline process based off the development of the city block over a 20-year period. It shows the stages of when different operations happen to do with mitigation, response and recovery.

Hereford Street

Hereford Street

78

The areas above shown in black is where development can occur.

4

97 682

83

81

HERITAGE BUILDING

clean up funding

682

83

infrastructure (water + power)

HERITAGE BUILDING

social services (education + facilities) Cashel Street

green open space

_YEAR ZERO

temporary design

3

Cashel Street

_YEAR ONE

pedestrian + bicycle network strategic review + planning housing re-building / construction Hereford Street

97

HERITAGE BUILDING

81

YE A

682

83

HERITAGE BUILDING

up

R S 1 1-20

po

ctu

up

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Figure01: Based on the cycle of re-building, my intention for the 20 year plan was to create more permanent building than the containers but since doing that I realized that it loses the grain / programs that made it so successful as shown in the year five plan.

tru

an

g

cle

din

fun

TRANSITION OVER-TIME

ras

inf

_YEAR FIVE

so

Cashel Street

Cashel Street

_YEAR TWO

gre

tem

n tio uc str on g /c nin ing n ild ork pla bu + tw rene iew ing le us rev yc ho s) bic gic + ilitie ate n ia ign str fac es str d n+ e de tio ac ary pe r) r ca sp we du en po op s (e r+ ice en ate erv (w ls re cia

682

re-build cycle 2

ructur e (wat er + po social wer) servic es (edu cation green + faci open lities) space tempo rary de sign pedest rian + bicycl e netw strate ork gic re view + planni housin ng g re-bui lding / cons tructio n

HERITAGE BUILDING

97 83

re-build cycle 1

clean

Oxford Terrace

691

128

HERITAGE BUILDING

81

699

Colombo Street

Colombo Street

128

112

699 691

YEARS 0-10

fundin g

112

HERITAGE BUILDING

1

HERITAGE BUILDING

84

2

78

84

Oxford Terrace

78

infrast

Hereford Street

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CATH EDRAL SQUARE

ORIGINAL CONDITION

UNION LAWN - MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY Cathedral Square has a lot of similarities with that of a university square. This analysis of Union Lawn at Melbourne University was done in order to understand how people use the space over a 2-hour period. It revealed that materials on the ground level do not dictate the direction of pedestrian movement. This gave me a greater understanding of how to approach the design for Cathedral Square.

CURRENT CONDITION

POST EARTHQUAKE

2pm - 4pm

Cathedral Square was formally the civic heart of the city, providing the main meeting place for people taking a break from their work, or visiting the city. The square stands at the theoretical crossing of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s two main orthogonal streets, Colombo Street and Worcester Street, though in practice both have been either blocked off or detoured since the 2011 earthquake.

I MONTH

6 MONTHS

6 MONTHS

movement + circulation

12 MONTHS

As shown by the diagram above, the program of the church shifts to the cardboard cathedral, which is 2 blocks east of The Square. This is currently been built on Latimer Square and will remain for 5 years until the Cathedral in The Square is rebuilt.

density + location 24 MONTHS

SPATIAL CHANGE OVER TIME

5 YEAR

EXISTING BUILDING

5 YEARS

PRAYER GARDEN

OUTDOOR CINEMA

SEATING SPACE

ENTERTAINMENT PRECINCT

1 MONTH 6 MONTHS

12 MONTHS 24 MONTHS

TRAM

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24 MONTH MASTER PLAN

connection to New Regent Street + Gloucester Street

RETAIL

- 1 month 6 months 12 months 24 months

SEATING SPACE 12 months 24 months

CAFE / RESTAURANTS 1 month 6 months 12 months 24 months

GREEN SPACE 1 month 6 months 12 months 24 months

PRAYER GARDEN 12 months 24 months

connection to Worcester Boulevard + temporary cardboard cathedral

connection to Avon River

ENTERTAINMENT PRECINCT 1 month 6 months 12 months 24 months

RECREATIONAL / PLAY AREA 1 month 6 months 12 months 24 months

ARTWORK / SCULPTURE 12 months 24 months

OUTDOOR CINEMA 1 month 6 months 12 months 24 months

connection to High Street + Re:Start Mall

CYCLE OF RE-BUILD

POINTS OF REFERENCE

The diagram below shows the development of programs over a 24 month period. It reveals how the boundaries can grow and adapt according to their success over time.

SCALE OF PROGRAMS

AREAS FOR GROWTH

1 MONTH

6 MONTHS

12 MONTHS

TEMPORARY PROGRAM

IN

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24 MONTHS 2 YEAR PREDICTION

IN

IN

FO

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STAKEHOLDER STRUCTURE CHRISTCHURCH CITY COUNCIL

CERA

Design Lead - Urban Design PIERS TAYLOR

CAPITAL PROGRAM GROUP

STRATEGY PLANNING GROUP

Head Landscape Architect JENNY MOORE

URBAN DESIGN + REGENERATION UNIT

RE-BUILD CENTRAL

URBAN DESIGN TEAM

URBAN REGENERATIONAL UNIT

Team Leader CECILE DELARUE

Team Leader MICHAEL FISHER

Transitional City Projects Advisor LAURA TAYLOR

RESPONSIBILITY: recovery coordination policy analysts urban regeneration specialists

RESPONSIBILITY: urban design sustainability herritage transitional city projects

work together / multidisciplinary with LA’s + project managers

TRANSITIONAL PROJECTS central city plan $15.4 million by CCC

ACTIVATION OF VACANT SPACES

STREETSCAPES (CCC LEAD) - colombo street - gloucester street - new regent street - paraclete / buildout on tuam street outside C1 cafe

Transitional City Projects Advisor LAURA TAYLOR

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LIFE IN VACANT GAPFILLER SPACES (LIV’s)

GREENING THE RUBBLE

Gap Filler Director CORALIE WINN

GtR Coordinator RACHAEL ANNAN

Project Co-ordinator RICHARD SEWELL

Sites Supervisor JONATHAN HALL

Project Co-ordinator TRENT HILES

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REF REN CES

TEXT

IMAGES

Walsh, J (2011). Christchurch: Living in a Crisis Landscape. TOPOS. Vol 76, pp 86-89

http://www.cbc.ca/news/interactives/before-after/nzearthquake/

http://www.animalarchitecture.org/the-architecturalanimal-part-5/

http://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/news/christchurchearthquake-2011/12-51/photos/6422210/Photos-Beforeand-after-the-Christchurch-earthquake

http://www.allindiary.org/page/disastercycle http://www.greeningtherubble.org.nz

http://www.rebuildchristchurch.co.nz/blog/2011/3/ christchurch-power-supply-update

http://www.gapfiller.org.nz/

http://gehlcitiesforpeople.dk/tag/christchurch-earthquake/

http://www.ccc.govt.nz/index.aspx

http://content.ngv.vic.gov.au/retrieve.php?size=large&type =image&vernonID=3161

http://livs.org.nz/ http://vimeo.com/21556697 http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2010/ smallscalebigchange/ http://ccdu.govt.nz/sites/ccdu.govt.nz/files/documents/ christchurch-central-recovery-plan.pdf http://www.archdaily.com/92321/ad-classics-parc-de-lavillette-bernard-tschumi/

http://www.spicybiscotti.com/2009/09/25/flight-of-therustbelt-vacant-detroit/ http://rebargroup.org/parking/ Merker (2010, p. 49-­‐51) http://www.ramm.co.nz/ChristchurchEQ.php http://cera.govt.nz/maps/cordon-reduction http://data.linz.govt.nz/

http://thespontaneouscityinternational.org/manifesto/ http://yuriartibise.com/blog/temporary-urbanismincubating-new-ideas-for-city-living/ http://issuu.com/architecture00/docs/compendium_for_ the_civic_economy_publ http://worldlandscapearchitect.com/?p=12849 http://canterburymaps.govt.nz/Viewer/#webmap=9ac1f83 70dfe4a44808bec8fb1dccb24 http://desireland.ie/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/SCGCPocketPark-Agenda21-09-text-02.pdf http://gizmodo.com/gimme-shelter-9-instant-buildingsfrom-disaster-areas-495820265 http://rebargroup.org/parking/ Merker (2010, p. 49-­‐51) http://www.lincoln.ac.nz/Documents/LEaP/2012%20 bouncing%20back%20coping%20Brisbane%20fire%20 and%20rain.pdf

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Charlie Allen DRC urban catalyst