Page 1

University of Central Lancashire

Era of Off-Track Architecture

Submitted by: Charlie Leung Pui Lam 177217892 BSc (Hons) Architectural Studies AO3005 Architectural History and Theory 3 Course Tutor: Mr. Henry Tung Module Leader: Dr. Cameron McEwan 11th August 2019

The Grenfell-Baines School of Architecture Construction and Environment | VTC (SHAPE)


| 1

Era of Off-Track Architecture By Charlie Leung Pui-lam

“Architecture disappeared in the twentieth century; we have been reading a footnote under a microscope hoping it would turn into a novel; our concern for the masses has blinded us to People’s Architecture.” –Junkspace, October, Vol. 100 (Rem Koolhaas, p.175, 2002)

Abstract In the twenty-first century, Junkspace booms obviously, seems like virus infection. Rem Koolhaas believed that the essence of Junkspace are continuity, aberration, and not pretend to create perfection, only interest. Junkspace is a conditional space, it concerns about consumerism significantly rather than any spatial sensation. Although Junkspace sheds architectures like a reptile sheds skins, people are used to coexisting with Junkspace nowadays. In this essay, we are going to explore how Junkspace would be survival and acceptance in the twenty-first century, by comparing the common and differentiate on the change of demand under the social transformation from the twentieth to twenty-first century, and explore the value of Junkspace brings to Hong Kong by case study. Keywords: Junkspace, Continuity, Consumerism, Social transformation 1

Introduction Junkspace, refers to those buildings and spaces without architecture quality. However, we are actually coexisting with it in our everyday life. There is a horrible phenomenon that we were all cheated by the skin of Junkspace, and forgot the real inner beauty of a valued and meaningful architecture space. “Off-Track”, means situated or taking place away from a racetrack. (Longman, 2003)

[ 1]

. It could be

interpreted as a parasitic survival mode, no connection with local history or the manner of morality, also those buildings and spaces cannot be represented in the existing generation, local background or complex [2]. 1

Off track: Situated or taking place away from a racetrack (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English: The living Dictionary, p.1142, 2003)

2

Complex: a group of attitudes and feelings that influence a person’s behavior (Cambridge Dictionary)

JUNKSPACE: ERA OF OFF-TRACK ARCHITECTURE

UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL LANCASHIRE∣CHARLIE LEUNG PUI-LAM


| 2

2

Interpretation of Junkspace “Where architecture, in order to make connections, has to go through incredibly complicated gestures, the elevator simply ridicules, bypassing all our knowledge, and establishes connection mechanically.”

[3]

Generally, there is no accurate standard to measure Junkspace, we could define a Junkspace to see whether it fulfill such requirement or not. Junkspace could be alive in everywhere. Rem Koolhaas indicates that continuity is the essence of Junkspace, which exploits any invention that enables expansion, deploys the infrastructure of seamlessness: escalator, air-conditioning, sprinkler, fire shutter, hot-air curtain etc. The plan libre, you may hard to find the flow or rhythm of a Junkspace, as it promotes disorientation and free space programme. People may easy to get themselves lost when shuttle in the Junkspace. For materials, Junkspace usually construct with no walls, only lightweight partitions. Ornament are widely used on the superficial level. We have to admit that Junkspace is the indeed part of modern architecture. Under certain circumstance, Junkspace brings us convenience with high technology. How Junkspace Devalues Architectural Contexts? People want to fill in all the blank place in town and tried to make the biggest profit. Junkspace is derived during the action of constant filling. Refers to the book “Architecture and Modern Literature”

[4]

, Professor David Spurr

[5]

states, “Jameson’s discovery of hyperspace

followed in 1992 by Marc Augé’s anthropological

[ 7]

study of non-lieux

[6]

was

[8]

: if a ‘place’ has

meaning in terms of history, human relations, or personal and collective identity, then a ‘nonplace’ is characterized by the absence of these.” Under most of the situation, Junkspace could be identified as non-place. Normally, Junkspace occurred because of consumerism. Take a typical shopping mall in Hong Kong as an example. K11 Hong Kong Art Mall, which is located in Tsim Sha Tsui and connected with the MTR station, features in shopping, dining, and art. Form search for function, the building scheme and the space programme are not responding to any local history or collective identity. The main purpose of the mall is to trap people into the mall and promote 3 4 5 6 7 8

Rem Koolhaas: Conversations with students, 1996, Rem Koolhaas, Rem Koolhaas., & Sanford. K., Princeton Architectural Press, New York, U.S., p.17 Architecture and Modern Literature, 2012, David Spurr, University of Michigan Press, U.S., p.222 David Spurr: Author, Emeritus Professor of Modern Literature at Université de Genève, Switzerland Hyperspace: Space having more than three dimensions, often used to describe a multi-dimensional environment (Collin Dictionary) Anthropological: The study of human beings, especially of their origin, development, customs and beliefs (Oxford Intermediate Learner’s English-Chinese Dictionary, p.50, 2005) Lieux: Place (Cambridge Dictionary)

JUNKSPACE: ERA OF OFF-TRACK ARCHITECTURE

UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL LANCASHIRE∣CHARLIE LEUNG PUI-LAM


| 3

consumerism. So, the internal routes of the shopping mall are usually disorientating, just like walking in a maze. Pop-up store and temporary exhibition always held in the atrium. Architectural Contexts be devalued while Junkspace widely invade the city.

Fig 1 K11 Hong Kong Art Mall (Photo: K11)

2.1

Fig 2 K11 Hong Kong Art Mall (Photo: Anonymous)

Social Transformation - Junkspace Under Consumerism In the twentieth century, people tried to reshape architecture in a business mode. When the social space integrated with the economic space, consumerism and convenience in life becomes the primary considerations for the design. During the period of modernization reform, the economic factors mastered the dominance of architecture. “Spaces for consumption do not simply maximise the opportunity to consume; they provide spaces within which we negotiate our own symbolic relationship [9] with the consumer society. Spaces for consumption are effectively the arenas [10] within which the emotions, dreams and wounds of a consumer society are played out.” [11] It is well-known that consumer culture is a symbol of identity and quality of life. When people around the world move toward the same way of living, cultural diversity would be affected directly. Under consumerism, in order to cater the mass consumer psychology, the necessity of local culture has been gradually erased in the 20th century architecture, Junkspace booms obviously in this moment. Undoubtfully, consumer goods are time-limited, as the architecture of the 20th century can undergo a century and people won’t feel outdated. Nowadays, new buildings may be eliminated in a decade as the local culture cannot be highlighted.

9

Symbolic relationship: A symbiotic relationship is one in which organisms, people, or things exist together in a way that benefits them all (Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner's Dictionary) 10 Arenas: An area of activity that concerns the public (Oxford Intermediate Learner’s English-Chinese Dictionary, p.60, 2005) 11 Spaces for Consumption (Steven Miles, p.184, 2010) JUNKSPACE: ERA OF OFF-TRACK ARCHITECTURE

UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL LANCASHIRE∣CHARLIE LEUNG PUI-LAM


| 4

Fig 3

3

Mapping - Junkspace

Junkspace in Hong Kong 3.1

Commercial & Residential Commercial It is not hard to find that many buildings in Hong Kong are driven by consumerism, especially shopping mall, which is serial replication. Stylized space without any response to the local culture or contexts, only pay close attention on the interaction with consumers. “Forms search for function like hermit crabs looking for a vacant shell” [12]. In fact, modern shopping malls wrap different stores with irrelevant shells. Usually, people cannot explain the relationship between the shell and the space in the mall.

Fig 4

12

Sha Kok Commercial Centre (Photo by Author)

Junkspace, October, Vol. 100, 2002, Rem Koolhaas, New York, U.S. p.178

JUNKSPACE: ERA OF OFF-TRACK ARCHITECTURE

UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL LANCASHIRE∣CHARLIE LEUNG PUI-LAM


| 5

Fig 5 Shui Chuen O Plaza (Photo by Author)

Residential

Fig 6 Pok Hong Estate (Photo by Author)

“Continuity is the essence of Junkspace” [ 13 ] . In Hong Kong, the most common residential Junkspace is eroded by the lift and air conditioning system, these devices run through the entire building. The space inside the elevators has become a platform for promoting consumerism, different kind s of advertisement will be non-stop displayed on the tv screen which stick on the skin of the lift.

Fig 7 Shui Chuen O Estate Pedestrian bridge (Photo by Author)

13

Junkspace, October, Vol. 100, 2002, Rem Koolhaas, New York, U.S. p.175

JUNKSPACE: ERA OF OFF-TRACK ARCHITECTURE

UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL LANCASHIRE∣CHARLIE LEUNG PUI-LAM


| 6

3.2

Entertainment The AIA Great European Carnival

Fig 8 Booths in AIA Carnival (Photo: Getready HK)

Fig 9 Booths in AIA Carnival (Photo: Anonymous)

It is located at Central Harbourfront Event Space. Carnival usually being operate in every year during December to February. Visitors can participate different kind of events in the AIA Carnival, such as 500 live entertainment events, over 120 rides and Great Circus of Europe with kids etc. AIA Carnival could be a typical example of Junkspace in Hong Kong, just like other theme park, which encouraging people’s consumption. It operates temporarily every year, which may apply various lightweight materials as partitions with no walls. Refers to the above sitemap, which reflected that the spatial configuration of the carnival is fortuitous, it designates to fulfill the huge number of live events only. This kind of planning promotes disorientation.

Fig 10 The AIA Great European Carnival sitemap (from official website) JUNKSPACE: ERA OF OFF-TRACK ARCHITECTURE

UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL LANCASHIREâˆŁCHARLIE LEUNG PUI-LAM


| 7

3.3

Case Study - Lai Yuen (Lai Chi Kok Amusement Park)

Fig 11 1970s Lai Yuen Entrance (Photo: HT Wong)

Fig 12 1997 Lai Yuen Closedown (Photo: Andy Poon)

Lai Yuen, also known as “Lai Chi Kok Amusement Park”, which was opened in 1949 and closed down because of land resumption by the Government for building development purpose in 1997. Lai Yuen was located at the west shore of Lai Chi Kok Bay in Lai Chi Kok, Hong Kong. It was the largest amusement park in Hong Kong during 1950s to 1970s. Actually, Lai Yuen satisfied most of the conditions into Junkspace. “Spaces” inside the park were temporary structure, by skin and decorations, which were not sustainable. Flashing lights and crowded noise reborn every night, endlessly. The attractions inside the park were disorientation. The appearance of Lai Yuen was likely to cater for the emerging consumerism in Hong Kong. People could enter the park to enjoy those entertainment after paying for a very cheap ticket. Although people visited Lai Yuen for entertainment purpose at the beginning, the satisfaction that visitors found in the process of consumption was relatively higher than the value of the price itself. Refers to the book “Goodbye to the Playground”

[14]

, Mr. Leung Kwong-fuk

[15]

mentioned

that the vision of Lai Yuen is to pass on the spirit of “simple happiness” to a new generation. As Lai Yuen has been the largest and unique amusement park among the Southeast Asian countries, it would be the unique one to the Hongkongers. Lai Yuen had been closed for a long time, it still lingers in people’s mind. According to the interview with a famous local photographer Wong Wo-bik

[16]

by Apple daily

[17]

in 2015, Wong said that there was an

alternative beauty behind the roughness of Lai Yuen, visitors might discover that fairy tales had been widely applied in the park as theme, no matter from the East or the West, just like

14 15 16 17

Goodbye to the Playground, 2014, Leung Kwong-fuk, Chung Hwa Book Co., (H.K.) Ltd., H.K. Leung Kwong-fuk: An author and photographer Wong Wo-bik: An active photographer and mixed media artist, curator, researcher and art educator. Apple Daily: a Hong Kong-based newspaper founded in 1995 by Jimmy Lai Chee Ying and published by Next Digital.

JUNKSPACE: ERA OF OFF-TRACK ARCHITECTURE

UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL LANCASHIRE∣CHARLIE LEUNG PUI-LAM


| 8

Hong Kong. Obviously, Wong concerned about the social value behind those shells, the tolerance in Hong Kong for Eastern and Western cultures. Visitors were looking forward to see the skin reborn in Lai Yuen, they were looking for a new story to be told. Lai Yuen, the original intention is to bring simple happiness to the locals by a simple way of consumption model. However, such facilities and booths changed like a trotting horse lamp, these kind of design strategies attract many peoples to the park. As time passed, people still remember Lai Yuen deeply, those vivid memories came from a strong and profound sensory experience. Generally, consumption brings only short-lived pleasure and weak emotions. However, it is believed that the consumption in Lai Yuen has broken the definition in the past, which built up a long-lasting complex relationship with the locals. Lai Yuen is an example to prove that a Junkspace can be recognized from no identity to be identified, from no memory to be memorized.

Fig 13 Lai Yuen Main Entrance (Photo: Yuen Lok-ting)

Fig 14 Bumper car in Lai Yuen (Photo: anonymous)

Indeed, the business concept behind McDonald's

[ 18 ]

and Lai Yuen are very similar.

McDonald's is an identity of modernization and an index in pursuing a modern lifestyle. In fact, McDonald’s has launched a large number of unhealthy foods on its menu over the year, it still attracts numerous consumers from different sectors every day. Those junk foods

[19]

menu same with the temporary booths in amusement park which being changed frequently. Unlike other fast-food chains, McDonald's positioning itself as an entertainment business. It is an entertainment destination welcome all ages. As McDonald's committed to offering low priced items for their customers, they may find equality easily through the inexpensive food 18 19

McDonald's: a famous fast-food chain, the leader in fast-food industry, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, U. S. Junk food: food that is unhealthy but is quick and easy to eat (Cambridge Dictionary)

JUNKSPACE: ERA OF OFF-TRACK ARCHITECTURE

UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL LANCASHIREâˆŁCHARLIE LEUNG PUI-LAM


| 9

price when they are consuming food in restaurant. At the same time, the the hidden value of joyful atmosphere and friendly services may lead the customers feel relax and comfortable. “From functional to emotional to social experience,” said Phyllis Cheung Ka-yan

[20]

, CEO

of McDonald's China. McDonald’s repeat the pattern of their own business model and the restaurant configurations massively over the years, just like the repetition characteristic of Junkspace. However, they are more concerning about the customer’s experience on “Eatertainment

[21]

”. McDonald’s team believes that “eating” is a pleasant social experience.

Simple consumption will not bring long-lasting happiness to customers, only the time sharing with friends and family in the same place will create profound memories. From 1979, McDonald's promotes happy meals with bonus toy for people taking home, the target consumers are children. Time for enjoying meal could be short, but happiness continues indefinitely. Many years later, children still remember the toys collected at McDonald's and time spending with family in the restaurant. It is believed that equality and collective memories are the real value behind consumption.

Fig 15 Wedding Card Street. (Photo: Martin Chan)

Fig 16 Wedding Card Street. (Photo: Anonymous)

Another example, Lee Tung Street, also known as Wedding Card Street, was a street located in Wan Chai, Hong Kong. During 1970s to 1990s, the street became very famous in publishing and manufacturing wedding-invitation cards, which attract many locals and foreigners to visit. Unluckily, it was demolished in December 2007 by the Urban Renewal Authority as part of the redevelopment project. In the past, those tenement houses were best used by the operators. Most of them designated 20 21

Phyllis Cheung Ka-yan: CEO of McDonald’s China, 2017 Forbes China 100 Top Businesswomen Eatertainment: An experience which combines eating with entertainment; specifically the sector of the restaurant industry comprising restaurant chains based on an entertainment theme (Oxford Dictionary)

JUNKSPACE: ERA OF OFF-TRACK ARCHITECTURE

UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL LANCASHIRE∣CHARLIE LEUNG PUI-LAM


| 10

the retail area at the ground floor, and upper floors as printing and manufacturing zone. The business model of printing and publishing house were serial replicated in Lee Tung Street. At the very beginning, the main reason for publishing and printing houses gather in Lee Tung Street were looking for chance to create more profit. However, nearly all the new couples in Hong Kong used to visit Lee Tung Street, and search for Chinese-style wedding-invitation cards or any related bridal services. This kind of practice turned into tradition as time accumulated. Especially for new couples, consumption in Lee Tung Street means they are going to announce their marriage and share the happiness and joy to their friends, also the experience of the new couples on choosing wedding cards in Lee Tung Street would become an unforgettable memory in their mine. Once the consumption linkage with people’s important life events, new identity could be found in Junkspace. Recently, the site has been redeveloped as a pedestrian walkway, and renamed as “Lee Tung Avenue”, which covers luxurious cafes, gourmet restaurants, high-end residential, local and overseas fashion outlets etc. Only few shops for bridal services are remained. After the redevelopment, the original mood had been removed. People will not gather again because of the tradition has been broken. The cosmetic is the new cosmic [22]. Those instant backdrop are excited about to be replaced. People would be disorientated while all the new things and activities seems disconnected with the local culture and historical root. Only temporary happiness could be generated through the consumption process.

Fig 17 Lee Tung Avenue (Photo: Ezone HK)

Fig 18 Lee Tung Avenue (Photo: Anonymous)

According to the above case studies, it proves that even a place meets multiple conditions for becoming a Junkspace. If it is possible to create memories for consumers from the process of consumption, and the value of memory recall is greater than consumption itself, Junkspace could be make sense and be meaningful. 22

Junkspace, October, Vol. 100, 2002, Rem Koolhaas, New York, U.S. p.190

JUNKSPACE: ERA OF OFF-TRACK ARCHITECTURE

UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL LANCASHIRE∣CHARLIE LEUNG PUI-LAM


| 11

4

Conclusion With the influence of globalization, the emotions of the city have gradually disappeared from its original colors. As we need to meet the goal of unity, no matter on economic or culture levels. Architecture becomes the crop of monoculture. Junkspace penetrates those “Multifunctional space” and “Diversify space”, and reborn every day. As most of the stakeholders wants to gain the maximum benefits and convenient from each space, multiple functions or services were expected to be reserved for people in a single space. Moreover, this phenomenon makes all buildings similar. Junkspace is just right in these kinds of buildings, we are unable to guess the real architectural intention behind the shell of the buildings. Every age has its unique emotion and atmosphere. In fact, Junkspace is common in Hong Kong and other modern cities. However, when Junkspace meets the criteria of being a spiritual sustenance or the needs on the existing era, it can be also interesting and successful. Junkspace can also be a place to nurture memories, by chance and time accumulated.

JUNKSPACE: ERA OF OFF-TRACK ARCHITECTURE

UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL LANCASHIRE∣CHARLIE LEUNG PUI-LAM


| 12

5

References

Books [1]

Junkspace, October, Vol. 100, 2002, Rem Koolhaas, New York, U.S.

[2]

Rem Koolhaas: Conversations with students (2nd Edition), 1996, Rem Koolhaas., & Sanford. K., Princeton Architectural Press, New York, U.S.

[3]

Deux conversations avec Rem Koolhaas et caetera (Chinese Edition), 2003, François Chaslin, Garden City Publishing Ltd., Taiwan

[4]

Conversation with 32 Architects, 2008, Chih-chun Chen, Boya Shuwu, Taiwan

[5]

50 Architecture Ideas You Really Need to Know, 2010, Philip Wilkinson, Quercus Publishing Plc, London, U.K.

[6]

Architecture and Modern Literature, 2012, David Spurr, University of Michigan Press, U.S.

[7]

Goodbye to the Playground, 2014, Leung Kwong-fuk, Chung Hwa Book Co., (H.K.) Ltd., H.K.

[8]

A Century of Kowloon Roads and Streets, 2000, Baohong Zheng and David P. M. Toong, Joint Publishing (H.K.) Co., Ltd., H.K., p.70

[9]

Spaces for Consumption, 2010, Steven Miles, SAGE Publications Ltd., London, UK

Websites [1]

About us – Lai Yuen Company Limited http://www.laiyuen.hk/corpsite/about/?lang=en

[2]

Macmillan Education, (2009). In: 1st ed. [online] Available at: https://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/off-track [Accessed 08 Jun. 2019].

[3]

CEO McDonald’s China: From Functional to Emotional to Social Experience - GDMS http://www.gdmschina.com/zh/2018/01/11/jiuhsbmqur84840006/

[4]

HarperCollins Publishers, (2019). In: 1st ed. [online] Available at: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/hyperspace [Accessed 10 Aug. 2019].

[5]

Cambridge Dictionary, (2019). In: 1st ed. [online] Available at: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/french-english/lieu [Accessed 10 Aug. 2019].

[6]

HarperCollins Publishers, (2019). In: 1st ed. [online] Available at: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/symbiotic [Accessed 10 Aug. 2019].

[7]

How Hong Kong's stress on safety has made children's playgrounds a bore https://www.scmp.com/lifestyle/families/article/1820239/how-hong-kongs-stress-safety-has-made-childrens-playgr ounds-bore

[8]

Lai Yuen Official Facebook https://www.facebook.com/LaiYuen1949

[9]

How Hong Kong's stress on safety has made children's playgrounds a bore | South China Morning Post https://www.scmp.com/lifestyle/families/article/1820239/how-hong-kongs-stress-safety-has-made-childrens-playgr ounds-bore

[10]

Wong Wo Bik - Blindspot Gallery https://blindspotgallery.com/artist/wong-wo-bik/

[11]

Article about Lai Yuen | Apple Daily https://hk.lifestyle.appledaily.com/lifestyle/special/daily/article/20150623/19193978

JUNKSPACE: ERA OF OFF-TRACK ARCHITECTURE

UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL LANCASHIRE∣CHARLIE LEUNG PUI-LAM


| 13

6

Illustration

Fig 1

K11 Hong Kong Art Mall http://k11.whitespace.hk/wp/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/artmall_gallery_2b.jpg

Fig 2

K11 Hong Kong Art Mall https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/ale5D0ZDUDdv9-_SE1RE5j_YDGsJB_wK0rdaVfzXv384U9ORUE04wrazR m2tBHPJu2QQhESGLuU=w1536-h864-no

Fig 3

Mapping - Junkspace

Fig 4

Sha Kok Commercial Centre (Photo by Author)

Fig 5

Shui Chuen O Plaza (Photo by Author)

Fig 6

Pok Hong Estate (Photo by Author)

Fig 7

Shui Chuen O Estate Pedestrian bridge (Photo by Author)

Fig 8

Booths in AIA Carnival (Photo: Getready HK) https://is.gd/9UEGD0

Fig 9

Booths in AIA Carnival (Photo: Anonymous) https://is.gd/pRGz3N

Fig 10

The AIA Great European Carnival sitemap (from official website) https://tgec.asia/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Sitmap_updated2_low-res-1.jpg

Fig 11

1970s Lai Yuen Entrance (Photo: HT Wong) https://www.flickr.com/photos/hoting2000/36157523634/

Fig 12

1997 Lai Yuen Closedown (Photo: Andy Poon) https://www.flickr.com/photos/ilovehk/20224669954/in/album-72157655363899424/

Fig 13

Lai Yuen Main Entrance (Photo: Yuen Lok-ting) https://hk.news.appledaily.com/local/daily/article/20150522/19156402

Fig 14

Bumper car in Lai Yuen (Photo: anonymous) https://sg.news.yahoo.com/historic-hong-kong-amusement-park-000353221.html

Fig 15

Wedding Card Street. (Photo: Martin Chan) https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/article/1268865/wedding-card-st-vanishes-map

Fig 16

Wedding Card Street. (Photo: Anonymous) http://cquestgarden.com/view.php?sec=2&id=1880

Fig 17

Lee Tung Avenue (Photo: Ezone HK) https://resource01-proxy.ulifestyle.com.hk/res/v3/image/content/1910000/1914766/DSC01768b_1024.jpg

Fig 18

Lee Tung Avenue (Photo: Anonymous) https://blogcove.com/hk/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/image001.jpg

JUNKSPACE: ERA OF OFF-TRACK ARCHITECTURE

UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL LANCASHIRE∣CHARLIE LEUNG PUI-LAM

Profile for Charlie Leung

Junkspace: Era of Off-Track Architecture  

Junkspace: Era of Off-Track Architecture by Charlie Leung Pui-lam (UCLan)

Junkspace: Era of Off-Track Architecture  

Junkspace: Era of Off-Track Architecture by Charlie Leung Pui-lam (UCLan)

Advertisement