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5 • madame butterfly

Contents The Minnesota Opera Sta∂ and Volunteers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Notes from the Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Board of Directors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Opening Night Opera Gala Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Madame Butterfly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Background Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Synopsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Giacomo Puccini. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Artist Profile: Colin Graham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 The Search for the Real Butterfly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Coming Up At The Minnesota Opera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 The Artists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 The Minnesota Opera Chorus and Orchestra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 The Minnesota Opera Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Young Professionals Group Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

The Minnesota Opera President & CEO Artistic Director Chair, Board of Directors

Kevin Smith Dale Johnson John A. Blanchard, III

The Minnesota Opera, 620 North First Street Minneapolis, MN 55401 (612) 333-2700 www.mnopera.org The Minnesota Opera is a member of OPERA America. This activity is made possible in part by a grant provided by the Minnesota State Arts Board through an appropriation by the Minnesota State Legislature. This project is supported in part by a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts.

Catalogue Raisonné As Memoir: A Composer’s Life is an arresting and emotional tour of the life and work of 2004 Grammy-winning composer Dominick Argento. “Casa Guidi was a miracle, and Dominick Argento the magician!”

— SIR NEVILLE MARRINER hardcover ISBN 0-8166-4505-1

November 2004

The Minnesota Opera Program is published by Arts & Custom Publishing Co., Inc. Corporate Administrator/Publisher Assoc. Publisher/Director of Production Senior Account Executives Creative Designer Production Designers

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the minnesota opera • 6

Minnesota Opera Staff Welcome to today’s production of Madame Butterfly. For more than four decades The Minnesota Opera has enriched the cultural life of our community by producing outstanding and innovative operas that inspire and entertain. U.S. Bank is honored to sponsor the 2004 – 2005 season. We are proud of our 20+ year relationship with The Minnesota Opera and of our sponsorship at this great setting of the Ordway in St. Paul. At U.S. Bank, we support great dreams, great art and great arts organizations. They enrich the community with vibrancy, creativity, and excellence. As the sixth largest bank in America today, U.S. bank is the only major bank headquartered in Minnesota, and we’re deeply committed to giving back in this community. Thank you for coming and enjoy the performance.

Jose A. Peris, Senior Vice President, Region Manager, U.S. Bank Private Client Group, and Minnesota Opera board member

President & CEO Kevin Smith Artistic Director Dale Johnson Artistic Artistic Administrator . .Roxanne Stou∂er Cruz Artistic Associate . . . . . . Floyd Anderson Community Education Director . . . . . . . . Jamie Andrews Dramaturg . . . . . . . . . . . . . David Sander Production Stage Manager . . . Alex Farino Assistant Stage Manager . . . .Kristen E. Burke Stage Management Intern . . .Angie Biermeier Head of Music . . . . . . . . . .Bruce Stasyna Resident Artists . . . . . .Raymond Ayers, Korey Barrett, Jonathan Carle, Theodore Chletsos, Anna Jablonski, Seth Keeton, Christopher Zemliauskas Resident Artist Faculty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carlotta Dradi-Bower, David Mann, Doug Scholz-Carlson, Nancy Tibbetts KIDS . . . . . . . .Lloyd Clausen, Paul Cochran, Mario Diaz-Moresco, Andrew Penning, Sara Sawyer Children’s Chorusmaster . . . . . . . .Janice Kimes Costumes Costume Director . . . . . . . .Gail Bakkom Assistant Costume Director . . .Beth Sanders Drapers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chris Bur, Yancey Thrift, Angela Yarbrough First Hands . . . . . . . . .Helen Ammann, Mark Heiden, Valerie Hill, Stephanie Vogel Stitchers . . . . . . . . .Jennifer Dawson, Maria Irons, Stephanie Molstad, Christine Richardson Painter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Marliss Jensen Wig/Makeup Assistants . . . . Marilyn Jordan, Emily Rosenmeier, Ashley Ryan

Scenery Production Administrator . . Holly Carpenter Technical Director . . . . . . . . . . Mike McQuiston Asst. Technical Director/ Lighting Coordinator . .Marc D. Johnson Properties Master . . Stanley Dean Hawthorne Properties Assistant . . . . . . . . Mike Long Charge Painter . . . . . . . . . . Debra Jensen Scenic Artist . . . . . . . . . . .Michael Bolin Production Carpenter . . . . . . . J.C. Amel Scene Shop Foreman . . . . . . . . Rod Aird Master Carpenter . . . . . . . . . .Steve Rovie Carpenters . . . . . . . . . Daniel Kimmerle, Eva Pranis, Eric Veldey Administration Finance Director . . . . . . . . . Je∂ Couture Operations/Systems Manager . . . . . . . . . . Steve Mittelholtz HR/Accounting Manager . . Jennifer Thill Executive Assistant . . . . . Theresa Murray Development Development Director . . .Patrick Dewane Individual Gifts Director . . . . .Dawn Loven Institutional Gifts Director . . Linda Johnson Individual Gifts Associate . . . . Melissa Peterson Development Systems Associate . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kelly Classen Development Assistant/ Receptionist . . . . . . . . . .Claire MacDonald Marketing/Communications Marketing Director . . . . . . . . . . .Carl Lee Communications Director . . . Lani Willis Ticket O∑ce Manager . . . . Andrea Corich Marketing & Communications Assistant/ Volunteer Coordinator . . . . . .Reid Tuenge

Minnesota Opera Volunteers The following volunteers contribute their time and talent in support of key activities of The Minnesota Opera.

Keri Picket

Cafe,Bakery,Wine & Pizza Bar

850 Grand Avenue,St Paul 55105 651-224-5687 www.cafelatte.com

Harry Swepston (Volunteer Chair) Ann Albertson Gerald Benson Colleen Boyer Jim Brownback* Sue Brownback Jerry Cassidy Joann Cierniak Tricia Clarke Susan Cogger Caroline Coopersmith Lindsay Craig Beverly Dailey* Jeanette Daun Lee Drawert Judith Duncan

Sally Economon Hazel Francois Jane Fuller Joan Gacki* Christine A. Garner* Juhi Gupta-Gulati Mark Gustin Mary E. Hagen Lucinda Hallet John Harris* Anne Hesselroth Alisandra Johnson Karen Johnson Nancy Johnson Jeannie Johnston Robin Keck Dianne Kelly Dawn Klassen Eleanore Kolar

Lore Kolberg Lucinda Lamont Shirley Larson Rita Lavin Jerry Lillquist Abby Marier Margery Martin Joan Masuck Mary McDiarmid* Beth McGuire Verne Melberg Karri Moen Irma Monson Barbara Moore Doug Myhra Pam Nielsen Dan Panshin Pat Panshin Liliana Payne

Megan Pelka Sydney Phillips Bill Phillips Julia Porter John Rosse Florence Ruhland John Sauer Michael Silhavy Wendy Silhavy Angie Solomon Wendi Sott Dave Terwilliger Doris Unger Carolyn Wahtera Mary Weitz Barbara Willis* *Lead volunteer


Board of Directors

from the Artistic Director

Officers John A. Blanchard, III, Chair Rolf Engh Vice Chair Lynne E. Looney Secretary Thomas J. Foley Treasurer Kevin Smith, President & CEO

Welcome to Madame Butterfly, and the opening of the 20042005 Minnesota Opera season! I am thrilled to present a new production of one of opera’s most enduring stories. Because it is one of my favorite operas, I had to entrust it to the best of directors. Madame Butterfly is based on a true story, and there’s no director in the world that can bring it to life better than Colin Graham. He brings particular insight to this production – a lifetime of experience with Puccini’s opera and intimate study of Japanese culture and theater. His considerable insight has created a very honest, emotionally complex staging that examines the cultural clash of Butterfly and Pinkerton’s worlds, while neither praising nor damning either. Colin has assembled a wonderful team: set designer Neil Patel created the Kabuki-style environment with beautiful shoji screens; David Woolard designed costumes along authentic period lines that burst with high-impact photorealistic flowers (printed on silk using a cutting-edge technology, a first for The Minnesota Opera!); and Mark McCullough enhances the lovely design with gorgeous lighting. I hope you enjoy this production as much as I’ve enjoyed watching its creation!

Dale Johnson Artistic Director

from the President Welcome to the beginning of a new opera season! Since we closed the season last May, The Minnesota Opera has had some wonderful successes I’d like to share with you. As you may know, last year The Bush Foundation pledged $650,000 over three years in a challenge gift. I’m delighted to report that we surpassed our first-year challenge goal of $150,000 in new and increased gifts. Why is this important? You may not realize that ticket revenue covers only half the cost of producing the opera you are enjoying today. This means we are dependent upon contributions from our audience to continue to operate. Opera is – and always has been – an enormously expensive art form to produce, largely because of all the skilled people who contribute to it: singers, conductors, directors, designers, orchestra, chorus, artisans who build the sets and costumes, stage hands and so on. We are blessed to have a strong community of artists and craftspeople in the Twin Cities to employ in this great art form.

Directors Karen Bachman Susan S. Boren Nicky B. Carpenter Richard P. Carroll Jane M. Confer Susan J. Crockett Sara Donaldson Brad F. England John G. Forsythe Steve Fox Daniel E. Gustafson Directors Emeritus Sharon Hawkins Karen Himle Burt Cohen Ruth S. Huss Julia W. Dayton Heinz F. Hutter Mary W. Vaughan Paula R. Johnson Lucy Rosenberry Legal Counsel Jones James A. Rubenstein, Michael F. Kelly, Jr. Moss & Barnett Elizabeth “Becky” Malkerson Honorary Directors Dominick Argento Thomas R. McBurney Philip Brunelle Bruce K. Nelson Elizabeth Close Brian E. Palmer Dolly Fiterman Jose Peris Charles C. Fullner Steve Rothschild Norton M. Hintz Donald W. Judkins Stephanie Simon Catie Tobin David P. Keefe† Liz Kochiras H. Bernt von Ohlen Jevne Pennock Patricia H. Sheppard †

deceased

In this program is a list of our many generous contributors. If you are on that list already, we appreciate your ongoing commitment to the company, and we ask that you increase your contribution. If you are not, please consider giving to The Minnesota Opera. Every new dollar will be matched and will count toward the Bush challenge, helping to ensure our longterm artistic growth and to contribute to the health of our community of artists. This is an exciting time, and this challenge gift from the Bush Foundation has a profound impact on The Minnesota Opera. This is a challenge to you, our patrons – help us meet our new season’s goal!

Kevin Smith President & CEO

7 • madame butterfly

Notes from the Leadership


The Minnesota Opera Thanks the Generous Supporters of the Opening Night Gala

Gala Committee

Judy Dayton, Honorary Gala Chair Lucy Jones, Individual Chair

C o r p o r a t e Ta b l e s 3M Deloitte Ecolab Excel Bank

Jostens, Inc. Marshall Field’s Medtronic Minnesota Vikings Okabena Advisors RBC Dain Rauscher

SpencerStuart SUPERVALU Stores, Inc. Target US Bank, Private Client Group Valspar

Gardens of Salonica General Mills Giorgio’s Restaurant Gondola on St. Croix Goodfellow’s Grandma’s Restaurant Company Great Waters Brewing Co. Judith Guest Guthrie Theater Sharon and Bill Hawkins Heartland Contemporary Midwestern Restaurant Barbara Heinrich Hennepin-Lake Liquor Store Honeywell Intoto Isles Pet Grooming Paula Johnson Lucy Jones The Jungle Theater Kapalo Retreats, LLC Angie Keeton Shannon King Kincaid’s Fish, Chop and Steak House L.O.T.I.’s DOGWALKSERV La Belle Vie Lake Elmo Inn The Loft Literary Center Dawn Loven MacPhail Center for Music Marty Mathis Direct The Marquette Hotel Marshall Field’s Tom and Barbara McBurney The Minneapolis Institute of Arts Minnesota Monthly The Minnesota Opera Board of Directors Minnesota Public Radio Minnesota Orchestral Association Steve Mittelholtz Theresa Murray Ordway Center for the Performing Arts

Origami Restaurant Palomino Park Hyatt Chicago Park Square Theatre Jose Peris and Diana Gulden Melissa Peterson The Pink Pelican RBC Dain Rauscher Milana Reich Ribnick Fur and Leather River Chocolate Company Rivertown Inn Rogers and Hollands Jewelers Janel Russell The Saint Paul Hotel Saks Fifth Avenue Beth Sanders Sara and Jock Donaldson The Schubert Club Science Museum of Minnesota Shannon King Spalon Montage St. Croix Boat & Packet St. James Hotel St. Paul Saints Sudz Hair Salon Jim Sullivan and Susan Wright Sullivan Sunsets Restaurant The Toro Company University of Minnesota Alumni Association Urban Retreat Valspar Mary Vaughan Vincent – A Restaurant VinePark Brewing Co. VocalEssence Bernt von Ohlen and Thomas Nichol W. A. Frost Walker Art Center Waterfall Resort Lani Willis R.D. Zimmerman

Kristin Hayes, Corporate Chair Auction Donors

Gala Sponsor

U.S. Bank Private Client Group

Reverse Auction Sponsor

Hamilton H. & Mildred H. Kellogg C h a r i t a b l e Tr u s t

Silent Auction Sponsor

Rogers & Hollands Jewelers

Social Hour Sponsor

Okabena Advisors

Special Thanks Department 56 Image Spigot Graphic Design Jostens Linda Noddle Jim Smart Masami Suga Cindy Vilks

3M American Swedish Institute Dennis Anderson Floyd Anderson Jamie Andrews Arthur Murray Dance Studio Arts & Custom Publishing Co., Inc. Auriga Restaurant Aveda Institute Karen Bachman Gail Bakkom Birdwing Spa Black Forest Inn Gus and Mary Blanchard Rod and Susan Boren Sandra A. Brick Bug-a-Boo Bay Restaurant Cafe Latte Carlos Creek Winery Richard P. Carroll, M.D., F.A.C.S. Cesare’s Wine Bar Chaseburg Manufacturing, Inc. Christo’s Clear Channel Entertainment/ Theatrical Division Jane Confer James and Gisela Corbett Suzie Crockett D’Amico & Partners/ D’Amico Cucina Dakota Jazz Club and Restaurant Deloitte Department 56 Design Cuisine Patrick Dewane Chance Docherty Dock Cafe Downtowner Woodfire Grill Angela Fuller Brad England Frame Ups

Information current as of October 8, 2005.

opening night gala n o v e m b e r

6 ,

2 0 0 4

a benefit for The Minnesota Opera


t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 10

Conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Antony Walker† Stage Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Colin Graham Set Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Neil Patel Costume Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .David C. Woolard Lighting Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mark McCullough Wigs and Makeup . . . . . . . . . . .Tom Watson & Associates Resident Artist Assistant Conductor . .Christopher Zemliauskas‡ Assistant Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E. Reed Fisher Chorusmaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bruce Stasyna Production Stage Manager . . . . . . . . . . .Alexander Farino English Captions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Floyd Anderson

Music by Giacomo Puccini Libretto by Giuseppe Giacosa and Luigi Illica Based on David Belasco’s play Madame Butterfly (1900), itself based on a short story by John Luther Long (1898) World premiere at Teatro alla Scala, Milan February 17, 1904 November 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14, 2004 Ordway Center for the Performing Arts Sung in Italian with English captions

The Cast Cio-Cio-San [Madame Butterfly] . . . . . . . .Judith Howarth* Kelly Kaduce** Lieutenant B. F. Pinkerton . . . . . . . . . . . . .Marc Hervieux* Kip Wilborn** Sharpless, U.S. Consul at Nagasaki . . . . . . . .Ryan Taylor* Raymond Ayers** Suzuki, Butterfly’s maid . . . . . . . . . .Kathleen Humphrey Goro, a marriage broker . . . . . . . . . . .Theodore Chletsos The Bonze, Butterfly’s uncle . . . . . . . . . . . . .Seth Keeton Kate Pinkerton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Angela Keeton Prince Yamadori . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jonathan Carle The Official Registrar . . . . . . . . . . . .Mario Diaz-Moresco The Imperial Commissioner . . . . . . . . . . . .Jonathan Carle Uncle Yakuside . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dale Kruse Butterfly’s grandmother . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pat Kent Butterfly’s mother . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mary Monson An aunt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Michelle Hayes A cousin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Angela Keeton Sorrow, Butterfly’s child . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Serena Lu* Clara Lee** Butterfly’s relatives and friends, servants, sailors Setting: Nagasaki, beginning of the 20th century * ** † ‡

performs November 6, 9, 11, 13 performs November 7, 10, 12, 14 conducts November 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13 conducts November 12, 14

Madame Butterfly is sponsored by U.S. Bank, Private Client Group Scenery and costumes for this production are jointly owned by The Minnesota Opera and Opera Theatre of St. Louis and were constructed at The Minnesota Opera shops. The appearances of Kelly Kaduce, winner, and Ryan Taylor, regional finalist of the Metropolitan Opera National Council Auditions, are made possible through a Minnesota Opera Endowment Fund established for Artist Enhancement by Barbara White Bemis. Performances of Madame Butterfly are being taped for delayed broadcast on Minnesota Public Radio, ksjn 99.5 in the Twin Cities, in June 2005.

Background Notes by David Sander adame Butterfly completes the succession of Puccini’s three most popular operas, written exactly four years apart. Yet the opera’s initial reception was frosty at best, played to the highly reactive Milanese, who whistled, howled and accused the composer of self-plagiarism. Cries of “Butterfly is pregnant; ah the little Toscanini” arose when Rosina Storchio’s kimono caught a draft (the soprano’s affair with the famed conductor was commonly known) and some of the opera’s most beautiful moments were greeted with unmasked hostility. Though the rowdy crowd may have been incited by an anti-Puccini cabal, they had indeed achieved their intended purpose – the evening had truly been a fiasco.

M

Poor Puccini must have been devastated, another blow in a series of unfortunate incidents that plagued his life during the preceding year. A serious automobile accident in February

The Minnesota Opera season is sponsored by U.S. Bank, Private Client Group. The appearances of the 2004–2005 season conductors are underwritten by SpencerStuart. The 2004–2005 Camerata Circle Dinners are sponsored by Rider Bennett. Opera Insights is sponsored by Thrivent Financial for Lutherans. Intermission reception sponsored by Lowry Hill Private Wealth Management. Official Jeweler of The Minnesota Opera


Act I

Daudet (Tartarin de Tarascon), Maurice Maeterlinck (clearly poaching on Debussy’s plan to set Pelléas et Mélisande) and Victor Hugo (Les misérables, Notre Dame de Paris), he found himself perennially drawn to the emotional plight of Cio-Cio-San. The composer turned to his creative team of Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa, who had so faithfully served him in the past. Illica brought some experience to the table – he had already worked on a Japanbased libretto, Iris, set by Pietro Mascagni in 1898 (the premiere of which Puccini had attended), and Giacosa was a fervent reader of Japanese poetry. As it turned out, Belasco’s drama only depicted what would become Act ii of Puccini’s opera, and in order to work up the preliminary action of Act i, they were forced to consult the playwright’s source, a short story by John Luther Long. From that material, Illica also crafted a third, intermediate scene located at the American consulate, where Butterfly seeks Sharpless to inquire after her overdue spouse. There she meets Kate Pinkerton who, by coincidence is looking into the whereabouts of her husband’s child. During the awkward encounter, Kate treats Butterfly with little more respect than a china doll, which sets the drama distinctly into a di∂erent direction, though some of her careless attitude would be retained in the opera’s early versions. The composer saw the consulate scene as an interruption and demanded it be dropped. Illica was adamant and insisted that, if the scene wasn’t going to be in the opera, it could at least be included in the published libretto as an addendum. He would not get his way, nor would Giacosa, who warned that Act II, with the recreation of Butterfly’s evening vigil, would last at least an hour and a half, too long for the attention span of an Italian audience,

who would customarily get an intermission (Verdi once quipped that a 42minute act of Otello was two minutes too long). Giacosa also complained that many of the lines he had given to Pinkerton at the end of the opera had been eliminated. He threatened to quit and had to be massaged by the intervention of publisher Giulio Ricordi. Puccini wouldn’t budge. Still struck by Belasco’s play, his vision of the drama was clear-cut and not open for discussion – the opera would be played entirely in Butterfly’s home. To spice things up musically, he painstakingly researched Japanese-based themes, even diving into The Mikado, the popular operetta by Gilbert and Sullivan. He also picked the brain of soprano Tamaki Miura (who would become a great Butterfly interpreter in the first decades of the 20th century) and consulted with Madame Hisako Oyama, the wife of a Japanese diplomat in Rome, for authentic Japanese melodies. Long’s story rang a note of truth as Oyama recalled a rumor of a similar incident that actually had occurred in Nagasaki. His e∂ort was for naught, as the opera’s novelty was lost on the opening night public, resulting in one of the greatest theatrical failures since the Paris premiere of Tannhäuser in 1861. The composer returned the 20,000 lire commissioning fee, withdrew his score and canceled the next production in Rome. The Ricordis, initially skeptical of Puccini’s choice in subject, believed the opera deserved a second viewing, albeit with a few changes. Giulio’s son, Tito, recalled that the city of Brescia had always been warm to Puccini’s works, and arranged for a production to be mounted in May. Puccini went back to his new opera and made many revisions, dividing the action into three parts with two Background Notes continue on page 12

Set designs by Neil Patel

11 • m a d a m e b u t t e r f l y

1903 left him with a broken leg, which was slow to mend and hampered the progress of his most recent opus. Not to mention that he was homebound with the ill-tempered Elvira, unable to visit his current mistress, Corinna, who was conveniently set up by the composer on the edge of town. Nor did the domestic situation look especially promising. Elvira’s estranged husband had died the day after the crash, leaving open the very likely possibility of her marriage to Puccini (divorce had not been an option in Italy during this era) after the passing of a mandatory 10month period widows were required to wait before reattaching themselves. Though the composer had doubts over his 20-year relationship with Elvira (even though they had produced a son, Antonio), increasing pressure from friends, family and Elvira hastened the dreaded wedding day, which finally took place on January 3, 1904. On an even more personal note was the bruise to his ego. Puccini had spent great care crafting his most original score to date and was unusually confident on the night of its premiere. Four years earlier, he had witnessed a performance of David Belasco’s play in London while supervising the British premiere of Tosca. Though he spoke little English, he reacted with enthusiasm, in particular to Butterfly’s nightlong vigil, a 14-minute scene in which there was no dialogue, only dramatic lighting e∂ects indicating the passage of time and the coming of the new day (Belasco was a highly innovative turnof-the-century playwright and producer who would also be the source of Puccini’s next opus, La fanciulla del West). Though Puccini would consider a number of other options, including literary works by Émile Zola (La faute de l’Abbé Mouret), Edmond Rostrand (Cyrano de Bergerac), Alphonse


t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 12

Background Notes continued from page 11

intermissions and adding a short tenor aria, “Addio, fiorito asil,” to the final scene, as operatic custom demanded (Giacosa had been correct on both counts). As predicted, the Brescia premiere went on without a hitch, and Butterfly began a tenuous journey around the world, making it to Buenos Aires, London, Bologna, Budapest and Washington, d.c. Puccini always feared another failure and was careful to approve every aspect of each production. At nearly every juncture, more small changes were made, but nothing as drastic as those for the Paris production at the Opéra-Comique in 1906. The director, Albert Carré, required the softening of certain troublesome aspects to satisfy his bourgeois audience [who still hadn’t sacrificed their upright mores in spite of having been nursed on progressive works such as Carmen (1875) and Pelléas (1902)]. Granted, it was an unconventional and daring opera for its day. The impresario was opposed to Pinkerton’s portrayal as both a sexual adventurer and boorish “barbarian” with his politically incorrect jibes at Butterfly’s family and local culture (in particular, the behavior of her alcoholic uncle, Yakuside, whom he incites to get drunk after the marriage ceremony). Also found distasteful was Kate Pinkerton’s confrontation with Butterfly near the end of the opera, an unforgiving image of a cold Western woman. Most of her lines were reassigned to Sharpless. Equally suspect was Butterfly’s disclosure of how much Pinkerton paid for her and her vow to live economically – this turned into a joyous admission of how she and her new husband will now worship the same deity. At first reluctant, the ever-sensitive Puccini made the changes and even published them as the final, “definitive” version, fearing those elements were the cause of Butterfly’s initial downfall. It was this Paris edition that returned to La Scala for its second performance run in 1925 – one year after Puccini’s death (the original Milan version wouldn’t be revived until 1982, at Venice’s Teatro La Fenice). Still, one wonders if the insecure composer was simply bowing to pressure. Many believe the earlier Brescia score represents his truest intentions, and many of those characteristics will be seen in these performances.

Synopsis act i utside a little house overlooking the Nagasaki harbor, Pinkerton, an American naval o∑cer, is making the final arrangements with the marriage broker, Goro, for a Japanese wedding. According to law, the marriage will not be binding, and Pinkerton revels in the carefree arrangement. The American Consul, Sharpless, warns Pinkerton that his bride, Cio-Cio-San (called Butterfly by her friends), is serious about the marriage. Butterfly and her relatives arrive. She tells Pinkerton about herself, her family and her age – which is only 15 – and shows him the few possessions she has brought, including the ceremonial dagger with which her father killed himself. The brief ceremony is performed and the celebration begins, when an ominous figure appears. He is Butterfly’s uncle, the Bonze, a Japanese priest, who curses Butterfly for abandoning the Japanese gods in favor of Christianity. All the relatives side with the Bonze, and they turn on the young bride. But Pinkerton orders them all away, and in the long and tender love duet that closes the act, Butterfly forgets her troubles. Together, Pinkerton and Butterfly enter their new home.

O

— intermission — act ii Part one Three years have passed since Pinkerton sailed for America, but Butterfly remains loyal and describes to Suzuki her dream of his return. Sharpless, knowing that Pinkerton has taken an American wife and will soon be arriving in Nagasaki with her, att e m p t s t o p r e pa r e Butterfly for the shock, but she is too excited by

news of Pinkerton’s return to listen. Goro enters with the wealthy Prince Yamadori, who is courting Butterfly. When Goro and Yamadori leave, Sharpless gently advises her to accept the Prince. That is impossible, she insists, and she brings in the reason for that impossibility – her young son, named Sorrow. But, she adds, he will be called Joy when his father returns. Defeated, Sharpless leaves, promising to tell Pinkerton of the boy. A cannon is heard, and Butterfly and Suzuki see Pinkerton’s ship coming into the harbor. Butterfly jubilantly prepares for his return, filling the room with flowers and again donning her bridal costume. As night falls, Butterfly, Suzuki and the child wait, motionless. Part two Dawn finds Butterfly, Suzuki and Sorrow just where they were at the close of the last scene, except that the maid and the child are fast asleep. Butterfly takes her sleeping little boy into another room, singing him a lullaby. Sharpless enters with Pinkerton and his wife, Kate. Suzuki almost at once realizes who this is. She cannot bear to tell her mistress, and neither can Pinkerton. He sings a passionate farewell to his once-happy home, and leaves. But Butterfly, entering, sees Kate and realizes the painful truth. With dignity she tells Kate that she may have her boy if Pinkerton will come soon to fetch him. Left alone with the child, she makes an agonizing farewell, blindfolds the boy and goes behind a screen where she stabs herself. Pinkerton comes rushing back, but it is too late. Costume design by David Woolard


Giacomo Puccini

P

uccini was born into a family of court composers and organists in the historic city of Lucca, Italy. With a strong feeling of tradition in the Puccini family, it was expected that Giacomo would assume his deceased father’s position as maestro di cappella when he came of age – by 14 he already was playing organ in a number of the town’s churches. But at age 18 a performance of Verdi’s Aida inspired him to devote his life to opera. In 1880 Puccini began composition studies with Amilcare Ponchielli at the Milan Conservatory of Music. There he was introduced into the professional artists’ circle, to which he would belong for the rest of his life. Puccini was not a prolific composer. Unlike most of his contemporaries, there were long intervals between his operas, partly because of his fastidiousness in choosing subjects, several of which he took up only to abandon after several months, and partly because of his constant demands for modifications of the texts. Much of his time, too, was spent in hunting in the marshes around his home and in trips abroad to supervise revivals of his works. The composer’s first work for the stage, Le villi (1884), originally was submitted to a contest sponsored by the music publisher Edoardo Sonzogno. The one-act opera received not even honorable mention, but Puccini was certain of its merit. He and librettist Ferdinando Fontana began to canvass the opera to the broader circle of the Italian intelligentsia. One of these individuals was the highly influential Arrigo Boito (at that time in correspondence with Verdi about the preparation of the libretto for Otello), who was instrumental in getting Le villi staged.

Scala/Art Resource, NY

Giacomo Puccini, portrait by Arturo Rietti

The reception to the new work was mixed, but the revised two-act version was staged in a number of cities outside of Italy (a remarkable feat for a virtually unknown composer). Puccini’s next opera, Edgar (1889), however, was a resounding critical failure, yet the astute publisher, Giulio Ricordi, found fault in the libretto only and promise in the music. He pitted himself against the shareholders of his publishing house who demanded that Puccini be released from retainer. Ricordi’s confidence was rewarded with Manon Lescaut (1893), Puccini’s first true success. During the 1890s Puccini began working with Luigi Illica, who worked out the scheme and drafted the dialogue, and with the poet and playwright Giuseppe Giacosa, who put Illica’s lines into verse. Although they had participated in Manon Lescaut (as part of a string of several librettists), their first real collaboration was La bo-

hème (1896), followed by Tosca (1900) and then Madame Butterfly (1904). Giacosa died in 1906, putting an end to the successful team that produced three of Puccini’s most enduring works. Puccini’s later operas were quite varied in their styles and subjects. La fanciulla del West (1910), set in the American West, is notable for its advanced impressionistic orchestration and composition. La rondine (1917) was designed to be a sentimental musical comedy in the Viennese style. Il trittico (1918) was a mixed bag of one-act operas: Il tabarro, a tip-of-the-hat to Italian verismo; Suor Angelica, a nun embroiled in a battle for the future of her illegitimate child; and, most popular of the three, Gianni Schicchi, a comic masterpiece that features Puccini at his most exuberant. Turandot (1926) was Puccini’s last (and arguably his greatest) opera. He died before completing it, and although another composer finished the job, at the premiere Arturo Toscanini set down his baton and refused to continue past Puccini’s last note. Puccini has been much maligned for his flirtation with popular music, but he had an uncanny feel for a good story and a talent for composing enthralling yet economical music. Though like many of his contemporaries, Puccini constantly was experimenting with tonality and form, his experiments were always subtle and without controversy. Having produced only 12 operas, the composer’s personal life was plagued with self doubt and laborious perfectionism, yet he profoundly influenced the world of opera with a deep understanding of music, drama and humanity.

Act II

Set designs by Neil Patel

13 • m a d a m e b u t t e r f l y

b Lucca, December 22, 1858; d Brussels, November 29, 1924


t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 14

Artist Profile: Colin Graham An interview by Lauren Rico

olin Graham lives with one foot in the past and one in the future. With C a record 57 world premiere operas to his credit, he is certainly accustomed to breaking new ground. For a director, presenting something with no predecessor has its benefits. “It’s true really,” Graham says, “you get a tremendous amount of freedom. And also of course you have to contribute. You have to contribute your thoughts on the shape of the piece. Or you should – you should be given that opportunity.” He also concedes that it can be a gamble. Like any work, a new opera stands the chance of a poor reception from the press and audiences.

“If you’re working with Madame Butterfly or La bohème or The Marriage of Figaro, you’re in a much better wicket from that point of view because they’re all really tried and true successes.” And then he shifts to that other foot, the one in the past. It’s that side that draws him again and again to the well-worn story of Madame Butterfly. This is Graham’s fifth original take on Puccini’s beloved work. But this season, he’s in good company. Madame Butterfly will receive no fewer than 28 productions in North America alone. Even if you discount the fact that this year is the centenary of its premiere, Madame Butterfly is still the most-performed opera of the last decade, according to Opera America. So how does this director go from creating a production out of whole cloth to re-creating familiar repertory without experiencing musical whiplash? “I think it’s important when you do embark on what’s known as a ‘standard work’ that you re-study it yourself and read the source material. If you just take it for granted and take it off the page, you’re not doing it justice. I think you have to go into it deeper than that.” This is where Graham has a distinct advantage over other directors. He had the rare opportunity to absorb Butterfly’s culture first hand, thanks to his collaboration with Benjamin Britten on the opera Curlew River. Although it was

based on a Japanese play, Britten forbade Graham from seeing any Japanese theater videos. He wanted the director to conceptualize the piece entirely on his own. The results were successful enough to peak the interest of the arts community. “The British Council, which is a cultural organization, sent me to Japan to investigate. During that time I fell in love with Kabuki,” he recalls, “and I really admired the versatility of the actors who could act and sing and dance and fight.” Later on Graham would further his exploration of Japanese classical theater by returning to study at the National Theater Kabuki School. As a non-Japanese, or “Gaijin,” he was only permitted to observe. He returned months later with a new perspective and a sensibility that affected every project thereafter, including this new production. “I was impressed principally with the thing that had impressed Britten the most – making the maximum effect with the greatest economy rather than the trappings.” As a result of his travels, Colin Graham has come to believe that by downplaying set, props and special effects, the audience is then free to focus on the music and the acting. “In a work like Madame Butterfly, which deals with Easterners and Westerners, you can get a very interesting variance of style like it does in the story. A clash of cultures. And that’s the kind of thing you try and major on. You try to find something new. I’ve gone much more to a purist kind of Kabuki approach. The manners are all correct but the scenery is much more Kabuki-like, which means it’s more rarified, more elegant…I hope more powerful than a pretty, pretty production.”

Broadcast Host Lauren Rico For the last 13 years Lauren Rico has been able to combine her love of music with her passion for public radio. A longtime student of the French Horn, Lauren holds a Master’s degree from George Mason University. She has worked at numerous radio stations in cities around the country including Tampa, Washington, d.c., New York and Charlotte. Lauren has been on the sta∂ of Classical 24, Minnesota Public Radio’s national classical music service since 1999 and The Minnesota Opera’s broadcast host since 2001. She calls St. Paul home.


The Search for the Real Butterfly

I

n 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry positioned five ships led by the USS Powhatan in Edo (Tokyo) Bay and demanded the Japanese to open their ports to foreign trade. The xenophobic shogunate had enjoyed a self-imposed exile for 200 years, but outmatched and outgunned, the Japanese agreed to Perry’s terms. Both sides were to benefit – America obtained a strategic refueling and intelligence base and Japan was quickly ushered into the Industrial Revolution. Perry’s audacious American colonialism would have a profound e∂ect on Western civilization, particularly in the art world. As Japanese culture was soon featured in subsequent World Exhibitions of the Industrial Age, artists from all disciplines were quickly attracted to the unusual perspective found in highly aesthetic and skillfully executed artworks from the Far East. The Realists and Impressionists were excited by the cropping of figures, the oblique angles, the emphasis on nature and overall asymmetry of composition; the Post-Impressionists and Art Nouveau painters drew from the simple forms and emphasis on pattern. The music world was equally invigorated. Already touched by the Occidental and the Near East, composers yielded such works as Bizet’s Les pêcheurs de perles (1863; set in Ceylon), Meyerbeer’s L’Africaine (1865; set on an island in the Indian Ocean, presumably Madagascar), Verdi’s Aida (1871; Memphis and Thebes), Saint-Saëns’s La princesse jaune (1872; Japan), Bizet’s Djamileh (1872; Cairo) and Mascagni’s Iris (1898; Japan). Biblical subjects typically set in the Middle East once again became fair game, with La reine de Saba (Gounod; 1862) and Samson et Dalila (Saint-Saëns; 1868) as notable examples. Even Bizet’s Carmen (1875) had an exotic flare. As they often spawned these musical adaptations, it’s not surprising that literary works set in foreign locales began to proliferate as well. In particular, Louis-Marie-Julien Viaud, a French naval lieutenant writing under the pen name of Pierre Loti, retold his tales of the high seas under such far-away titles

as Aziyadé, Rarahu, Les trois dames de la Kasbah, Japoneries d’automne, Pêcheur d’Islande, Fantôme d’Orient, Jérusalem, La Galilée and Ramuntcho, among others. Several of these were adapted for the stage: Rarahu became Léo Delibes’s Indian opera Lakmé (1883), African-based Spahi was set by Lucien Lambert (1897) and the Japanese Madame Chrysanthème (1893) was adapted by André Messager. Puccini knew Messager from his student days and had reconnected with him in recent years for the French premieres of his earlier works (Messager was a conductor at the Opéra-Comique) and likely knew of the opera. Another creative artist was aware of Loti’s Japanese tale. John Luther Long, a lawyer from Philadelphia with literary aspirations, created his own geisha story with many of the same elements: a naval lieutenant’s temporary marriage with a Japanese woman, a close male companion, Yves, and a female counterpart to complete the quartet, the landlord’s daughter Oyouki. Where Loti’s narrative is merely descriptive, told from a male perspective with meticulous documentation of their various outings and scrutiny of the local mileau, Long’s novel throws the focus on the heroine. And while the climax of Madame Chrysanthème is the suspicion of an a∂air between Yves and the title character, Long’s Butterfly faces a succession of agonizing situations – living as an outcast among her family and friends (save Suzuki), painfully waiting for Pinkerton’s arrival after his ship had docked and an excruciating confrontation with Mrs. Pinkerton at the American consulate, during which “Adelaide” casually remarks “How very charming – how lovely – you are, dear! Will you kiss me, you pretty – plaything!” Long concludes with Butterfly’s botched suicide attempt (after which Suzuki binds the wound, and the two spirit the child away to locations unknown), where Loti’s marriage ends amicably and unemotionally after a mere three months, with his former bride tactlessly testing the validity of his final payment with a metal hammer. In contrast, with more youthful naïvété, ButThe Real Butterfly continues on page 24

Geisha On Her Way to a Night-time Assignation c. 1784 by Kitao Masanobu The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, bequest of Richard D. Gale


t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 16

Coming Up:

Maria Padilla is the secret wife of King Pedro “the Cruel” of Castile, who forces her for political reasons to hide their marriage. The lie that Maria must live nearly destroys her family, testing her faithfulness to the breaking point. Brenda Harris (Norma) and Bruce Ford (Lucrezia Borgia) return to lead the cast of a stunning new production of Donizetti’s rarely performed bel canto–period masterwork. Director Josemaria Condemi makes his muchanticipated Minnesota Opera debut. MARCH 5, 8, 10, 12, 13 (MATINEE) Sung in Italian with English translations projected above the stage.

For tickets, call 651-224-4222

Hundreds of events each year. Here are just a few. ALSO AT THE MINNESOTA OPERA

November 12 - 21 Black Comedy, by Peter Schaffer. Presented by University Thetimes vary atre. Directed by Joel Sass. Rarig Center. Tickets: 612-624-2345.

JANUARY 16 11:00a.m. Resident Artist Recital at MIA 31 7:00p.m. Women and Opera Education Class

November 15 Lydia Artimiw and Rosalyra String Quartet. Ted Mann 7:30 p.m. Concert Hall. Free.

November 20 Vienna Choir Boys. Presented by School of Music InterPlay 7:30 pm Series. Ted Mann Concert Hall. Tickets: 612-624-2345. December 3 Sounds of the Season. Women’s and Men’s Choruses. Ted 7:30 pm Mann Concert Hall. Free. December 10 - 12 University Dance Theatre. Choreographed by Cowles Guest times vary Artists. Rarig Center. Tickets: 612-624-2345.

WEST BANK ARTS QUARTER www.artsquarter.umn.edu wbaq@umn.edu

Photo: Michal Daniel for the BFA Actor Training Program

November 16 - New Drawing: Curatorial Visions. Nash Gallery, Regis CenDecember 16 ter for Art. Opening reception Nov. 19, 6 - 8:30 pm. Free.

2 19 20 28

5 8 10 12 12 13 30 31

FEBRUARY TBA YPG Event: The Kaiser from Atlantis 10:00a.m. MET auditions at Ordway Center 11:00a.m. Resident Artist Recital at MIA 7:00p.m. Maria Padilla Opera Education Class MARCH 7:30p.m. MARIA PADILLA with Opera Insights at 6:30p.m. 7:30p.m. MARIA PADILLA with Opera Insights at 6:30p.m. 7:30p.m. MARIA PADILLA with Opera Insights at 6:30p.m. 7:30p.m. MARIA PADILLA with Opera Insights at 6:30p.m. TBA Maria Padilla YPG Night Out 2:00p.m. MARIA PADILLA with Opera Insights at 1:00p.m. 7:00p.m. Carmen Opera Education Class 7:00p.m. YPG Noche de Salsa Event For classes, call 612-342-9575 For YPG events, call 612-342-9550


t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 18

The Artists Raymond Ayers Sharpless Minnesota Opera Resident Artist Recently Fiddler on the Roof; Faust; Susannah; Roméo et Juliette, Chautauqua Opera Mirandolina; Madame Butterfly; The Seagull, Manhattan School of Music Jonah and the Whale, Princeton Pro Musica Bach Cantata No. 80, Princeton Symphony Orchestra Apprentice Artist – Académie Internationale d’Eté de Nice Upcoming Maria Padilla; Carmen; Nixon in China, Minnesota Opera

Theodore Chletsos Goro Minnesota Opera Resident Artist Recently Les contes d’Hoffmann; The Student Prince; Le jongleur de Notre Dame; The Face on the Barroom Floor, Central City Opera Roméo et Juliette; La bohème, Indianapolis Opera L’elisir d’amore; Roméo et Juliette, Lyric Opera of Kansas City Ariadne auf Naxos; Le trouvère, Sarasota Opera HMS Pinafore, Stony Hill Players The Magic Flute; The Crucible, University of Missouri Upcoming Maria Padilla; Carmen, The Minnesota Opera

Judith Howarth Butterfly Minnesota Opera Debut La traviata, 2003 Recently Samson, De Nederlandse Opera Amsterdam Pagliacci, Florida Grand Opera The Magic Flute, Opéra du Rhin (Strasbourg) Intermezzo; Die ägyptische Helena, Santa Fe Opera Upcoming Norma, Festspielhaus Baden-Baden Otello, Tivoli (Copenhagen) Peter Grimes, Teatro Municipal (Santiago, Chile)

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A Journey into History: D-Day Revisited Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg and France May 2–16, 2005 Bette & Gerrit Lamain Windmill Adventures, Inc. 13456 Settlers Ridge Dr. Burnsville, MN 55337 (952) 432-1899 www.windmilladv@earthlink.net

For more biographical information about these artists, visit our website at www.mnopera.org Jonathan Carle Imperial Commissioner; Prince Yamadori Minnesota Opera Resident Artist Recently Il corsaro; The Magic Flute, Sarasota Opera Don Giovanni; The Good Soldier Schweik, Glimmerglass Beatrice di Tenda, Opera in Concert Così fan tutte; Carmen, Opera North (New Hampshire) Don Giovanni; Don Quixote; Six Characters in Search of an Author; Le nozze di Figaro; others, Opera McGill Upcoming Pagliacci, Sarasota Opera Carmen; Nixon in China, The Minnesota Opera

Marc Hervieux Pinkerton Minnesota Opera Debut Recently Manon, Grand Théâtre de Genève; L’Opéra de Québec Madame Butterfly, Edmonton Opera Roméo et Juliette, Calgary Opera Lucia di Lammermoor, Pacific Opera Victoria La bohème, L’Opéra de Montréal; Opera Ontario; Metz La traviata, Cap d’Antibes Festival Upcoming Les contes d’Hoffmann, L’Opéra de Québec Tosca, Pacific Opera Victoria

Kathleen Humphrey Suzuki Minnesota Opera Debut My Fair Lady, 1990 Recently Mozart Requiem, Minnesota Orchestra Beethoven Symphony No. 9, South Dakota Symphony Annie; The Sound of Music, Chanhassen Dinner Theatre A Christmas Carol, Guthrie Theater La belle Hélène, North Star Opera Passion; The Handmaid’s Tale; Little Women; Street Scene; Le nozze di Figaro; Faust; Cinderella; Carmen; others, The Minnesota Opera

Holland: 60th WWII Liberation Festival of Holland; Dutch Memorial Day Observed, Keukenhof/Tulip fields, Aalsmeer flower auction, open-air markets and shopping, Battle of Arnhem (Oosterbeek) Museum, narrow gauge train ride, Rotterdam Harbor Cruise, famous Kinderdijk, world-renowned St. Jan’s Kerk in Gouda, Maastricht St. Pietersberg Caves Belgium: Battle of Bulge Museum, Bastogne and Henri-Chapelle American Cemetery Luxembourg: Ettlebruck General Patton Memorial Museum, Diekirch National Museum of Military History (very best of all Battle of the Bulge museums), Hamm American GI Cemetery, Notre Dame Cathedral, and great shopping France: Rheims Cathedral, Caen Memorial Museum, Beaches of Normandy, Allied Invasion Museums, Memorials to the Fallen, 360 degree cinema with footage of landing/war in Arromanches-Les-Bains, Big Red Assault Museum in Colleville-sur-Mer, Memorial d’Omaha in St. Laurent-sur-Mer Enjoy this unique journey for only $3,199 pp (dbl occ), ($510.00 single supplement) • Round trip air from Minneapolis (Frequent Flyer Miles) • Superior hotels; Deluxe motor coach • All breakfasts and dinners; excellent cuisine • All entrance fees per brochure • Bette & Gerrit Lamain, experienced European tour guides • Member of American Society of Travel Agents, Holland Specialist. Limited Space. Deposit $500.00 pp. Detailed brochure available upon request.

July 2005 Summer Fun! Choir tour (performers and non-performers); visit N. Wisconsin, N. Michigan, Sault St. Marie, Agawa Canyon, Macinaw Island, Frankenmuth (World Famous Bonner's Christmas Store) and Lake Michigan. Travel by bus, train and boat. Call for details. Fall 2005 Shamrock Adventure, Sept/Oct: Enjoy this 11 day Irish tour featuring organ concerts in magnificent cathedrals performed by Gerrit Lamain. Visit Dublin, Killarney, Ring of Kerry, Waterford Crystal Factory, Belleek Pottery, Blarney Stone, Letterkenny, Ulster Museum, and shopping, shopping, shopping. Call for details.


For more biographical information about these artists, visit our website at www.mnopera.org

The Artists Angela Keeton

Butterfly Minnesota Opera Debut La bohème, 2002 Recently Suor Angelica, Opera Theatre of St. Louis La bohème, Baz Luhrmann production Don Giovanni, Florida Grand Opera Roméo et Juliette, Lyric Opera of Kansas City Madame Mao, Santa Fe Opera Upcoming Carmen, Nashville Opera Margaret Garner, Michigan Opera Theater

Kate Pinkerton Minnesota Opera Debut Lucrezia Borgia, 2004 Recently Kiss Me Kate, Brevard Music Center Into the Woods, Bloomington Music Works Jeppe; Little Women; Manon; Faust, Indiana University Upcoming Amahl and the Night Visitors, Minnesota Orchestra Nixon in China, The Minnesota Opera

Seth Keeton

Ryan Taylor

The Bonze Minnesota Opera Resident Artist Recently Acis and Galatea, New Breath Productions The Magic Flute; Passion; Lucrezia Borgia; Rigoletto, The Minnesota Opera La bohème; Roméo et Juliette; Don Giovanni, Chautauqua Op. La bohème; Dead Man Walking; La traviata, Austin Lyric Op. A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Central City Opera The Bartered Bride; Le nozze di Figaro; others, Indiana Univ. Upcoming Maria Padilla; Carmen, The Minnesota Opera

Sharpless Minnesota Opera Debut Turandot, 2000 Recently Carmen, Atlanta Opera Volpone; Street Scene; Don Pasquale; A Midsummer Night’s Dream; Viva la mamma, Wolf Trap Opera Company La Cenerentola, Seattle Opera Pagliacci/Carmina burana; Barber, The Minnesota Opera Upcoming La Cenerentola, Lyric Opera of San Antonio L’italiana in Algeri, Opera Santa Barbara

Kip Wilborn

E. Reed Fisher

Pinkerton Minnesota Opera Debut Recently Carmen, Eutiner Festspiele (Germany) Rigoletto; La bohème, Essen (Germany) Les contes d’Hoffmann, Cleveland Opera Carmen; Tosca, Open Air Festival (Gars) La bohème, Knoxville Opera Company Street Scene, Bravo/Arte Network Upcoming The Rake’s Progress, Teatro Verdi (Trieste) La bohème, Cincinatti Opera

Assistant Director Minnesota Opera Debut Recently Tristan und Isolde; The Impresario (director), Florentine Opera Of Mice and Men (ad), Florentine Opera Countess Maritza; Salome (ad), Santa Fe Opera Turandot (ad),Virginia Opera Upcoming La Cenerentola; La bohème (psm), Florentine Opera

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For more biographical information about these artists, visit our website at www.mnopera.org

t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 20

The Artists Colin Graham

Mark McCullough

Stage Director Minnesota Opera Debut The Mikado, 1989 Recently The Secret Marriage; Flight; Hamlet, Op. Theatre of St. Louis Madame Mao, Santa Fe Opera Falstaff, Canadian Opera Company Upcoming Flight, Boston Lyric Opera Jo¯ruri, Toyko Gloriana, Opera Theatre of St. Louis Anna Karinina, Florida Grand Opera

Lighting Designer Minnesota Opera Debut Recently Le nozze di Figaro, Metropolitan Opera The Queen of Spades, Royal Opera – Covent Garden Upcoming Rigoletto; Romeo and Juliet; Beauty and the Beast; Gloriana, Opera Theatre of St. Louis Così fan tutte, San Diego Opera The Baltimore Waltz, Signature Theater (New York) Pique Dame, Teatro San Carlo (Naples) Don Pasquale, L’Opéra de Montréal

Neil Patel

Antony Walker

Set Designer Minnesota Opera Debut Recently Alcina, New York City Opera Madame Mao, Santa Fe Opera Cavalleria rusticana; Suor Angelica, Op. Theatre of St. Louis Le nozze di Figaro; Don Giovanni, Nikikai Opera (Tokyo) Side Man; ‘Night Mother, Broadway Here Lies Jenny; Dinner with Friends; Living Out Loud; The Mercy Seat; Runt of the Litter; Hurrah at Last; Between Us; others, Off-Broadway Regional – Guthrie Theater; Steppenwolf; La Jolla; others

SpencerStuart Featured Conductor Minnesota Opera Debut Le nozze di Figaro, 2000 Recently Il ritorno d’Ulisse in patria, Pittsburgh Opera Theater La donna del lago; Roberto Devereux, Wash. Concert Opera Così fan tutte, Hawaii Opera Theatre Dardanus, Wolf Trap Opera Company The Handmaid’s Tale; La bohème; others, Minnesota Opera Upcoming Orlando, New York City Opera Nixon in China, The Minnesota Opera

David Woolard

Christopher Zemliauskas

Costume Designer Minnesota Opera Debut Aida, 1998 Recently Madame Mao, Santa Fe Opera The Smell of the Kill; Bells Are Ringing; The Rocky Horror Show; Voices in the Dark; Marlene; The Who’s Tommy; Wait Until Dark; The Young Man from Atlanta; others, Broadway Bare; Barbra’s Wedding; California Dream’n; The Carpetbagger’s Children; The Donkey Show; Jeffrey; others, Off-Broadway Upcoming All Shook Up, Broadway

Assistant Conductor Minnesota Opera Resident Artist Recently Tales of Hoffmann; Le jongleur de Notre Dame, Central City Op. The Magic Flute; The Rape of Lucretia; Passion; others, Minn. Op. Coach/Accompanist – Dialogues des Carmélites; Die Fledermaus; Eric Hermanson’s Soul (Univ. of Minnesota); Eugene Onegin; Don Pasquale; Samson et Dalila (Indianapolis Opera); Don Pasquale; Albert Herring; L’enfant et les sortilèges (Music Acad. of the West); The Medium, Angelique; The Barber of Seville (San Fran. Merola) Upcoming Maria Padilla; Carmen; Nixon in China, Minnesota Opera

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National Council Auditions Minnesota District Auditions November 13, 10am at Ordway Center for the Performing Arts

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Master Class with Cynthia Munzer November 14, 1pm at Landmark Center Upper Midwest Regional Auditions February 19, 10am at Ordway Center All events are free and open to the public. For more information, please call 763-476-2372 (Judith Boylan, Upper Midwest Reg. Dir.) or 952-938-6908 (Margaret Houlton, MN District Dir.)

For you and your business

we are pleased to present guest conductor maestro Antony Walker in the minnesota opera’s production of madame butterfly.

Computer Education

t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 22

Spencer Stuart recognizes great leaders.

Diverse class selections

Interactive training

Convenient half-day sessions


The Minnesota Opera Chorus Paula Lammers Michelle Liebl Tom Matchinsky Eric Mellum Mary Monson Steve Sandberg Joy Scheib Cathryn Schmidt Robert Schmidt Sandra Schoenecker Lu-Cheng Shih Peggy Sutherland Martin Swaden Corissa White

Supernumeraries David Allyn Taylor Helgeson Christian Skelley

Resident Artists covering principal roles Jonathan Carle (Sharpless) Theodore Chletsos (Pinkerton)

SUMMERHILL COOPS 4C

The Minnesota Opera Orchestra Violin I

Cello

Horn

Kristen Christensen Julia Persitz David Mickens Allison Jones Judy Thon-Jones Andrea Een Kari Giles Miriam MoxnessGriffiths Helen Foli

Jim Jacobson Adriana LaRosa Ransom Rebecca Arons Goetz Thomas Austin Dale Newton

Charles Kavalovski Charles Hodgson Michael Petruconis Lawrence Barnhart

Violin II

Flute

Laurie Petruconis Elizabeth Decker Stephan Orsak Melinda Marshall Carolin Kiesel Johnson Gillian Smith Andrea Noteboom Paige Kearl

Michele Frisch Amy Morris (double piccolo)

Trumpet Bass John Michael Smith Constance Brown Michael Watson

John G. Koopmann Christopher Volpe Takako Seimiya

Minnesota Dance Theatre

Trombone Sue Roberts Rick Gaynor David Stevens

December 17- 20, 2004 The Historic State Theatre

Tuba Oboe

Ralph Hepola

Marilyn J. Ford Michael Dayton (double English horn)

Timpani

Viola

Clarinet

Percussion

Annette Caruthers Vivi Erickson Laurel Browne Jenny Lind Nilsson Susan Janda James Bartsch

Sandra Powers Nina Olsen (double bass clarinet)

Matthew Barber David Hagedorn Frederic Opie

Bassoon

Harp

Coreen Nordling Laurie Hatcher Merz

Min J. Kim

“A marvel of balletic storytelling!” -- Mike Mike Steele, Steele, Minneapolis Minneapolis Star Star Tribune Tribune

Kory Andry

Personnel Manager Steve Lund

Our 40th year of making magic!

For tickets call 612-673-0404 Photos ©Siddiqi Ray and Eric Saulitis

23 • m a d a m e b u t t e r f l y

Amanda Broge Karen Bushby Daniel Cardwell Madeline Cieslak Andy Elfenbein Katherine Haugen Michelle Hayes Robin Heggen Sandra Henderson Jennifer Josephsen Mark Josephsen Angela Keeton Patricia Kent Dale Kruse


t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 24

The Real Butterfly continued from page 15

terfly mistakes the parting divorce settlement as a promise of return. Japonisme hit North America at the turn of the century when innovative playwright David Belasco was hot on the trail for new ideas. Belasco had spent his early years on the West Coast, working in all facets of the theater business, learning it from the bottom up. When his play La belle russe was accepted by a New York theater in 1882, a chapter in theater history was born. Already there was a trend in naturalist theater, as evidenced by Emile Zola’s treatise on the subject (Le naturalisme au théâtre, 1881), and Belasco’s particular brand of realism took theater production to a new level. Among his enhancements included bloody sides of beef used to enhance the brutality of a slaughterhouse, the spreading of pine needles onstage to augment the sense of being in the forest, even frying pancakes onstage to recreate the authentic feel of New York’s famous Child’s Restaurant. To heighten the plight of Butterfly, he lopped o∂ Long’s preliminary information to create unity of time and place (generally 24 hours within a single setting) and portrayed Butterfly’s evening-long silent vigil with a dramatic change in color and lighting with ground-breaking e∂ects. Belasco realistically retained Butterfly’s broken English, an aspect that delivers as live theater much more successfully than as written text (“Sa-ay! Mebby you also don’ thing he go’n’ take us live in his large castle at United States America?”). And, to heighten the drama, Butterfly is successful in her attempt at hara kiri. Pinkerton is curiously absent in both Long and Belasco – in the novel, though frequently referenced, most of his utterances are made in the shadow of the past, and he is only seen from a distance in Butterfly’s present world. During the play, Pinkerton makes two appearances, but only has a handful of spoken lines. Clearly his role had to be augmented to satisfy the expectations of Puccini’s theater audience, who would require a romantic leading man, caddish as he may be. Also needed to heighten the conflict and irresolution of Act i was the inclusion of a dramatically decisive moment – the appearance of the Bonze. In Long and Belasco, Butterfly’s conversion to Chris-

tianity is merely footnoted as a denial of her ancestors, in particular the living ones whom her husband finds so tedious. John Luther Long did not only have Loti’s novel at his disposal – he also had the recollections of his sister, Jennie Correll, who had worked as a missionary in Japan during the latter part of the 19th century. She apparently had known the son of a Scottish merchant, Thomas Blake Glover, whose mother was a Japanese “tea house” girl, Yamamura Tsura, also known as Ochô-San. She did, however, remain with her son, a∂ectionately known as Tomisaburo. Yet, it is likely Tomisaburo was adopted – according to Jan van Rij (Madame Butterfly, Stone Street Press), the abandonment issue comes from a possible Glover relation’s liaison with another woman of the “entertainment industry,” Kaga Maki, who was forced to give up the illegitimate child. Correll claimed to be intimate with all parties (Tomisaburo had been her student), and with a dash of sensationalism, revealed her account “previously known to only two people,” in the early 1930s, after Madame Butterfly had become an enormous hit. She was sketchy about the suicide, which was brought up by soprano Tamaki Miura a few years later. Long apparently had told her about the Glover family and Ochô-San’s suicide attempt, which may or may not be true, – the motivation appears unclear as Glover continued to stay with her in Japan. Of course, Long only knew the facts his sister told to him, and as it turns out, she is a potentially unreliable source. Equally plausible, Correll simply may have picked the story up as shoptalk gossip – there was certainly an abundance of temporary marriages at this time (as Loti indicated in his memoirs), many of which resulted in unexpected pregnancies and absent fathers. In a related argument, Arthur Groos (Cambridge Opera Journal, 3, 2, 125–158) draws notice to a naval officer, William B. Franklin, and a ship’s doctor, John Stamford Sayre (Long’s surname for Puccini’s Sharpless) serving aboard a Japanbound ship in the last decade of the 19th century, at the same time as Correll was in Nagasaki. But the identity of any actual “Cio-Cio-San” associated with these two men remains elusive.


Good listening Amy Sperling 651.282-9615

Crocus Hill Office

{TAKES PRACTICE.}

Nancy Meeden 651.282-9650


t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 26

The Minnesota Opera Fund Individual Donors: The Bel Canto Circle The Bel Canto Circle is The Minnesota Opera’s highest category of personal support, indicating lead gifts of $10,000 or more. With this designation, we recognize these very special friends for their commitment to the tradition of opera in our community. Bel Canto $10,000+ Karen Bachman Rebecca Rand and E. Thomas Binger Mary and Gus Blanchard Rod and Susan Boren Darlene J. and Richard P. Carroll Rusty and Burt Cohen Ellie and Tom Crosby, Jr. Julia W. Dayton

The Denny Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Brad and Diane England Dolly J. Fiterman Roger L. Hale and Nor Hall John and Ruth Huss Heinz and Sisi Hutter Lucy Rosenberry Jones

The Art and Martha Kaemmer Fund of HRK Foundation Warren and Patricia Kelly Peter J. King Patricia Lund Thomas and Barbara McBurney Margaret Meyers Edith J. Mueller † Diana and Joe Murphy†

Mrs. George T. Pennock Jose Peris and Diana Gulden Elizabeth and Andrew Redleaf Connie and Lew Remele Stephanie Simon and Craig Bentdahl Robert and Barbara Struyk Mary W. Vaughan Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation C. Angus and Margaret Wurtele

Mrs. Thomas B. Carpenter Rachelle Dockman Chase Cleveland Foundation Dr. James E. and Gisela Corbett John and Arlene Dayton Mary Lee and Wallace Dayton Lisa and Patrick Denzer Tom and Lori Foley Leslie and Alain Frécon Mr. and Mrs. R. James Gesell Bill and Eleanor Goodall R. Thomas Greene, Jr. Dan and Jill Gustafson Mr. John Harrer Sharon and Bill Hawkins Jay and Cynthia Ihlenfeld Dale A. Johnson Dr. and Mrs. Robert Josselson Stan and Jeanne Kagin Erwin and Miriam Kelen Mr. and Mrs. William Kling Mrs. James S. Kochiras Mr. and Mrs. Ted Kolderie Sandy Lewis and Rondi Erickson David MacMillan and Judy Krow Mary K. Mahley Family Foundation Roy and Dorothy Ann Mayeske

Harvey T. McLain James and Judith Mellinger Mrs. John M. Musser † Richard and Nancy Nicholson Nicholson Family Foundation William and Barbara Pearce Marge and Dwight Peterson James J. Phelps and Nancy McGlynn Phelps Mr. and Mrs. William Phillips Lila and Bruce Priebe Paul and Mary Reyelts James P. Richardson and Dorothy J. Horns, M.D. Ken and Nina Rothchild E. Elaine and Roger Sampson Kay Savik and Joe Tashjian Fred and Gloria Sewell Dr. Joseph Sha∂er and Dr. Kristina Sha∂er Frank and Lynda Sharbrough Mr. and Mrs. James Swartz Tanrydoon Fund of The Saint Paul Foundation Bernt von Ohlen and Thomas Nichol Nancy and Ted Weyerhaeuser

E. Robert and Margaret V. Kinney Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Kenneth Kixmoeller, Jr. and Kim Otness Lisa C. Kochiras Maria Kochiras Robert L. Kriel and Linda E. Krach Anita Kunin Mark and Elaine Landergan Carl Lee and Linda Talcott Lee Clinton and Judith Lee Susan Lenthe Sid and Diane L. Levin Jerry and Joyce Lillquist Elizabeth Lincoln and Bradley A. Fuller Mr. and Mrs. B. John Lindahl, Jr. Benjamin Y. H. and Helen C. Liu Bill Long Dawn M. Loven Margery Martin Drs. Mary and Joseph Meland Mr. and Mrs. Edward L. Mills Sandy and Bob Morris Tom Murtha and Stephanie Lenway Mrs. John H. Myers Mr. Donald E Notvik Susan Okie Brian and Julia Palmer

Allegra Parker Karen B. Paul William and Suzanne Payne Jodi and Todd Peterson Frances and George Reid Katharine S. Reynolds Jody Rockwell and Cli∂ton K. Hill John and Sandra Roe Lois and John Rogers Mrs. John C. Rowland Patty and Barney Saunders Mary E. Scha∂ner and Robert L. Lee Dr. and Mrs. Richard J. Schindler Lucy T. Searls Stanislaw and Krystyna Skrowaczewski Helene and Je∂ Slocum Julie Jackley Steiner Don and Leslie Stiles James V. and Susan W. Sullivan Henry and Virginia Sweatt Michael Symeonides Mr. and Mrs. George H. Tesar Lois and Lance Thorkelson Mr. and Mrs. Philip Von Blon

Individual Donors: The Camerata Circle Gold $5,000-$9,999 Anonymous Eric and Tracy Aanenson Mr. James Binger Jane M. and Ogden W. Confer Dr. Susan and Richard Crockett Theresa and Richard Davis David and Vanessa Dayton Cy and Paula Decosse Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Sara and Jock Donaldson Sally J. Economon Rolf and Nancy Engh Mr. and Mrs. John Forsythe Connie Fladeland and Steve Fox N. Bud and Beverly Grossman Foundation Alfred and Ingrid Lenz Harrison Karen and John Himle Bryce and Paula Johnson Samuel L. Kaplan and Sylvia Chessen Kaplan Michael F. and Gretchen G. Kelly and the Kelly Family Foundation Constance and Daniel Kunin Ilo and Margaret Leppik

Lynne Looney Becky Malkerson Ted and Roberta Mann Foundation Mary Bigelow McMillan Albin and Susan Nelson Bruce and Sandy Nelson Nelson Family Foundation Timothy and Gayle Ober Mr. and Mrs. Steven Rothschild Kevin and Lynn Smith Virginia L. and Edward C. Stringer Gregory C. Swinehart Catie Tobin and Brian Naas Charles Allen Ward Fund of The Saint Paul Foundation Ellen and Fred Wells

Silver $2,500-$4,999 Anonymous Chloe D. Ackman Paula Anderson Martha and Bruce Atwater Dr. Ford and Amy Bell William Biermaier and David Hanson Alexandra O. Bjorklund Laurie Carlson and William Voedisch

Individual Donors: The Artist Circle Artist Circle $1,000-$2,499 Anonymous (3) An Anonymous Gift from a Donor Advised Fund of The Saint Paul Foundation Kim A. Anderson Lowell Anderson and Kathy Welte Jaime Andrews and Jane Kolp-Andrews John Andrus, III Cheryl Appledorn and Thomas Schnettler Martha Goldberg Aronson and Daniel Aronson Mr. and Mrs. Edmund P. Babcock Dr. Thomas and Ann Bagnoli Patricia and Mark Bauer Ms. Sue A. Bennett John and Jennifer Bernstein Mr. and Mrs. Paul G. Boening Judith and Arnold Brier Conley Brooks Family Elwood F. and Florence A. Caldwell Bruce and Deanna Carlson Joan and George Carlson Joe and Judy Carlson Dr. Stephen and Beth Cragle Mrs. Thomas M. Crosby, Sr.

Ruth and Bruce Dayton Thomas and Mary Lou Detwiler Mona Bergman Dewane and Patrick Dewane Sia Dimitriou Mr. and Mrs. Carl B. Drake, Jr. Ekdahl Hutchinson Family Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Susan Engel and Arthur Eisenberg Ester and John Fesler Henry and Anice Flesh Salvatore S. Franco Patricia R. Freeburg David and Kathy Galligan Christine and W. Michael Garner Lois and Larry Gibson Paul and Margot Grangaard Rosalie He∂elfinger Hall Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Marthajane Hapke Don and Arlene Helgeson John S. and Rosmarie Helling Doug Heltne Bill and Hella Mears Hueg Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Hull Jacqueline Nolte Jones Charlotte and Markle Karlen Jessie L. Kelly Lyndel and Blaine King

These lists are current as of October 1, 2004, and include donors who gave gifts of $1,000 or more to The Minnesota Opera Fund since July 1, 2003. If your name is not listed appropriately, please accept our apologies, and call Kelly Classen, Development Systems Associate at 612-342-9553. For information on making a contribution to The Minnesota Opera, please call Dawn Loven, Individual Gifts Director, at 612-342-9567.


t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 28

The Minnesota Opera Fund The Minnesota Opera gratefully acknowledges its major corporate supporters: $100,000 +

$50,000 – $99,000

Corporations and Foundations Bel Canto $10,000+ 3M Allianz Life Insurance of North America American Express Minnesota Philanthropic Program Andersen Foundation The Bush Foundation The Cargill Foundation City of Saint Paul’s Cultural STAR Program RBC Dain Rauscher Foundation Deloitte Deluxe Corporation Foundation Dorsey & Whitney Foundation Ecolab Foundation General Mills Foundation Ann and Gordon Getty Foundation Anna M. Heilmaier Charitable Foundation Lowry Hill Private Wealth Management The MAHADH Fund of HRK Foundation The McKnight Foundation The Medtronic Foundation Minnesota Monthly Minnesota State Arts Board National Endowment for the Arts Pentair, Inc. Piper Ja∂ray Rider Bennett Rogers and Hollands Jewelers SpencerStuart St. Paul Travelers SUPERVALU Stores, Inc. Target Thrivent Financial for Lutherans Twin Cities Opera Guild U.S. Bancorp Foundation U.S. Bank, Private Client Group Wells Fargo Foundation Minnesota

Gold $5,000-$9,999

$25,000 – $49,000

Bemis Company Foundation Briggs and Morgan Faegre & Benson German-American Heritage Foundation Jostens, Inc. Lindquist & Vennum Alice M. O’Brien Foundation R. C. Lilly Foundation

Rahr Foundation U. S. Trust Company Valspar Foundation Wenger Foundation Xcel Energy Foundation

Silver $2,500-$4,999 Beim Foundation Boss Foundation Buuck Family Foundation Dellwood Foundation Mary Livingston Griggs and Mary Griggs Burke Foundation Hutter Family Foundation Margaret Rivers Fund River Chocolate Company School Arts Fund of United Arts/COMPAS Schwegman, Lundberg, Woessner & Kluth, PA Tennant Foundation West Group

Artist Circle $1,000-$2,499 Alliance Capital Management Arts & Custom Publishing Co., Inc. Athwin Foundation Brock-White Co., LLC The Burdick-Craddick Family Foundation Digital Excellence, Inc. GREC, LLC Gunkelmans Hogan & Hartson Horton, Inc. The C. A. Jackley Foundation Leonard, Street & Deinard Maslon, Edelman, Borman & Brand Mayo Clinic Minnesota Mutual Foundation Lawrence M. and Elizabeth Ann O’Shaughnessy Charitable Income Trust Peregrine Capital Management The Elizabeth C. Quinlan Foundation Robins, Kaplan, Miller & Ciresi The Southways Foundation St. Croix Foundation Charles B. Sweatt Foundation Tozer Foundation

Minnesota Opera Sponsors

$10,000 – $24,999

Season Sponsor

Camerata Dinners

U.S. Bank, Private Client Group

Rider Bennett

Production Sponsors

Conductor Appearances

Madame Butterfly, U.S. Bank, Private Client Group Carmen, American Express Minnesota Philanthropic Program

SpencerStuart

Production Innovation System

Promotional Support

General Mills

Minnesota Monthly

Opening Night Gala Sponsor

Official Jeweler of The Minnesota Opera

U.S. Bank, Private Client Group

Rogers & Hollands Jewelers

Evening Intermission Sponsor Lowry Hill Private Wealth Management

Opera Insights Thrivent Financial for Lutherans


ST. PAUL CITY BALLET K

Cultivating a new generation of opera-goers in the Twin Cities

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I come down to the barn at seven in the morning, and I turn on The Morning Show with Dale and Jim Ed. My horses and I just love it, we really do. We keep Minnesota Public Radio on all day. I’ve lived in Chicago and I’ve lived in Kansas City. Minnesota Public Radio is so outstanding. What we have going here is really something special. I’m Ellen Hill from Jordan. I’m just one of Minnesota Public Radio’s 670,000* listeners. And that’s not counting my horses! *Arbitron, Fall 2003.

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Upcoming Events Opera Night Out: Madame Butterfly Saturday, November 13, 2004 The Kaiser from Atlantis Wednesday, Feb. 2, 2005 Private performance for YPG members at The Minnesota Opera Center Opera Night Out: Maria Padilla Saturday, March 12, 2005

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Minnesota Opera's Madame Butterfly Program