Page 1

Giuseppe Verdi

5 • don carlos

Contents Board of Directors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Minnesota Opera Volunteers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Notes from the Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Don Carlos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Background Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Synopsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Behind Don Carlos: The History and the Drama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 The Artists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 The Camerata Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 The Minnesota Opera Orchestra. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Sta∂. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 The Minnesota Opera Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Coming Up: The 2002 – 2003 Season. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

The Minnesota Opera President & CEO Artistic Director Chair, Board of Directors

Kevin Smith Dale Johnson Virginia L. Stringer

The Minnesota Opera, 620 North First Street Minneapolis, MN 55401 (612) 333-2700 The Minnesota Opera is a member of OPERA America. This activity is made possible in part by a grant provided by the Minnesota State Arts Board through an appropriation by the Minnesota State Legislature. In addition, this activity is supported in part by a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts.

May 2002

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the minnesota opera • 6

Board of Directors Welcome. U.S. Bancorp Piper Jaffray is pleased to help bring you The Minnesota Opera’s production of Don Carlos. Sponsoring the opera season is just part of our commitment to the arts and quality of life in our community. Staging this fine performance takes teamwork. From the conductor to the cast members to the costume designers, many individuals are working together to entertain you. This team includes management and patrons – even the audience – who make a successful production possible. At U.S. Bancorp Piper Jaffray, we embrace teamwork. We work with clients to understand their needs and accomplish their goals. We work with colleagues throughout U.S. Bancorp to provide a comprehensive range of financial solutions. And we work with The Minnesota Opera and other high-quality organizations to enrich our community. We’re proud to be part of the team effort you’re about to experience. Enjoy the performance.

Andrew Duff President and CEO U.S. Bancorp Piper Jaffray

Virginia L. Stringer, Chair Susan S. Boren, Vice Chair Bruce Nelson, Secretary Loren Unterseher, Treasurer Kevin Smith, President & CEO August J. Aquila Martha Goldberg Aronson Karen Bachman Patricia Bauer Susan J. Crockett Ellie Crosby Rolf Engh Thomas J. Foley

John G. Forsythe Steve Fox R. Thomas Greene, Jr. Heinz Hutter Paula R. Johnson Michael F. Kelly, Jr. Edward J. Kerans Sarah B. Kling Lynne E. Looney

Julia W. Dayton, Director Emeritus

Thomas R. McBurney Diana E. Murphy Jose Peris Kimberly S. Puckett Connie Remele Steven M. Rothschild Lucy T. Searls Gregory C. Swinehart Catie Tobin

James A. Rubenstein, legal counsel, Moss & Barnett

Honorary Directors Dominick Argento H. Wesley Balk Philip Brunelle Elizabeth Close

Dolly Fiterman Charles C. Fullner Norton M. Hintz Donald W. Judkins

David P. Keefe Liz Kochiras Jevne Pennock Patricia H. Sheppard

Minnesota Opera Volunteers The following volunteers contribute their time and talent in support of key activities of The Minnesota Opera.

Keri Picket

Cafe,Bakery,Wine & Pizza Bar

Ann Albertson Laurel Anderson Jamie Andrews Gerald Benson Matt Bluem Linda Brandt Jim Brownback Sue Brownback Meredith Cain-Nielsen Kathy Cameron Joann Cierniak* Tricia Clarke* Caroline Coopersmith Lindsay Craig Beverly Dailey Marcia del Castillo Lee Drawert Judith Duncan Sally Economon Mary Sue Fiola Jane Fuller Joan Gacki (Volunteer Chair)

850 Grand Avenue,St Paul 55105 651-224-5687

Christine A. Garner Heather Gehring Juhi Gupta-Gulati* Mark Gustin

Mary E. Hagen Travis Hanstad John Harris* Kristen Heimerl Anne Hesselroth Alisandra Johnson Karen Johnson Nancy Johnson Jeanie Johnston Susan Kalmer Dianne Kelly Remigijus Klyvis Eleanore Kolar Lucinda Lamont Shirley Larson Rita Lavin Lisa Liveringhouse Rochelle Lockwood Rusty Low Jennifer Madvig Joan Masuck Mary McDiarmid Beth McGuire Verne Melberg Warren Mitlyng Linda Morey

Doug Myhra Dan Panshin Pat Panshin Kaye Peters Sydney Phillips Bill Phillips Julia Porter Kathryn Rich Jack Richter John Rosse Florence Ruhland John Sauer* Michael Silhavy Wendy Silhavy Wendi Sott Dawn Stafki Harry D. Swepston, III John Thompson Anne Townsley Nicholas Trimbo Doris Unger Carolyn Wahtera Barbara Willis* Jeremy Wright Melissa Zschunke *Lead volunteer

World premiere at the Paris Opéra, March 11, 1867 Revised four-act version presented at the Teatro alla Scala, Milan, January 10, 1884 May 11, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 19, 2002 Ordway Center for the Performing Arts Sung in French with English captions Conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Marco Zambelli Stage Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tim Albery Set Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hildegard Bechtler Costume Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Nicky Gillibrand Lighting Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tom Mannings after original designs by Charles Edwards

Wig Master and Makeup . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tom Watson Assistant Director . . . . . . . . . . . .Doug Scholz-Carlson Assistant Conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Je∂rey Domoto Chorusmaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Joseph Lawson Production Stage Manager . . . . . . . . .Alexander Farino English Captions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Christopher Bergen

The Cast Don Carlos, Infante of Spain Paul Charles Clarke* Julian Gavin** Elisabeth de Valois, Philippe’s queen Indra Thomas* Geraldine McMillian** Rodrigue, Marquis de Posa Jason Howard* Carlos Marín** Princess Eboli Robynne Redmon* Alina Gurina** Philippe ii, King of Spain Dean Peterson The Grand Inquisitor Stefan Szkafarowsky A monk Matt Boehler Thibault, Elisabeth’s page Ana Rodriguez Count de Lerma James Valenti Celestial voice Karin Wolverton Flemish deputies, o∑cers of the Inquisition, monks, lords and ladies of the Spanish court, peasants, heretics, populace, guards and soldiers Setting: *

performs May 11, 14, 18

Scenery and costumes for this production are owned by Opera North (Leeds). An Opera North Production®

Spain, about 1560 **

performs May 12, 16, 19 The Minnesota Opera season is proudly sponsored by U.S. Bancorp Piper Ja∂ray.

OperaInsights is sponsored by SpencerStuart. The appearances of Indra Thomas and James Valenti, winners, Ana Rodriguez and Stefan Szkafarowsky, regional finalists, and Matt Boehler, district finalist of the Metropolitan Opera National Council Auditions, are made possible through a Minnesota Opera Endowment Fund established for Artist Enhancement by Barbara White Bemis. Performances of Don Carlos are being taped for delayed broadcast on Minnesota Public Radio, ksjn 99.5 in the Twin Cities, on June 16, 2002.

The 2001-2002 Camerata Circle Dinners are sponsored by Rider, Bennett, Egan & Arundel. Promotional support provided by Minnesota Monthly. Special thanks to Miller Meester advertising for making the 2001-2002 season preview recording possible.

9 • don carlos

Music by Giuseppe Verdi Libretto by Joseph Méry and Camille du Locle after Friedrich von Schiller’s dramatic poem (1787)

t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 10

aris represented the ultimate challenge for Giuseppe Verdi. The operatic capital of the world hosted triumphs for Italian composers of previous generations but for Verdi, the reception had been coolly mixed. Granted, such staples as Rigoletto, La traviata (as Violetta) and Il trovatore (as Le trouvère) had been wildly successful in French t r a n s l at i o n , b u t t h e w o r k s Ve r d i w r o t e o r rewrote with the French formula in mind Background Notes by David Sander ( J é r u s a l e m , L e s v ê p r e s s i c i l i e n n e s , M a c b e t h ) h a d n o t achieved the success he had hoped. In fact, during rehearsals of a revived Vêpres, an angered and insulted Verdi vowed never to return to a theater whose management and musicians had caused him so much strife.


The reason for his return only a few years later is worthy of speculation even today. He had been o∂ered a contract from Emile Perrin, director of the Paris Opéra, for a spectacular opera to be featured as part of the 1867 Universal Exhibition. For his part, Perrin really needed a composer of first class but had few candidates at his disposal. Giacomo Meyerbeer had just died in 1864, and Richard Wagner, after the horrific failure of Tannhäuser in 1861, could hardly be considered a viable option. Stigmatized by an institution which seemed to move like “marble and lead,” Verdi couldn’t have been very excited by another commission, prestigious as it was. Curiously, it was Meyerbeer’s success that might have been one of his primary motivators – the ultimate composer of the French grand opéra style had been successful in Italy at the beginning of his career, and now his French works, Les Huguenots, L’Africaine and Robert le diable were becoming big hits in Verdi’s native land. Certainly Verdi was the superior composer and could equal or even surpass Meyerbeer’s popularity on his home turf.

Perrin had the good sense to approach Verdi through the composer’s French publisher, Léon Escudier. Three potential subjects were proposed – King Lear, Cleopatra and Don Carlos. While it was his lifelong ambition to compose an opera on King Lear and the epic proportions of the story would fit in well with the Opéra expansive resources, the composer feared the casting would be inadequate. He also passed on Cléopâtre since the story did not feature sympathetic lovers. Don Carlos intrigued him, however, as Schiller had served him well in three operas to date: Giovanna d’Arco, I masnadieri and Luisa Miller. It was not the first time Schiller’s play had been proposed – in 1850 Alphonse Royer and Gustave Vaëz suggested it for the opera that would become Vêpres, and just the year before that Verdi’s stalwart librettist, Francesco Maria Piave, had prepared a libretto entitled Elisabetta di Valois. Clearly his interest had been peaked in the past. But Schiller’s drama lacked spectacle, and spectacle is what grand opéra was all about. Not unlike today’s hyper-demand for sensational special e∂ects in motion pictures, bourgeois Parisians expected the same degree of titillation in the 19th century. Each opera had to one-up the last and as technology improved (i.e. the introduction of electric lighting), this became all the more possible. Librettists Camille du Locle and Joseph Méry assisted the composer in livening up Schiller’s play with the introduction of the ghostly presence of Charles v and a plus non ultra auto-da-fé scene with the entire cast, chorus and countless supernumeraries in full regalia. Again, this was not an original idea for the librettists, who also had at their disposal a recent play by Eugène Cormon, Philippe ii, roi d’Espagne (1846), which references this menacing tradition of the Spanish Inquisition. They also borrowed the Fontainebleau scene, which does not occur in Schiller, but fulfilled the grand opéra requirement of having one setting in a foreign locale. Verdi traveled to Paris in the summer of 1866 with a nearly complete score in hand and began the long and particularly arduous seven-month rehearsal process required by the opera’s management – miseen-scène was taken very seriously by the French directors even in those days. As the production neared

11 • d o n c a r l o s

completion it was discovered that Verdi’s score had run 17 minutes over its allotted time. Grand opéra, after all, had its rules – Parisian audiences liked their opera long but not too long. A performance began promptly at 7:00 p.m. (never earlier as not to rush dinner) and had to end by midnight so that the suburbanites could catch the last train at 12:35. Thus began the first series of cuts and revisions, which would not be in completion until 20 years later and then not even in a definitive form. The first to go was a prelude and introduction, the prelude setting the tinta of the opera so valued by Verdi, the introduction satisfying the dramatic necessity of explaining Elisabeth’s predicament. It includes the peasants’ lament over the especially harsh winter as a result of France’s continuing war with Spain, a war to be settled with a dynastic marriage between the two countries. Elisabeth has a chance to display her generosity to a war widow, thus setting up her character as virtually unmarrable, which remains consistent throughout the opera. Smaller nips and tucks elsewhere in the score shaved it down to the standard duration. One reason for the opera’s substantial length (itself unusual for a composer known for his brevity) is that Verdi found himself with a variety of strong characters: the duty-bound Elisabeth, the widely irrational and romantic Carlos, the ultra-patriotic Rodrigue, the powerful yet vulnerable King Philippe, the equally powerful but strongly reactionary Grand Inquisitor, and a dangerous, conniving beauty in Eboli. The opera is laid out in a series of duets and confrontations – between Elisabeth and Carlos, Carlos and Rodrigue, Rodrigue and Philippe, Philippe and the Grand Inquisitor, Elisabeth and Eboli. Verdi expounds upon all of his favorite themes – filial conflict, private anguish in the wake of public duty, patriotism battling religious fervor. Don Carlos is sometimes described as a “thinking person’s” Verdian opera. It certainly represents the composer in all of his dramatic complexity. Of course, much of this was lost on the bourgeois audience, and though Don Carlos was to achieve 43 performances, it would soon be dropped from the repertory. The Parisians may have taken their cue from the Empress Eugénie – she took o∂ense at the intimate portrayal of Spain’s history, including the vulnerability of Philippe ii, a national hero in her native land. She found Verdi’s treatment of the Grand Inquisitor especially distasteful at the moment when Philippe tells the old priest to “Tais-toi,” essentially “shut up.” (Verdi got his personal jibe at the clergy by requesting the Grand Inquisitor be old and blind – blind both in sight and to the changing world around him – but the double entendre was not lost on the Empress.) The composer shut the door on Paris for good. Ironically, his next opera, Aida, written for Cairo but veiled in the grand opéra tradition, would become the toast of the town after its French premiere in 1880. And to the composer’s ultimate disgust, the last music to flow from his pen would be for Paris – a ballet for the French premiere of Otello (as Othello) in 1894. But this was not the end of Don Carlos. It received its Italian premiere later that year in all its Parisian glory but in Italian translation. Several years later for a production in Naples, Verdi decided to make several subtle changes, particularly in the duet between Rodrigue and Philippe, and this was pub-

lished as a second o∑cial version of the opera. But nothing would match the revisions a decade later when, for a production in Milan, he cut out nearly half of his original score. Gone was entire first act, with Carlos’s aria transferred to Act ii (now Act i), modified slightly to recall his happy idyll at Fontainebleau with its unhappy result – the marriage of Elisabeth and Philippe. Not surprisingly, the ballet was jettisoned, and Act iii (now Act ii) opened with a new prelude based on themes from Carlos’s aria. The Rodrigue-Philippe duet was revised yet again, becoming more of dramatic dialogue indicative of Verdi’s later style. Other revisions included discrete changes in the Rodrigue/Carlos Act ii duet, an amended Act iv quartet during which Elisabeth assumes more power and dignity befitting her royal lineage, followed by a new insurrection scene to close the act (after the Paris premiere the act had ended abruptly with Rodrigue’s death so that the baritone would not have to lie uncomfortably on the floor for an additional 15 minutes). Changes were made in Act v as well – the marziale in Elisabeth and continues on page 13

t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 12

Synopsis Scene two – The auto-da-fé The peoders. He grows angry at her apparple gather for a public burning of ent coolness. Recrimination quickly the heretics condemned by the Inturns to love. Elisabeth only extriquisition. The arrival of the king cates herself from potential disasand queen is interrupted by Carlos, ter by brutally confronting accompanied by a delegation from Carlos with the fact that Flanders. When Philippe rejects she is now his mother. their plea for clemency toward the He leaves distraught, Flemish people, Carlos demands to and Elisabeth is disAct i be sent to rule in Flanders. Philippe covered alone by the Scene one – At the tomb of reacts with scorn, and Carlos draws king. Furious at findCharles v Carlos his sword against his father. To Caring the queen unatlaments his fate. A los’s amazement, Rodrigue steps in tended, he banishes monk offers Carlos words to disarm him. Carlos is led away to her French lady-inof comfort. Carlos is terprison as the burning begins. waiting. When the rified because he is concourt is gone, Philippe vinced that the monk is intermission interrogates Rodrigue, the ghost of Emperor who shocks him by Charles v. Rodrigue has Act iii launching into a tirade just returned from Scene one – The king’s study Philippe against Spanish policy Flanders, where the is now convinced that Elisabeth has in Flanders. Impressed people suffer under betrayed him with Carlos. He has by Rodrigue’s boldness, the repressive rule summoned the Grand Inquisitor, Philippe reveals his of Spain. He urges who tells him that the Church will doubts about his wife’s fiCarlos to fight for sanction the killing of Carlos. But, delity and gives Rodrigue their freedom. The in return, the Church demands the the task of observing her and king and queen, death of the king’s new advisor, RoCarlos. Rodrigue realizes the Philippe and Elisadrigue. Philippe refuses, and the political advantage of beth, pass by on their Carlos matter is left unresolved. Elisahaving the trust of the way t o M a s s . C a r l o s beth bursts in. She is furious: king. knows that Elisabeth will never be someone has stolen her jewel his and decides to devote himself to box. Philippe has it and conAct ii the Flemish cause. fronts her with the portrait Scene one – The queen’s garof Carlos he has found inden Carlos has received a Scene two – A garden outside the side. When he accuses note – he presumes from cloister The ladies of the court her of infidelity she colElisabeth – inviting him wait for Elisabeth lapses. His calls for help to a secret meeting. to return from the are answered by Eboli His raptures of love are morning Mass. and Rodrigue. Eboli is horsilenced when the Princess Eboli enrified to see the result of “queen’s” veil is lifted t e r ta i n s t h e m her deceit – it was she who to reveal Eboli. In love with a song. Rogave the jewel box to the with Carlos, Eboli has drigue delivers king. Philippe, consumed written the note. She a secret note with self-disgust, realizes warns him of Rodrigue’s from Carhis wife is innocent. Alone new friendship with the los to the with the queen, Eboli conking. When Eboli realq u e e n. Th e fesses to the theft of the izes Carlos is in love with court retreats, jewel box. When Eboli exElisabeth and not her, she allowing her plains that she acted out of turns on him. Rodrigue to meet Carjealousy and love of Cara p p e a r s , f e a r i n g t h at los in private. los, Elisabeth forgives Eboli might ruin his plans. Carlos wants Rodrigue her. But when Eboli goes on Despite his threats she Elisabeth to to confess that her anger at Carlos leaves, intent on vengeance. Roask the has led her to commit adultery with drigue persuades a confused Carlos king to the king, the queen exiles her forto hand over any incriminating letsend him ever from the court. Eboli, knowing ters he is carrying. to FlanPhilip, King of Spain, has recently married Elisabeth de Valois of France. Carlos, his son, was origina l ly m e a n t t o m a r r y h e r . They loved each other, but now she is his stepmother.


Background (continued)

Scene two – A prison Rodrigue comes to see Carlos in prison. He has pretended that Carlos’s incriminating letters are his own and allowed them to fall into the hands of the authorities. He hopes by this self-sacrifice to save Carlos. An unseen assassin shoots Rodrigue. As he dies he tells Carlos to meet Elisabeth early the next m o r n i n g at t h e t o m b o f Charles v. She will help him escape to Flanders. Philippe arrives. Now h e k n ow s t h a t Rodrigue is a traitor, he is ready to forgive Carlos. He is shattered to hear Rodrigue died delibe r at e ly t o save his s o n. Th e people, roused to rebellion by Eboli, come to free Carlos, who escapes before the Grand The Grand Inquisitor Inquisitor manages to crush the revolt. Act iv At the tomb of Charles v Elisabeth and Carlos reconcile themselves to parting, but before Carlos can leave for Flanders, the king arrives and hands them both over to the Inquisition. As Carlos resists arrest, the ghost of Emperor Charles v reappears.

Carlos’s duet was reintroduced with new orchestration (it had been removed in the Naples revision), and the finale was toned down a bit from its original grand opéra climax. Other key scenes, such as the auto-da-fé, Philippe and Eboli’s Act iv arias, the whole of Act ii’s second scene up to the point of Philippe’s entrance, and the king’s confrontation with the Grand Inquisitor were virtually untouched, making yet another composite of Verdi’s earlier and later styles (other examples include Macbeth and Simon Boccanegra). The new “Italian” Don Carlo premiered at La Scala on January 10, 1884. Though his new opera had more concision and “sinew” as he described it, Verdi still was not satisfied. The new Don Carlo may have been shorter and faster, but it seemed to lack the dramatic pacing and forethought established by the original French five-act version. Perhaps sensing this, Verdi presumably authorized one more edition of the opera for Modena in 1886. This included the return of the five-act format with Fontainebleau restored and the Carlos aria moved to its original position. Otherwise the score is identical to the four-act Milan version, complete with the final revision of Philippe-Rodrigue duet that gave Verdi so much trouble, and, of course, with no ballet. With five versions of the opera (including the “1866” score, which has since restored the rediscovered music cut during the rehearsal prior to the Paris premiere), what is the definitive version? The jury is still out as opera impresarios struggle to include what each considers to be the best music, often in a further agglomeration of the various versions. The Don Carlos you will hear for these performances will be the four-act Milan version, but sung in French rather than the more commonly performed Italian. At each juncture, Verdi revised his opera in the French and then had it translated. As a result, the vocal line as originally conceived brings out the subtlety of the French text, and its prosody is better suited to the original language – it is more lyric and more intimate.



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that she must live out her days in a convent, realizes that she may still be able to save Carlos.


istory may be a crucial part of the in the Hapsburg family, and though it have left Philip with Spain and Italy and 19th-century Romantic movement, was e∂ective in acquiring land mass, it Ferdinand with Austria and the Low but Romanticism is rarely history, and if was equally as destructive in producing Countries; yet Charles, feeling sentimental, chose to bequeath Flanders to Philip, one is looking for the real plight of Don capable rulers. The Hapsburgs acquired Spain when because he wanted his son to inherit the Carlos, they needn’t bother with Verdi’s opera, Schiller’s drama, or really any Juana, daughter of Ferdinand and Is- country of his birth and his spiritual abella, and Philip, home. Little did he know the trouble it other literary adaptason of Maximilian i would cause. tion written prior to At this time Europe was embroiled in and Mary of Burthe 20th century. As gundy, married in the Counter Reformation and Catholican happen, the gos1497. Juana was cism was put to the test. England had sip took hold of the known for her men- already renounced the old religion, as facts and led to wide tal instability, in- did much of Germany, but Austria, array of colorful adapherited from the Spain and France remained committed tations of the events intermarriage of her to the cause and to eradicating heresy. surrounding Philip ii own Spanish and Within its own boundaries Spain was and his immediate Portuguese rela- not especially threatened by the Protesfamily during the t i v e s . H e r fi na l tants, but Flanders, poised between two mid-16th century. b r e a k d ow n o c - Protestant fronts, was an easy target. The first glaring curred when her Margaret of Parma, Philip’s sister and di∂erence is the sethusband, whom she governor of the Low Countries, was enting. Verdi and his lidearly loved, died trusted with quelling the turbulence brettists place the prematurely (she roused by William, Prince of Orange, tragedy just after was known to travel but when she failed, Philip sent the 1559, the year Philip with Philip’s co∑n Duke of Alba. The ruthless Alba marries his third and remains for quickly put down the resistance with an wife, Elisabeth de Elisabeth de Valois (1545–1568) m o n t h s a f t e r ) . iron hand by ordering the execution of Valois, daughter of by Alonso Sanchez Coello French King Henri ii. This date also cor- Though Juana “la loca” inherited the Counts Egmont and Horn, two of responds to the signing of the peace rule of Castile from her mother, she was William’s closest allies. Philip’s own aptreaty with France following the battle locked up in the tower of Tordesillas pearance in the Netherlands might have been helpful, and he intended to go but of St. Quentin. But neither Philip nor from 1506 until her death in 1555. wa s d e ta i n e d b y The young couple Carlos went to France for this occasion – family problems Elisabeth was married by proxy with the had time enough to that arose thanks to Duke of Alba standing in for the Spanish p r o d u c e a s o n, his son’s unpreking. Also, Carlos was only 14 years old Charles, who would dictability. at the time and Elisabeth a mere 13. It’s soon become the Carlos wa s true Philip seized upon an unexpected Holy Roman Emplagued with probopportunity to marry his son’s betrothed peror Charles v. His lems from the day after his second wife and cousin, Mary great inheritance inhe was born. His Tudor, died in 1558, but Carlos and cluded Spain and its mother, who Philip Elisabeth never met until her arrival in New World possesdeeply loved, had Spain, and the Infante’s troubles didn’t sions and much of died in childbirth, precipitate until several years later, in Italy from Juana and and as he was immehis grandfather, Fer1567. diately estranged Twentieth century historians tell us dinand, and Austria from his father, Carthat Carlos and Elisabeth were simply and the Netherlands los was raised by his good friends. Close in age they shared a from his grandparaunt. A serious head mutual warmth uncommon in the chilly ents on the Hapsinjury resulting formality of Philip’s court. As things burg side. Though from a fall in his stood Carlos had his eye on a far more not as crazy as his teens left everyone advantageous match to his cousin Anne mother, Charles was Infante Don Carlos (1545–1568) in fear for his life of Austria, a marriage that would con- known to be melan- by Alonso Sanchez Coello nect with the other branch of the family choly, and he abdicated his throne in and though recovering, he was never terand put him in a good position to take 1556, splitting the empire between his ribly stable, exhibiting erratic behavior charge of the Spanish Netherlands. Mar- son Philip and his younger brother Fer- that alternated between acts of great rying close relatives was commonplace dinand. The most logical division would generosity and appalling cruelty. There Erich Lessing, Art Resource NY

Erich Lessing, Art Resource NY

t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 14

Behind Don Carlos: The History and the Drama

Erich Lessing, Art Resource NY

Romantic literature during the early part of the 19th century. Don Carlos is a play from the early part of Schiller’s career. The subject was not easily addressed, and the completed work is somewhat uneven in its dramatic outlay, the result of a shift in the author’s original intention to create a drama with political significance to the domestic tragedy of a dysfunctional family. The libertarianism is not lost but, in fact is doubled by both Carlos and Posa’s intention to change the world, countered by an equally formidable team of antagonists in the Duke of Alba and the Grand Inquisitor. Feeling the weight of so many complicated characters, Verdi chose to write Alba out of his opera – also the Duchess of Alba in 1866 just happened to be French Empress Eugénie’s sister. Other changes in adapting a rather shapeless play to the lyric stage led to several of the opera’s inconsistencies. Chief among these is the presence of Charles v, whose ghost is said to haunt the royal palace. In the play, Carlos uses the rumor to his advantage as he dons a monk’s robe to get past the guards and gain access to Elisabeth’s chamber. But at the drama’s conclusion Philip rather anticlimactically has the o∑cers of the Inquisition take Carlos into custody. Verdi and his librettists latched onto the possibility of Charles roaming the monastery, inspired by the legend that the emperor had staged his own funeral so that he could attend it himself. Yet they can’t seem to agree as to the physical condition of Charles – man or ghost – yet Verdi was keen on altering the ending from Schiller’s original, believing that the emperor’s intercession in Carlos’s capture would leave the Infante’s fate more hopeful, perhaps regaining the liberty to achieve his revolutionary ideals. Also inconclusive in the opera is Eboli’s a∂air with the king. In Schiller’s play, Philip has been courting Eboli for quite some time. She allows herself to be seduced only after learning of Carlos’s secret love for Elisabeth and uses the situation to obtain further incriminating information against her royal mistress. continues on page 25

15 • d o n c a r l o s

can be little doubt Philip began to see promptly married another of his son’s the seeds of the family’s mental illness in betrothed (and his own niece), Anne of his son. The intermarriages were espe- Austria. Together they produced another cially close in Carlos’s case – among his sickly heir who would become Philip iii. The poison theory was seized upon a great-grandparents he could count only four (instead of the usual eight) and only century later by César Vischard SaintRéal who brandished s i x g r e at- g r e at his own take on hisgrandparents (intory in Don Carlos, stead of the usual Nouvelle historique 16). Naturally Car(1672). Naturally he los pressed for a portrays Philip as a greater role in govmonstrous villain, ernment, including and with a Henry the rule of Flanders, the Eighth twist, yet Philip tarried, goes just short of hoping to see signs suggesting Philip of improvement in murdered Elisabeth his only heir. so he could marry Things came to a Anne (Elisabeth, head in 1567 when after all, had not proPhilip sent Alba to vided any sons). Flanders instead, Thomas Otway, Jean and Carlos privately Racine, Vittorio conspired to go to Alfieri, Robert Watthe Low Countries son and Louis Sébasas a subversive to Philip II (1527–1598) tian Mercier r a l ly t h e r e b e l s by Alonso Sanchez Coello around in a plan hatched by Egmont a followed with similar feats of fiction, and few years before. Oddly, he confided his when the time came Schiller himself plans to Ruy Gómez de Sylva, Prince of turned to Saint-Réal for guidance. Eboli and Philip’s closest advisor, who Though still far from being historically promptly told the king. Philip had Car- accurate, Schiller shied away from the los taken into custody with the intention poison theory and, indeed, the whole of never releasing him, much like his fa- love a∂air. The author also injects into ther had done with his own mother Philip’s traditional depiction as a coldJuana. Before any news could leave the hearted tyrant a dose of humanity, atSpanish border, Philip cautiously wrote tributes that later would be given to all the heads of Europe explaining greater attention by Verdi. Friedrich von Schiller what he had done. No one (1759 – 1805) was part of was really surprised. the Sturm and Drang Fortunately for Philip, movement of the late 18th Carlos died in captivity on July 24, 1568, after six century, a precursor to months of alternate bingeRomanticism. Translated ing and starvation. Less as “Storm and Stress,” convenient was Elisabeth’s these works commonly death three months later of featured frustrated idealcomplications from pneuism in pursuit of libertarmonia and childbirth. Imian g oa l s, of te n i n a m e d i at e ly rumors pseudo-historical setting. abounded that Philip had Both the enlightened poisoned Carlos and Elisa- Friedrich von Schiller philosophy of Jeanbeth because of an illicit Jacques Rousseau and the love a∂air, gossip put into play by logic behind the French Revolution unProtestant adversaries such as William of derwrote Schiller’s works, later to be Orange. Philip paid it no mind and highly influential for the development of

For more biographical information about these artists, visit our website at

Matt Boehler A monk Minnesota Opera Resident Artist Recently Little Women; La bohème; others, The Minnesota Opera La bohème, Fargo-Moorhead Civic Opera Orpheus in the Underworld; Christopher Sly; The Consul; others, Des Moines Metro Opera Amahl and the Night Visitors; The Magic Flute; Le nozze di Figaro; The Threepenny Opera, Viterbo College Upcoming A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Central City Opera 2002-2003 Resident Artist, The Minnesota Opera

Julian Gavin Don Carlos Minnesota Opera Debut Recently Tosca, Opera Colorado Les contes d’Hoffmann, Washington Opera La bohème, De Vlaamse Opera Il trovatore, English National Opera Upcoming Andrea Chénier, Opera Queensland Andrea Chénier; La traviata, Washington Opera Macbeth, De Nederlandse Opera Carmen, Teatro Real (Madrid)

Jason Howard Rodrigue Minnesota Opera Debut Macbeth, 2000 Recently Madame Butterfly, Scottish Opera Rigoletto, Edmonton Opera La traviata, English National Opera Peter Grimes, Opéra National de Paris – Bastille Mourning Becomes Elektra, Lyric Opera of Chicago Upcoming La traviata, New York City Opera Rigoletto, Scottish Opera

Paul Charles Clarke Don Carlos Minnesota Opera Debut Faust, 1999 Recently The Bartered Bride, Royal Opera House – Covent Garden Manon, The Dallas Opera Lucia di Lammermoor, Seattle Opera Madame Butterfly, Deutsche Oper Berlin Upcoming Madame Butterfly, Welsh National Opera Maria Stuarda, Edinburgh Festival Thaïs, English National Opera

Alina Gurina Princess Eboli Minnesota Opera Debut Recently Cavalleria rusticana; Verdi Requiem, Canadian Opera Co. Carmen; Don Carlo; Rusalka; others, Janacek Opera Brno Samson et Dalila; Carmen, Stadttheater Giessen Bluebeard’s Castle, (Budapest) Upcoming Rigoletto, Florentine Opera Cavalleria rusticana, Erfurt (Germany)

Carlos Marín Rodrigue Minnesota Opera Debut Lucia di Lammermoor, 2001 Recently Roméo et Juliette, Opera de Oviedo Madame Butterfly, Opéra de Montpellier Lucia di Lammermoor, Teatro Regio di Parma Upcoming La bohème, Opéra de Lausanne La capricciosa coretta, Opéra de Lausanne; Opéra de Bordeaux; Teatro de la Zarzuela (Madrid)

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t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 18

The Artists

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The Artists Dean Peterson

Elisabeth Minnesota Opera Debut Turandot, 1995 Recently Don Giovanni, Nashville Opera; Connecticut Opera Dialogues des CarmĂŠlites, Central City Opera Treemonisha, Opera Theatre of St. Louis Aida, Memphis Opera; Boston Lyric Opera Tosca; Aida; Don Giovanni, The Minnesota Opera Porgy and Bess Suite, NDR Sinfonieorchester Hamburg; Detroit Symphony; Pacific Symphony Orchestra

Philippe Minnesota Opera Debut Recently The Merry Widow, Los Angeles Opera Street Scene; Otello, Lyric Opera of Chicago Wozzeck, The Dallas Opera The Bartered Bride, Canadian Opera Company L’italiana in Algeri, Metropolitan Opera Upcoming CosÏ fan tutte, San Diego Opera Le nozze di Figaro, Opera Carolina Cold Sassy Tree, Utah Opera

Robynne Redmon

Ana Rodriguez

Princess Eboli Minnesota Opera Debut Recently Don Carlos, Boston Lyric Opera Norma, Fort Worth Opera; Staatsoper Berlin; OpĂŠra de Marseille; Lyric Opera of Chicago Rigoletto, The Dallas Opera Salome, Glimmerglass Opera Armide, Teatro alla Scala Upcoming Dialogues des CarmĂŠlites, Glimmerglass Opera IphigĂŠnie en Aulide, vara Radio Amsterdam

Thibault Minnesota Opera Resident Artist Recently Little Women; La bohème; La clemenza di Tito; Lucia di Lammermoor, The Minnesota Opera Gianni Schicchi; Carmen; Le nozze di Figaro; L’enfant et les sortilèges, Orlando Opera Company La bohème, Opera North (New Hampshire) Cinderella; Toy Shop, Cincinnati Opera E & O Cherubin, IVAI (Tel Aviv) L’elisir d’amore, Cincinnati College Conservatory of Music Amore e guerra, Opera Theater of Lucca (Italy)

Stefan Szkafarowsky

Indra Thomas

Grand Inquisitor Minnesota Opera Debut Recently The Tales of Hoffmann; Il trovatore, Washington Opera Nabucco; Aida, L’OpÊra de MontrÊal War and Peace, Metropolitan Opera The Flying Dutchman, Vancouver Opera Lucia di Lammermoor, Teatro Municipal de São Paulo Luisa Miller, Palm Beach Opera Eugene Onegin, Opera Ontario Nabucco, Teatro Municipal (Santiago, Chile) Macbeth, Manitoba Opera

Elisabeth Minnesota Opera Debut Recently Don Carlos, Boston Lyric Opera Porgy and Bess, Live From Lincoln Center Otello; Il pirata, Caramoor Festival Simon Boccanegra, San Francisco Opera Turandot, Metropolitan Opera Verdi Centennial, Michigan Opera Theatre Upcoming Aida, Atlanta Opera Il trovatore, Michigan Opera Theatre













19 • d o n c a r l o s

Geraldine McMillian

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t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 20

The Artists James Valenti

Karin Wolverton

Count de Lerme Minnesota Opera Resident Artist Recently Grand Prize Winner – Metropolitan Opera Nat’l Council La bohème; Lucia di Lammermoor; Pagliacci; Street Scene; Turandot, The Minnesota Opera Turandot; The Magic Flute; Il prigioniero, Opera Festival of New Jersey Candide; Gianni Schicchi, W. Virginia Univ. Opera Theatre Upcoming Orlando Paladino; Dialogues of the Carmelites; Cavalleria rusticana/Pagliacci, Glimmerglass Opera

Celestial voice Minnesota Opera Debut Lucia di Lammermoor, 2001 Recently Masterclass, Park Square Theatre Little Women; La bohème; others (ensemble), The Minnesota Opera Dialogues of the Carmelites; Le nozze di Figaro; L’incoronazione di Poppea, U of M Opera Theatre Featured soloist – U of M Sesquicentennial Celebration Upcoming 2002-2003 Resident Artist, The Minnesota Opera

Tim Albery

Hildegard Bechtler

Stage Director Minnesota Opera Debut Recently A Midsummer Night’s Dream; The Merry Widow, Metropolitan Opera War and Peace; La bohème (Leoncavallo); From the House of the Dead, English National Opera Die Walküre; Das Rheingold, Edinburgh Festival; Scottish Opera Beatrice and Benedict, De Nederlandse Opera; Santa Fe Opera Katya Kabanova; Così fan tutte, Opera North Macbeth, The Royal Shakespeare Company

Set Designer Minnesota Opera Debut Recently War and Peace; Peter Grimes; Lohengrin; Boris Godunov, English National Opera La Wally, Bregenz Festival; Amsterdam Muziek Theater Simon Boccanegra, Munich Staatsoper Don Giovanni, Glyndebourne Festival Wozzeck; Katya Kabanova, Opera North Upcoming Lady Macbeth of Mtensk, Opera Australia Der Ring des Nibelugen, Scottish Opera

Jeffrey Domoto

Alexander Farino

Assistant Conductor Minnesota Opera Resident Artist Recently Little Women; Lucia di Lammermoor; Pagliacci/Carmina burana; The Barber of Seville; others, The Minnesota Opera Nutcracker Fantasy, Minnesota Dance Theatre Cover Conductor – Minnesota Orchestra Assistant Conductor – Central City Opera (1999); Yale Opera; Philharmonia Orchestra of Yale

Production Stage Manager Minnesota Opera Debut Rigoletto, 1995 Recently 1996 – 2002 seasons, The Minnesota Opera Acis and Galatea; Central Park; Tosca, Glimmerglass Opera Madame Butterfly, Opera Pacific La bohème, Los Angeles Opera Upcoming Candide, Minnesota Orchestra The Merry Widow, The Minnesota Opera

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The Artists

Costume Designer Minnesota Opera Debut Pelléas et Mélisande, 1996 Recently A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Royal Shakespeare Company Hansel and Gretel, Opera North The Queen of Spades, Royal Opera House – Covent Garden War and Peace, Opéra National de Paris – Bastille Boris Godunov, English National Opera; Canadian Opera Co. Lady in the Dark, Royal National Theatre Six Characters in Search of an Author, Young Vic Theatre Flight, Glyndebourne; Netherlands Reisopera; Flanders Opera

Joseph Lawson Chorusmaster Minnesota Opera Debut Der Rosenkavalier, 2000 Recently La bohème; La clemenza di Tito; Lucia di Lammermoor; 2000-2001 seasons, The Minnesota Opera The Glassblowers; L’étoile, Glimmerglass Opera Overture 757 (original composition), Carnegie Hall Carmen, Tulsa Opera Upcoming Cavalleria rusticana/Pagliacci, Glimmerglass Opera Susannah, Lyric Opera of Chicago

photo not available

Tom Mannings

Doug Scholz-Carlson

Lighting Designer Minnesota Opera Debut Recently La forza del destino; La traviata; Il barbiere di Siviglia; Carmen, English National Opera; Teatro Liceu (Barcelona) Der Rosenkavalier, Teatro Real (Madrid) Falstaff, New Israeli Opera La rondine, Opera North Peter Grimes, Bayerische Staatsoper (Munich) William Tuckett; Jazz Exchange, Royal Opera House Le nozze di Figaro, Pimlico Opera Le nozze di Figaro; Falstaff, Forward Opera

Assistant Director Minnesota Opera Debut Der Rosenkavalier, 2000 Recently Lucia di Lammermoor, Pittsburgh Opera I Capuleti e i Montecchi, New York City Opera Minnesota Shakespeare Festival at Grand Marais La bohème; others, The Minnesota Opera Forever Plaid, Chanhassen Dinner Theater Gross Indecency; Sweeney Todd, Guthrie Theater Hamlet, Minnesota Shakespeare Project Hamlet; The Tempest; others, Utah Shakespeare Festival

Tom Watson

Marco Zambelli

Wig Master and Makeup Minnesota Opera Debut The Pearl Fishers, 1986 Recently Opera Theatre of St. Louis (season) Santa Fe Opera (season) The Minnesota Opera (1986-2002 seasons) Metropolitan Opera (season) Jane Eyre; Dirty Blonde, (Broadway) Upcoming The Merry Widow, The Minnesota Opera

Conductor Minnesota Opera Debut Recently Tancredi; Luisa Miller, Teatro San Carlo; rai Telecast Fidelio, Opéra de Metz Don Giovanni, Opéra de Nice La Cenerentola, Hong Kong International Music Festival Madame Butterfly, New Zealand Opera Upcoming La traviata, Teatro La Fenice Tancredi, Teatro Regio (Parma); Teatro Comunale (Ferrara); Teatro Municipale (Piacenza)


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21 • d o n c a r l o s

Nicky Gillibrand

t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 22

An invitation to the Camerata Circle 2002–2003 Donor Benefit Packages Camerata Circle Platinum: $10,000+ For more information about the Camerata Circle Platinum category, please call the Development Department at 612-342-9565. Gold: $5,000-$9,999 Personal one-on-one lunch with opera leadership, plus benefits listed in the Silver category. Dear Friends, For several years, Rider, Bennett, Egan & Arundel has enthusiastically sponsored The Minnesota Opera’s Camerata Dinners. These pre-performance dinners provide an elegant and fun atmosphere at which The Minnesota Opera’s most passionate supporters can get together to eat, drink, talk opera, talk shop, or just talk about life. Invitations to the Camerata Dinners are o∂ered to all members of the Camerata Circle—those individuals who contribute $1,500 or more to the Opera’s operations. You may be surprised to know that individual contributions are the single largest area of financial support for The Minnesota Opera. To maintain a world-class opera company in our midst, those of us who love the art form need to support it generously. The Minnesota Opera fills each of our lives with the wonder and thrill of top-quality opera, from traditional classics like La bohème and Don Carlos to premieres like next year’s evocative The Handmaid’s Tale. I hope you will consider becoming a member of the Camerata Circle. If you already are a member, I hope you’ll consider renewing at a higher level, or making an additional gift. Help us keep up the great work. R. Thomas Greene, Jr. Partner; Rider, Bennett, Egan & Arundel Minnesota Opera Board of Directors

Silver: $2,500-$4,999 Ticket exchange privileges and seating priority A, set of five libretti for the 2002-2003 season, complimentary parking for all five operas (must be ordered by October 1, 2002), personal tour of The Minnesota Opera Center (on request), plus benefits listed in the Bronze category. Bronze: $1,500-$2,499 G u a r a n t e e d r e s e r v e d pa r k i n g ($7 each), ten passes to a dress rehearsal, plus benefits listed in the Benefactor category.

Artist Circle Benefactor: $1,000-$1,499 Invitations to all pre-performance dinners, recognition in all season programs, eight passes to a dress rehearsal, plus benefits listed in the Patron category. Patron: $500-$999 Invitation to a pre-performance dinner, six passes to a dress rehearsal, invitations to two “Behind the Scenes” preview dinners at The Minnesota Opera Center, plus benefits listed in the Associate category. Associate: $250-$499 Invitation to a “Behind the Scenes” preview dinner at The Minnesota Opera Center, four passes to a dress rehearsal, plus benefits listed in the Friend category. Friend: $100-$249 Two passes to a dress rehearsal, recognition in one program, 25% discount on Minnesota Opera adult education c l a s s e s , s u b s c r i p t i o n t o Th e Minnesota Opera newsletter, Ovation!

The newest members of the Camerata Circle In the last year, the following individuals have joined our most generous donors in The Minnesota Opera’s Camerata Circle. You can become a part of this team of Opera supporters, too. Eric and Donna Aanenson Mr. John Andrus III Martha Goldberg Aronson and Daniel Aronson Martha and Bruce Atwater Amy and Ford Watson Bell Ralph and Kathleen Cadmus Elwood F. and Florence A. Caldwell Charles Cleveland Jeff and Barb Couture Dr. Susan and Richard Crockett Mary Lee and Wallace Dayton Chuck Denny Rondi Erickson Henry and Anice Flesh Lori and Tom Foley James Fulton Christine and W. Michael Garner R. Thomas Greene, Jr. Jose Peris and Diana Gulden Alfred and Ingrid Lenz Harrison Don and Arlene Helgeson Roger W. Hollander Elizabeth A. Huey Jacqueline Nolte Jones

Stan and Jeanne Kagin Michael F. and Gretchen S. Kelly Lydel and Blaine King Mr. and Mrs. William Kling Gerald and Joyce Lillquist Benjamin Y.H. and Helen C. Liu Lynne Looney Thornton Lyford David MacMillan and Judith Krow Harvey T. McLain Samuel and Patricia McCullough James and Judith Mellinger Albin and Susan Nelson Glen and Marilyn Nelson Lila and Bruce Priebe Mr. and Mrs. John C. Rowland Mahlon and Karen Schneider Lucy and Mark Searls Stanislaw and Krystyna Skrowaczewski Mrs. Irene G. Steiner Dr. Joseph Pashjian and Kay Savik Mr. and Mrs. George H. Tesar Catie Tobin and Brian Naas Terry Williams and Susan Cogger

The Minnesota Opera Chorus Matthew Johnson Brian Jorgensen Roy Kallemeyn Naomi Karstad Ryan Kinsella* Joe Kolbow Elizabeth Longhurst Bryan Maus Eric Mellum Chandler Molbert Julie Olsen Janet Paone Steven Pearthree Dawn Pierce Christy Pritchard Ana Romero Christopher Russell Scott Sandberg Steve Sandberg Joy Scheib Robert Schmidt Karen Weaver Karen Wilkerson Justin Wilson Karin Wolverton Daniel Zeddies

23 • d o n c a r l o s

Joe Andrews Carlos Archuleta* Robb Asklof Don Barbee Bryan Boyce Anna Brandsoy Michael Cain Je∂rey Carlson Julie Carpenter Kelvin Chan Julie Conzemius Steve Dahlberg Daniel Eifert Andy Elfenbein L. Peter Erickson Paul Griggsby Jack Gunderson April Hanson Johanna Harley Kate Haugen Robin Heggen Roy Heilman Sandra Henderson Dale Hills Leah Howard Kathryn Jensen Georgette Johnson

Supernumeraries Countess d’Aremberg Amy Matthews Heretics David Touchstone Kenny Kiser Amy Matthews Allison Flamm** Karen Bowmann**

Resident Artists covering principal roles Carlos Archuleta – Rodrigue Matt Boehler – Philippe Ryan Kinsella – Rodrigue James Valenti – Don Carlos * denotes Resident Artist ** student of New Breath Productions

The Minnesota Opera Orchestra Violin I Kristen Christensen, concertmaster David Mickens Sheila Hanford Judy Thon-Jones Andrea Een Almut Engelhart-Kachian Dragan Stojkovic Holly Ager David Delgado Morán Elizabeth Brausa

Violin II

Sally Dorer Joseph Englund

Bass J. Michael Smith Constance Brown George Stahl Michael Watson




Michele Frisch Amy Morris Casey Kovacic

Ralph Hepola



Cello Jim Jacobson Adriana LaRosa Ransom Rebecca Arons Goetz Thomas Austin

Steven Lund Sue Roberts David Stevens

Timpani Kory Andry

Julia Persitz Elizabeth Decker Stephan Orsak Melinda Marshall Carolin Kiesel Johnson Margaret Humphrey Anne Strasser Miriam Gri∑th Annette Caruthers Vivi Erickson Laurel Browne Jenny Lind Nilsson Susan Janda James Bartsch

Christopher Volpe Douglas Altilio Craig Hara

Marilyn Ford Joel Abdella

Percussion Matthew Barber Michael Holland

Clarinet Sandra Powers Nina Olsen




Coreen Nordling Laurie Hatcher Merz Peter Douglas William Oldfather

Trumpet/Cornet Ramon F. Vasquez Joseph Cosgrove

Horn Charles Kavalovski Charles Hodgson Michael Petruconis Lawrence Barnhart

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Andrea Stern

Horn Thomas Gilkey Tricia Lerohl Trombone Steve Hammerschmidt Craig Stilen Tuba Trygve Skaar

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t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 24

Staff President & CEO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kevin Smith Artistic Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dale Johnson General Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John Humleker

Artistic Artistic Administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roxanne Stou∂er Cruz Artistic Associate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Floyd Anderson Education Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Holly Carpenter Dramaturg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . David Sander Production Stage Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alexander Farino Stage Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yasmine Kiss Assistant Stage Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lee Henderson OPERA America Stage Management Fellow . . . . . . . . .Trevore Ross Resident Artist Music Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bruce Stasyna Chorusmaster/Head Coach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Joseph Lawson Resident Artist Instructors . . . . . . .Carlotta Dradi-Bauer, Miriam Scholz-Carlson, Doug Scholz-Carlson, Stuart Pimsler, Nancy Tibbetts Resident Artists . . . . . Carlos Archuleta, Matthew Boehler, Je∂rey Domoto, Ryan Kinsella, Laura Loewen, Ana Rodriguez, James Valenti Education Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Raymond Berg, Peggy Endres, Kenny Kiser, David Moore, Jonathan Niel, Janet Paone, Joseph Schlefke, Elise Skophammer, Roger Skophammer, Casey Stangl, Ed Williams, Joan Womeldorf Mentor Connection participant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Megan Furman

Costumes Costume Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gail Bakkom Assistant Costume Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beth Sanders Drapers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chris Bur, Angela Patten, Yancey Thrift First Hands . . . . . . . . . Helen Ammann, Mark Heiden, Valerie Hill Wig/Makeup Assistants . . . . . . . . . . Jodi Heath, Emily Rosenmeier Dyer/Painter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Marliss Jenson Stitchers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jennifer Dawson, Jeanne Finch, Stephanie Vogel

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Scenery Scenic and Lighting Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tom Mays Technical Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stuart Schatz Scenic Administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Holly Carpenter Assistant Lighting Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Nicole Simoneau Properties Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stanley Dean Hawthorne Properties Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mike Long Charge Painter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Michael Bolin Scenic Artist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Debra Jensen Production Carpenter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J.C. Amel Scene Shop Foreman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rod Aird Carpenters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Patrick Dzieweczynski, Mike McQuiston, Steve Rovie

Administration Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Je∂ Couture Operations/Systems Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steve Mittelholtz Accounting Associate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jennifer Thill Events/Volunteer Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sarah Curtis Executive Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Theresa Murray Administrative Interns . . . . . . . . . . .Seth Howard, Kirstin Kuchler

Development Development Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bill Venne Institutional Gifts Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jaime Meyer Development Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Vicky Emerson Development Intern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jen Brune

Marketing/Communications Marketing and Communications Director . . . . . .Glyn Northington Communications Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lani Willis Ticket O∑ce Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jason Young Ticket O∑ce Assistants . . .Andrea Corich, Nancy Poechmann, Jessica Stein Receptionist/Information Specialist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malia Long


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Don Carlos (continued from p. 15)



25 • d o n c a r l o s


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Her later heroic e∂orts to save Carlos with the insurrection are a borrowing from Eugène Cormon’s 1846 drama, Philippe II, rather than from Schiller. The real Eboli provided ample inspiration for both artists. Married to Ruy Gómez, nearly 20 years her senior, she bore nine children and still had time for a∂airs around the court (though there is no evidence that her lovers included Philip). Conniving and vain, she sported a black patch over one eye (either as an a∂ectation or to cover a physical deformity) and was eventually banished to the provinces after a particularly scandalous relationship with a younger man. Verdi once stated that, next to Philip, Eboli was his most engaging character. Though many have tried, no one has been able to successfully trace the shadowy Marquis de Posa to an actual personage. He is more the embodiment of Schiller himself and the author’s enlightened principles. It is Posa who is the instrument of change, setting into motion the stagnant relationships that beset the entrenched romantic triangle of Carlos, Elisabeth and Philip. Both he and Philip believe they can change one another and are frustrated by their bilateral lack of success. Schiller’s denouement is naturally more complex, involving further letters, court intrigue and veiled misunderstandings. Both artists gave Philip the most attention, and from Schiller Verdi lifted practically verbatim the text for Philippe’s important scenes. He also embraced the Shakespearean qualities inherent in Schiller’s work – the impassioned, brooding, ine∂ective Hamlet brought into the character of Carlos, and the loneliness and isolation felt by many a Shakespearean monarch elaborated upon by Philippe, who, in his desperation to find a substitute son, seeks out a dangerous revolutionary, only to sacrifice both to his spiritual father and confessor. Few moments are more moving than Philippe’s aria, “Elle ne m’aime pas,” which so eloquently imparts the burden of leadership, a sleepless king defending both a religion put to the test and a dominion constantly under siege, who had never known peace for the entire 42 years of his reign.


t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 26

The Minnesota Opera Fund Individual Donors: The Camerata Circle The Camerata Circle is The Minnesota Opera’s highest category of personal support. With this designation, we recognize these very special friends for their commitment to the tradition of opera in our community. Platinum Mrs. Judson Bemis Mary and Gus Blanchard Judy and Kenneth Dayton Dolly J. Fiterman John and Ruth Huss Heinz and Sisi Hutter The Art and Martha Kaemmer Fund of HRK Foundation Peter J. King Constance and Daniel Kunin Patricia Lund Thomas and Barbara McBurney Mr. and Mrs. Walter S. Meyers Mrs. George T. Pennock Mary W. Vaughan of The Minneapolis Foundation

Gold Anonymous Mary A. Andres August J. Aquila and Emily Haliziw Karen Bachman David Hanson and William Biermaier Mr. and Mrs. James Binger Rod and Susan Boren Darlene J. and Richard P. Carroll Sally J. Economon Rolf and Nancy Engh N. Bud and Beverly Grossman Foundation Alfred and Ingrid Lenz Harrison Bryce and Paula Johnson Lucy Rosenberry Jones Michael F. and Gretchen S. Kelly Warren and Patricia Kelly Ed and Pat Kerans Diana and Joe Murphy Mrs. John M. Musser†

Bruce and Sandy Nelson Timothy and Gayle Ober Jose Peris and Diana Gulden Rebecca Rand and E. Thomas Binger Connie and Lew Remele Mr. and Mrs. Steven Rothschild Fred and Gloria Sewell Virginia L. and Edward C. Stringer Gregory C. Swinehart Tanrydoon Fund of The Saint Paul Foundation C. Angus and Margaret Wurtele

Silver Anonymous John Andrus, III Martha Goldberg Aronson and Daniel Aronson Martha and Bruce Atwater Patricia and Mark Bauer Joseph and Judy Carlson William Voedisch and Laurie Carlson Rachelle Dockman Chase Burt and Rusty Cohen Dr. James E. and Gisela Corbett Ellie and Tom Crosby, Jr. Rondi Erickson and Sandy Lewis Mr. and Mrs. John Forsythe Connie Fladeland and Steve Fox Leslie and Alain Frécon R. Thomas Greene, Jr. Stephen and Patricia Haynes Jay and Cynthia Ihlenfeld Gerald Johnson Stan and Jeanne Kagin Lyndel and Blaine King Mrs. James S. Kochiras

Mr. and Mrs. Ted Kolderie Lynne Looney Leland T. Lynch and Terry Saario Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Roy and Dorothy Ann Mayeske Harvey T. McLain Mary Bigelow McMillan Robb and Lynne Morin Nelson Family Foundation William and Barbara Pearce Marge and Dwight Peterson Lila and Bruce Priebe Lois and John Rogers E. Elaine and Roger Sampson Kay Savik and Joe Tashjian Frank and Lynda Sharbrough Renate M. Sharp Kevin and Lynn Smith Charles Allen Ward Fund of The Saint Paul Foundation

Bronze Anonymous (2) Eric and Donna Aanenson Chloe D. Ackman Cordelia Anderson and John Humleker An anonymous gift from a donor advised fund of The Saint Paul Foundation Mr. and Mrs. Edmund P. Babcock Mr. and Mrs. Paul G. Boening Ralph and Kathleen Cadmus Elwood F. and Florence A. Caldwell Susan Cogger and Terry Williams David and Jane Cooper Dr. Susan and Richard Crockett Mrs. Thomas M. Crosby, Sr. Mary Lee and Wallace Dayton

Cy and Paula Decosse Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Lori and Tom Foley Bradley A. Fuller and Elizabeth Lincoln Christine and W. Michael Garner Mr. and Mrs. R. James Gesell Ieva Grundmanis Rosalie He∂elfinger Hall Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Don and Arlene Helgeson Cli∂ton K. Hill and Jody Rockwell Dorothy J. Horns, M.D. and James P. Richardson Elizabeth A. Huey Jacqueline Nolte Jones Mr. and Mrs. William Kling Jerry and Joyce Lillquist Benjamin Y. H. and Helen C. Liu David MacMillan and Judy Krow James and Judith Mellinger Tom Murtha and Stephanie Lenway Albin and Susan Nelson Susan Okie Mr. and Mrs. William Phillips Kim and John Puckett Norm Rickeman and Kathy Murphy Burton G. Ross and Cynthia Rosenblatt Ross Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Mr. and Mrs. John C. Rowland Lucy and Mark Searls Stanislaw and Krystyna Skrowaczewski James V. and Susan W. Sullivan Michael Symeonides Mr. and Mrs. George H. Tesar Catie Tobin and Brian Naas † deceased

Individual Donors Benefactors Anonymous Kim A. Anderson Paula A. Anderson Dr. Thomas and Ann Bagnoli Amy and Ford Watson Bell in honor of Elinor W. Bell Thomas L. and Joyce E. Bruckner Dr. and Mrs. Jim Burdine Joann M. D. Cierniak Je∂ and Barb Couture The Denny Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Thomas and Mary Lou Detwiler

Mr. and Mrs. Carl B. Drake, Jr. Joyce and Hugh Edmondson Ester and John Fesler Henry and Anice Flesh Patricia R. Freeburg Lois and Larry Gibson Mr. and Mrs. John F. Grundhofer Charlotte Karlen Erwin and Miriam Kelen Mary L. Kenzie Family Foundation E. Robert and Margaret V. Kinney Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Lisa C. Kochiras Maria Kochiras Helen L. Kuehn

Clinton and Judith Lee Ilo and Margaret Leppik Bill Long Thornton Lyford Dan and Sue Malina Margery Martin Samuel D. and Patricia McCullough Mary McDiarmid Mrs. John H. Myers Allegra Parker Karen B. Paul Jodi and Todd Peterson Frances and George Reid Ken and Nina Rothchild

Je∂rey Scherer and Lea Babcock Dr. and Mrs. Richard J. Schindler Mahlon and Karen Schneider Ralph S. Schneider and Margaret McNeil Stephanie Simon Helene and Je∂ Slocum Julie Jackley Steiner Don and Leslie Stiles Lois and Lance Thorkelson Bill Venne and Douglas Kline Ellen and Fred Wells Nancy and Ted Weyerhaeuser

Minnesota State Arts Board Northwest Airlines, Inc. Foundation ReliaStar Financial Corporation Rider, Bennett, Egan and Arundel Skyway Publications, Inc. The St. Paul Companies Target Stores, Marshall Field’s and Mervyn’s with support from the Target Foundation Transtop Twin Cities Opera Guild U.S. Bancorp Piper Ja∂ray Foundation on behalf of U.S. Bancorp Piper Ja∂ray

U.S. Bank Wells Fargo Foundation on behalf of: Wells Fargo Bank Minnesota Wells Fargo Brokerage Services Wells Fargo Institutional Investments Lowry Hill Wells Fargo Private Client Services West Group

Corporations and Foundations Platinum 3M Aid Association for Lutherans/ Lutheran Brotherhood American Express Minnesota Philanthropic Program on behalf of American Express Financial Advisors and American Express Travel Related Services Co. Andersen Foundation Blandin Foundation The Bush Foundation The Cargill Foundation Deloitte & Touche

Deluxe Corporation Foundation Ecolab Foundation General Mills Foundation Ann and Gordon Getty Foundation Anna M. Heilmaier Charitable Foundation Honeywell Foundation The MAHADH Fund of HRK Foundation The McKnight Foundation Marshall Field’s Project Imagine The Medtronic Foundation The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Minnesota Monthly

Gold ADC Telecommunications, Inc. Bemis Company Foundation Dorsey & Whitney Foundation

t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 28

The Minnesota Opera Fund Corporations and Foundations Ernst & Young R. C. Lilly Foundation McGladrey & Pullen, LLP McNeely Foundation Moss & Barnett National City Bank Alice M. O’Brien Foundation PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP Rahr Foundation Robins, Kaplan, Miller & Ciresi SpencerStuart Star Tribune Foundation Valspar Foundation Xcel Energy Foundation

Silver The Bayport Foundation Best Buy Children’s Foundation

Boss Foundation Chadwick Foundation Dellwood Foundation Digital Excellence Inc. Mary Livingston Griggs and Mary Griggs Burke Foundation The Nash Foundation The Casey Albert T. O’Neil Foundation RBC Dain Rauscher Foundation Margaret Rivers Fund Schwegman, Lundberg, Woessner & Kluth, PA Sit Investment Associates Tennant Foundation School Arts Fund of United Arts/COMPAS U.S. Trust Company Wenger Foundation


Tilka Design Tozer Foundation Walcro Inc.

Faegre & Benson Hogan & Hartson Hutter Family Foundation Leonard, Street & Deinard Mayo Foundation McVay Foundation Minnesota Mutual Foundation Lawrence M. and Elizabeth Ann O’Shaughnessy Charitable Income Trust in honor of Lawrence M. O’Shaughnessy The Jay and Rose Phillips Family Foundation The Elizabeth C. Quinlan Foundation St. Croix Foundation Charles B. Sweatt Foundation

Benefactors Alliance Capital Management Elmer L. and Eleanor J. Andersen Foundation Athwin Foundation Aveda Brock-White Co., LLC KPMG LLP Marsh USA, Inc. Miller Meester Advertising The Ritz Foundation The Southways Foundation

Minnesota Opera Sponsors Season Sponsor

Production Sponsors

U.S. Bancorp Piper Ja∂ray

Lucia di Lammermoor, U.S. Bancorp Piper Ja∂ray La clemenza di Tito, American Express Minnesota Philanthropic Program La bohème, Marshall Field’s Project Imagine Little Women, RBC Dain Rauchser

Gala Dinner Sponsor Ecolab

Camerata Dinners Rider, Bennett, Egan & Arundel

Opera Insight Lectures SpencerStuart

These lists are current as of March 31, 2002, and include donors who gave gifts of $1000 or more to the Minnesota Opera Fund since January 1, 2001. If your name is not listed appropriately, please accept our apologies, and call Bill Venne, Development Director of The Minnesota Opera, at 612-342-9565.

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Coming Up: The 2002-2003 Season

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2001-2002 Season