Page 1

Giacomo Puccini

5 • la bohème

Contents Board of Directors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Minnesota Opera Volunteers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Notes from the Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 La bohème . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Background Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Synopsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Giacomo Puccini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Henry Murger and His Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 The Artists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 An Invitation to the Camerata Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 The Minnesota Opera Chorus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 The Minnesota Opera Orchestra. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Sta∂. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Coming Up: Little Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 The Minnesota Opera Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

The Minnesota Opera President & CEO Artistic Director Chair, Board of Directors

Kevin Smith Dale Johnson Virginia L. Stringer

The Minnesota Opera, 620 North First Street Minneapolis, MN 55401 (612) 333-2700 The Minnesota Opera is a member of OPERA America. This activity is made possible in part by a grant provided by the Minnesota State Arts Board through an appropriation by the Minnesota State Legislature. In addition, this activity is supported in part by a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts.

March 2002

The Minnesota Opera Program is published by Skyway Publications, Inc. Chief Executive O∑cer Corporate Administrator/Publisher Assoc. Publisher/Director of Production Senior Account Executives Creative Designer Production Designers

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the minnesota opera • 6

Board of Directors Welcome. U.S. Bancorp Piper Jaffray is pleased to help bring you The Minnesota Opera’s production of La bohème. Sponsoring the opera season is just part of our commitment to the arts and quality of life in our community. Staging this fine performance takes teamwork. From the conductor to the cast members to the costume designers, many individuals are working together to entertain you. This team includes management and patrons – even the audience – who make a successful production possible. At U.S. Bancorp Piper Jaffray, we embrace teamwork. We work with clients to understand their needs and accomplish their goals. We work with colleagues throughout U.S. Bancorp to provide a comprehensive range of financial solutions. And we work with The Minnesota Opera and other highquality organizations to enrich our community. We’re proud to be part of the team effort you’re about to experience. Enjoy the performance.

Andrew Duff President and CEO U.S. Bancorp Piper Jaffray

Virginia L. Stringer, Chair Susan S. Boren, Vice Chair Bruce Nelson, Secretary Loren Unterseher, Treasurer Kevin Smith, President & CEO August J. Aquila Martha Goldberg Aronson Karen Bachman Patricia Bauer Susan J. Crockett Ellie Crosby Rolf Engh Thomas J. Foley John G. Forsythe

Steve Fox R. Thomas Greene, Jr. Heinz Hutter Paula R. Johnson Michael F. Kelly, Jr. Edward J. Kerans Sarah B. Kling Lynne E. Looney Thomas R. McBurney Daniel I. Malina

Julia W. Dayton, Director Emeritus

Diana E. Murphy Jose Peris Kimberly S. Puckett Connie Remele Steven M. Rothschild Lucy T. Searls Gregory C. Swinehart Catie Tobin

James A. Rubenstein, legal counsel, Moss & Barnett

Honorary Directors Dominick Argento H. Wesley Balk Philip Brunelle Elizabeth Close

Dolly Fiterman Charles C. Fullner Norton M. Hintz Donald W. Judkins

David P. Keefe Liz Kochiras Jevne Pennock Patricia H. Sheppard

Minnesota Opera Volunteers The following volunteers contribute their time and talent in support of key activities of The Minnesota Opera.

Keri Picket

Cafe,Bakery,Wine & Pizza Bar

Ann Albertson Laurel Anderson Jamie Andrews Gerald Benson Matt Bluem Linda Brandt Jim Brownback Sue Brownback Meredith Cain-Nielsen Kathy Cameron Joann Cierniak* Tricia Clarke* Caroline Coopersmith Lindsay Craig Beverly Dailey Marcia del Castillo Lee Drawert Judith Duncan Sally Economon Mary Sue Fiola Jane Fuller Joan Gacki (Volunteer Chair)

850 Grand Avenue,St Paul 55105 651-224-5687

Christine A. Garner Heather Gehring Juhi Gupta-Gulati* Mark Gustin

Mary E. Hagen Travis Hanstad John Harris* Kristen Heimerl Anne Hesselroth Alisandra Johnson Nancy Johnson Jeanie Johnston Susan Kalmer Dianne Kelly Remigijus Klyvis Eleanore Kolar Lucinda Lamont Shirley Larson Rita Lavin Lisa Liveringhouse Rochelle Lockwood Rusty Low Randi Quanbeck Lundell Jennifer Madvig Joan Masuck Mary McDiarmid Beth McGuire Claire McPherson Verne Melberg Warren Mitlyng

Linda Morey Doug Myhra Dan Panshin Pat Panshin Kaye Peters Sydney Phillips Bill Phillips Julia Porter Jack Richter John Rosse Florence Ruhland John Sauer* Michael Silhavy Wendy Silhavy Wendi Sott Dawn Stafki Harry D. Swepston, III John Thompson Anne Townsley Doris Unger Carolyn Wahtera Barbara Willis* Jeremy Wright Melissa Zschunke *Lead volunteer

Notes from The Leadership We l c o m e t o L a b o h è m e . Whether you are an opera buff already or a first-time operagoer, you are in for a treat. This Puccini opera has been a hit since its premiere in 1896, and our production has been a hit since its 1996 premiere. Many, when they think of “opera,” think of La bohème. What defines the consummate opera? Is it a good story? The dazzling explosion of the senses? The magnificent blend of the aural with the visual? At The Minnesota Opera, we believe it is all of those things, but most of all, it is the unique combination of words and music with the heightened expression of the

human voice that creates the magic the audience experiences inside an opera house. It is this expressive power of the singing voice that transfixes our imaginations with its sublime style of storytelling. Great music lives on only through performance, and performances can only happen if there is an audience. We are delighted to have you with us today, and we invite you to come again to explore the extraordinary world of opera with us.

Kevin Smith President and CEO

from Dale Johnson Welcome to today’s performance of La bohème! Tonight you will get a glimpse into the legendary world of Paris circa 1840s, the time and place that has inspired recent hits like Hollywood’s Moulin Rouge and the musical update of this opera, Rent. This story continues to captivate our imaginations with the messages that art is political and love lives on. The 1840s Latin Quarter was host to a café subculture of artists and freethinkers. Art was no longer just for “art’s sake,” but became a political took to criticize the society that had failed in its attempts at the “egalité” hoped for during the French Revolution. The colorful characters in this opera, all based on real people from this time and place, formed the core of a social movement that led to the 1848 revolution and the end of the French monarchy. But

in more human terms, this opera is all about the ecstasy and the ache of first love, seen through the golden glow of memories. Puccini’s familiar melodies bring to mind our own recollections of young love. The production you are about to see highlights the relationships between the young Bohemians as they search for solace and meaning in their art and in one other. Puccini captured these people and their world in what I consider to be the perfect opera – there’s not a wasted note. His storytelling via the human voice reminds us that art and love are not small things. Art and love have the power to transform our worlds. Allow yourself to be transported into this world for the next couple of hours. I hope you enjoy the show.

Dale Johnson Artistic Director

7 • la bohème

from Kevin Smith

World premiere at the Teatro Regio, Turin February 1, 1896 March 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, 2002 Ordway Center for the Performing Arts Sung in Italian with English captions The Cast Rodolfo, a poet . . . . . . . . . . . . .Stephen Mark Brown* Jorge Antonio Pita** Mimì, a seamstress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Nicolle Foland* Kelly Kaduce** Marcello, a painter . . . . . .Christopher Schaldenbrand* Michael Chioldi** Musetta, a belle of the Latin Quarter . . . . .Celena Shafer* Ana Rodriguez** Colline, a philosopher . . . . . . . . . . .Valerian Ruminski* Matt Boehler** Schaunard, a musician . . . . . . . . . . . .Carlos Archuleta* Ryan Kinsella** Benoit, a landlord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Paul Griggsby Parpignol, a toy vendor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .James Valenti Alcindoro, Musetta’s wealthy admirer . . . .Paul Griggsby Customs sergeant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .James Valenti Customs o∑cer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Michael Cain Street vender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .James Plante Street urchin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Christopher Penning Buona donna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Janet Paone

The Creative Team Conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Antony Walker Stage Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .David Roth Set Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Robert Brill Costume Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kärin Kopischke Lighting Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tom Mays Wig Master and Makeup . . . . . . . . . . . .Tom Watson Assistant Director . . . . . . . . . . .Doug Scholz-Carlson Assistant Conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Je∂rey Domoto Chorusmaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Joseph Lawson Children’s Chorusmaster . . . . . . . . . . . .Janice Kimes Production Stage Manager . . . . . . . .Alexander Farino English Captions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Floyd Anderson

La bohème is sponsored by

Habitués of the Latin Quarter, merchants, shoppers, vendors, students, children, waiters, peasants, streetsweepers, milkmaids.

Setting: Paris during the early 1840s * **

performs March 2, 5, 7, 9 performs March 3, 6, 8, 10

This production originally was created by Eric Simonson. Scenery and costumes for this production are jointly owned by The Minnesota Opera and Utah Opera.

The Minnesota Opera season is proudly sponsored by U.S. Bancorp Piper Ja∂ray. OperaInsights is sponsored by SpencerStuart.

The appearances of Michael Chioldi, Kelly Kaduce and Christopher Schaldenbrand, winners; Matt Boehler, Ryan Kinsella, Ana Rodriguez, Valerian Ruminski, Celena Shafer and James Valenti, regional finalists; and Carlos Archuleta, district finalist of the Metropolitan Opera National Council Auditions, are made possible through a Minnesota Opera Endowment Fund established for Artist Enhancement by Barbara White Bemis. Performances of La bohème are being taped for delayed broadcast on Minnesota Public Radio, KSJN 99.5 in the Twin Cities, in June 2002.

The 2001-2002 Camerata Circle Dinners are sponsored by Rider, Bennett, Egan & Arundel. Promotional support provided by Minnesota Monthly. Special thanks to Miller Meester advertising for making the 2001-2002 season preview recording possible.

9 • la bohème

Music by Giacomo Puccini Libretto by Giuseppe Giacosa and Luigi Illica after Henry Murger’s novel Scènes de la vie de bohème (1851)

t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 10

Notes by David Sander

et the public judge” – oddly confident


words by a composer who had only

one true success to his credit and one who would be known to vacillate between possibilit i e s fo r o pe r at i c t r e at m e n t wi t h g r e at u n c e r tainty. Yet that was Puccini’s response when confronted by Ruggero Leoncavallo (of Pagliacci fame), who claimed his colleague had stolen his idea to set Henry Murger’s scenes of Bohemian life in the 1840s. Leoncavallo probably was not too far o∂ the mark. He had shown Puccini a libretto for La bohème as early as 1892, and Puccini had a predilection for zeroing in on a subject once someone else had shown interest in it. Perhaps he didn’t think much of Leoncavallo’s libretto writing skills (he had been among the first of five in the preparation of the book for Manon Lescaut), but Puccini obviously didn’t have his presence of mind when they accidentally met in a Milan co∂ee shop one March afternoon, and he let it be known his intentions for a new Bohème. His slip of the tongue left the two colleagues bitter enemies who resorted to airing their di∂erences in the local Italian papers. The pursuit of a La bohème adaptation for the operatic stage also became a struggle between two powerful Italian publishing firms, G. Ricordi and Casa Musicale Sonzongo, with Guilio Ricordi representing Puccini and Edoardo Sonzongo shepherding the career of Leoncavallo. Upon hearing Puccini’s plan, Ricordi immediately inquired about obtaining the rights. Unfortunately there were two published versions of Murger’s stories, which first appeared in a Parisian newspaper as a series of short excerpts. In 1849 Théodore Barrière had approached Murger about a possible play adaptation, which turned into La vie de bohème. The success of the play led to a lucrative book deal in 1851 with French publishing giant Michel Lévy, entitled Scènes de la vie de bohème. While the play was still controlled by Barrière and subject to copyright law, the book had fallen into

11 • l a b o h è m e

the public domain with the death of an heirless that Mimì’s character remain untarnished, a Murger in 1861. Exclusivity to a single composer femme fragile in direct opposition to Musetta’s femme fatale. He got his way, though some drawas not an option. matic issues remain unresolved. With Rodolfo’s Ricordi decided to go forward anyway and en- now-unsubstantiated declarations of Mimì’s gaged Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa as li- infidelity in Act iii, the Vicomte receives a cabrettists. The two also had been involved in sual, unprepared reference in Act iv as Mimì’s Manon Lescaut and already had experienced Puc- live-in companion after her split with Rodolfo. cini’s prickly demeanor with respect to text modifications. Still, they probably didn’t imagine Act iv also posed some problems, and here the the job that was in store when they signed on the librettists carried the day. Puccini wanted to open with Mimì on her deathbed, but Illica and dotted line. Giacosa feared this bore too close a resemblance The problem was with the book itself. Murger’s to the final scene of La traviata. Their suggesScènes is an unconnected sequence of events with a tions of a political dialogue for Schaunard and a loose configuration of often unrelated characters. brindisi toasting the Water Drinkers (a pseudoThe librettists began by envisioning their work in Freemason-esque group Murger had once terms of a series of tableaux instead of acts, and sponsored for those too poor to drink wine) guided by a sense of impressionist theater, devel- were fused into the Bohemian’s high jinks just oped captivating atmospheric episodes around the prior to Mimì’s arrival. Further continuity was fairly thin plot line involving Mimì and Rodolfo’s drawn between Act i and Act iv by opening love story. In fact very few of Murger’s original them similarly – with Rodolfo and Marcello scenes survive in the final version of Puccini’s alone together, bemoaning their current conopera. As it stood, the dramatization already pro- dition, first without heat, later without vided by Barrière and Murger was of little use. women. Aside from the copyright issues, Barrière had crafted his tale around Rodolfo’s living in squalor The end product is a truly remarkable work. to spite his rich uncle. With the consumptive Out of enough material, as Illica quipped, death of Mimì, the drama seemed to veer uncom- “for 10 operas,” Puccini crafted a surprisingly concise score, complete with short recurrent fortably close to Giuseppe Verdi’s La traviata. melodic references (though not nearly as The specifics of the libretto became a hot issue as codified as Wagner) and a brilliant use of the the project evolved, and the first versions of the orchestral palette. Equally impressive is his opera also bear little resemblance to what we un- handling of side-by-side comedy and pathos derstand to be La bohème today. Originally it was – something not easily achieved – and his to begin with the present Act ii setting in the ease in carrying us from one emotion to the Latin Quarter, but early on it was conceived to other. In contrast, with its closer adherence both open and close in the artists’s garret, giving to the original material, Leoncavallo’s opera the piece a certain degree of unity. Greater roles is weighted by the overall tragedy and its had once been assigned to Colline and Schaunard, adaptation to more traditional the latter being given his own Act iv aria about operatic formulas, leadthe capriciousness of women. One of the greatest ing to its virtual eclipse changes was the deletion of an entire act set in some 10 years after the the courtyard of Musetta’s lodgings – bringing premiere. The people threats of resignation by both librettists, who made their choice, were retained only by the cool handling of Ri- and aptly so as Puccordi. The scene in question involves the eviction cini’s La bohème has of Musetta (obviously due to Alcindoro’s ceasing become one of the to pay her rent) on the day she has planned a most popular party. As her furniture is removed, the Bohemi- works in the ans decide to have the soirée out front, tapping canon of Alcindoro’s wine cellar for refreshments. The opera. scene has little continuity with any other part of the opera except that it is here Mimì meets the ethereal Viscomte while she is dressed in one of Musetta’s gowns. Her flirting and eventual departure with the young nobleman leaves Rodolfo in a jealous rage and gives credence to his later denunciations in the present Act iii. Puccini wished

t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 12

Synopsis act i

Marcello, a painter, and Rodolfo, a writer, work on their respective pursuits in an ill-heated attic atelier. Marcello complains of the cold and of the coldheartedness of his exmistress, Musetta. Rodolfo o∂ers to warm the room by burning his manuscript. Colline, a philosopher, blusters in – no pawn shop will take his books on Christmas Eve. Schaunard, a musician, suddenly bursts into the room with much-needed food, wine and firewood. He relates the story of an eccentric nobleman who hired him to play his violin until his parrot died. After three long days, Schaunard was able to collect his fee only by feeding the bird some poisoned parsley. Schaunard advises them to save the food for later – Christmas Eve should be celebrated with dinner at the Café Momus. While dividing the remaining money, they are interrupted by the insistent knocking of Benoit who demands payment of the rent, long past due. The Bohemians invite him in and after priming him with wine, get the old man to admit he has a young mistress. Shocked to discover he also has a wife, the four men feign their distaste and quickly usher him out of the room. As the others leave for the café, Rodolfo stays behind to finish an article. He promises to catch up with them later. Hearing another knock at the door, Rodolfo is surprised to find an attractive young woman, a neighbor whose candle needs a light. He notices her harsh cough and pale complexion, and she soon faints in his arms. Once revived she prepares to leave only to find her key is missing. A draft puts the room into total darkness and together they begin to search for the key. Rodolfo silently pockets the

key and suggests they wait for the moonlight to aid their search. He takes a moment to describe himself – a poor poet, rich only in his dreams and visions, who has now found love in the eyes of a stranger. Her name is Mimì, she says, a seamstress who, in her little room, embroiders flowers that are her private symbols of love and springtime. Life’s fairest flower is love, and she returns his adoring a∂ection. Rodolfo’s friends call from the street, and he tells them to hold two seats at the café. act ii

The Latin Quarter bustles with shoppers and vendors on Christmas Eve. Schaunard examines some musical instruments, Colline buys a secondhand coat with pockets for books and Rodolfo buys Mimì a bonnet. Parpignol appears with his cart and dazzles the young children with toys. The Bohemians gather at the Café Momus as planned and soon after, Musetta appears in the company of Alcindoro, her wealthy, aging admirer. Trying to catch Marcello’s jealous eye, she openly describes herself as alluring to all men. In a ruse to distract Alcindoro she pretends her shoe hurts and sends him o∂ to the cobbler. Once reunited with Marcello, Musetta and the other Bohemians escape the café amidst a military band, assuring the waiter that Alcindoro will pick up the tab when he returns. — intermission — act iii

On a dreary winter morning, Mimì appears at the Barrière d’Enfer (“Hell’s gate”) bordering the edge of the city. She approaches the tavern where Marcello and Musetta are living, he by painting and she by singing. She asks for his help – Rodolfo has become insanely and unjustifiably jealous. After cruelly demanding that she find another lover, he stormed out the night before. Marcello assures her that he is inside and promises to talk to

him. The sound of his voice puts Mimì into hiding. When interrogated Rodolfo reveals the real reason for the split – Mimì’s health is getting worse, and the squalid conditions of his apartment will only hasten her illness. Mimì’s coughing betrays her hiding place, and Rodolfo rushes to her. Marcello hears Musetta flirting with a stranger and angrily goes inside. Mimì bids Rodolfo adieu, but listening to Marcello and Musetta fight, they agree to stay together until spring. — intermission — act iv

Months later Marcello and Rodolfo are again at work in the garret, having broken o∂ with their respective mistresses. Neither can concentrate, however, as their thoughts are consumed by the women. Colline and Schaunard arrive with lunch, and the four make a mockery of the meager o∂ering by pretending it is a lavish banquet. At the height of their merriment, Musetta bursts in with news that Mimì has collapsed on the stairs. Musetta found her alone, almost dead. Her dying wish is to see Rodolfo one last time. Her hands are cold, and Mimì asks for a mu∂. Musetta takes o∂ her earrings and tells Marcello to sell them for medicine and to find a doctor. She leaves with him to fetch the mu∂. Colline takes o∂ his beloved coat, and preparing to pawn it, he and Schaunard leave the lovers alone. Mimì declares that Rodolfo is still her beloved, and the two reminisce about their happy past. Suddenly she is racked by a coughing fit. The Bohemians return with the necessary provisions. As Rodolfo turns away for a moment, Schaunard observes that Mimì has just died. Comforted by his friends, Rodolfo cries out her name in anguish.

Giacomo Puccini uccini was born into a family of court composers and organists in P the historic city of Lucca, Italy. With

The reception to the new work was mixed, but the revised two-act version was staged in a number of cities

a strong feeling of tradition in the Puccini family, it was expected that Giacomo would assume his deceased father’s position as maestro di cappella when he came of age – by 14 he already was playing organ in a number of the town’s churches. But at age 18 a performance of Verdi’s Aida inspired him to devote his life to opera. In 1880 Puccini began composition studies with Amilcare Ponchielli at the Milan Conservatory of Music. There he was introduced into the professional artists’ circle, to which he would belong for the rest of his life. Puccini was not a prolific composer. Unlike most of his contemporaries, there were long intervals between his operas, partly because of his fastidiousness in choosing subjects, sever- SEF / Art Resource, NY al of which he took up only to abandon after several months, Portrait of Giacomo Puccini and partly because of his constant demands for modifications of the outside of Italy (a remarkable feat for texts. Much of his time, too, was a virtually unknown composer). Pucspent in hunting in the marshes cini’s next opera, Edgar, however, was around his home and in trips abroad a resounding critical failure, yet the astute publisher, Giulio Ricordi, to supervise revivals of his works. found fault in the libretto only and Puccini’s first work for the stage, Le promise in the music. He pitted himvilli, originally was submitted to a self against the shareholders of his contest sponsored by the music pub- publishing house who demanded that lisher Edoardo Sonzogno. The one-act Puccini be released from retainer. opera received not even honorable Ricordi’s confidence was rewarded mention, but Puccini was certain of with Manon Lescaut, Puccini’s first its merit. He and librettist Ferdinan- true success. do Fontana began to canvass the opera to the broader circle of the Italian During the 1890s Puccini began intelligentsia. One of these individu- working with Luigi Illica, who als was the highly influential Arrigo worked out the scheme and drafted Boito (at that time in correspondence the dialogue, and with the poet and with Verdi about the preparation of playwright Giuseppe Giacosa, who the libretto for Otello), who was put Illica’s lines into verse. Although instrumental in getting Le villi they had participated in Manon Lescaut (as part of a string of several staged.

librettists), their first real collaboration was La bohème in 1896, followed four years later by Tosca and then Madame Butterfly four years after that. Giacosa died in 1906, putting an end to the successful team that produced three of Puccini’s most enduring works. Puccini’s later operas were quite varied in their styles and subjects. La fanciulla del West, set in the American West, is notable for its advanced impressionistic orchestration and composition. La rondine was designed to be a sentimental musical comedy in the Viennese style. Il trittico was a mixed bag of one-act operas: Il tabarro, a tip-of-the-hat to Italian verismo; Suor Angelica, a nun embroiled in a battle for the future of her illegitimate child; and, most popular of the three, Gianni Schicchi, a comic masterpiece that features Puccini at his most exuberant. Turandot was Puccini’s last (and arguably his greatest) opera. He died before completing it, and although another composer finished the job, at the premiere Arturo Toscanini set down his baton and refused to continue past Puccini’s last note. Puccini has been much maligned for his flirtation with popular music, but he had an uncanny feel for a good story and a talent for composing enthralling yet economical music. Though like many of his contemporaries, Puccini constantly was experimenting with tonality and form, his experiments were always subtle and without controversy. Having produced only 12 operas, the composer’s personal life was plagued with self doubt and laborious perfectionism, yet he profoundly influenced the world of opera with a deep understanding of music, drama and humanity.

13 • l a b o h è m e

b Lucca, December 22, 1858; d Brussels, November 29, 1924

b Paris, March 27, 1822; d Paris, January 28, 1861 roommate shared a single pair. Murger’s circle is a varied group, career, without any other means of livelihood than his encompassing both the famous and the art itself, will be forced to walk in the paths of Bohemia forgotten, many of whom found their way into the tales. The novel’s poet, Rodolphe … Bohemia is a stage in artistic life; it is the preface to is, of course, the author himself. The painter Marcel is an agglomeration of two the Academy, the Hôtel Dieu, or the Morgue. artists, Tabar and Lazare, and a work refer— Henry Murger, Preface to Scènes de la vie de bohème enced in the novel (and opera), Passage of the Red Sea, is an actual epic painting Tabar La vie bohémienne is a phenomenon not unique to the Latin was unable to complete due to lack of resources. Colline is Quarter of 19th-century Paris. Its timelessness is evidenced another mix of two personages, the philosophers Jean Walthroughout history, from the wandering Golliard monks lon and Jean Trapadoux. Wallon was known for his outer garof the Middle Ages, to the Beat Generation of the 1950s, ment with enormous pockets filled with books, and Trato Europe’s nomadic gypsies living a marginal existence, padoux was called “the green giant” because of his unusual their origins lending the lifestyle its descriptive name. height and long green topcoat. Schaunard is derived from The vogue for Bohemianism in Paris during the 1830s Alexandre Schanne, first a painter, then a musician, whose was, in part, a reaction to the overthrow of the restrictive musical composition The Influence of Blue in the Arts is cited in Bourbon monarchy and the subsequent triumph of the the novel, and whose episode with the poisoned parrot is bourgeoisie. But it was Henry Murger who gave the relayed in the opera. Musette was based on a notorious vixen of the Latin Bohemian life its widespread appeal a decade later by way Quarter, Marie-Christine of twenty-two vignettes, first serialized in Roux. A pitch-deprived the newspaper Le Corsaire-Satan, then prechanteuse and frequent sented as a play (La vie bohème), and finally artist’s model (including published as a novel (Scènes de la vie de Ingres), she survives in posbohème). terity through her nudes with Murger’s tales were adapted from his perthe photographer Nadar – the sonal experiences as a starving artist; early in photos were the first studies his professional life he turned his back on law of that genre to be printed. and pursued a career in writing. By the time She was depicted with less he had been appointed to the provocative flattery in a novel, Adventures French newspaper in 1845, he and his friends of Mademoiselle Mariette, by had lived through most of the events detailed another of Murger’s associin the Scènes, often in appalling poverty and ates, the writer Champfleury, destitution. Bohemia was seen as a passage for who used their brief a∂air to any serious artists in their 20s who sought to write a bitter memoir. make a name for themselves. State sponsorThe character of Mimì is ship had slackened, yet painters, writers and a more complicated a∂air and musicians still required a significant amount can be summarized as a of free time to hone their craft. Consequently, aggregation of all of the many were reduced to near financial ruin – women in Murger’s life. The debt, disease and death were constantly on the nicer qualities are derived horizon. One of Murger’s group of impoverfrom the author’s first love, ished Water Drinkers, known only as Karol, Angèle, a cousin who later slept under a tree; another, evicted from his married someone else, and a lodgings, walked the streets for hours, only to married woman, Marie Fondrop from hunger and exhaustion; and yet Marie-Christine Roux, photographed by Nadar in 1958. blanc, whom he befriended. A another, known as le Christ, was one of many to fall victim to tuberculosis after a long bout with the illness. completely unrelated tale in his oeuvre, “Francine’s Mu∂,” An acquaintance, Pierre Tournachon, better known today as gives us much of the operatic Mimì – the first meeting of the Nadar, was forced to walk around Paris for several days lovers, the extinguished candle, the lost key (which she hides dressed as a Turk because he didn’t have su∑cient funds to instead of him), the search in the moonlight and the persispay for a costume rental and redeem his street clothes. tent cough. Mimì represents Murger’s version of the the era’s muchMurger himself jokes of a time when he was unable to receive a visitor because he had no trousers – he and his sought-after feminine ideal, the grisette, which had achieved


oday, as of old, every man who enters on an artistic

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t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 14

Henry Murger and His Circle

Henry Murger continues on page 19

For more biographical information about these artists, visit our website at

Schaunard Minnesota Opera Resident Artist Recently La clemenza di Tito; Lucia di Lammermoor, The Minnesota Opera La bohème; La traviata, Natchez Music Festival Madame Butterfly, Opera Southwest (Albuquerque) The Barber of Seville, Opera Aperta (Boston) Amahl and the Night Visitors, Granite State Opera Le nozze di Figaro, Longwood Opera Company (Boston) Upcoming Little Women, The Minnesota Opera

Stephen Mark Brown Rodolfo Minnesota Opera Debut Recently Maometto ii, Opéra National du Rhin (Strasbourg) La traviata, San Francisco Opera Madame Butterfly, Bilbao Opera Rigoletto, Vlaamse Opera (Antwerp) Werther, Teatro Massimo (Palermo) La damnation de Faust, Teatro San Carlo (Naples) Faust, Opéra de Marseille Upcoming La bohème, Boston Lyric Opera

Nicolle Foland Mimì Minnesota Opera Debut Otello, 1999 Recently Carmen; La traviata, Michigan Opera Theatre Mitridate, re di Ponto, Santa Fe Opera Le roi Arthus, American Symphony Orchestra Dead Man Walking; Don Giovanni; others, San Francisco Opera Mahler Second Symphony, San Francisco Symphony Upcoming La bohème, Boston Lyric Opera Carmen, San Francisco Opera

Kelly Kaduce Mimì Minnesota Opera Debut Recently Faust, Austin Lyric Opera; Florida Grand Opera La bohème, Opera Delaware Hänsel und Gretel, Sarasota Opera Egmont, Florida Philharmonic Orchestra Don Giovanni, Western Opera Theater Central Park, Glimmerglass Opera Upcoming Hänsel und Gretel, Opera Colorado; New York City Opera

Jorge Antonio Pita Rodolfo Minnesota Opera Debut Recently La traviata, New York City Opera Rigoletto, Toledo Opera Messa da Requiem, State Opera of Australia La bohème, Central City Opera La rondine, Opera North (Leeds) Tosca, Lyric Opera of Kansas City Upcoming La bohème, Royal Opera House – Covent Garden

Valerian Ruminski Colline Minnesota Opera Debut Recently Rigoletto, Opera Pacific The Magic Flute, Lyric Opera of Kansas City Billy Budd; La Juive, New Israeli Opera (Tel Aviv) Don Giovanni; La bohème; Carmen, New York City Opera Carmen, Metropolitan Opera Upcoming Eugene Onegin, Santa Fe Opera Hermione, The Dallas Opera Il trovatore, Opera Pacific

Matt Boehler Colline Minnesota Opera Resident Artist Recently La clemenza di Tito; others, The Minnesota Opera La bohème, Fargo-Moorhead Civic Opera Orpheus in the Underworld; Christopher Sly; The Consul; others, Des Moines Metro Opera Amahl and the Night Visitors; The Magic Flute; Le nozze di Figaro; The Threepenny Opera, Viterbo College Upcoming Little Women; Don Carlos, The Minnesota Opera A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Central City Opera

Michael Chioldi Marcello Minnesota Opera Debut Pagliacci/Carmina burana, 2001 Recently Andrea Chénier; The Barber of Seville, Metropolitan Opera Turandot; The Magic Flute; others, New York City Opera La bohème; Die Fledermaus; Harvey Milk, San Francisco Opera Don Giovanni, San Diego Opera Madame Butterfly; Salome; Faust, Houston Grand Opera Upcoming Eugene Onegin, Opera North (Leeds) Hänsel und Gretel; Carmen; Le nozze di Figaro, N. Y. City Opera

Paul Griggsby Benoit; Alcindoro Minnesota Opera Debut Recently The Abduction from the Seraglio; Beethoven Symphony No. 9, (ensemble), The Minnesota Chorale La clemenza di Tito; Lucia di Lammermoor; Pagliacci/Carmina burana; The Barber of Seville; I Capuleti e i Montecchi; Turandot (ensemble), The Minnesota Opera Manon Lescaut; The Barber of Seville; Carmen; Un ballo in maschera (ensemble), Cincinnati Opera Upcoming Don Carlos (ensemble), The Minnesota Opera

Ryan Kinsella Schaunard Minnesota Opera Resident Artist Recently Lucia di Lammermoor; others, The Minnesota Opera Miss Havisham’s Fire, Opera Theatre of St. Louis The Tales of Ho∂mann, Sarasota Opera La traviata; The Face on the Barroom Floor; Candide; Dialogues des Carmélites, Central City Opera Postcard from Morocco; Antigone; others, Boston University Upcoming Little Women, The Minnesota Opera Dvorak Te Deum, Minnesota Orchestra

Ana Rodriguez Musetta Minnesota Opera Resident Artist Recently La clemenza di Tito; Lucia di Lammermoor, The Minnesota Opera Gianni Schicchi; Carmen; Le nozze di Figaro; L’enfant et les sortilèges, Orlando Opera Company La bohème, Opera North (New Hampshire) Cinderella; Toy Shop, Cincinnati Opera E & O Cherubin, IVAI (Tel Aviv) Amore e guerra, Opera Theater of Lucca (Italy) Upcoming Little Women; Don Carlos, The Minnesota Opera

Christopher Schaldenbrand Marcello Minnesota Opera Debut Recently Cold Sassy Tree, Houston Grand Opera Béatrice et Bénédict, Netherlands Opera Le nozze di Figaro, Glimmerglass Opera Die Fledermaus, Opéra National de Paris (Bastille) Così fan tutte, Metropolitan Opera Upcoming Don Pasquale, San Diego Opera Don Giovanni, Tulsa Opera, New Orleans Opera Werther, Metropolitan Opera

15 • l a b o h è m e

Carlos Archuleta

The Artists

t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 18

The Artists Celena Shafer

James Valenti

Musetta Minnesota Opera Debut Recently Le nozze di Figaro, The Dallas Opera Die Fledermaus, Vancouver Opera Mitridate, re di Ponto, Santa Fe Opera Falsta∂, Madison Opera Il sogno di Scipione, Henry Street Chamber Opera La fille du régiment, Kentucky Opera Handel Messiah, Phoenix Symphony Upcoming Rigoletto, Welsh National Opera

Parpignol; customs sergeant Minnesota Opera Resident Artist Recently Lucia di Lammermoor; Pagliacci; Street Scene; Turandot, The Minnesota Opera Turandot; The Magic Flute; Il prigioniero, Opera Festival of New Jersey Candide; Gianni Schicchi, W. Virginia Univ. Opera Theatre Upcoming Don Carlos, The Minnesota Opera Orlando Paladino; Dialogues of the Carmelites; Cavalleria rusticana/Pagliacci, Glimmerglass Opera

Robert Brill

Jeffrey Domoto

Set Designer Minnesota Opera Debut Bok Choy Variations, 1995 Recently Cabaret; Design for Living; One Flew Over The Cuckoo’s Nest; Buried Child; The Rehearsal, Broadway The Laramie Project, New York; Denver; Berkeley; La Jolla An American in Paris, Boston Ballet The House of Martin Guerre, Goodman Theatre; Can. Stage Co. A Clockwork Orange, Steppenwolf Upcoming Assassins; Humpty Dumpty, Broadway

Assistant Conductor Minnesota Opera Resident Artist Recently Lucia di Lammermoor; Pagliacci/Carmina burana; The Barber of Seville; others, The Minnesota Opera Nutcracker Fantasy, Minnesota Dance Theatre Cover Conductor – Minnesota Orchestra Assistant Conductor – Central City Opera (1999); Yale Opera; Philharmonia Orchestra of Yale Upcoming Little Women; Don Carlos, The Minnesota Opera

Janice Kimes Children’s Chorusmaster Minnesota Opera Debut Hansel and Gretel, 1981 Recently Pagliacci/Carmina burana; Street Scene; Turandot; Madame Butterfly; The Turn of the Screw; Tosca; The Magic Flute; Carmen; La bohème; Rigoletto; Bok Choy Variations; others, The Minnesota Opera Founder and Artistic Director – Bel Canto Voices Macbeth; others (ensemble), The Minnesota Opera

Joseph Lawson Chorusmaster/Vocal Coach Minnesota Opera Debut Der Rosenkavalier, 2000 Recently La clemenza di Tito; Lucia di Lammermoor; 2000-2001 season, The Minnesota Opera The Glassblowers; L’étoile, Glimmerglass Opera Overture 757 (original composition), Carnegie Hall Carmen, Tulsa Opera Upcoming Don Carlos, The Minnesota Opera Cavalleria rusticana/Pagliacci, Glimmerglass Opera

David Roth Stage Director Minnesota Opera Debut Le nozze di Figaro, 1992 Recently Le nozze di Figaro; A Midsummer Night’s Dream; Dialogues des Carmélites; Cavalleria rusticana; others, Opera in the Ozarks Faust; The Turn of the Screw; Madame Butterfly; Tosca; others, The Minnesota Opera Amahl and the Night Visitors; others, University of Kansas Carmen, Baltimore Opera Das Rheingold; Die Walküre; Billy Budd; Der Rosenkavalier; others (AD), The Dallas Opera

Antony Walker Conductor Minnesota Opera Debut Le nozze di Figaro, 2000 Recently The Queen of Spades, Teatro Comunale (Bologna) The Magic Flute, Cincinnati Opera Pagliacci/Carmina burana, The Minnesota Opera Carmen; Rigoletto; others, Welsh National Opera The Magic Flute; Hänsel und Gretel; Faust; others, Opera Australia Upcoming Semele, Pinchgut Opera (Sydney) Così fan tutte, Welsh National Opera

Kärin Kopischke

photo not available

Costume Designer Minnesota Opera Debut La bohème, 1996 Recently Steppenwolf; American Conservatory Theatre; Goodman; Huntington; Chicago Shakespeare Theatre; Long Wharf Theatre; Milwaukee Repertory Theatre; Victory Gardens; Kennedy Center; Crossroads Theatre; San Francisco Shakespeare Festival; California Shakespeare Festival; Cincinnati Playhouse; Skylight Opera Theatre; Court Theatre; Northlight Theatre

Tom Mays Lighting Designer Minnesota Opera Debut Street Scene, 2001 Recently A Pueblo Christmas; La Pasada; others, Teatro del Pueblo Ni boca ni sangre, Teatro Latino All in the Timing; Four Dogs and a Bone, New Classic Theatre Biloxi Blues; Dancing at Lughnasa; others, Theatre in the Round The Who’s Tommy (video designer), La Jolla Playhouse Upcoming Little Women; La traviata, The Minnesota Opera Street Scene, Wolf Trap Opera Company

Doug Scholz-Carlson Assistant Director Minnesota Opera Debut Der Rosenkavalier, 2000 Recently I Capuleti e i Montecchi, New York City Opera Minnesota Shakespeare Festival at Grand Marais Lucia di Lammermoor; Pagliacci/Carmina burana; The Barber of Seville; Street Scene, others, The Minnesota Opera Forever Plaid, Chanhassen Dinner Theater Gross Indecency; Sweeney Todd, Guthrie Theater Hamlet, Minnesota Shakespeare Project Hamlet; The Tempest; others, Utah Shakespeare Festival

Tom Watson Wig Master and Makeup Minnesota Opera Debut The Pearl Fishers, 1986 Recently Opera Theatre of St. Louis (season) Santa Fe Opera (season) The Minnesota Opera (1986-2001 seasons) Metropolitan Opera (season) Jane Eyre; Dirty Blonde, (Broadway) Upcoming Little Women; Don Carlos, The Minnesota Opera

Henry Murger continued from page 14 19 • l a b o h è m e

mythical proportions by the 1840s. Typically the grisette was a young woman from the country who finds lodgings in the Latin Quarter, at that time relatively inexpensive because of the abundance of young students who lived there. She generally did handiwork at home, as Paris was at that time a major center for manufacturing. Her mores were slightly looser than those of a bourgeois girl, and the grisette had no qualms about moving in with a man to ease her financial burden. She was generally thought of as compassionate, thoughtful and understanding, the only drawback being her willingness to withdraw if a better o∂er came along. The darker side of the grisette is glaringly apparent in the less flattering portrayal of Lucille Louvet, with whom Murger had a long, tempestuous relationship. Little of Lucille made it into Mimì of the opera, other than a passing reference to her real name and her death by consumption. In spite of this veil of death and destitution, the Scènes are told with witty repartee and élan. Murger and his companions keep landlord Benoit and various other creditors at bay, while entertaining lavish midnight parties and expensive dinners at the Café Momus (an actual café Murger and his friends inhabited). One senses that Murger’s Bohemians have deeper pockets than they let on via their bourgeois roots – among the author’s real-life friends, more than one came from families of considerable means. Murger himself warned of distinguishing serious Bohemians from aristocratic or bourgeois poseurs (those living the life to spite their families or because it was fashionable). Yet he also cautioned that one should not remain in Bohemia for too long and punctuated his masterpiece with a chapter on that subject, “Youth is Fleeting.” Three days after signing his book deal, Murger left the Latin Quarter for good, taking residence in the comfortable surrounds of Paris’s Right Bank. The author never felt he had betrayed his Bohemian roots, though he would never find a literary success equal to his Scènes. And, with greater irony, he would die an early death at the age of 38, from the unhealthy consequences of his unbridled youth.

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t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 20

An invitation to the Camerata Circle The newest members of the Camerata Circle Dear friends, Marshall Field’s Project Imagine is proud to sponsor tonight’s performance of La bohème. One of the great operas of all time, La bohème is the story of struggling artists who believe the power of art can make a di∂erence in their community and beyond. The Minnesota Opera is fortunate to receive contributions from corporate donors such as Target Corporation, but we also depend upon thousands of individual supporters to help us create evenings of beautiful music, like this one. If you are new to The Minnesota Opera, please consider making a gift. If you already contribute, please consider increasing your gift. Your donation to The Minnesota Opera Fund supports our incredible productions. When you contribute to The Fund, you become one of a growing number of opera insiders. As part of this valuable group, you will have access to behind-the-scenes activities that will enrich your operatic experience and make your evenings at the Opera even more unforgettable. On this page you will find a list of the many benefits that accompany your gift to The Minnesota Opera Fund.

In the last year, the following individuals have joined our most generous donors in The Minnesota Opera’s Camerata Circle. You can become a part of this team of Opera supporters, too. Mr. John Andrus III Martha and Bruce Atwater Amy and Ford Watson Bell Elwood F. and Florence A. Caldwell Jeff and Barb Couture Dr. Susan and Richard Crockett Mary Lee and Wallace Dayton Henry and Anice Flesh Lori and Tom Foley James Fulton R. Thomas Greene, Jr. Jose Peris and Diana Gulden Alfred and Ingrid Lenz Harrison Roger W. Hollander Elizabeth A. Huey Jacqueline Nolte Jones Stan and Jeanne Kagin Michael F. and Gretchen S. Kelly

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The Minnesota Opera Chorus Matthew Johnson Brian Jorgenson Michael Lundin Bryan Maus Jonathan Niel Julie Olson Glenn Olson Janet Paone James Plante Steve Sandberg Joy Schieb Robert Schmidt Martin Swaden Karen Weaver Justin Wilson Karin Wolverton Dan Zeddies

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21 • l a b o h è m e

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t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 22

Staff President & CEO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kevin Smith Artistic Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dale Johnson General Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John Humleker Artistic Artistic Administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roxanne Stou∂er Cruz Artistic Associate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Floyd Anderson Education Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Holly Carpenter Dramaturg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . David Sander Production Stage Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alexander Farino Stage Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yasmine Kiss Assistant Stage Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lee Henderson OPERA America Stage Management Fellow . . . . . .Trevore Ross Resident Artist Music Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bruce Stasyna Chorusmaster/Head Coach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Joseph Lawson Resident Artist Instructors . . . . . .Carlotta Dradi-Bauer, Barbara Kierig, Doug Scholz-Carlson, Nancy Tibbetts Resident Artists . . Carlos Archuleta, Matthew Boehler, Je∂rey Domoto, Ryan Kinsella, Laura Loewen, Ana Rodriguez, James Valenti Education Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Raymond Berg, Peggy Endres, Kenny Kiser, David Moore, Jonathan Niel, Janet Paone, Je∂ Richman, Joseph Schlefke, Elise Skophammer, Roger Skophammer, Casey Stangl, David Barrow Wiley, Ed Williams, Joan Womeldorf Mentor Connection participant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Megan Furman

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Coming Up:

April 13, 16, 18, 20, 21 at Ordway Center Call 651.224.4222 for tickets We’re perfect as we are Change brings heartache, happiness and wisdom to Louisa May Alcott’s beloved sisters in a beautiful new opera by Mark Adamo. “This new work has caught the attention of opera world,” said President Kevin Smith. “It is a lyrical, moving, emotional new piece that everyone wants to do. We are in the fortunate position to be able to introduce it to the Twin Cities early in its life.” The new coproduction with the University of Indiana is designed by Robert O’Hearn, directed by Colin Graham and conducted by Jeffrey Domoto. The production stars Deanne Meek as Jo, Adriana Zabala as Meg, Ana Rodriguez as Beth, Genevieve Christianson as Amy, John Tessier as Laurie, Carlos Archuleta as John Brooke, Ryan Kinsella as Friedrich Bhaer, Kathleen Humphrey as Alma March, Lawrence Weller as Gideon March, Dorothy Byrne as Cecilia March and Matt Boehler as Mr. Dashwood.

To learn more about Little Women… Please visit our website at or consider the opportunities listed below. On the website you will find casting updates, artist biographies, synopses, background notes, suggestions for further reading and listening, ticket services and other company information.

Adult Education Class

Mark Adamo at the Loft

Opera Insights

A class devoted to Little Women will be held on Monday, March 25, 2002, from 7:00-9:00 p.m. at The Minnesota Opera Center, 620 North First Street in the Minneapolis Warehouse District. Call 612-342-9575 for registration information.

The Minnesota Opera and the Loft Literary Center co-present a workshop with Little Women composer and librettist Mark Adamo on Sunday, April 14, from 1 – 3 p.m. at Open Book. Learn how composers and librettists turn a book into a work for the stage. To reserve a space, call 612-342-9575. Tickets are $20 general admission, $15 for Opera subscribers and Loft members.

Join Artistic Director Dale Johnson or the Opera’s artistic staff one hour before showtime for a 30-minute introduction to the work. Opera Insights are free and held in Ordway Center’s mezzanine lobby.

Individual Donors: The Camerata Circle The Camerata Circle is The Minnesota Opera’s highest category of personal support. With this designation, we recognize these very special friends for their commitment to the tradition of opera in our community. Platinum Mrs. Judson Bemis Mary and Gus Blanchard Judy and Kenneth Dayton Dolly J. Fiterman John and Ruth Huss Heinz and Sisi Hutter The Art and Martha Kaemmer Fund of HRK Foundation Constance and Daniel Kunin Patricia Lund Mr. and Mrs. Walter S. Meyers Mrs. George T. Pennock Mary W. Vaughan

Gold Anonymous Mary A. Andres August J. Aquila and Emily Haliziw Karen Bachman David Hanson and William Biermaier Mr. and Mrs. James Binger Rod and Susan Boren Darlene J. and Richard P. Carroll Sally J. Economon Rolf and Nancy Engh N. Bud and Beverly Grossman Foundation Alfred and Ingrid Lenz Harrison Bryce and Paula Johnson Lucy Rosenberry Jones

Michael F. and Gretchen S. Kelly Warren and Patty Kelly Ed and Pat Kerans Peter J. King Thomas and Barbara McBurney Diana and Joe Murphy Mrs. John M. Musser† Bruce and Sandy Nelson Timothy and Gayle Ober Jose Peris and Diana Gulden Rebecca Rand and E. Thomas Binger Connie and Lew Remele Mr. and Mrs. Steven Rothschild Walter B. Saunders Fred and Gloria Sewell Virginia L. and Edward C. Stringer Gregory C. Swinehart Tanrydoon Fund of The Saint Paul Foundation C. Angus and Margaret Wurtele

Silver Anonymous John Andrus, III Martha and Bruce Atwater Patricia and Mark Bauer Joseph and Judy Carlson William Voedisch and Laurie Carlson Rachelle Dockman Chase Burt and Rusty Cohen

Dr. James E. and Gisela Corbett Ellie and Tom Crosby, Jr. Rondi Erickson and Sandy Lewis Mr. and Mrs. John Forsythe Connie Fladeland and Steve Fox Leslie and Alain Frécon James Fulton R. Thomas Greene, Jr. Stephen and Patricia Haynes Roger W. Hollander Jay and Cynthia Ihlenfeld Gerald Johnson Stan and Jeanne Kagin Mrs. James S. Kochiras Mr. and Mrs. Ted Kolderie Lynne Looney Leland T. Lynch and Terry Saario Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Roy and Dorothy Ann Mayeske Harvey T. McLain Mary Bigelow McMillan Robb and Lynne Morin Nelson Family Foundation on behalf of Glen and Marilyn Nelson William and Barbara Pearce Marge and Dwight Peterson Lila and Bruce A. Priebe Lois and John Rogers E. Elaine and Roger Sampson Frank and Lynda Sharbrough Renate M. Sharp Kevin and Lynn Smith

Mrs. Irene G. Steiner Charles Allen Ward Fund of The Saint Paul Foundation

Bronze Anonymous (2) Chloe D. Ackman Cordelia Anderson and John Humleker Elizabeth Andrus Mr. and Mrs. Edmund P. Babcock Alexandra O. Bjorklund Mr. and Mrs. Paul G. Boening Elwood F. and Florence A. Caldwell Joseph and Judy Carlson David and Jane Cooper Dr. Susan and Richard Crockett Mrs. Thomas M. Crosby, Sr. Mary Lee and Wallace Dayton Cy and Paula Decosse Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Lori and Tom Foley Bradley A. Fuller and Elizabeth Lincoln Mr. and Mrs. R. James Gesell Ieva Grundmanis Rosalie He∂elfinger Hall Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Cli∂ton K. Hill and Jody Rockwell Dorothy J. Horns, M.D. and James P. Richardson Elizabeth A. Huey Jacqueline Nolte Jones


SQUIRE HOUSE GARDENS Friday, March 23 – Sunday, March 31

Early Season Discounts on Great Garden Goods:





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A country garden and shop in the heart of Afton


• Statuary • Trelliage • Benches • Birdbaths • and more!



A town garden and shop on Grand in St. Paul (Just west of Lexington) 1129 Grand Avenue (651) 665-0142 Monday - Saturday 10 - 5:30

T O O L S • B O O K S • AC C E S S O R I E S F O R G A R D E N & H O M E • C L A S S E S

March into Spring Sale


S OA P S & F R AG R A N C E S • U N U S UA L P E R E N N I A L S • G A R D E N D E S I G N


• T E A S , P R E S E RV E S & C O N D I M E N T S • B O TA N I C A L P R I N T S •

t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 28

The Minnesota Opera Fund

North Star Opera Where Opera is Always Fun Everything Sung in English Upper Midwest Stars Shine

  Spring Surprises 

March/April Emmerich Kálmán’s Viennese

Countess Maritza June 14 – 23 More to come… Call 651.224.1640

The Minnesota Opera Fund Lyndel and Blaine King Mr. and Mrs. William Kling Benjamin Y. H. and Helen C. Liu Mr. and Mrs. Cargill MacMillan, Jr. David MacMillan and Judith Krow James and Judith Mellinger

Tom Murtha and Stephanie Lenway Susan Okie Mr. and Mrs. William Phillips Kim and John Puckett Norm Rickeman and Kathy Murphy John Rosse Burton G. Ross and

Cynthia Rosenblatt Ross Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Mr. and Mrs. John C. Rowland Lucy and Mark Searls Stanislaw and Krystyna Skrowaczewski James and Susan Sullivan Michael Symeonides


Judson and Elizabeth Dayton The Denny Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation Thomas and Mary Lou Detwiler Mr. and Mrs. Steven A. Diede Mr. and Mrs. Carl B. Drake, Jr. Joyce and Hugh Edmondson Ester and John Fesler Henry and Anice Flesh Patricia R. Freeburg Lois and Larry Gibson Mr. and Mrs. John F. Grundhofer Don and Arlene Helgeson Charlotte Karlen Mr. and Mrs. Erwin Kelen Mary L. Kenzie Family Foundation E. Robert and Margaret V. Kinney Fund of The Minneapolis Foundation

Maria Kochiras Lisa C. Kochiras Helen L. Kuehn Clinton and Judith Lee Ilo and Margaret Leppik Jerry and Joyce Lillquist Bill Long Dan and Sue Malina Margery Martin Samuel D. and Patricia McCullough Mary McDiarmid James P. McFarland Mrs. John H. Myers Albin and Susan Nelson Allegra Parker Karen B. Paul Jodi and Todd Peterson

Anonymous Eric and Donna Aanenson Kim A. Anderson Paula A. Anderson An Anonymous Gift from a Donor Advised Fund of The Saint Paul Foundation Dr. and Mrs. Thomas C. Bagnoli Amy and Ford Watson Bell in honor of Elinor W. Bell John and Jennifer Bernstein Dr. and Mrs. Jim Burdine Ralph and Kathleen Cadmus Joann M. D. Cierniak Susan Cogger and Terry Williams Je∂ and Barb Couture John G. and Ida J. Davies

Mr. and Mrs. George H. Tesar Catie Tobin and Brian Naas deceased

Frances and George Reid Ken and Nina Rothchild Je∂rey Scherer and Lea Babcock Dr. and Mrs. Richard J. Schindler Mahlon and Karen Schneider Ralph S. Schneider and Margaret McNeil Stephanie Simon Helene and Je∂ Slocum Julie Jackley Steiner Don and Leslie Stiles Dr. Joseph Tashjian and Kay Savik Lois and Lance Thorkelson Bill Venne and Douglas Kline Ellen and Fred Wells Mr. and Mrs. F. T. Weyerhaeuser

The Minnesota Opera gratefully acknowledges the donors who have significantly increased their gifts in the last year. In the lists above these donors are recognized in bold print for their support. These lists are current as of January 31, 2002, and include donors who gave gifts of $1000 or more to the Minnesota Opera Fund since January 1, 2001. If your name is not listed appropriately, please accept our apologies, and call Bill Venne, Development Director of The Minnesota Opera, at 612-342-9565.





F EB. 13 - M AY 19, 2002


limpse into the lives of Anders Zorn {1860-1920} & Carl Larsson {1853-1919}, two of Sweden’s most famous artists.



The American Swedish Institute 2600 Park Avenue Minneapolis, MN 55407 Tel: 612.871.4907


Photo: Jean-Marie Guyaux

hotographs, artworks and personal items from their homes in Sweden are used to explore the warm relationship between these remarkable artists and their families.


proof directed by


MARCH 19-24, 2002 The Historic State Theatre • Hennepin Theatre District Call the Artsline (612) 673-0404

29 • l a b o h è m e

Individual Donors: The Camerata Circle

t h e m i n n e s o t a o p e r a • 30

The Minnesota Opera Fund Minnesota Opera Sponsors Season Sponsor

Production Sponsors

U.S. Bancorp Piper Ja∂ray

Lucia di Lammermoor, U.S. Bancorp Piper Ja∂ray La clemenza di Tito, American Express Minnesota Philanthropic Program La bohème, Marshall Field’s Project Imagine Little Women, RBC Dain Rauchser

Gala Dinner Sponsor Ecolab

Camerata Dinners Rider, Bennett, Egan & Arundel

Opera Insight Lectures SpencerStuart

Corporations and Foundations Platinum 3M American Express Minnesota Philanthropic Program on behalf of American Express Financial Advisors and American Express Travel Related Services Co. Andersen Foundation James Ford Bell Foundation Blandin Foundation The Bush Foundation The Cargill Foundation Deloitte & Touche Deluxe Corporation Foundation Ecolab Foundation General Mills Foundation Ann and Gordon Getty Foundation Anna M. Heilmaier Charitable Foundation Honeywell Foundation The MAHADH Fund of HRK Foundation The McKnight Foundation Marshall Field’s Project Imagine The Medtronic Foundation The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Minnesota Monthly Minnesota State Arts Board ReliaStar Financial Corporation Skyway Publications, Inc. The St. Paul Companies Target Stores, Marshall Field’s and Mervyn’s with support from the Target Foundation Transtop

Twin Cities Opera Guild U.S. Bank Wells Fargo Foundation on behalf of: Wells Fargo Bank Minnesota Wells Fargo Brokerage Services Wells Fargo Institutional Investments Lowry Hill Wells Fargo Private Client Services West Group

Gold Accenture ADC Telecommunications, Inc. Bemis Company Foundation Dorsey & Whitney Foundation Ernst & Young R. C. Lilly Foundation Lutheran Brotherhood Foundation McGladrey & Pullen, LLP National City Bank Alice M. O’Brien Foundation PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP Rahr Foundation Rider, Bennett, Egan & Arundel Robins, Kaplan, Miller & Ciresi SpencerStuart Star Tribune Foundation Target Stores U.S. Bancorp Piper Ja∂ray Foundation on behalf of U.S. Bancorp Piper Ja∂ray

Support world class medical research

Valspar Foundation Xcel Energy Foundation

Silver The Bayport Foundation Best Buy Children’s Foundation Boss Foundation Chadwick Foundation Dellwood Foundation Digital Excellence Inc. Leonard, Street & Deinard Mary Livingston Griggs and Mary Griggs Burke Foundation McNeely Foundation Moss & Barnett The Nash Foundation The Casey Albert T. O’Neil Foundation The Carl and Eloise Pohlad Family Foundation RBC Dain Rauscher Foundation Margaret Rivers Fund Schwegman, Lundberg, Woessner & Kluth, PA Sit Investment Associates Tennant Foundation School Arts Fund of United Arts/COMPAS U.S. Trust Company Wenger Foundation

Bronze Faegre & Benson Hogan & Hartson

When medical breakthroughs are uncovered at U of M research labs, who benefits first? Minnesotans, of course.

Hutter Family Foundation Mayo Foundation McVay Foundation Minnesota Mutual Foundation Lawrence M. and Elizabeth Ann O’Shaughnessy Charitable Income Trust in honor of Lawrence M. O’Shaughnessy The Jay and Rose Phillips Family Foundation The Elizabeth C. Quinlan Foundation St. Croix Foundation Charles B. Sweatt Foundation Tilka Design Tozer Foundation Walcro Inc.

Benefactors Alliance Capital Management Elmer L. and Eleanor J. Andersen Foundation Athwin Foundation Aveda Brock-White Co., LLC H.B. Fuller Company Foundation Horton, Inc. The Hubbard Foundation KPMG LLP Miller Meester Advertising Minnesota Trading Co. Musicland Group, Inc. The Ritz Foundation The Southways Foundation

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Minnesota Opera's La Boheme Program  

2001-2002 Season

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