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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN BIMINI BAY FERRY TERMINAL PIER CONSTRUCTION, FERRY TERMINAL DEVELOPMENT, AND DREDGING OF FERRY DOCKING & ACCESS CHANNEL

NORTH BIMINI, BAHAMAS PREPARED BY:

OCEAN CONSULTING 340 MINORCA AVENUE, SUITE 7 CORAL GABLES, FL 33134


Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE #

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

8

1.0

INTRODUCTION: PURPOSE, SCOPE, AND CONTENT

9

2.0

OVERVIEW OF BIMINI BAY FERRY TERMINAL PROJECT

10

2.1

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

11

2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4

11 11 11 11

Access Pier Terminal Island Access Channel Dredging Mega-Yacht Mooring Area

2.2

ORGANIZATION CHARTS & RESPONSIBLE PARTY DETAILS

12

2.3

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGER: GOALS & RESPONSIBILITIES

12

3.0

APPLICABLE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS: LOCAL, NATIONAL & INTERNATIONAL

14

4.0

CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

16

4.1

CONSTRUCTION EROSION & SEDIMENT CONTROL PLAN

17

4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4

17 18 19 20 20 20 20

Silt Fence BERM Barriers Drainage Swales Soil Erosion Protection 4.1.4.1 Mulches/Seeding/Hydro-seeding 4.1.4.2 Erosion Control Blankets/Mats 4.1.4.3 Gravel/Riprap

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE #

4.1.4.4 Plastic Sheeting 4.1.4.5 Native Vegetation Establishment 4.2 5.0

6.0

SEDIMENT CONTROL MONITORING AND INSPECTIONS

20 20 21

CHANNEL DREDGING AND TURBIDITY CONTROL PLAN

22

5.1

DISPOSAL OF DREDGED SPOIL

24

5.2

TURBIDITY CONTROL

24

5.3

TURBIDITY MONITORING, INSPECTIONS, & REPORTING

25

CONSTRUCTION & OPERATIONS BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

29

6.1

PUBLIC NOTICING AND COMMENCEMENT

29

6.2

WASTE MANAGEMENT

29

6.2.1 6.2.2

30 32

Waste Management During Construction Waste Management During Operations

6.3

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL STAGING AREAS

34

6.4

CONCRETE AND PAINTING/WASHING AREAS

35

6.5

FUELING

36

6.6

EQUIPMENT/VEHICLE MAINTENANCE

39

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS

7.0

PAGE #

6.7

EQUIPMENT/VEHICLE WASHING AND NON-STORMWATER DISCHARGE

40

6.8

DUST CONTROL PLAN

40

6.9

NOISE CONTROL PLAN

41

6.9.1 Construction 6.9.2 Operations 6.9.3 Reporting Requirements EMERGENCY AND HAZARDS MANAGEMENT

41 42 43 44

7.1

FUEL SPILLS & SPILL PREVENTION

44

7.2

HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CONTROL & SPILL PREVENTION

45

7.3

HURRICANE / STORM / FLOOD PLANNING

48

7.3.1 7.3.2

48 48

Stormwater Management System Hurricane Plan Procedures

7.4

FIRE AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT

50

7.5

REPORTING

51

8.0 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR UNAVOIDABLE IMPACTS 8.1

52

ARTIFICIAL REEF CREATION

52

8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3

52 52 52

Site Selection Volume and Placement of Rock Methodology Biological Resource Monitoring of Artificial Reef

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

8.6

8.7

PAGE #

CORAL RELOCATION

54

8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4

54 54 55 55

Site Selection Relocation Methodology Coral Relocation Monitoring Success Criteria, Reporting, and Remediation Alternatives

MOORING BUOY INSTALLATION AT DIVE SITES

56

8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3

List of Dive Sites Methodology for Mooring Buoy Installation Monitoring of Mooring Buoy Installation

56 57 58

EXOTIC SPECIES REMOVAL & NATIVE PLANTING

58

8.4.1 8.4.2

Location for Exotic Species Removal Native Plantings

58 59

SHORELINE / BEACH PROFILE MONITORING

59

8.5.1 8.5.2 8.5.3

59 59 59

Location for Beach Profile Surveys Methodology for Beach Profiles Monitoring & Reporting Schedule

MARINE WATER QUALITY MONITORING

60

8.6.1 8.6.2 8.6.3

60 61 64

Locations for Water Quality Monitoring Sampling Methodology and Contaminant to be Analyzed Reporting Requirements

TURTLE LIGHTING CONTROL PLAN

64

8.7.1

64

Purpose of Protection

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS

8.7.2 8.8

8.9

8.10

PAGE #

Lighting Standards for Turtle Protection

64

FISHERIES HARVEST MONITORING

64

8.8.1 8.8.2

64 65

Purpose of Harvest Monitoring & Methodology Monitoring and Success Criteria, & Reporting

SOCIAL IMPACT MONITORING

65

8.9.1 8.9.2 8.9.3

65 65 65

Methodology for Social Impact Monitoring Timeline and Monitoring of Results Reporting Requirements

TRAFFIC CONTROL & MONITORING

66

8.10.1 Methodology for Traffic Monitoring 8.10.2 Schedule of Monitoring 8.10.3 Reporting Requirements

66 66 66

REFERENCES FIGURES, TABLES & MAPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

North Bimini Aerial Master Plan of Ferry Terminal Project Organizational Chart - Environmental Management Structure Example of Silt Fence Example of BERM Barrier- Hay Bale Barrier Option Downslope Cutter Head Dredge Schematic and Photograph Example of Turbidity Curtain Around Barge Activity Turbidity Monitoring Schedule Turbidity Sampling Map - Typical Staging Area for Large Equipment/Materials (prior to transport to Project)

6

9 10 12 18 19 23 25 28 28 35


Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE #

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

36 38 39 42 57 58 60

Typical, Inexpensive Concrete Wash-Out Setup Typical Fuel Dispenser Nozzle Secured in Dispenser Cabinet Fuel Spill Absorption Pads and Booms Anticipated Noise Level North Bimini Dive Site Location Map Typical Mooring Buoy Water Sampling Map

APPENDICES A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q.

Accident Report Form Construction Monitoring Form Environmental Construction Monitoring Form Incident Reporting Form SWPPP Monitoring Inspection Form Turbidity Monitoring Report Hurricane Preparedness Plan Turbidity Daily Log Sheet Artificial Reef Drawings Coral Relocation Form Coral Monitoring Daily Log Sheet Andersen Consulting Geotechnical Report Social Impact Questionnaire Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS) Coral Relocation Protocols Waste Management Tracking Form Dune Restoration and Planting Plan Baseline Water Quality Sampling Results (Time 0)

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This Environmental Management Plan (EMP) addresses the appropriate protocols to manage the environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of a new ferry terminal on the west shoreline of North Bimini. The ferry terminal project will include the dredging of 220,000 cubic yards of material, which will be utilized in the construction of a new 4.5 acre island that will be connected to shore by a 1,000-foot pier. The island will provide berthing facilities for a 650-foot ferry and mega-yachts, as well as house a customs and immigration office, beach club, and a turning area for trams. The EMP is intended to guide decision-making and short-term goals, measure public opinion, and direct future management decisions to protect the marine and terrestrial environments to the maximum extent possible. The EMP will be implemented by a designated Environmental Manager (EM). The EM will serve as a liaison with relevant authorities associated with the ferry terminal project and will be responsible for reporting regularly to the applicable Government agencies. The EM will also be required to monitor all works carried out under the EMP and will be responsible for ensuring that corrective actions are taken, if necessary. Due to the nature of this project, sediment and turbidity control will be a primary focus of the EM. The EMP delineates erosion and sediment control measures that include the use of silt fences, berm barriers, drainage swales, and/or native vegetation establishment. During dredging operations, turbidity will be strictly controlled through the use of turbidity curtains and regular intervals of turbidity monitoring. All activities producing airborne or waterborne sediment will be monitored under a daily and weekly data collection program, and all information will be reported to the applicable agencies. During the construction and operational phases of the ferry terminal project, construction workers and Project employees shall follow the Best Management Practices (BMPs) set forth in this EMP. The BMPs are guidelines that: a) ensure proper and effective training of staff, b) mandate regular inspections, c) promote regular maintenance of treatment controls, c) schedule periodic evaluation/monitoring of equipment and/or personnel performance, d) describe followup actions necessary to correct deficiencies, and e) ensure accurate records are maintained. BMPs are established for waste management, construction material staging, painting and washing areas, equipment/vehicle maintenance and washing, dust control, and noise control. This EMP also establishes safety protocols to be followed during regular operations, as well as in the event and aftermath of an environmental emergency. The guidelines aim to avoid/minimize environmental damage and/or hazards to human health or property. While this EMP specifically describes how the construction and operation of the ferry terminal can occur with the least possible impact to the environment, mitigation measures to offset those remaining, unavoidable impacts are also discussed. A comprehensive mitigation program including, but not limited to, artificial reef creation, coral relocation, beach profile monitoring, water quality sampling, and social impact monitoring, will be initiated. The mitigation plan details and success criteria are included in the EMP.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

1.0 INTRODUCTION: PURPOSE, SCOPE, AND CONTENT The Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is a site-specific document that provides guidelines and information enabling construction staff and project managers to adhere to the environmental goals of the Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project. It serves as a reference and training manual, collating all pertinent environmental information about the site and the Project along with Best Management Practices (BMP) designed to protect the marine and terrestrial environment to the maximum extent possible. The EMP is based on information presented in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), as well as best management guidelines accepted worldwide. While the EIA analyzes the environmental significance of the ferry terminal project, the EMP describes more specifically how those activities can occur with the least possible impact to the natural environment and the mitigation proposed to offset those remaining, unavoidable impacts. If any construction or operation activity during the implementation of the Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project deviates substantially from that described in the EMP, the Bahamian Government will be informed of the changes and provided with revised text before such activity occurs. In general terms, an EMP should: • Describe the site and the planned activities and identify environmental risks associated with these activities. • Provide clear directions on how environmental risks are to be managed and how to comply with any other requirements. • Clearly indicate who is responsible for ensuring that environmental risks are managed and that requirements are met. The goal of the EMP for the Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project is to ensure that: • All environmental safeguards are carried out correctly. • Site activities are well managed. • Adverse impacts to the environment are minimized, and where required, mitigated. • The biodiversity of the site is conserved or enhanced. • The Project complies with all relevant rules and regulations. • The Project is monitored for environmental impact, and results are reported back to the Government.

Figure 1: Aerial of North Bimini and General Project Area 9


Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

2.0 OVERVIEW OF THE BIMINI BAY FERRY TERMINAL PROJECT The Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project (“Project�) will include the dredging of approximately 220,000 cubic yards of material, which will be utilized in the construction of a new 4.5 acre island connected to shore by a 1,000 foot-long pipe-piled pier. The island will provide berthing facilities for one 650-foot vessel in two alternative berthing arrangements, one 300-foot mega yacht, and two 200-to-250-foot mega-yachts, as well as a customs and immigration office, a beach club, and a turning area for trams transporting people to/from the terminal island and the mainland of North Bimini. The Project is intended to accommodate ferry service between Miami and Bimini, which will introduce 570,000 visitors to Bimini; this number of visitors was originally contemplated in the 1997 EIA for Bimini Bay Resort. Please refer to Figure 2 for a Master Plan of the Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal.

Figure 2: Master Plan of Ferry Terminal Project

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

2.1

PROJECT DESCRIPTION 2.1.1

Access Pier

The access pier to the ferry terminal island is proposed to connect to Bimini’s main road at the large roundabout at the southern end of the Bimini Bay Resort, adjacent to the water tank farm (Reverse Osmosis plant) and service/ maintenance yard. The access pier would extend approximately 1,000 linear feet offshore in a northwest direction. At the terminus of the access pier, a sheet-pile and pipe pile wall is proposed to surround a 4.5-acre island. 2.1.2

Terminal Island

The terminal island itself, created from 220,000 cubic yards of dredged spoil, will contain a welcome center, customs facility, and a potential beach club, along with hardscape/landscape improvements. A cargo storage area for offloading/loading will also be established. Finally, a tram system will pick-up and drop-off passengers to the mainland. A total of five vessels/slips are proposed to be moored adjacent to the terminal island: the first two slips are proposed for the large ferry (depending on wind condition), the third slip will accommodate up to a 300-foot mega-yacht, and the remaining 2 slips will accommodate mega-yachts 200-250 feet in length. The proposed ferry terminal will support Bimini Bay Resort, as well as the surrounding community of North and South Bimini. The ferry, when docked at the proposed ferry terminal, is expected to deliver passengers and an assortment of cargo to the Bimini Islands on a daily basis. 2.1.3

Access Channel Dredging

Approximately 570,000 passengers are expected to utilize the cruise ship and terminal island facility on a yearly basis. To support this volume of people, the fast ferry ship (already purchased by the development team) is approximately 650 feet long and has a maximum draft of 22 feet. To accommodate the draft of this ship in variable sea conditions, a dredge depth of 31 feet is proposed. Depths currently range from 15 feet below surface waters (as measured at Mean Sea Level), up to 31+ feet below surface waters, across the 2,600 linear foot span from the terminal island to the 31-foot-contour. A smaller area to the south of the island is also to be dredged to accommodate three mega-yacht berthings. 2.1.4

Mega-Yacht Mooring Area

On the south side of the terminal island, a 100 foot by 400 foot segment is proposed for dredging to accommodate a 300-foot mega-yacht. Two additional 200-250 foot mega-yachts also have the capability of mooring on the south side of the terminal island, just east of the 300 foot megayacht berth. These larger mega-yachts currently are not able to comfortably enter the existing channel and steam north to the mega-yacht marina adjacent to Bimini Bay Resort.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

2.2

ORGANIZATION CHARTS & RESPONSIBLE PARTY DETAILS

Figure 3: Environmental Management Structure RESPONSIBLE PARTY

COMPANY

ROLE

Mr. Gerardo Capo RAV Bahamas CEO Mr. Rafael Reyes RAV Bahamas President Mr. John Krzesicki ResortsWorld Construction Mr. Timothy Blankenship Coastal Systems Int. Project Engineer *This list will be updated as construction and operations commence and evolve. 2.3

PHONE CONTACT (242) 347-6031 (866) 990-3371 (860) 861-0812 (305) 661-3655

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGER: GOALS & RESPONSIBILITIES

The role of Environmental Manager is to be agreed with the BEST Commission. Relevant company details will be provided to the BEST Commission for approval. The Environmental Manager (EM) will be responsible for implementation of the Environmental Management Plan for the Project. This individual will be a part of the management team and will report directly to the President of RAV Bahamas, Mr. Rafael Reyes (contact information above). The Environmental Manager will serve as liaison with relevant experts, government representatives and scientists contracted for various aspects of EMP implementation to ensure reports prepared are of the highest quality and based on sound scientific data. The EM will also be responsible for

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

ensuring that all reports are submitted to the identified Government agencies in a timely manner. The EM will be required to monitor all works carried out under the EMP. If any activity is found to be non-compliant with the terms and conditions identified in the EIA and EMP, the EM will be responsible for ensuring that all action is taken to correct the issue in the most expeditious manner possible. RESPONSIBILITIES: •

Oversight of the implementation of the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for the Project as it relates to the pier construction, dredging of entrance channel, and creation of the terminal island.

Monitoring of dredging activity as required by the EMP; - Ensure that the dredging complies with all relevant rules and stipulations; - Ensure that all environmental safeguards relevant to the dredging are carried out correctly; - Ensure that adverse impacts to the environment are minimized wherever possible; - Monitor the work for environmental compliance and ensure required changes are made to limit significant impacts, where possible.

Regular report preparation as required under the EMP and by Government oversight agencies related to environmental standards and any accidents.

Marine monitoring and data collection.

Monitoring of any relocated marine species and reporting on their status to BEST in conjunction with relevant experts.

Training of other staff in Project-related environmental issues and their responsibilities under the EMP.

Supervision of relevant staff in conducting required work as identified in the EMP.

Control Beach

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

3.0 APPLICABLE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS: LOCAL, NATIONAL & INTERNATIONAL Relevant government agencies and entities include, but are not limited to: a). b). c). d). e). f). g). h). i). j). k). l). m).

The Bahamas Environment, Science and Technology (BEST) Commission. The National Creeks and Wetlands Restoration Sub-Committee. Department of Agriculture. Department of Fisheries. Ministry of Public Works and Transport. The Port Authority. Ministry of Health. Department of Environmental Health Services. Ministry of Maritime Affairs. Water and Sewerage Corporation. Ministry of Tourism. District Councils and Town Committees. Town Planning Committee.

Additionally, a series of laws have been accepted in The Bahamas which affect activities occurring within the coastal zone. a). b). c). d). e). f). g). h). i). j). k). l). m). n). o). p). q). r). s). t).

Antiquities, Monuments and Museum Act (1998) Conservation and Protection of the Physical Landscape of The Bahamas Act (1997) Local Government Act (1996) Archipelagic Waters and Maritime Jurisdiction Act (1993) International Persons Land-Holding Act (1993) Environmental Health Services Act (1987) Wild Birds Protection Act (1987) Plant Protection Act (1987) Fisheries Resources (Jurisdiction and Conservation) Act (1977) Water Supply Corporation Act (1976) Wild Animals (Protection) Act (1968) Coast Protection Act (1968) Agriculture and Fisheries Act (1963) Town Planning Act (1961) Bahamas National Trust Act (1959) Immovable Property (Acquisition by Foreign Persons) Act and Quieting of Titles Act (1959) Water Skiing and Motor Boat Control Act Hotels Act Port Authorities Act Marine Mammal Protection Act

Note that this list is not meant to be exhaustive, only representative.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

INTERNATIONAL RELEVANT AGREEMENTS: The Bahamas is a party to several international environmental agreements that either affect or may affect the management of the coastal resources of The Bahamas. For example, the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (The Cartagena Convention) (1986), coordinated by United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), includes three protocols: the Oil Spill Protocol, the Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW) Protocol, and the Land Based Sources of Marine Pollution (LBSMP) Protocol (not yet finalized). The SPAW Protocol, which went into effect in June 2000, calls for the protection, management and development of marine and coastal resources individually and jointly among countries. Although The Bahamas is not a party to the Protocol, several other Caribbean countries have entered into these agreements and their actions may have impacts on the coastal zone of The Bahamas. Additionally, provisions of the World Bank and World Health Organization regarding noise pollution will be met. Also, the United Nations Convention on the Laws of the Sea should apply during construction and operations, to protect the marine waters of the Bahamas.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

4.0 CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES Minimal land clearing and grading will be required for this Project; a majority of the components are proposed offshore with the exception of the access area to the pier by the fresh-water tank farms. However, land clearing and grading that modifies topography, in addition to dredging for marine improvements, can result in the transportation of air and water-borne sediment of variable grain size and subsequent deposition in natural areas. In the marine environment, increased turbidity reduces light penetration and subsequently primary productivity by marine vascular plants such as seagrass and macroalgae, as well as hard coral species, which rely on food sources in part produced by photosynthesis from marine plants. Deposited sediment can smother benthic marine species and reduce the feeding ability of mobile marine vertebrates. On land, coating of plant leaves with dust and fine debris can reduce both photosynthetic ability and gas exchange. This section describes and illustrates construction methodology designed to minimize sediment production and control impacts of work on upland portions of the site. Marine dredging activities are described in Chapter 5, along with details of the turbidity control devices and proposed monitoring. Erosion control and construction impact minimization techniques are as follows: 1. Minimize disturbed areas by delineating construction zones and retaining surrounding native vegetation (or planting new vegetation). 2. Coordinate construction activities to minimize soil exposed at one time. 3. Control stormwater entering and leaving the project with diversion ditches and berms. 4. Stabilize soils promptly after construction has been temporarily or permanently completed with sod, mulch, seeding and/ or planting. 5. Protect slopes with one or a combination of techniques. 6. Establish perimeter controls with silt fencing and/or sediment barriers. 7. Retain sediment onsite and control dewatering. 8. Establish stabilized construction exits to reduce mud transport. 9. Inspect and maintain sediment erosion controls. The standard construction sequence is as follows: 1. Mark clearing/grading limits, construction manager / environmental manager to inspect and confirm limits are as planned. 2. Install initial erosion control devices (construction entrance, silt fence etc.). Construction manager to confirm methods are as planned and note any deviations. 3. Clear, grade, fill site as outlined in the site plan, while implementing and maintaining temporary erosion and sediment control practices at the same time. 4. Install permanent erosion protection (impervious surface, landscaping, etc.). Construction manager checks and inspects that all erosion and protection devices are operating. 5. Remove temporary barriers.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

12-Point Checklist: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Mark clearing limits (orange construction fence or marking with ribbon or paint). Establish construction access (gravel entrance and access limits). Control flow rates (using pipe, drainage swales, and/or berms). Install sediment controls (silt fence, sediment traps). Stabilize soils (mulch, hydroseed, straw). Protect slopes (divert water from top of slope, cover with plastic or erosion control blanket). 7. Protect drain inlets, where relevant (catch basin inserts). 8. Stabilize channels and outlets (cover with grass, riprap). 9. Control pollutants (maintain equipment to prevent leaks). 10. Control de-watering, if necessary (pump to sediment trap, dike or settling tanks). 11. Maintain Best Management Practices (BMP’s) (weekly maintenance/replacement, preparation for storm events). 12. Manage the project (establish construction schedule, phasing).

Selection and location of specific erosion control methodologies will be finalized during construction activities. 4.1

CONSTRUCTION EROSION & SEDIMENT CONTROL PLAN

A variety of methods to manage sediment production and transport are described below. The selection of the best method for a given work element depends on factors such as topography, machinery needed, weather conditions and habitat sensitivity. Prior to work commencing for each phase, selected methods will be clearly marked on final construction plans. 4.1.1

Silt Fence

A silt fence is a temporary sediment barrier consisting of filter fabric, attached to supporting posts and entrenched into the soil. The toe of this fence should be buried in a shallow trench to prevent sediment run-off below the silt curtain. See below for example of silt fence correctly installed with stakes at a maximum of 5 feet apart.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

Figure 4: Example of Silt Fence. 4.1.2

BERM Barriers

A continuous berm is a temporary diversion dike or sediment barrier. Sediment barriers should be used down slope of disturbed areas. Sediment barriers are intended to create a barrier to slow the “sheet� flow of storm water and allow the sediment to settle out behind the barrier. Sediment barriers should not be used in streams, channels, ditches or around inlets/outlets of culverts. Sediment barriers may be constructed with infill material (soil, sand or aggregate) encased within a geosynthetic fabric, straw wattles and/or sand bags/ hay bales.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

Figure 5: Example of BERM Barrier - Hay Bale Barrier Option Downslope 4.1.3

Drainage Swales

Drainage swales are temporary ditches (min slope of 0.5% and a maximum of 10%) used to convey concentrated storm water flows away from construction activities into a temporary sediment trap. Swales should be stabilized with erosion protection (see below). Note: swales should be completely stabilized before directing concentrated flows or they themselves will erode.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

4.1.4

Soil Erosion Protection

Soil erosion protection is applied over the soil surface to reduce erosion from rainfall and wind and can be used to aid in the establishment of vegetation. 4.1.4.1 Mulches/Seeding/Hydroseeding Mulching is the application of a protective layer of straw or other suitable material to the soil surface. Mulch can be applied to any site where soil has been disturbed and the protective vegetation has been removed. Materials that may be used for mulching include: • • • •

Straw or hay Compost material Wood or bark chips Hydraulically-applied grass seed (Hydroseed) 4.1.4.2 Erosion Control Blankets/Mats

Erosion control blankets are suited for post-construction site stabilization, but may be used for temporary stabilization of highly erosive soils. Erosion control blankets are suitable for steep slopes, stream banks and where vegetation will be slow to establish. These blankets are typically made from straw, coconut fiber, excelsior or synthetic material that is enveloped in plastic, biodegradable netting, jute, polypropylene, and nylon. 4.1.4.3 Gravel/Riprap Gravel and riprap are used to protect hillsides, drainage channels, stream banks, and pipe outlets from erosion due to surface water flow. These can be applied, as necessary, on the side slopes adjacent to the access-way to the pier, north side. 4.1.4.4 Plastic Sheeting Plastic sheeting is a temporary method of erosion control. Plastic covering provides immediate, short-term erosion protection to slopes, soil stockpiles and other disturbed areas. Unlike the other erosion protection techniques mentioned above, plastic sheeting shall be removed prior to applying permanent erosion protection. 4.1.4.5 Native Vegetation Establishment Planting native vegetation will provide the best environmental option for long-term soil erosion protection. The species will be quick to become established because of the lack of an acclimation period. By incorporating transplanted specimens from a local nursery, the re-created landscape areas will mimic natural landscapes to the greatest extent possible. This will minimize aesthetic

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

pollution and create the optimal environment to encourage wildlife use of the site. Landscaping goals also include minimizing clearing of natural vegetation and eradicating exotic or nuisance plant species. 4.2

SEDIMENT CONTROL MONITORING AND INSPECTIONS

All construction personnel will be encouraged to attend environmental training given by the Environmental Manager (EM) and staff for this project. During construction, the EM will be responsible to perform documented inspections and to conduct maintenance to ensure that the erosion prevention and sediment control best management practices are functioning properly and no off-site sedimentation is occurring. A weekly summary report will be prepared and sent by email to BEST. While the construction site is active, the contractor, overseen by the EM, will be responsible for conducting inspections on all components of erosion prevention and sediment control plan to ensure functionality. Construction managers will inspect all silt fences and other erosion and sediment control devices no less than once a week and maintain or replace as necessary. This will be achieved by visual inspection, driving or walking the perimeter of the property or protected area. Success criteria are as follows: • • •

Work is proceeding as planned and described in the EIA and EMP. Negative environmental impacts are equal to or less than those described in the EIA. All procedures and safeguards are in place to protect the natural environment from negative impacts of construction. Staff is well versed with the environmental significance of its particular job and possesses the training to employ appropriate environmental practices.

Should corrective action be required to bring construction activities in-line with that approved by the EMP, the following procedures will be enacted: 1. Environmental managers will document, via monitoring forms, the nature, extent and significance of the deviation observed and this will be communicated to the BEST Commission within 24 hours. E-mails and telephone communications will be used particularly where speed is of the essence to prevent further environmental impact. 2. In coordination with construction and project managers, appropriate remedial action will be developed and enacted no less than 48 hours after initial observation of the deviation in consultation with BEST. 3. All forms and memos will be made available to BEST. A sample report form for a sediment control monitoring event can be found in Appendix E.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

5.0 CHANNEL DREDGING AND TURBIDITY CONTROL PLAN Approximately 220,000 cubic yards of dredge spoil will be generated by the dredging phase of the Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal project. Most of the dredge spoil will be calcareous sand and limestone. Refer to the Andersen Consulting Geotechnical Report (Appendix L) for detailed information regarding the substrates to be dredged and utilized. The dredge spoil shall be used for the construction of the ferry terminal island. The spoil is considered a valuable resource, suitable for use as fill for land reclamation and as construction material for civil works throughout the Bahamas. The ferry terminal island fill area will be 800 feet long and 250 feet wide. The terminal will be constructed to a fill level of +12 feet to best accommodate marine vessel mooring and defense against the elements. The size of the island is mainly driven by the facilities to be provided on the island, the vessels to be accommodated, and the final volume of dredged material that will be generated (saving the need to transport the material elsewhere). Any excess balance of fill will be distributed to the existing back-of-house dredge disposal area via pipeline. Excavation of the channel area and transportation of the dredged material to the ferry terminal island is to be accomplished using a hydraulic cutter suction dredge (HCSD) for the excavation and suction pipeline methodology to transport the dredged material. The HCSD consists of floating equipment connected to a powerful pump and a cutter head mounted on the end of a "ladder," which is in turn lowered to the bottom. The cutterhead has rotating teeth that loosen material. The pump sucks up the loosened material and transports it by pipeline directly to the discharge end of the pipe. Generally, the pipeline conveys up to 25 percent solids and 75 or more percent water. At the discharge end of the pipe, deposition of the solids is dependent on the weight of individual particles of material with the coarse material settling closest to the pipe and the finest settling the farthest away. The finest particles will stay in suspension for a longer period of time. The solid material generated from the dredging will be trapped behind the steel sheet piling for the new island (or inside the settlement ponds of the dredge disposal area). See attached Figure 6 below.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

Figure 6: Schematic of Cutter Head and Typical Photograph of Cutter Head Dredge To meet the scheduled arrival of the new ferry in the fall of 2013, current planning requires that the 220,000 cubic yards of dredging (the area necessary for the ferry to enter and depart from the harbor) be completed within one to two months. This requires a dredge with an average production rate of 10,000 cubic yards per day. This will likely require an HCSD with a 27 - 30 inch discharge pipe. This discharge pipe would first discharge into an area encased by steel sheet piles for the construction of the ferry terminal island. Deposition of a large volume of dredged material directly into the sea to construct the Ferry Terminal Island without some sort of containment would create turbidity problems. Turbidity control measures are discussed below.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

5.1

DISPOSAL OF DREDGED SPOIL

The contractor will manage the return water generated by the dredging by utilizing the newlyinstalled steel sheet piling (encompassing the island’s perimeter) as a stilling basin and final disposal site of the dredged spoil. Containment in this area will allow finer particles to drop out of the water column prior to discharge into sea. In order to limit the amount of fines that re-enter the sea during disposal, the stilling basin will be designed specifically for the retention of suspended solids. Any excess dredged material will be used on the Bimini Bay Resort Development, through the use of the previously-existing settlement ponds in the back-of-house dredge disposal area. 5.2

TURBIDITY CONTROL

The containment of turbidity is considered particularly important due to the existing presence of sensitive receptors such as the high relief reef dive spots in close proximity. Containment of sedimentation during dredging will be achieved primarily with the use of the steel sheetpile and pipe-pile vertical wall. However, at any small openings and/or discharge points, small sections of turbidity curtain will be utilized. The EM and trained construction oversight staff will work onsite and directly with the contractors to observe the installation of turbidity curtains and to resolve any anchoring issues. The following turbidity curtain details are to be referenced when determining the type of curtain to be used during dredging and construction operations: Lightweight Turbidity Curtain Application: Calm waters with little current, such as ponds, canals, and shoreline areas. Specifications: - Reinforced vinyl - High visibility yellow - Connector – Laced together through grommets and load lines bolted together - Floatation – 6” expanded polystyrene over 9lbs/ft buoyancy - Ballast – ¼” galvanized chain Heavyweight Turbidity Curtain Application: Areas exposed to current, wind, and tides. Specifications: - High-strength nylon and reinforced vinyl - High visibility yellow (22 oz yd2 weight) - Connector – Snap hooks and rings connect load lines with slotted, reinforced PVC pipe for fabric closure - Floatation – 12” expanded polystyrene over 29lbs/ft buoyancy - Ballast – 5/16” galvanized wire ropes with heavy vinyl coating

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

The following activities will be done in conjunction with the installation and maintenance of the turbidity curtains: • • • • •

Identification of the limits of containment relative to proposed excavation areas. Anchoring of the turbidity curtain as necessary to control turbid water and keep the curtain in place when currents/tides/waves are heavy. Visual in-water inspections of the installed curtains and corrective measures enforced for deficiencies found. Regular maintenance and replacement of damaged curtains. Continuous adjustments of curtains to maximize containment.

See example of a turbidity curtain below in Figure 7.

Figure 7: Example of Turbidity Curtain around Barge Activity 5.3

TURBIDITY MONITORING, INSPECTIONS, AND REPORTING

Prescribed monitoring of turbidity levels will also be engaged to document silt loads within and outside the dredge limits. The EM and contractor will be responsible for continuously monitoring turbidity with shutdown actions taken if testing results exceed prescribed levels. Background and compliance measurements are to be taken for the new island, the pier, the dredging site, and the disposal site mixing zone, as well as the 14 dive sites. Turbidity is generally reported in nephelometric turbidity units (NTUs). The term nephelometric refers to the way the instrument estimates how light is scattered by suspended particulate material in the water. The Nephelometer, also called a turbidimeter, has a photocell set at 90 degrees to the direction of the light beam to estimate scattered rather than absorbed light. This

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

measurement generally provides a strong correlation with the concentration of particles in the water that affect clarity. In order to monitor turbidity levels at appropriate locations, a 2,000 foot mixing zone around the source of turbidity is to be utilized. The background measurements are to be taken at least 2,000 feet up current from the active dredge location and at the point where discharge water is returning, clearly outside the influence of any artificially generated turbidity immediately outside of the 2,000 mixing zone, and at each of the 14 dive sites. Measurements will always be made in the densest part of the turbidity plume. All sampling is to be taken at a depth of three feet from the surface at each station. See attached turbidity sampling map with dimensions to each dive site sampling location in Appendix H. Monitoring Prior to Construction Two (2) weeks and one (1) week prior to the start of construction, turbidity measurements should be made to establish background levels. Latitude and longitude coordinates of the proposed dredge and discharge locations, and the distance between the sampling stations and the dredge/discharge points should be documented. The background results should be sent to the Ministry of the Environment and BEST one (1) week prior to construction commencement. Monitoring During Construction Turbidity measurements will be made by the EM using a turbidity meter that is calibrated daily to manufacturer’s standards and zeroed at the start of each measurement event. Turbidity monitoring will be performed during all in-water work, both for initial construction and maintenance events. The measurements should be recorded, analyzed and the results submitted to the Ministry of the Environment / BEST Commission weekly for reference. During construction of the marine structures and dredging work, measurements should be made according to the following schedule: •

Every six daytime hours during initial operations (no more than 10 days) and once per day thereafter.

In the absence of legislation mandating acceptable turbidity levels in the Bahamas, most projects follow parameters set forth by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). The DEP states that turbidity "shall not exceed 29 NTU's above the associated background turbidity levels as prescribed in the 'Monitoring Required' section pursuant to Rule 62-302, of the Florida Administrative Code." The North Bimini Ferry Terminal Island project, however, will adopt a more stringent value of 13 NTUs outside of the mixing zone, and 9 NTUs around nearby dive sites (excluding the Sea Gardens site) given the high value and sensitivity of marine resources in the vicinity.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

The pre-determined limit of turbidity levels at the compliance stations will be (the background measurement taken upstream of the turbidity source) + 13 NTU = “X” NTUs. However, if background measurements exceed the pre-determined limit of “X” NTUs, the background measurement shall be used for comparison of compliance measurements. In other words, compliance measurements shall be compared with the daily background measurement or the predetermined limit of “X” NTUs, whichever is higher. If monitoring reveals turbidity levels at the compliance sites in excess of the limit of “X” NTUs, construction activities shall cease immediately and not resume until corrective measures have been taken and turbidity has returned to an acceptable level. Any such occurrence shall also be immediately reported to the EM and the BEST Commission Officer. Corrective measures may include improvements to the turbidity barrier arrangements, a slower rate of dredging or disposal of return water, and/or the use of geotextiles or flocculants at the disposal site. The turbidity curtains shall only be lifted or removed when turbidity at the dredge location returns to background levels. If construction methodology cannot meet the above standards, new NTU limits will need to be negotiated with the BEST Commission, in order to complete the project. Monitoring After Construction After in-water construction activities are complete, measurements will be made weekly for a period of one (1) month. All records will be available to BEST for review. The BEST Commission is encouraged to participate and observe testing and monitoring procedures at any time. Turbidity monitoring will be performed for all dredging work, both for initial construction and future maintenance events. Reporting Daily monitoring logs will include the following information for each sample: a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Date and time of day of sampling; Antecedent weather conditions; Tidal stage and direction of flow; Wind direction and velocity; Latitude / Longitude coordinates (X, Y) of each sampling location; A description of any factors influencing the dredging at the time of the monitoring; and Final measurements.

Logs shall be generated daily, even when no sampling is conducted. See Appendix F for a sample of the report format. When sampling is not conducted, a brief statement shall be given to explain the rationale, such as “dredge not working” or “no sampling due to high seas”. A sample turbidity monitoring log and Sampling Map can be found in Appendix H.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

A turbidity monitoring schedule is as follows. SAMPLING LOCATION Footprint of Project (dredge, island, pier) Footprint of Project (dredge, island, pier) Footprint of Project (dredge, island, pier) Footprint of Project (dredge, island, pier)

TIMING

PURPOSE

1 and 2 weeks prior to construction start First 10 days - daily every 6 hours during construction Once per day through completion of construction Once per day for 1 month postconstruction

Background Sample Compliance Samples

RESPONSIBLE PARTY Environmental Manager Environmental Manager

Compliance Samples

Environmental Manager

Compliance Samples

Environmental Manager

Figure 8: Turbidity Monitoring Schedule

Figure 9: Turbidity Sampling Location Map - Typical (to be field adjusted as necessary). Also found in Appendix H.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

6.0 BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMP’S): CONTROL & IMPLEMENTATION Construction workers and Project employees perform daily activities that have the potential to discharge pollutants. All groups should consistently implement the procedures, or BMP’s, applicable to these activities. It is the responsibility of the contractor or operational group overseeing these activities to make certain that these activities are completed within the guidelines of this EMP. Effective implementation of the BMP’s is dependent on the following components: 1. Effective training and/or oversight of staff and contract employees working in construction efforts, maintenance and operation facilities, as well as landscaping operations. 2. Regular inspections of fixed facilities, field programs, and treatment controls. 3. Maintenance of treatment controls as needed to promote proper functioning. 4. Periodic evaluation/monitoring of BMP performance to be consistent with EMP guidelines. 5. Prompt follow-up action to correct deficiencies in BMP implementation noted during inspections. 6. Accurate record keeping that tracks inspections, monitoring, and BMP maintenance. 6.1

PUBLIC NOTICING AND COMMENCEMENT

The local public will be advised of the date of the commencement of construction by signs posted at and adjacent to the construction site at least 1 week in advance of construction. The public will also be notified of any changes in the construction schedule through appropriate signage. Signs will be purchased at Universal Signs and Accessories (or a similar company): 3001 Orange Avenue, Fort Pierce, FL 34947 (772) 461-0665 or (800) 432-0331 Fax (772) 461-0669 http://www.universalsignsfl.com/ 6.2

WASTE MANAGEMENT

Presently, household and commercial garbage is collected daily and deposited at a 10-acre lined landfill site on South Bimini. This landfill is expected to provide storage for 20 years; however, this estimate of remaining life will be modified when Bimini Bay development and construction of the North Bimini Ferry Terminal project comes fully on-line. Also, North Bimini has no publicly-operated or centrally located sewage waste treatment facilities on the island, although Bimini Bay operates a private one. This sewerage treatment

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

facility can accommodate 150,000 gallons a day and is readily increased to accommodate up to 800,000 gallons per day. Outside of Bimini Bay, sanitary waste is collected in septic tanks which are typically installed with drain fields or disposal wells. 6.2.1

Waste Management During Construction

The waste minimization plan for this project is to first purchase products and materials that are engineered and custom-made for the application, thus minimizing waste. The top waste streams are identified as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Cardboard Metal Wood Drywall Concrete and block Balance of material

Employees will be educated as to the best safety practices and waste management practices for their task. Construction staff will be informed of best management practices for waste minimization and disposal as part of the employee education training required for all staff. Personnel with queries about a non-routine waste would first contact their immediate supervisor, and henceforth the EM officer. They should be empowered to act without further recourse to company supervisors in matters of such kind. The issue of waste management should be a permanent agenda item at weekly construction meetings during health and safety discussions. Monitoring of the effectiveness of procedures will fall within the scope of work of environmental managers who will conduct record keeping and deal with any unusual situations that may warrant revision of established practices. After the first month of work, environmental managers will, having assessed waste management on a weekly basis, be in a position to best describe appropriate and achievable minimization strategies. Construction debris will include: 1. Solid waste generated from trees and shrubs removed during land clearing, demolition or existing structures (rubble), and building construction; 2. Packaging materials including wood, paper and plastic; 3. Scrap or surplus building materials including scrap metals, rubber, plastic, glass pieces, and masonry products; and 4. Domestic wastes including food containers such as beverage cans, coffee cups, paper bags, plastic wrappers, and cigarettes.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

Waste Management During Construction BMP’s • •

• • • • • • •

• • •

Design to use less. Evaluate the design to see if there are ways to increase the efficiency of materials used. All contracts will require best efforts to use engineered systems that reduce the amount of cutting and therefore the amount of waste (see “Construction Waste Minimization” below). Every effort will be made to minimize waste in these areas by procuring engineered systems that reduce the amount of cutting and therefore the amount of waste. Use standard dimensions for lumber and drywall. Buy only as much material as you need to get the job done. Salvage and reuse items and material that is in good condition such as doors, cabinets, and equipment. Make subcontractors responsible for minimizing their own waste where possible. Use alternative materials, such as engineered wood products, which can be ordered to the specifications required. Encourage subcontractors and employees to reuse and recycle. Discuss waste handling requirements before beginning a project and ask for their suggestions about more efficient methods or materials. No burning of waste other than small amounts of non-treated lumber, if deemed unsuitable for mulching, may be burned in-situ. All non-CCA treated lumber and landscaping debris should be stockpiled, where possible, in the landscaping coordination area and chipped for use as mulch. Any treated lumber (typically green in appearance) that may be leftover from marina construction, will be stockpiled for haulage to a designated landfill. Used oil and antifreeze should be collected in marked containers and offered for recycling. Lead-acid storage batteries, such as used in golf carts and for starting other equipment, are classified as special wastes and must be recycled. All lead-acid battery retailers are required by law (US law) to accept returned batteries for recycling. Used acid from these batteries contains high levels of lead and must be disposed of as hazardous waste, unless contained within a battery being recycled.

CONSTRUCTION WASTE MINIMIZATION: Design • • • • •

Design assemblies to match the standard dimensions of the materials to be used, reducing waste and material cost. Design for disassembly, so materials can be readily reused or recycled. Use clips and stops to support drywall or wood paneling at corners. Clips and stops to replace blocking at top plates, end walls, and corners. Materials to be attached with removable fasteners when possible.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

• • •

Design for flexibility and changing use of spaces. Materials delivered pre-cut (where possible) for rapid, nearly waste-free installation, such as structural insulated panels, panelized wood framing, and pre-cast concrete. Specify materials with high recycled content, reducing waste and supporting the market for recycling.

Purchasing • • • • •

Choose products with little or no packaging, or seek suppliers who will reuse or recycle the packaging. Confirm that estimating methods result in the delivery of the correct quantity of material to the job site. Seek high-quality previously-used materials early in the purchasing process to ensure availability, cut cost, and reduce waste. Rent infrequently used tools. Use materials that are durable, locally made, non-toxic, and/or have low embodied energy help reduce solid waste, minimize air and water pollution, and support the local economy.

Construction • • • • • •

Measure twice and cut once. Clean tools well, and store them properly. Protect materials from the elements. Deconstructing and salvaging of existing materials. Site will develop a waste reduction plan, including waste prevention. Assign responsibility for implementing the construction waste management plan to a specific person on the construction team. Include time in the schedule for salvage and recycling. Require participation of all team members, including subcontractors.

A waste management form will be used to track waste production at the project site during construction, and it may allow construction and environmental managers to identify areas where improvements might be made. See Appendix O for reference to a possible waste management tracking form. Revisions will likely be made as the project moves into operational stages. 6.2.2

Waste Management During Operations

Waste streams during operation of the ferry terminal will include: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Solid, mixed, wastes from public areas; Landscaping debris; Sanitary and septic waste; and Hazardous materials from service areas.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

Sanitary and Septic Waste All sanitary waste water generated on/from the ferry will be taken back to South Florida. However, the proposed project will generate increased sanitary wastewater associated with the ferry terminal passengers on Bimini while visiting the island. The sanitary wastewater generated by the proposed project will be collected by sanitary sewer lines that will flow to a centralized treatment facility. The wastewater will undergo tertiary treatment such that the treated effluent can be suitable for reclaimed water use for irrigation purposes. De-nutrification will be a component of the wastewater treatment process. Re-use of treated wastewater for irrigation will result in further reductions in nutrient concentrations, including total nitrogen, as plants will utilize the residual nutrients. Excess wastewater not used for irrigation will be discharged into a deep injection well. Sewage pumpout will be provided at the ferry terminal for the mega-yachts. A vacuum system will be used to pump the wastewater into a septic tank located in the vicinity of the terminal with an associated deep well, or the sewage will be pumped into a pump-out cart, and transported to a receptacle at the marina or nearest receptacle connection into the main sewer line. The ferry terminal will also be responsible for: • • • • • •

Tying down portable facilities where there are high winds (>30 knots); Educating employees on restroom locations; Discharging or burying the waste offsite is prohibited; Inspecting and maintaining facilities regularly; Placing all hazardous materials in secondary containment; Inspecting waste containers regularly for labeling and leaks.

Waste Management During Operations BMP’s •

• • • •

Closed dumpsters will be located in the service area. Refuse will be collected frequently by service personnel who will patrol the project weekly to pick-up waste and empty trash-cans from public areas. Waste will be transported to common dumpsters and stored until collection by the commercial waste management service. Designate trash and bulk waste-collection areas and keep them away from roadways, gutters, waterways and storm drains. An area will be designated to store trimmings and debris from landscaping operations so that they can be chipped and used as mulch, where possible. Segregate waste that can be incinerated from waste that must be taken to a landfill, and provide proper disposal of hazardous material wastes. Details of hazardous waste management are provided in the following section. Best Management Practices will be enacted and no disposal other than at the authorized facility will be authorized.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

• •

Additionally, wastewater and sewage from all public areas and private residences will be piped to and treated at the sewage treatment plant. Recycle materials when possible.

Should an instance arise where a non-routine waste needed to be dealt with, an employee should approach his or her immediate supervisor who would then take any remaining issue to the EM. The issue of waste management and success of prescribed BMP’s will be addressed in annual monitoring reports complied by environmental managers. Should revisions to the EMP be required based on occurrences of non-compliance, they will be developed by staff experienced with the project and EMP. Once construction of the ferry terminal is complete, the ferry service will provide an opportunity to ship recyclable materials to Florida. This recycling program will be implemented after a detailed study of waste management for the island is completed. Note that once the recycling program is put in place, plastic, cardboard, glass and aluminum would be sorted in Bimini and shipped to Miami. It is assumed that the introduction of a recycling system for the island will potentially reduce the amount of material to the landfill site on South Bimini by 50%. Moreover, the Managing Director at Bahamas Waste Ltd. has advised that they would like to receive Bimini’s cardboard and used cooking oil. Bimini Bay will commission a consultant to implement a recycling program for Bimini once the terminal is fully operational. 6.3

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL STAGING AREAS

A five-acre+ warehouse and utility area is designated to house equipment and act as a staging location for various aspects associated with the various phases of construction (pier construction, terminal island construction, and channel dredging). Please see Figure 10 for the location of the proposed staging area.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

Figure 10: Staging Area - Back-of-House 6.4

CONCRETE AND PAINTING/WASHING AREAS

Concrete from concrete trucks should not be washed out into the street or into the storm drains. Solids that are washed out of the concrete trucks can clog storm drains, causing flooding and expensive clean-up. The wash water is typically very alkaline, which means it has a very high acidity. Water typically must have a pH in the range of 6.5-9.0 in order for aquatic life to survive. Concrete wash water typically has a pH of 12 or above. A pH of 9 is close to the highest level of alkalinity that aquatic life can tolerate. If allowed to escape the site, concrete wash water can have a severe effect on marine life.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

Other significant pollutants in concrete wash water are heavy metals such as chromium. If wash water that is high in heavy metals leaches through the soil to the ocean, it can contaminate the ocean and surrounding marine communities. There are several different ways to build a concrete washout facility, the simplest being to dig a pit and line it with plastic sheeting that is at least 10-mil thick. A portable facility is also possible to construct, by building a box with a liner to contain the washout. There are also several products available for purchase that are effective, portable concrete washout containers. A specific location will be designated to catch wash water for evaporation and solids removal. The wash station will be located as far from storm drains and water bodies as possible. Employees and contractors will be made aware of the location of the wash station through both verbal instruction and signage and must understand that it is mandatory they use the wash station. Because concrete wash water can be highly polluted, it is recommended the wash water be allowed to evaporate and then the hardened concrete be recycled.

Figure 11: Typical, Inexpensive Concrete Wash-out Setup 6.5

FUELING

Bimini Bay currently has existing facilities for the storage and distribution of fuel, which in 2009 were tested and approved by a registered Fuel Contractor. No ferry fueling is proposed and no fueling is to take place at the ferry terminal during operation so the following guidelines are proposed for landside fueling operations primarily during construction. During the construction of the ferry terminal, the fuel storage and dispensing systems will be monitored. The on-site warehouse manager or construction manager will be responsible for locking any fuel pumps and will be in charge of all access keys and combinations. Both he and any employee he assigns this duty to will be trained in proper fueling and fuel spill cleanup procedures. At least one qualified employee will be present for all fueling activities.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

To ensure waste associated with machinery and vehicle fueling is properly handled, the Project will establish an equipment/vehicle fueling station that has secondary containment, an emergency fuel spill kit, and security. Equipment/vehicle maintenance should also be done in a location specifically designed to contain any spills. Application of safe practice in fuel usage will minimize the likelihood of any accidental leak or spill. General fueling guidelines to be followed on the Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal will include: 1. Posting operating and safety instructions near any fueling facility. 2. Keeping fuel pumps locked except when in active use. 3. Have emergency shut off valves located at each pump. Ensure that clearly marked emergency shut-off switches, communications and spill containment equipment is visible from all fueling areas. 4. Attend to all loading, unloading or fueling events. 5. Have drip pans or pads within sight of any fuel transfer procedure and using funnels plus pads or pans when transferring fuel to portable containers. 6. Ensure responsibility for all portable containers in use at any time and return them to the proper storage location after use. 7. Ensure marked funnels for oil and gas are located at all times in the fueling area. 8. Ensure access to rags for small spills, with dedicated fireproof rag container. 9. Have tray available to go underneath portable fuel containers. 10. Ensure fire extinguishers are available at each of the fueling locations. Signs that will be posted in Fueling Area: 1. Smoking Is Prohibited. 2. Please Be Sure Vessel Is Parked Securely Before Fueling Begins. 3. Engines Must Be Off Prior To Fueling. 4. Please Avoid Overfilling Of Tanks; Spills Are Dangerous To You And The Environment. 5. All Portable Fuel Tanks Will Be Removed From the Vessel And Filled on the land in the Fueling Tray. 6. An Emergency Shut Off Switch For the Gasoline Dispenser Is Located Here. 7. Please Report all Spills, No Matter How Small. 8. Please Off Load All Passengers Before Fueling. 9. Please Make Sure That You Use The Proper Oil To Gas Ratio. 10. Please Place All Empty Oil Receptacles In Marked Container. Fueling Area Preparation Protocol • • •

Ensure fueling area is free of debris and obstructions and that safe fueling materials listed above are in place. Visually inspect hoses and supply lines for wear or damage. Unlock fueling station.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

Inspect fuel dispenser trays for any signs of fuel leaks. The dispenser tray is the drain location for any failures in the fuel line upstream. If you notice fuel collecting in the tray please notify management. Fixing the problem immediately can save large costs associated with lost fuel and spill cleanup. Inspect fuel dispenser trays for water. If water is present, use a hand pump to remove the water to a five-gallon bilge water container or similar; properly dispose of the five-gallon container.

Evening Fuel Activities: • • • •

Secure and lock fuel-dispensing nozzles. Using a 5-gallon lidded container marked for used oil containers, carry empty containers to the used oil receptacle. Drain all oil and place empty containers in waste receptacle. Using a fireproof container marked for used fuel and oil absorbent pads, carry and dispose of soaked pads to the used fuel and oil absorbent container. Using a fireproof container marked for soiled rags, carry soiled rags to the soiled rag receptacle.

Figure 12: Typical Fuel Dispenser Nozzle secured in Dispenser Cabinet Inspections: 1. Fuel tanks will be inspected weekly for leaks and overall soundness. 2. Shell thickness will be tested every other year by an engineer. 3. Tank inventories will be taken weekly, or as appropriate, using sounding stick and conversion table. 4. Any above-ground ground piping to be visually inspected every week. 5. Below ground piping will be inspected where the pipe breaks the ground weekly. 6. Corrosion and deterioration of mastic coating will be monitored. Valves, gaskets, flanges will be visually inspected weekly and monitored for leaks or stains.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

7. Diked areas will be monitored daily. Accumulated water will be inspected for an oily sheen. Areas will be drained, recording date, time and approximate quantity discharged, noting no oily discharge has been released. 8. Spill prevention equipment will be inventoried monthly or after use and a list of items needing replacement will be submitted to purchasing.

Figure 13: Fuel Spill Absorption Pads and Booms Fueling BMP’s • • • • • • • •

6.6

All employees and contractors will be trained in proper fueling and maintenance techniques. Equipment/vehicles will be inspected regularly for leaks or damage. Drip pans, cloths or sorbent pads will be used when changing vehicle fluids or fueling. All spent fluids will be collected for either storage or recycling. Fuel tanks will never be overfilled. Discourage “topping-off” of fuel tanks; an increase in temperature can cause fuel to expand and overflow. When fueling occurs on-site, designated areas will be used. These areas will be located away from drainage courses, to prevent the run-on of storm water and the runoff of spills. Always use secondary containment such as a drain pan to catch when fuel spills/leaks. Avoid mobile fueling of mobile construction equipment around the site; rather, transport the equipment to designated fueling areas. With the exception of tracked equipment such as bulldozers and perhaps forklifts, most vehicles should be able to travel to a designated area with little lost time. EQUIPMENT/VEHICLE MAINTENANCE

Equipment/vehicle maintenance or repair will be performed in designated areas, preferably covered or enclosed areas where possible, to contain odor, noise, or hazardous waste generation/spills. Visual inspection of heavy equipment and support vehicles will be performed regularly. The following list of Best Management Practices for vehicle and equipment maintenance will be followed:

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance BMP’s •

• •

• • • • • • •

6.7

If maintenance must occur on-site, a designated area will be used and /or a secondary containment, located away from drainage courses, to prevent the run-on of storm water and the runoff of spills. Regular inspection of on-site vehicles and equipment for leaks will occur, and repairs made as quickly as possible. Check incoming vehicles and equipment (including delivery trucks and employee and subcontractor vehicles) for leaking oil and fluids. Leaking vehicles or equipment should not be allowed on-site. Always use secondary containment, such as a drain pan or drop cloth, to catch spills or leaks when removing or changing fluids. Regularly inspect on-site vehicles and equipment for leaks, and repair immediately. Place drip pans or absorbent materials under paving equipment when not in use. Use adsorbent materials on small spills rather than hosing down or burying the spill. Remove the adsorbent materials promptly and dispose of properly. Promptly transfer used fluids to the proper waste or recycling drums. Do not leave full drip pans or other open containers lying around. Keep vehicles and equipment clean; don’t allow excessive build-up of oil and grease. Oil filters disposed of in trashcans or dumpsters can leak oil and pollute storm water. Place the oil filter in a funnel over a waste oil-recycling drum to drain excess oil before disposal. Store cracked batteries in a non-leaking secondary container. Do this with all cracked batteries, even if you think all the acid has drained out. If you drop a battery, treat it as if it is cracked. Put it into the containment area until you are sure it is not leaking. EQUIPMENT/VEHICLE WASHING AND NON-STORMWATER DISCHARGE

Vehicle/equipment washing will be done in a designated location in the staging yard where the maximum amount of wash water can be contained. Vehicle/equipment washing will primarily be done with high-pressure water and no soaps to remove the dirt. Employees will be made aware of the location of the wash area and that it is mandatory to use this area. Non-stormwater discharges will be routed to sediment detention ponds, or basins, or a drainage system. Nonstormwater discharges might be vehicle/equipment wash water, water used for dust control, or landscape irrigation. 6.8

DUST CONTROL PLAN

To help control the fine dust particles that may be generated by the construction of this project, reclaimed water will be sprayed throughout the construction site, and wheels will be washed when departing from active construction site at an a designated location immediately on exit from the construction site. The amount of water to be used will be actively controlled to prevent run-off from the site. Stockpiles and hauling trucks will be covered to prevent dust generation. Adjacent roadways and construction access roads will be kept clean of dirt and debris as well. 40


Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

6.9

NOISE CONTROL PLAN

Ambient noise is not expected to elevate to levels that would cause significant disturbance to wildlife or project neighbors, as a result of the proposed construction work. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank have suggested a standard guideline value for average outdoor noise levels of 55 decibels (dB), applied during normal daytime to prevent significant interference with the normal activities of local communities. Any noise above 90 decibels (dB) risks injury to the ears and the louder the noise the shorter exposure needed for damage. As a guide, normal conversation is about 50dB to 60dB, what the brain perceives as loud music is about 100dB, a pneumatic drill at 1m (3.2ft) is about 120dB and a jet engine at 30 meters (98.4ft) is about 130dB. As per the BEST EIA Guidelines for Housing Developments, measures for noise management include incorporating buffer zones, management of work hours, and use of mufflers and protective equipment for construction personnel. Noise monitoring is planned as part of the suite of monitoring activities. Any noise elevation should be minor in extent and temporary in nature. 6.9.1

Construction

Equipment planned for use during construction phase includes, but is not limited to: • • • • • • • • • • •

4 wheel drive vehicles Bobcats Chippers/mulchers Front end loaders Cranes Dump trucks, pans, graders Backhoes Portable generators Pile drivers Dredge machinery Barges & Tug Boats

Some of the proposed machinery proposed for use comes with specific noise abating inclusions. With these and any item for which it is available, noise attenuating packages such as additional exhaust mufflers or silencers may be selected. All construction workers in the vicinity of pile drivers and pneumatic drills should be provided with heavy-duty earmuffs. Dredging and pile driving work may need to proceed on a 24 hour basis. The site layout is such that a buffer zone is present between the work location and adjacent residences so that noise generated during construction should remain at acceptable levels. All 41


Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

noise complaints will be recorded and available to the BEST Commission if necessary. See Anticipated Noise Levels Map in Figure 13 below.

Figure 14: Anticipated Noise Levels. These will be monitored once daily during construction. 6.9.2

Operations

Noise generating machinery that may be in use during the operational phase includes: • • • •

Fast Ferry Back-up Generators Automobiles Lawnmowers, blowers and other landscaping equipment 42


Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

As typical construction machinery such as backhoes, automobiles and chippers do not come with specific noise dampening ability; protocols for work hours are the best option for management in this area. • •

During regular operations, no noisy equipment such as blowers, lawnmowers or chippers will be allowed prior to 7:00AM any day. On commencement of operations out of courtesy to residents, work that might entail loud noise should cease at 7:00 pm, unless absolutely mandatory to meet production schedules.

Grounds personnel operating loud equipment such as leaf blowers will be required to wear protective devices (e.g. ear mufflers). 6.9.3

Reporting Requirements

During construction, the BEST Commission will be notified once per week, via email report, the results of on-site noise monitoring, based on the Noise Monitoring Map in Figure 14 above. The daily results will be collated, and any exceedance noted. If there is an exceedance, mitigative measures that were taken to reduce the noise levels will be documented. Following completion of construction, noise levels will be monitored once per month during ferry arrival or departure in particular for one year to document on-going noise abatement requirements, if any.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

7.0 EMERGENCY AND HAZARDS MANAGEMENT An environmental emergency is any event that causes or has the potential to cause environmental damage. Hazards are events that are potentially dangerous to human health or property. This chapter outlines guidelines and procedures that will be followed at the Ferry Terminal, both pertaining to general operations and to emergency situations. Emergency management guidelines will be posted at the following locations: • •

Storm and fire evacuation procedures in all facility common areas. Hurricane planning procedures in all facility common areas.

Additionally, emergency contact detail cards will be posted at various locations throughout the project, including adjacent to all fire alarms and extinguishers, fuel facilities and common areas. These will be cards placed within plastic envelopes so that they may be easily and frequently updated. In the event of any emergency situation, the manager on duty would contact the police or fire services if required. During construction any supervisory staff member can contact emergency sources if necessary. The construction and site general managers will determine need for evacuation from the property. Emergency phones will be provided in all facility common areas. FUEL SPILLS & SPILL PREVENTION

7.1

Increased use of petroleum products (i.e. diesel and gasoline fuels) and potentially other hazardous materials, presents an increased risk of accidental spillage or release into the environment, which could negatively impact marine water quality and groundwater quality, if not properly managed. The overall significance of the potential to adversely impact water quality resulting from potential oil spills and hazardous materials releases from the proposed project and infrastructure are expected to be low. Note that bilge pump-out should also be prohibited at the terminal to avoid oily discharge. Proper procedures will be observed with a focus on spill prevention and safe operations. Secondary containment will include concrete pads under all above-ground fuel tanks, doublewalled underground fuel tanks (where possible for new tank installation) and double-walled piping in the fuel area for any new piping installation work. Spill containment equipment will include enough floating, absorbent boom to encircle the largest vessel at the facility, absorbent pads and disposal equipment. See Figure 13 for an example of the absorbent booms and pads. Enough boom should be made available to fit around a standard ship length. The following is a list of controls that will be installed or maintained on the ferry terminal to prevent fuel spills during construction: •

Secondary Containment Tanks – Any storage tanks will be double walled.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

• • •

• • • • •

Electronic Leak Detection – A monitoring system will be used with external visual and audible alarms where feasible. Secondary Containment Piping – All underground diesel fuel piping and all dock piping will be fire resistant. Secondary Containment Fuel Cart & Dispensing – All piping and mechanical fitting for fuel dispensing and fuel cart connections should be installed within a secondary containment sump, where feasible. Manual Shut Off Valves – Manual shut off valves will be installed onshore, at transition points, and at connection sumps. Connection Sump Fire Extinguisher – Each connection sump will have a heat activated fire extinguisher. Electrical Disconnects – Electrical disconnects will be located at all sources of ignition and stop all pumps within the entire fuel system upon activation. Submersible Leak Detection – Fuel system submersible pumping units are equipped with mechanical leak detection. Electronic Shutoffs – All sumps within the entire fuel system will have installed a sensor that will shut off the flow of fuel if the senor comes in contact with liquid.

No fueling will be authorized on the Ferry Terminal once construction is complete and operations are underway. 7.2

HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CONTROL & SPILL PREVENTION

All hazardous materials (in particular that which could possibly contaminate stormwater) will be stored in designated, secure locations onsite and will be barged to Nassau for proper disposal at the New Providence Sanitary Landfill. Secondary containment must also be used in these storage locations and containers shall be regularly inspected for labeling and leaks. Hazardous materials will always be stored under cover and out of direct sunlight and rain. Employees will be trained in storage and handling techniques for hazardous materials and inspections will be made regularly by management to ensure the storage guidelines are followed. Special arrangements shall be made for proper disposal of scrap materials, waste oils and any other potentially hazardous materials in compliance with the regulations of the Department of Environmental Health. The Department of Environmental Health should be consulted whenever appropriate. Uplands: 1. Clean up leaks and spills immediately. 2. On paved surfaces, clean up spills with as little water as possible. Use a rag for small spills, a damp mop for general cleanup, and absorbent material for larger spills. If the spilled material is hazardous, then the used cleanup materials are also hazardous and must be sent to either a certified laundry (rags) or disposed of as hazardous waste. 3. Never hose down or bury dry material spills. Clean up as much of the material as possible and dispose of properly.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

4. Check incoming vehicles and equipment (including delivery trucks and employee and subcontractor vehicles) for leaking oil and fluids. Do not allow leaking vehicles or equipment on-site. Marine: A spill control kit will always be located at the ferry terminal office storage area. The kit will include spill containment boom, fuel absorbent materials, gloves, goggles, Tyvek coveralls, hazardous material disposal bags and containment bags. The storage area should include enough spill-response equipment to contain the greatest potential spill, including a boom large enough to encircle the largest ship anticipated to visit the facility. All spills, no matter how small, need to be cleaned properly. Small spills should be cleaned with designated rags and placed in a portable fireproof container. They should then be placed in the soiled rag receptacle. If absorbent pads (pigs) have been used to soak spilled oil, place the pads in the marked container for transport to the hazardous waste disposal facility. Response Protocols: For in-water spills of diesel fuel, deploy booms to contain fuel spilled into the water. Gasoline spills should not be contained with booms due to the high volatility. Upon discovering a spill, every effort will be made to stop the source of the spill and contain the spilled materials. If any danger to the health and/or safety of personnel exists from the spill, only those methods that would allow for minimum contact with the spill site area will be undertaken. If the spill consists of gasoline, it is not advised to contain the spill because of its explosion/flammability hazard. The gasoline should be allowed to dissipate. Signage shall be located on site with information for the following contacts in the event of a large spill: -

Local Government Bahamas National Trust Royal Bahamas Defense Force Port Department New Providence Basin Personnel (in charge of spills) Emergency Clean-up Contractor

Training: Facility personnel will be properly instructed in the operation and maintenance of all equipment used to prevent oil discharges, as well as the applicable spill prevention regulations. Spill prevention briefings for operations personnel should be conducted monthly. Employees will be made aware of where spill response equipment is kept, where the list of contact names is kept and notification procedure, and how the spill response equipment is to be deployed. All spills should be logged and the following data recorded: •

Location of spill, land and water

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

• • • • • • • •

Source of spill Time of spill Estimated volume of spill Nature and potential danger of spilled material Anticipated movement of spilled material Responsible party name, address, phone number Action already taken Weather conditions at spill site

The risk of explosion is unlikely at the Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal project site; however, areas to be aware of include gasoline and diesel powered vessel engines, fuel facilities and to a lesser extent any kitchens and utility facilities. The major hazard from explosives is personal injury, negative environmental impact, or property damage caused by heat, blast, noise, fumes, and flying debris or projectiles from unintentional or inadequately controlled ignition or explosion of such materials. Injuries ranging from minor to fatal could include trauma, lacerations, eye injury, hearing impairment, and burns. Property damage could range from minor to major. Throughout the construction phase, trained and qualified paramedics should be on-call. Explosions: In the case of an explosion, immediately take cover and advise others to do the same. 1. Immediately call Emergency sources and provide detailed information about the location and nature of the fire and or explosion. 2. Stay away from windows. 3. Do not light matches. 4. Move well away from the site of the hazard to a safe location. 5. If a fire appears controllable, promptly direct the charge stream from a fire extinguisher toward the base of the flame. 6. Close all doors to confine the fire, but leave unlocked for firefighter access. If danger from smoke or flame exists or a small fire is not controllable, activate the building alarm and evacuate to your designated evacuation assembly area. Smoke is the greatest danger in a fire, so stay low near the floor where the air is less toxic. 7. Account for all personnel known to be on-site. It is important to stay calm. 8. Administer First Aid if required. 9. Provide any information pertaining to the origin or cause of the fire. 10. If requested, assist emergency crews; otherwise, STAY CLEAR. Once at the scene, emergency services will set up a command post at a specified setback distance, taking advantage of all possible cover where they can observe the building for visible smoke or flames, if possible. Firefighters will need to obtain all pertinent information about the status of explosives material in the facility from knowledgeable facility personnel.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

After all personnel are safe and accounted for, a cooling-off period will be required before anyone can enter the facility. In general, the more uncertain the hazard, the longer this coolingoff period will be. If smoke or flames are visible, for example, allow at least one hour after the smoke or flames are no longer visible for cooling off. If the alarm occurred at night in an extremely hazardous area, it would be advisable to wait until the next morning. The re-entry team will normally consist of two persons, one of whom should be familiar with the facility and the explosive material. While this person usually will be the facility point of contact, another person (building coordinator, facility manager, or his/her designee) may be assigned by the incident commander. The other person is should be experienced in entry and rescue techniques. The re-entry team should be equipped with head and face protection, complete sets of flameresistant clothing, and transceivers or other means of communication. Other necessary equipment may include keys to buildings, flashlights, extinguishers, binoculars, breathing apparatus, safety shoes and fire-fighting boots. The personnel will be provided respiratory protective equipment, as needed. The incident commander will determine at the scene what protective equipment is required. Boat explosions or those in the vicinity of the ferry terminal necessitate similar protocols, with the additional complication of potential fuel spills. In the case of an explosion, those in the vicinity should immediately take cover. 1. Fuel cut-off switches should be activated. 2. Locate life vests and life rings and provide to any victims in the water, help them get safely to land. 3. Call emergency services. 4. Administer first aid and CPR if necessary. 5. Activate spill response procedures to contain any leaking fuel. 6. Provide any information pertaining to the origin or cause of the fire. 7. If requested, assist emergency crews; otherwise, STAY CLEAR. 7.3

HURRICANE / STORM / FLOOD PLANNING

The tropical coastal location of the project site leaves it potentially vulnerable to large storm events, requiring planning and design to minimize danger to life and property. Storm water and drainage plans are designed to attenuate stormwater run-off and minimize flooding of inhabited areas and habitat preserves. Proper preparation and management during storms will minimize impacts from major storm events. 7.3.1 Stormwater Management System Stormwater runoff is generated from hard impervious surfaces that prevent the absorption of rainwater into the ground. Rainwater can pick up residue, litter and soil, as well as dust, detergents and other upland generated debris, all of which can drain into surface waters either directly or through storm drains. These discharges can degrade water quality through increased turbidity, inputs of oils and greases, metals, nutrients and reductions in dissolved oxygen. The

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

highest concentration of these surface pollutants occurs in the runoff associated with the first inch of rainfall. This phenomenon is generally referred to as the “first flush” effect. As more and more surfaces are paved, the volume of stormwater runoff increases, causing problems such as increased erosion, sedimentation, flooding, and loss of habitat. The goal of the stormwater management plan is to reduce the concentration of pollutants entering surface waters through the construction, use and maintenance of a properly designed stormwater management and treatment system, along with implementation of Best Management Practices. Stormwater Management System BMP’s Construction: The ingress and egress points for truck movement will be excavated approximately 6 to 8 inches, and filter fabric will be placed at the base of these excavated access points. Once the filter fabric is placed, clean stone (a minimum of 2” to 3” in diameter) will be placed on top of the filter fabric and compacted. Following preparation of the stone ingress/egress pathways, a silt fence will be placed around the outskirts of any graded areas. The silt fence will be staked into the soil and reinforced by hay bales wrapped in filter fabric. These hay bales will serve as a first line of defense to filter stormwater run-off. The hay bales will be replaced after 3 months, or sooner, if inspection reveals deterioration of their efficacy. Vegetative buffers such as grass, plants, and the soil that they capture will further act as filters for stormwater, capturing the sediment and particulates. Please refer to the erosion and sediment details in Chapter 4 for more information. The entrance and exit points will be re-sodded, re-graded, or otherwise stabilized as necessary following completion of construction activities to assist in the control of sheetflow from stormwater. Operation: During operations, maintenance and clean-up activities will be on-going. Any downspouts should be positioned so they empty into vegetated areas, avoiding draining to concrete or asphalt. Runoff from hard surfaces such as roofs and parking lots can be directed towards a filtered drain system or a constructed stormwater retention area or swale. As far as possible, paved areas should be minimized to give as little impervious surface as possible. A power sweeper will be used intermittently by the frontload operator during down times (when sand/stone are not being delivered), to sweep and wash the ingress/egress roadway of dust and sand. Maintenance: Qualified personnel will inspect all points of discharges, all disturbed areas of active construction, constructed areas, and locations where vehicles enter and exit the site. Any observed waste or debris will be collected and disposed of in an appropriate container. Any plants found in the dry detention areas will be removed to prevent overgrowth. All discharge structures are to be kept free of debris. Sedimentation found at the discharge structures shall be removed weekly. Debris can be disposed of in the dumpster.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

7.3.2 Hurricane Plan and Procedures Please refer to the Hurricane Response Manual in Appendix X for a detailed description of the Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project’s proposed hurricane plan. The goal is to ensure that the fast ferry is relocated away from the ferry terminal, in safe harbor. During a storm, all personnel should be evacuated. Note that the pier and terminal island are designed to withstand a 50-year storm event. 7.4

FIRE AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT

Due to the proximity of a ferry terminal to the water, the presence of chemicals and fuels, and the sheer number of boats, a ferry terminal is at high risk for potential accidents. In order for quick response to work, the roles of employees must be well-understood and practiced. Planning ahead for disaster is therefore, a crucial part of ferry terminal management. Potential emergency situations include; facility fire, medical emergency, drowning, boating accidents or accidents involving equipment. The Project will work closely with the local Fire Department to ensure that it is aware of the status of the project and has complete access to the site. Fire response staff will visit the site to remain up to speed with changes in access and water availability. A temporary standpipe system will be installed as soon as possible to ensure that there is water available. Throughout the site there will be proper fire extinguishers. Hot work (welding, cutting and alike) should require authorization that must be obtained through the Safety Manager and Construction Manager. Hot work requires that the Trade provide specific fire prevention standards tailored to the work. All commercial, public facilities will utilize a sprinkler system to include a stand-pipe system, fire extinguishers, and/or fire hose cabinets. Personal protective equipment and other emergency response and communication equipment will be stored within the services compound in a central location. Brief guidelines for dealing with fires in common areas are as follows: • • • •

Isolate source and where possible close all doors and windows to contain the fire. Contact emergency services (any supervisory staff member; all crews greater than 6 in number have a designated supervisor). Account for the location and safety of all persons, administer first aid if necessary. For small fires, if conditions allow, located fire extinguishers and operate according to posted directions.

Responsibilities for determining the need to evacuate staff lie with the construction manager for work-related staff, the site general manager for operational staff and local authorities for residents.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

Bi-annual inspections will be conducted and a spreadsheet maintained with quantities and locations of all hazardous materials that might include ignitable substances. Full incident reports for any event which has environmental or health and safety ramifications will be completed and records maintained by project managers. Fire and Safety Management BMP’s •

• • • • • • • • • •

7.5

Fire extinguishers will be installed on any pier that exceeds 25' in length. Additional fire extinguishers will be located such that the maximum travel distance to an extinguisher does not exceed 100 ft. Life buoys will be readily available. Gas cans or other flammable liquid containers will not be permitted to be left on terminal. Ensure ready access for municipal firefighting equipment. The appropriate fire extinguisher will be located in workshops, office buildings and open spaces. All utility shutoffs will be identified and marked. First aid equipment on site will be located and clearly marked, including a backboard and an eyewash station. Smoke detectors and sprinkler systems will be installed in all facility buildings. Fire hydrants will be readily accessible. All equipment will be kept in good working order through a preventative maintenance schedule including testing fire extinguishers yearly. Combustible materials, such as used rags, paintbrushes, and half-filled containers of flammable liquids, should not accumulate at the facility but be disposed of on a regular schedule. Training will be conducted annually and for all new employees and will include operation of fire extinguishers, first aid and CPR. REPORTING

In the event of a storm, fire or any other emergency situation, the Site Manager will be responsible for providing a written memorandum to the file documenting how the situation came about, remedial action taken and by whom. Copies should be made available for review on completion to consider whether any environmental action is required.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

8.0 MITIGATION MEASURES FOR UNAVOIDABLE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Mitigation is proposed to offset impacts from the construction and operational phases of the Project. Each of the mitigation components is described below, with methodology, a monitoring schedule, and reporting requirements. 8.1

ARTIFICIAL REEF CREATION 8.1.1

Site Selection

The proposed artificial reef shall be built north of the Project area, just south of the Three Sisters rock formation offshore, in a patch of sand (maximum of 6 to 12 inches deep) over hard-bottom. The artificial reef is proposed as mitigation for unavoidable impacts to low-relief / low-density hard-bottom communities within the footprint of the Project. The artificial reef shall be built of limestone riprap boulders with an average diameter of 5 feet. Riprap boulders will provide a rugosity of approximately 1.5 and placed such that the sand patches between the boulders are minimized. The limestone boulders would need to be sourced from Freeport, Grand Bahama, or a similar location, and would likely be shipped via barge. See attached conceptual drawing in Appendix I. 8.1.2

Volume and Placement of Rock Methodology

Approximately one acre of limestone boulders will be placed at the artificial reef site in a similar layout as attached on the drawings in Appendix I. These boulders will be placed by a crane barge. 8.1.3

Biological Resource Monitoring of Artificial Reef

Biological monitoring of the proposed artificial reef shall include pre- and post-construction surveys of the reef site, as well as annual monitoring. The surveys will be conducted using the following protocols: 1. A pre-construction bathymetric survey will be conducted to establish baseline conditions. The survey will be used to compare to future post-construction surveys to evaluate any evidence of subsidence. 2. A post-construction bathymetric will be conducted after all reef mitigation material has been placed in its designated site. A comparison between the pre- and post-construction survey will evaluate if the mitigation work was successful. The survey information will be utilized to demonstrate the boundaries of the sites (including total acreages), rugosity, and interstitial area (percent sand cover versus percent boulder cover for each reef unit/pile). Cross sections shall be taken at 50 foot intervals to determine relief, rugosity, and interstitial area. The calculations shall be run on each cross-section, and an overall average provided. Towed or

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

pole-mounted video shall be conducted at 100-foot intervals as verification of the survey information. Diver surveys (line-intercept measurements) will only be conducted if the bathymetric survey information is determined to be deficient for estimating the criteria cited above. 3. If needed, following construction of the artificial reef, divers shall conduct a line-intercept survey as part of the as-built survey in order to verify the information required in the as-built survey. The survey shall be conducted using 100-foot-long stretched transects. Transects shall be plotted beginning from randomly generated start points and degree headings for each transect, with approximately 4 transects per acre of artificial reef. During the line-intercept survey, divers shall swim the length of each transect and record the projection of limestone boulders on the transect line using a plumb-bob. Based on the data collected along all transects, the percent net boulder cover and percent sand cover within the artificial reef site will be calculated and reported. 4. Corrective measures shall be undertaken if the results of the artificial reef surveys show that less than the required area of artificial reef was constructed, if one of the components (low relief/high relief) of the artificial reef is incorrect, or if sand occupies more than 10% Âą 5% of the reef area. In order to monitor benthic colonization and succession, four (4) 75-foot-long permanent monitoring transects per acre of artificial reef shall be established with ten (10) 1-meter square quadrats per transect. a) Photographs of each quadrat shall be taken to supplement quadrat in situ data along each transect, or, b) Video documentation shall be collected along the 75-foot-long transects to supplement the quadrat data and will be analyzed using standard methods. Schedule Within 30 days following construction of the artificial reef, the bathymetric survey of the outline of the reef shall be conducted, and then all other parts of the as-built survey shall follow. The artificial reef permanent monitoring transects shall be monitored every two years (summer) for six years following placement of the artificial reef. Mitigation Site Success Success will be achieved when the benthic community and colonization of the mitigation reef has been documented to be comparable to the benthic community and species composition documented in the impact area during the preconstruction survey. Successful mitigation shall be defined by the following criteria: 75% of species found in the impact site shall be present in the mitigation site by the time of the completion of the monitoring period; and percent cover by the major groups of organisms in the mitigation site shall be no less that it was in the impact site.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

Reports The as-built survey report shall be submitted within 10 days of the completion of the survey so that coral relocation can commence and be completed prior to Project construction. The two yearly mitigation artificial reef monitoring reports shall be submitted within 30 days of the completion of each monitoring event, but no later than the 1st of July and 31st of December of each year; a total of 5 years of monitoring is proposed (unless the success criteria are achieved faster than the 5-year window). Monitoring progress shall be reported weekly until the completion of each survey, at which point the BEST Commission Officer shall be notified that the survey is complete. Each report shall document the colonization of the artificial reef and compare the species composition on this reef to that documented in the impact area during the pre-construction survey. Monitoring reports shall include: • •

• •

• • •

A map of the artificial reef with the associated monitoring transects plotted on it; An analysis of the quantitative quadrat data on the benthic biological components of the artificial reef monitoring transects (e.g., percent cover by corals, octocorals, sponges, algae, etc.); A comparative analyses of the mitigation artificial reef and natural hardbottom resources to determine mitigation success; An analysis of succession based on the comparison of benthic communities found on the artificial reef and natural communities (impact site) by comparison of such parameters as densities, size class distribution, etc.; Current acreage, relief, and rugosity of artificial reef (for final report only); Copies of all transect video submitted on DVDs; and, All raw data in the format that was used for the analysis.

If the artificial reef has either less acreage than was required by the time of final (3rd) survey, or succession does not achieve the status of communities that existed at the impact site (criteria indicated above), then alternative mitigation measures shall be discussed with BEST. Required Monitoring for Channel Bottom The bottom of the channel should be monitored similar to that of the artificial reef in order to determine the success of colonisation on the channel bottom. Success will be achieved when the benthic community and colonization of the mitigation reef has been documented to be comparable to the benthic community and species composition documented in the impact area during the preconstruction survey. Successful mitigation shall be defined by the following criteria: 50% of species found in the impact site shall be present in the mitigation site by the time of the completion of the monitoring period; and percent cover by the major groups of organisms in the mitigation site shall be no less that it was in the impact site. It is recognized that colonization at the bottom of the channel is likely to take longer than that of the artificial reef therefore monitoring shall be conducted two years following completion of dredging works and every four years thereafter to tie in with artificial reef monitoring where relevant for a total of 10 years monitoring following completion of dredging works. If findings during any one monitoring

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

indicates that colonization is unlikely to be successful within the monitoring period additional mitigation will be warranted. Required Monitoring for Secondary High Relief Reef Impacts Biological Monitoring (Hardbottom and Coral Reef) The proposed monitoring of the Project includes monitoring for direct and indirect impacts to hardbottom and coral reef communities in the project area and adjacent areas. Monitoring activities shall include pre-, during, and post-construction surveys of hardbottom and coral reef communities. Monitoring of reefs and hardbottom communities shall include: Monitoring in Permanent Stations Monitoring in Permanent Monitoring Stations shall be conducted to document possible long-term effects of the Project on the reef and hardbottom communities adjacent to the channel boundaries. Permanent monitoring stations shall be established in representative areas of reef and hardbottom and required biological monitoring of these permanent transects shall include: preconstruction, immediate post-construction, and one year post-construction monitoring activities. If any impact from the project is documented, the permanent station monitoring shall be conducted annually for three years following construction, in the stations where the impact was documented as well as in the control station. Transects within the individual stations will be spaced at least 5 meters apart. They will be randomly positioned within areas that include coral colonies and other attached fauna within each specific resource type. Stainless steel eyebolts (3/8 in x 8 in) will be drilled and cemented/epoxied into the bottom at 0, 10, and 20 meters along each transect at the hardbottom and reef sites. A small submerged buoy coated with anti-fouling paint will be attached to each eyebolt with a short length of nylon braided line to aid in transect relocation. All transect marker eyebolts and buoys will be removed following completion of the monitoring program. Quantitative digital video surveys shall be conducted along each transect with the camera positioned 40-cm above and perpendicular to the substrate. This will yield an approximately 40-cm wide video field-of-view. The video camera will be equipped with lights and a measuring stick or calibrated lasers to ensure that the camera remains at the 40-cm distance to the bottom. The diver will swim the camera along each transect at a speed of no greater than approximately 5 m per minute. This method will be used to evaluate both the coral health and potential sedimentation stress during construction at both the dredge location site and the control monitoring station sites, as further described below:

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

Surveys for Coral Health The monitoring stations are to be located strategically at the nearby dive sites and along the edge of the channel, and will be selected to help monitor any environmental change or sedimentation impact and/or stress on biological organisms attributed to construction and operation activities. Surveys shall be conducted at each transect within each monitoring station by qualified biologists and involve: Evaluating benthic organisms (scleractinian corals, octocorals, sponges, etc.) for standing sediment that is not removed by normal currents or wave action; and assigned a health level of "0" or "1" for each parameter (A score of "0" would indicate no observed bleaching, excess mucus production, polyp extension, or disease, while a "1" would be indicated for each observed parameter). This data will be collected for each project area transects and each control area transect. Reef conditions during surveys shall also be documented through digital photographs and video. Before active dredging, the reef habitat surrounding the entrance channel will be surveyed at least once to establish baseline conditions at the monitoring stations. For the duration of active dredging (construction), the reef habitat surrounding the entrance channels will be surveyed twice a week at the monitoring stations within 750 meters of the dredging activity (only when dredging occurs within 750 meters of reef or hardbottom habitat). Dredging locations shall be aligned with likely prime weather conditions according to weather forecasts so as to cause least adverse impacts to the reef. A report will be submitted documenting the survey efforts prior to dredging. This report along with raw data will be submitted within 30 days upon monitoring completion. During active dredging, weekly reports will be submitted via e-mail or web site describing survey results. A report will also be submitted after construction detailing the results for the four week post construction surveys. This report along with raw data will be submitted within 30 days upon monitoring completion. Notification of sediment stress will be by phone, fax, or e-mail, and followed by a written report to be submitted within 24 hours to the agencies including the BEST Commission and other Government agencies (i.e. Ministry of the Environment). Agencies will be notified immediately of the possibility of unacceptably high sediment levels on the reefs (or on the next work day if the indicators are noted on a weekend or holiday). Sediment stress will be defined as build-up of sediment significantly above the level found at the control or reference stations sufficient to cause any one or more of the following conditions as observed by the monitoring biologists: a) A frequency of observed bleaching (partial or complete) of scleractinian coral colonies;

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

b) Excessive mucus produced by scleractinian corals to remove sediment from their surface, resulting in binding of sediments and transport of bound sediments off the coral's surface and subsequent accumulation of the sediments at the base of the coral head. Such accumulations have been seen to initiate a "self-burial" process, causing death of the lower tissue of the coral head; c) Covering of benthic community components (i.e., sponge, algae) by sediment for sufficient time or sufficient sediment so as to note death or degradation (i.e., bleaching, pigmentation changes) of the underlying organisms. d) Any change of 5% or more in cover by any functional group evaluated in quadrants in two or more adjacent transects. Impacted areas shall continue to be monitored monthly during the construction, one month post-construction, and two times during next year in order to document results of the impact. Final monitoring results shall document permanent impacts, if any, to be used for estimates of additional mitigation. 8.2

CORAL RELOCATION 8.2.1

Site Selection

All scleractinian (or stony) corals >10cm and >25 cm in maximum diameter shall be collected from direct impact areas within the Project site and transplanted to the 1-acre artificial reef site discussed in 8.1. Soft corals can, and where feasible, will be relocated as well. 8.2.2

Relocation Methodology

Colonies with signs of disease and/or boring sponges, and colonies that are not expected to survive transplantation shall not be relocated. Healthy scleractinian corals (without diseases and boring sponges absent) shall be carefully removed from the substrate using a chisel and hammer, and relocated immediately to the artificial reef site, or stored for a short period of time (1-2 days, with no storm in the forecast) in a safe, underwater location, or collected into baskets and lifted by a diver as the basket is filled or at the end of the collection dive, wrapped in bubble wrap, and then transferred into cooler containers filled with seawater, and transported to the designated areas in the mitigation reefs. Corals shall be transplanted preferably on micro-relief features (bumps, hills, etc., scale of 0.1 0.3 meters) on the tops of boulders in the artificial reefs. Corals of the genera Agaricia spp., Madracis spp., and Mycetophyllia spp. can be transplanted onto vertical or subvertical parts of the mitigation reefs. If found, corals of the genera Mycetophyllia, Scolymia, Colpophyllia, Dendrogyra, Mussa, Isophyllia, Isophyllastrea, Favia, and Acropora shall be transplanted irrespective of size. The surface of the substrate in the recipient location shall be cleaned of algae, cyanobacteria, and sediments with a wire brush. Portland cement and/or underwater epoxy glue can be used for the attachment of scleractinian coral colonies. The time in the cooler, and/or above water, prior to transplantation shall be minimized as much as possible. Coolers shall be kept in the boat away from direct sunlight. See attached coral

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relocation protocols in Appendix N. The coral relocation form and map are included in Appendix J. 8.2.3

Coral Relocation Monitoring

Monitoring of the relocated corals shall be conducted for 5 years, at the following stages: one month after the transplantation, 6 months after the transplantation, 1 year after the transplantation, and 6 months thereafter for a 5-year period. A coral monitoring form is provided in Appendix K. 8.2.4

Success Criteria, Reporting, and Remediation Alternatives

Success of coral transplantation to the artificial reef shall be based on the following criteria after 5 years: 75% survivorship of corals measuring 10-25 cm and 85% survivorship of corals measuring >25 cm. If monitoring reveals that the success criteria has not been met, the survival rates shall be compared to the survival rates at the reference site/s and tested for statistically significant differences and adjusted accordingly. If the percent survival, or adjusted percent survival, of a coral species is below these levels, additional corals of the same species shall be transplanted using corals found detached in natural communities, or from an approved nursery. Progress updates detailing the initiation and completion of the transplantation process shall be reported to the BEST Commission Compliance Officer via e-mail weekly or the information shall be made available via web site. Full monitoring reports shall be submitted within 60 days upon completion of each survey. Initiation and completion of each survey shall be reported to the BEST Commission Compliance Officer.

8.3

MOORING BUOY INSTALLATION AT DIVE SITES 8.3.1

List of Dive Sites

Fourteen locally popular dive sets within 1.5 miles of the proposed cruise ship terminal will be fitted with mooring buoys. The mooring buoys will serve two functions: 1) they will visually notify vessels affiliated with the project of the dive site’s proximity; and, 2) they will allow for the safe mooring of dive operators who wish to access these sites, and to avoid impacts to hard and soft corals at the reef community. The table below provides GPS coordinates for these sites: LABEL

NAME

LATITUDE

LONGITUDE

BR 3S

The Bimini Road/Road to Atlantis Three Sisters

N 25 45.995 NA

W 79o16.712 NA

BTR

Black Tip Reef

N 25o45.504

W 79o17.977

LR

Lobster Reef

N 25o45.436

W 79o17.981

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

RR

Rockwell Reef

N 25o45.371

W 79o18.030

HR

Hawksbill Reef

N 25o45.269

W 79o18.066

SG

Sea Gardens

N 25o45.147

W 79o17.613

RR

Rainbow Reef

N 25o44.806

W 79o17.714

LC

Little Caverns

N 25o45.138

W 79o18.380

MA

Moray Alley

N 25o44.992

W 79o18.395

W

Bullard Barge

N 25o44.562

W 79o18.141

W2

The Old South Bimini Ferry Dock Barge

N 25o44.548

W 79o18.228

TS

The Strip

N 25o44.243

W 79o18.207

TK

The Kinks

N 25o44.140

W 79o18.436

The following dive location map is provided for review below as Figure 15.

Figure 15: North Bimini Dive Site Location Map 8.3.2

Methodology for Mooring Buoy Installation

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

Mooring buoys will be fixed to the seafloor with helical anchors, or rebar with cement base, and a cable down line system that will attach to each buoy. Each dive site will be surveyed by the EM for a suitable location for mooring buoy fitting. A spot will be selected that is within fifty feet of the dive site and free of hard and soft coral cover for a minimum radius of twenty-five feet from the buoy’s point of installation. See Figure 16 below for a photograph of a typical anchor or mooring buoy.

Figure 16: Typical Mooring Buoy 8.3.3

Monitoring of Mooring Buoy Installation

Once installed, the buoys will be inspected by the EM and local dive operators for suitability and resilience. The buoys will not require regular re-inspection. If, however, a buoy is observed to be loose or breaks free of its mooring, a replacement will be installed as soon as possible. 8.4

EXOTIC SPECIES REMOVAL & NATIVE PLANTING 8.4.1

Location for Exotic Species Removal

Two prominent invasive exotic plant species are prevalent within the vicinity of the project site: Australian Pine (Casuarina equisetifolia) and Beach Naupaka (Scaevola taccada). The Australian Pine is a fast-growing, aggressive plant that outgrows native species and inhibits understory vegetation through shading and the shedding of its branches and leaves, which release chemicals that alter the pH of the soil/sand. Dune ecosystems exposed to the Australian Pine become flattened and susceptible to erosion. Moreover, the dunes become unsuitable for native wildlife utilization. Beach Naupaka also rapidly out-competes native vegetation and disrupts wildlife utilization patterns along beaches and dunes.

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

Both these species were observed within the portion of shoreline that is to be cleared for the installation of the access pier. All vegetation will be cleared within this 100’ x 300’ area to accommodate the pier. 8.4.2

Native Plantings

The location around the pier installation, within the dune and landward of the dune, will be planted with native vegetation following completion of construction and earthworks. Once the site has been completed re-vegetated, its completion will be reported to the BEST Commission Compliance Officer and a sign will be posted indicating that it is a restoration site and the newlyplanted vegetation should not be touched. Recommended plants to be used are listed in the original EIA for this project. See attached, the recommended dune restoration plan in Appendix P, that includes existing and proposed beach profiles and the planting plan. 8.5

SHORELINE / BEACH PROFILE MONITORING

To document any littoral profile changes that may occur at the site, a regular program of beach monitoring will be implemented. This program must commence prior to construction of the project. Several beach surveys shall be conducted prior to construction of the project so that natural variability of the beach can be documented. 8.5.1

Location for Beach Profile Surveys

Beach profile surveys will be conducted 5,000 feet to the north of the pier, and 5,000 feet to the south of the pier installation as well as at Radio beach. Intervals of 250 feet will be used to establish permanent transects for monitoring. 8.5.2

Methodology for Beach Profiles

Beach profile data will be collected from the above described stations using a Trimble RTK GPS unit, or similar. Prior to the commencement of construction, a baseline survey will be conducted to determine the existing conditions of the beach. Survey profiles typically began at or near the landward foot of the dune feature and continue shore-perpendicular into the water (typically a minimum of 50 feet offshore). Spot elevations will also be taken every 3 to 5 feet along each profile with special attention given to definitive elevation changes. The profile data will be assessed using the Regional Morphology Analysis Package (RMAP) - or a similar product such as CAD Civil 3D. RMAP consists of an integrated set of tools developed for manipulating, analyzing, visualizing and archiving data on shoreline positions and beach profiles in a geo-referenced environment on a personal computer. RMAP has capabilities of conducting a variety of beach profile analyses and shoreline change rate analyses. Elevations will be recorded in feet referencing to Mean Sea Level (MSL).

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

8.5.3

Monitoring & Reporting Schedule

Beach profile surveys will be conducted once every 6 months for two years and annually for a minimum of 5 years total following the completion of the baseline survey. Changes, if any, to the beach will be tracked by comparing the beach profiles and evaluating volumetric changes. Semiannual monitoring reports discussing the results of the surveys will be prepared and submitted to the BEST Commission Compliance Officer via e-mail or the information shall be made available via web site. Initiation and completion of each survey shall also be reported to the BEST Commission Compliance Officer. If mitigation is required, the mitigation strategies will be discussed with BEST Commission staff prior to implementation. 8.6

MARINE WATER QUALITY MONITORING 8.6.1

Locations for Water Quality Monitoring

Water sampling will be conducted within the project footprint at the two locations depicted by red flags in the figure below:

Figure 17: Water Sampling Map

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

One of the sampling locations is within the proposed dredge footprint, and the second is within the proposed island footprint. Sampling at the island footprint will be conducted as close to the original location as possible but outside the island. These stations are located away from shorelines outside of the influence of nearshore wash zones. Duplicate samples will be collected at each station selected. A set of samples will be collected at approximately the high tide cycle, mid-depth range. Another set of samples will be collected at approximately the mid-to-low tide cycle, mid-depth range.

8.6.2

Sampling Methodology and Contaminants to be Analyzed

The collected samples will be analyzed for the following water quality parameters: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Ammonia Dissolved Oxygen Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) Fecal Coliform Total Coliform Nitrate Nitrogen, NO2 plus NO3 Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Total Nitrogen Orthophosphate, Phosphorous Total Phosphorous Salinity Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Total Suspended Solids (TSS) Turbidity Heavy Metals Hydrocarbons

After collection, samples will be immediately placed in ice, and transported to the analytical laboratory for delivery within the specified holding times, and in accordance with chain of custody procedures. The laboratory analyses will be conducted by Pace Analytical Services, Inc., a laboratory that is certified under the U.S. National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program (NELAP) - or a similar laboratory. The samples will be stored in bottles prepared and supplied by the NELAP laboratory conducting the analyses. These sample bottles are contaminant-free and contain the appropriate sample preservatives. All samples will be taken in general accordance with applicable methodologies and procedures as outlined by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). The table below outlines the methodology used to analyze each sample. It includes a summary of the sample container, preservation requirements, and allowable hold times for the targeted

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

analytical parameters. The holding time is the maximum allowable time between sample collection and analysis and/or extraction, based on the analyte of interest, stability factors, and preservative used (if any). Sample Containers, Preservatives, and Holding Times Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Water Sampling Sampling Date: April 15, 2013 Analysis Method Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) SM 5210B Dissolved Oxygen EPA 360.1 Fecal Coliform MF SM 9222D TKN+Nox Calculation, EPA NH3, TP, TN 300.0, EPA 305.1, EPA 351.2, EPA 353.2, EPA 365.4 Nitrate, Turbidity EPA 180.1 Orthophosphate as P (Low Level) EPA 365.1 Salinity SM 2520B Modified Total Coliform MF SM 9222B Total Organic Carbon (TOC) SM 5310B Total Suspended Solids SM 2540D

64

Container Preservation 1 - 1 L Plastic Unpreserved 1 - 500 mL Plastic Unpreserved 1 - 100 mL Coliform Sodium Thiosulfate Pellet

Max. Hold Time 48 Hours 15 Minutes 8 Hours

1 - 250 mL Plastic

Sulfuric Acid

28 Days

1 - 250 mL Plastic 1 - 250 mL Plastic All 1 - 100 mL Coliform 2 - 40 mL Glass 1 - 1 L Plastic

Unpreserved Unpreserved Unpreserved Sodium Thiosulfate Pellet Hydrochloric acid Unpreserved

48 Hours 48 Hours 28 Days 8 Hours 28 Days 7 Days


Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

8.6.3

Reporting Requirements

Baseline measurements at the specified sampling locations were taken on April 15th, 2013, and again on August 23, 2013 for heavy metals and hydrocarbons, and will be used for future comparison with samples taken during and after construction activities. A report including the baseline data can be found in the Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal EIA. The baseline results are also attached here in Appendix Q. During construction, water samples will be collected periodically (once per month) during the dredging and filling operations at the established stations (dredge footprint and island footprint). Monthly monitoring reports discussing the results of the sampling will be prepared and submitted to the BEST Commission Compliance Officer via e-mail or the information shall be made available via web site. Following completion of construction, semi-annual sampling will be conducted and reported for 5 years total. Additional mitigation measures will be implemented should water quality analysis indicate water quality to be poorer than pre-construction conditions. 8.7

TURTLE LIGHTING CONTROL PLAN 8.7.1

Purpose of Protection

Lighting along waterfront structures has been shown to affect the nesting habits of sea turtles. Turtles become disorientated when approaching/leaving an inappropriately lit beach during nesting activities and are therefore more susceptible to predation or fatal interactions with humans. The lighting installed along the pier and ferry terminal will be specially suited to avoid any disturbances to nesting turtles along the pier access beach. Wherever possible, the lighting used will be low to the ground, shielded, and be of a color with a long wavelength (e.g. amber). 8.7.2

Lighting Standards for Turtle Protection

All permanent exterior lighting shall be installed and maintained in accordance with standards set forth by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWCC). The lighting plan shall meet the FWCC’s recommendations to minimize impacts to nesting marine turtles. If any of the lights become visible from the pier access beach at any time, they may be required to be modified such that they are no longer visible (e.g. installation of land-side shielding, a change in color, etc). 8.8

FISHERIES HARVEST MONITORING 8.8.1

Purpose of Harvest Monitoring & Methodology

Impacts to existing and future fisheries that are anticipated during the construction phase of the Ferry Terminal are mainly seafood demands from construction workers and tourists. Otherwise

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Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

impacts are anticipated to be minimal as no significant fishing normally takes place at the proposed ferry terminal site. Nonetheless, notifications advising local fishermen that their fishing activities must cease within a mile of the proposed construction site should be posted. Notifications will also be posted to advise local fishermen that their fishing activities must cease at the artificial reef location for 10 years other than to remove invasive species such as lionfish in order to allow delicate coral transplants to catch as well as for the health of the new artificial reef.. To assess the impacts, if any, this project has on the regular harvests of local fishermen, the EM will visit the local fish market monthly throughout the construction phase of the Project to document yields and approximate locations of all catches. Commercial fishermen are also presently required to possess a ‘catch certificate’ to monitor their catches so that all seafood exports are certified. Data from these certificates will also be reviewed to determine if fishing patterns have been altered by this project. 8.8.2

Monitoring and Success Criteria, & Reporting

Interviews with at least 10 local fishermen will be conducted annually for a period of ten years to review impacts on fisheries and better determine the need for any further mitigation measures. Results from on-the-ground interviews with local and commercial fisherman will be tabulated and submitted to the BEST Commission. If a decline is observed, and equated to the Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal project/arrivals resulting from the ferry service, mitigation measures will be discussed and implemented in coordination with the BEST Commission. Mitigation measures can include a reduction in ht eamount of local seafood served at Bimini Bay restaurants and an increase in imported seafood, the establishment of Fisheries Councils to limit catch, to establish an aquaculture presence in or near Bimini, and other off-setting measures. 8.9

SOCIAL IMPACT MONITORING 8.9.1

Methodology for Social Impact Monitoring

Monitoring of Social and Community Impacts is to be conducted by means of continued collection of responses to questionnaires. The questionnaires will be altered as the project progresses to obtain information on existing conditions rather than predicted conditions. A Town Meeting will be held to introduce and explain the questionnaire and provide assistance. The initial Social Impact Questionnaire is included in Appendix M. Success will be indicated by more positive responses. If negative responses are received, further investigation into the reason for this displeasure will be conducted and appropriate mitigation measures enacted. 8.9.2

Timeline and Monitoring of Results

The initial questionnaire will be distributed at the Town Hall meeting scheduled by the Office of the Prime Minister. Questionnaires, updated as necessary, will be distributed, collected and analysed annually each year for 5 years following the commencement of the project. 67


Environmental Management Plan Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal Project October 2013

8.9.3

Reporting Requirements

After each distribution event, the results will be compiled and the findings summarized in a report that will be submitted to the BEST Commission Compliance Officer. Based on the results of the survey, the EM will work with the Compliance Officer to respond to the criticisms, advice, or comments of the public.

8.10

TRAFFIC CONROL AND MONITORING

There will be an increase in the volume of marine and vehicular traffic during both the construction and operational phases of this project. Vehicular traffic will include golf carts, cars, trucks and heavy construction equipment. Marine traffic will be limited to the aforementioned ferry boat, a small number of mega-yachts that will utilize the new ferry terminal, and construction barges that will supply materials and serve as base stations for various operations. Several strategies have been proposed to limit traffic within Bimini Bay and along roadways and channels throughout North Bimini. Completion of the Ferry Terminal will include the construction of a cul-de-sac tram circulation traffic area. The tram service is designed to accommodate a large number of visitors at once, and to disperse them rapidly to points of interest within Bimini. Nonetheless, increases in road traffic from the additional visitors to North Bimini are expected. These increases will be mitigated by encouraging residents and visitors to utilize golf carts, instead of full-size vehicles, wherever possible. Visitors will also be encouraged to sign up for activities prior to arrival. Coordinating travel arrangements early will enable visitors to disperse rapidly and easily once in port. Last, a ferry/taxi service will be implemented along the sheltered east coast of North Bimini, with various stops so that traffic demands on the existing roads will be reduced. 8.10.1 Methodology for Traffic Monitoring The Contractor shall provide the EM with a Master Plan of the construction site showing ingress and egress routes for all large vehicles. The Contractor’s arrangements for managing construction traffic will be continually reviewed by the EM. To monitor whether the flows of traffic within and around the new project site are appropriate, staff and local residents will be regularly asked to provide input. Local communities will be forewarned of any unavoidable temporary restriction to traffic access through appropriate signage one week prior to the disruption. Traffic Monitoring to track conditions and improve traffic flow or movements where problems arise. Traffic counts shall be conducted just south of the entrance to Bimini Bay and in Alice Town. These to be done over 12 hours daily for one week 7am – 7pm with one of the days being 24 hours. Counts to be conducted twice in first year and annually thereafter for five years.

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Mitigation measures to be implemented to address any problem areas arising as a result of the additional number of persons on Bimini. 8.10.2 Schedule of Monitoring Monitoring of marine and vehicular traffic loads and transportation capacities will be conducted quarterly during the construction and operational phases of the project to determine the adequacy of the systems and routes provided. Input from staff and the local community will be collected during each monitoring event. 8.10.3 Reporting Requirements The results from each monitoring event will be provided to the EM. A report synthesizing the information will be generated and submitted to the BEST Commission Compliance Officer. If any inadequacies are revealed, possible options for improving traffic flow or movements, such as the implementation of a water taxi, a tram, and/or bus service, will be addressed, and possibly implemented, before the next monitoring event. REFERENCES

United Nations Convention on the Laws of the Sea. www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf Government Meeting to introduce proposed projects at Bimini Bay, 5th April 2013 Florida Guide to Writing a Waste Minimization Plan http://www.dep.state.fl.us/waste/quick_topics/publications/shw/HWRegulation/Binder1_waste_ min_guide.pdf Florida Storm Water Prevention Plan for Marinas http://www.dep.state.fl.us/law/Documents/Grants/CMP/pdf/StormwaterPlan-Final.pdf EPA Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures Checklist for Construction activities http://www.epa.gov/reg3hwmd/oil/spcc/review.pdf EPA Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan Checklist for Construction Activities http://www.dot.state.tx.us/publications/environmental_affairs/pollution_prevention.pdf 40 CFR Part 112 Oil Pollution Prevention and Response; Non-Transportation-Related Onshore and Offshore Facilities; Final Rule World Bank, 1998, Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook

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http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/enviro.nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/gui_genenv_WB/$FILE/genenv_PP AH.pdf Environmental Protection Agency, 1992, Stormwater Management for Construction Activities, Developing Pollution Prevention Plans and Best Management Practices http://cfpub1.epa.gov/npdes/docs.cfm?document_type_id=1&view=Policy%20and%20Guidan ce%20Documents&program_id=6&sort=name Kruczynski, W.K., 1999, Water Quality Concerns in the Florida Keys, Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary http://floridakeys.noaa.gov/research_monitoring/wqpp_white_paper.pdf F.A.C. 62-302.530, Criteria for Surface Water Quality Classifications http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/wqs/fl/fl_4_62-302t.pdf Subcommittee on the Management and Mitigation of Acoustic Impacts on Marine Mammals: 2004, DRAFT http://www.mmc.gov/sound/plenary4/pdf/mandmdraftreport.pdf California Stormwater BMP Handbook: Construction, 2003 http://www.cabmphandbooks.com/Documents/Construction/WM-6.pdf City of Solvang, California, 2006, Material and Hazardous Waste Storage http://www.cityofsolvang.com/PDF/08-MaterialHazWaste.pdf OSHA Regulations: Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response. - 1910.120 http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owastand.display_standard_group?p_toc_level=1&p_part_nu mber=1910 Environment Protection Authority, New South Wales 2002, Environmental Management Plan for Landscaping Works, http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/siteguide.pdf Foundation for Environmental Education, 2006, Awards for Improving the Coastal Environment: The example of the Blue Flag, http://www.blueflag.org/publicattachment/FEE_Manual_ENG_FINAL.pdf Blue Flag Marina Certification: Commonwealth of the Bahamas www.onecaribbean.org/information/documentdownload.php?rowid=3676 Larimer, W. , NC Marine Trades Services, North Carolina Marina / Boatyard Hurricane Preparations http://www.ncwaterways.com/BusinessAssistance/Regulatory/Waterfront/Hurricanepreparedness -plan.PDF

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SBTDC-Marine Trades Services, 2003, Best Management Practices Manual for North Carolina Marinas http://www.nccoastalmanagement.net/Marinas/NC%20Marina%20BMP%20Manual.pdf Bahamas Environment Science and Technology Commission, 2006, Guidelines for the Preparation of Environmental Impact Assessments for Industrial Ports and Commercial Boat Harbours Bahamas Environment Science and Technology Commission, 2006, Guidelines for the Preparation of Environmental Impact Assessments for Housing Developments Bahamas Environment Science and Technology Commission, 2006, Housing Developments: Impacts, Mitigation Measures, and Evaluation & Monitoring Requirements U.S.A.C.E., September 2005 “Turbidity barriers as a Dredging Project Management Practice”, (ERDC TNDOER-E21) U.S.A.C.E., March 1983 “Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal”, (EM 1110-2-5025) U.S.A.C.E., June 1987 “Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material”, (EM 1110-2-5026) U.S.A.C.E., September 1987 “Confined Disposal of Dredged Material”, (EM 1110-2-5027) History of Bimini by Ashley Saunders Volumes 1 & 2, New World Press Bahamas Environment, Science and Technology Commission (BEST). 1999. The Commonwealth of the Bahamas: National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. The Bahamas: Bahamas Environment Science and Technology Commission. Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM). Bahamas Fisheries Summary. [Internet]. 2007. Belize City, Belize. http://www.caricom-fisheries.com/members/bahamas.asp Accessed April, 2013. Department of Statistics. Statistics: Population Census and Growth Rates. [Internet]. Nassau, The Bahamas. http://www.bahamas.gov.bs/ Accessed April, 2013. Trip Advisor, Balearia http://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction_Review-g34227-d3723265Reviews-Balearia_Bahamas_Express_Ferry-Fort_Lauderdale_Florida.html Accessed April, 2013.

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EMP - Bimini Bay Ferry Terminal (Revised)