A special historical supplement to
Nov. 10 1775 - Nov. 10, 2010
Long line of loyalty
enowned for their tough, muscular and aggressive appearance, English bulldogs have long suited the Corps’ need for a symbol and a faithful mascot. The bulldog’s tradition was believed to have its roots during World War I when German soldiers referred to the Marines as “devil dogs,” comparing their fierce fighting abilities to that of wild mountain dogs of Bavarian folklore. Soon after, a Marine recruiting poster painted by artist Charles B. Falls appeared depicting a dachshund, attired in a spiked helmet and Iron Cross, fleeing from an English bulldog wearing a helmet with the globe and anchor insignia. The inscription read, “Teufel Hunden – German nickname for U.S. Marines … Devil Dog Recruiting Station.” Not long after that, Brig. Gen. Smedley D. Butler, then-commanding officer of the Marine Barracks at Quantico, Va., carried the fledgling tradition further by enlisting an English Bulldog, “Pvt.” Jiggs, as the first mascot into the Marine Corps on Oct. 14, 1922. Following Jiggs’ death, Jan. 9, 1927, former boxing
heavyweight champion James J. Tunney continued the tradition by donating Jiggs II to the Marines at Quantico. At the same time, the Royal marines donated Pagett, who was said to have been one of the top 20 English bulldogs in Great Britain at the time. By then, public opinion had already formed what is now a strong association between the English bulldog and the Marine Corps. In the late 1950s the Marine Barracks in Washington, the oldest post in the Corps, became the new home for the Corps’ mascot. The barracks acquired “Pfc.” Chauncy in 1956. Chauncy’s successor Chesty I, (named in honor of Lt. Gen Lewis “Chesty” Puller) became a part of the very first parade, July 5, 1957. Chesty I and his successors became prominent parade participants with their strutting ceremonial strolls wearing their canine dress blues. Although other animals have been used as unit mascots during Marine Corps’ long history, it is the English bulldog that has remained a constant companion to the few and the proud.
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Female Marines Dedicated to Corps, country
quarters M Marine Corps and i C d almost two-thirds of the personnel manning all major posts and stations in the United States and Hawaii. At the war’s end, Gen. Alexander A. Vandegrift, 18th Commandant of the Marine Corps, credited these women with “putting the 6th Marine Division in the field.” Following Japan’s surrender, the demobilization of the Women’s Reserve proceeded rapidly, with only 1,000 remaining in the reserve by July 1946. Then, Congress passed the Women’s Armed Services Integration Act, which authorized the acceptance of women into the regular component of the Marine Corps and other armed services. For the first time in history, the Women’s Reserve was mobilized in August 1950 for the Korean War, reaching peak strength of 2,787 active-duty women Marines. Again, they stepped into stateside jobs and freed male Marines for combat duty. By the height of the Vietnam War, about 2,700 active-duty women Marines served stateside and overseas. During this period, the Marine Corps began opening career-type formal training programs to women officers and advanced technical training to enlisted women. It was also during the 1970s that women Marines were assigned to Fleet Marine Force units for the first time. By 1975, women could be assigned to all occupational fields except infantry, artillery, armor and pilot/air crew. The 1990s saw additional changes and increased responsibilities for women in the Marine Corps, including flying combat aircraft. Approximately 1,000 women Marines were deployed to the Middle East for Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm in 1990-1991. Women have served in every rank from private to lieutenant general.
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ree a man to fi fight! This h ! Thi was the call for women to serve in the Marine Corps Reserve during two world wars. Although 305 women served in the Marine Corps Reserve during World War I, all were separated from service by June 30, 1919, after the war ended. It wasn’t until Feb. 13, 1943, that Gen. Thomas Holcomb, the 17th Commandant of the Marine Corps, announced the formation of the Marine Corps Women’s Reserve. In 1917, countless young men volunteered for the armed forces, and for the first time in U.S. history, the labor potential of women became important. Pioneers like Pvt. Opha Mae Johnson, the first woman to enlist in the Marine Corps Reserve Aug. 13, 1918, paved the way for women in the Marine Corps today. During WWI, most of these women Marines, referred to as Marinettes, freed male Marines from clerical billets at Headquarters Marine Corps, enabling them to fight in France. Others filled jobs at recruiting stations across the country. Although women still didn’t have the right to vote, they were willing and able to serve their country. Twenty-five years later, the country was embroiled in another world war and women again answered the call to serve. More than 22,000 officers and enlisted women joined the Corps during World War II as part of the Women’s Reserve. Women Marines in this war performed more than 200 military assignments. In addition to clerical work, they also filled positions as parachute riggers, mechanics, radio operators, mapmakers and welders. By June 1944, women reservists made up 85 percent of the enlisted personnel on duty at Head-
n Nov. 10, 1775, the Second Continental Congress gave the order to establish two battalions of Continental Marines. It is for that reason the formal commemoration of the Marine Corps birthday is celebrated each year on or around Nov. 10. Yet, from 1798 to 1921, the Corps birthday was celebrated July 11, as on July 11, 1798, President John Adams approved a bill that recreated the Corps. However, in October 1921, Maj. Edwin McClellan of the Headquarters Marine Corps Historical Section sent a memo to then-commandant Maj. Gen. John A. Lejeune proposing
the original birthday Nov. 10, 1775, be declared a Marine Corps holiday to be celebrated throughout the Corps. He further recommended that the Corps hold a dinner in Washington to celebrate the event. Thus, Lejeune issued Marine Corps Order No. 47, Series 1921, Nov. 1, 1921. The order, which was directed to be read to every command on Nov. 10 each year, summarized the history, mission and tradition of the Marine Corps. So it has been
each year since 1921. It is believed that the first official “Birthday Ball” was likely to have been held in Philadelphia in 1925 at the Benjamin Franklin Hotel with a following ball at the Bellevue-Stratford. The first cake ceremony on record is thought to have
been held at the Marine Barracks in Washington in 1937. The then-commandant, Maj. Gen. Thomas Holcomb, held an open house for officers, and the event included the cutting of a large cake. In October 1952, Gen. Lemuel C. Shepherd Jr., the commandant of the Marine Corps, directed that Marine Corps Birthday celebrations be formalized throughout the Corps. At that time, an outline for the cake ceremony and other formal observances came into being. The
Marine Corps Drill Manual, approved in January 1956, included Shepherd’s outline of approved Marine Corps birthday observances. According to tradition, the first piece of cake is given to the oldest Marine present with the second piece going to the youngest. Though this tradition has varied based on the dignitaries present at the event, it has largely remained this way throughout the years. Editor’s note: The source of this article is the Marine Officer’s Guide (Sixth Edition) by Lt. Col. Kenneth W. Estes and the U.S. Marine Corps History and Museums Division. Photo by Lance Cpl. Wyatt Brown
CELEBRATING USMC 235TH BIRTHDAY | SPECIAL EDITION 13
the medal of honor
he Medal of Honor is the highest award for bravery that can be given to any individual in the United States. In judging men for receipt of the medal, each service has established its own regulations. The deed must be proved by uncontestable evidence of at least two eyewitnesses; it must be so outstanding that it clearly distinguishes the recipient’s gallantry beyond the call of duty from lesser forms of bravery; it must involve the risk of his life and it must be the type of deed which, if he had not done it, would not subject him to any justified criticism. The idea for the Medal of Honor was born during the Civil War as men fought gallantly and oftentimes displayed great heroism. President George Washington originated the Purple Heart in 1782 to honor brave soldiers, sailors and Marines. From that time until the Civil War, Certificates of Merit and a “brever” system of promotions were used as military awards. The first military decoration formally authorized by the American government as a badge of valor was the Medal of Honor for enlisted men of the Navy and Marine Corps. It was authorized by Congress, and approved by President Abraham Lincoln on Dec. 21, 1861. The medal for the Army and Voluntary Forces was authorized on July 12, 1862. The medal is awarded “in the name of the Congress of the United States” and for this reason, it is often mistakenly called the Congressional Medal of Honor. It is only on rare occasions, however, that Congress awards special Medals of Honor. An executive order, signed by President Theodore Roosevelt on Sept. 20, 1905, directed that ceremonies of award “will always be made with formal and impressive ceremonial,” and that the recipient “will, when practicable, be ordered to Washington, D. C., and the presentation will be made by the president, as commander-in-chief, or by such representatives as the president may designate.”
Since 1862, 294 Marines have been award the Medal of Honor, The first recipient was Col. John F. Mackie, who during the attack on Fort Darling at Drewry’s Bluff, Va., “fearlessly maintained his musket fire against the rifle pits on shore, and when ordered to fill vacancies at guns caused by men wounded and killed in action, manned the weapon with skill and courage.” Sixteen other enlisted Marines were awarded the medal during the Civil War. Another 63 Marines would receive the Medal of Honor in the 1871 Korean Campaign, the SpanishAmerican War, the Philippine Insurrection and the Boxer Rebellion. Marine and Navy officers were first declared eligible for the award in 1913, and in the next year nine medals were awarded to officers for the landing at Vera Cruz, Mexico. The “Banana Wars” saw another 13 medals conferred on enlisted Marines and officers. Only two Marines, Maj. Gen Smedley D. Butler and Sgt. Maj. Daniel Daly were each awarded two Medals of Honor for separate actions: Vera Cruz (1914) and Haiti (1915) for Butler, and Peking (1900) and Haiti (1915) for Daly. Although only seven Marines received the medal for actions during World War I, 82 medals were given to Marines during World War II and another 42 were awarded for the Korean War. It was during Vietnam that the last Medals of Honor were awarded to Marines. A total of 57 were awarded during that conflict. Pictured in the photograph is Retired Second Lieutenant John J. McGinty, Medal of Honor recipient. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for his acts on July 18, 1966 while serving in Vietnam. While his platoon was under attack, McGinty acted with complete disreagrd for his safety numerous time to ensure the safety of others who had been injured in the battle. He had been stationed in Alaska, California, Virginia and North Carolina and retired from the Corps in 1976.
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NATIONAL TION MUSEUM T
honoring our past, present
he spire of the National Museum of the Marine Corps soars 210 feet above the ground. It is at the precise angle of the iconic photo of Marines raising the U.S. flag over Iwo Jima in February 1945. History, tradition, courage, sacrifice and dedication are imbued in the design of the museum. The museum was unveiled Nov. 10, 2006 during a dedication ceremony in which President George W. Bush said, “In this museum, you will experience life from a Marine’s perspective. In this museum, you’ll feel what it’s like to go through boot camp, … make an amphibious landing under fire, or deploy from a helicopter in Vietnam.” “These walls pay tribute to your contributions to American freedom. These walls remind all who visit here that honor, courage, and commitment are not just words. They are core values for a way of life that puts service above self. And these walls will
keep the history of the Marine Corps alive for generations of Americans to come,” said Bush. “Museums are all about collecting objects and preserving them forever, and museums use those objects to tell stories. But there is a story told at the National Museum of the Marine Corps that is even more important than the tales told by the tanks, aircraft, landing craft, weapons, and uniforms you find here. It is the allpervasive message that it takes every Marine to accomplish a mission,” said Lin Ezell, Director of the National Museum of the Marine Corps in an excerpt from the museum’s Web site. The museum opened three new, major galleries June 5th. The opening of the new galleries brings more than 12,000 sq.ft. of additional exhibit space to the Museum, with 250 new artifacts including an extensive collection of early Marine Corps uniforms, weaponry and artillery including the first American armored car and the first Marine Corps’ aircraft. The
New Gallery Quick Facts • Number of life-size cast figures on display within the new galleries: 12 • Number of artifacts in new galleries: 250 • Total square footage of new galleries: 12,000 • Total fabrication cost of new galleries: $12 million • Total audio-visual pieces in new galleries: 15 • Total graphics in new galleries: 500 • Total lights in new galleries: 1,500 • Total painted murals: 4
new galleries chronicle the legendary founding of the Corps in 1775, the Civil War and the U.S. global trade expansion in the 19th century and World War I. The new galleries also include a special interactive exhibit
on John Philip Sousa, where visitors can experience a concert of their choosing by the President’s Own Marine Corps Band. Since the museum’s opening in 2006, they have welcomed more than 1.7 million visitors. Many of those visitors who walk through our doors are Marines, past and present, who have faithfully visited and reminisced of days gone by. The Marine Corps Heritage Foundation continues its fundraising campaign to complete the entire Marine Corps Heritage Center. For more information on the National Museum of the Marine Corps, call 1-877-635-1775 to speak to a staff member during normal business hours. Editor’s note: The source of this article is “Bush Dedicates National Marine Museum in Quantico,” by Jim Garamone and the National Museum of the Marine Corps Web site usmcmuseum.org. Photos by Cpl. Jin Hyun Lee.
Since 10 November 1775 you have answered our nation’s every call... We Honor Your Service. 16 SPECIAL EDITION | CELEBRATING USMC 235TH BIRTHDAY
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A background story on today’s mess nights
oday’s mess nights bear little resemblance to the Roman and Viking victory celebrations that they are based upon. Current mess night traditions can be traced to the 4th Marine Regiment of the 1920’s in Shanghai, China. Former Marine commandant Gen. Lemuel Shepard was invited to attend the mess night of the Second Battalion, Scots Guards. Shepherd remembered an impressive evening; the mess silver sparkled in the light of the handsome candelabra arranged on a polished table laden with fine crystal and china. During the dinner, the battalion’s pipe major played several traditional highland ballads to the tune of his own wailing on the bagpipes, and a guardsman danced. Shepard was so impressed with the evening, he immediately began to arrange a similar gathering and invited the officers of the Scots Guards. These exchanges continued as the 4th Marines served in China. The Marines received musical instruments to accompany a successful mess night, a gift
from the American Troop and American Company of the Shanghai Volunteer Corps. Sterling Fessenden, the chairman of the Shanghai Municipal Council, apparently orchestrated the donation in 1927, and the grateful Marines dubbed their new musical group “The Fessenden Fifes.” The new martial music added an appropriate and enjoyable accompaniment to any mess nights hosted by the Marines. This tradition was quickly embraced by the rest of the Corps in the spirit of fostering comradeship, respect and admiration for the organization. Only Marines are permitted at a mess night, with the exception of the guest of honor, who may be a civilian. The president and vice president of the mess chair the event, and are responsible for its organization as well as enforcement of the night’s rules. Members of the mess enter the hall to the sounds of “Semper Fidelis” and remain standing until the vice president or chaplain has blessed the congregation. After the dinner, toasts are made with port, a tradition that dates back
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to the British mess night. At the time, the British and French were enemies, and most good wine came from France. The British felt that it would be in bad taste to toast with the wine of their enemy’s country, forcing them to use Portuguese wine, or port. The tradition of using rum punch comes from the Marine’s
origin at Tun Tavern. Other traditions throughout the night include the paying of fines, toasts, speeches and sea stories.
Editor’s note: Article written by Lt. Col. Merrill L. Bartlett, U.S. Marine Corps (retired). Photo by Cpl. Brice D. Sparks.
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Learn Corps’ values
arine Corps Recruit training, as it is known today, was established in the early 1900s. In those early days, the training moved around before settling at Parris Island and San Diego around 1915. Since the beginning, the recruit depots have offered basic training, “but the methods and sophistication have changed,” said Dr. Stephen Wise, director of the Marine Corps Museum at Parris Island. “What has remained the same are the basic principles of boot camp. How they are instructed in them has changed over time,” said Ellen Guillemette, archivist of the Command Museum at Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego. In the days of the world wars, Marine recruits spent a lot of time “marching around
in circles,” if you believe the pictures, Guillemette said. Frank McNeive, a retired sergeant major who served two tours as a drill instructor at Parris Island, said when he went through recruit training in 1945, the instructors would make recruits stand at attention for extended periods of time to teach them discipline. Drill instructors lived with their recruits, said McNeive, who served as an instructor from 1954 to 1956 and 1960 to 1962. “We had a room right outside the squad bay. There were no special quarters for (instructors),” he said. Until 1956, recruit training was mainly “drill, discipline and marksmanship,” said Eugene Alvarez, a historian and former drill instructor. After six recruits drowned in a forced night march through Ribbon Creek, recruit training changed to more
physical training, Alvarez said. “There’s no more of the ‘head in the bucket,’ as it was called, training,” he said. “The strong-handed drill instructor is a thing of the past,” though the drill instructors can still “scream and holler.” The emphasis on physi-
cal training has also come in response to changing times. While the Marine recruits of old came to boot camp fresh from the athletic fields or farm, some of today’s recruits come straight from the couch. From the mid-80s on, “they were encountering a lot of
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people who were less physically fit, less strong,” Guillemette said. Recruits needed to build bone strength and muscle mass at boot camp. Still, the emphasis on physical training is not the only change boot camp has seen.
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Courses like first aid, history, and customs, courtesies and traditions have been added and the quality of swim instruction has improved, Guillemette said. Today, recruits face 12 weeks of training, topped off with the rigorous Crucible, before they can call themselves Marines. But training has not always been the same length. In times of war, training
has been shortened to as few as four weeks, Guillemette said, and the numbers have fluctuated widely. Roughly 21,000 recruits pass through Parris Island and San Diego each year, according to their websites. That’s in contrast to 1952, when there were approximately 23,000 recruits on Parris Island at one time, Alvarez said. “Sometimes Parris Island
was so full that they would send recruits up to Camp Lejeune to qualify with a rifle,” he said. The formal drill instructor school was established in 1952, and that added more uniformity to the training, Alvarez said. The strictures on the types of things drill instructor can do and say has increased, said Guillemette. “A lot of things
people took for granted, like cussing people out, are now deemed harassment. Over time, they’ve had to make adjustments based on how the world has changed.” In the late 1960s and early 70s, the Marine Corps moved advanced training to boot camp. But “it was a very short-lived experiment,” Guillemette said. In 2000, the Marine Corps
Martial Arts Program was added to recruit training. And a change in the training schedule means that recruits receive their Eagle, Globe and Anchor the day before graduation, Guillemette said. Though the basic mission of recruit training will stay the same, boot camp will continue to evolve as the world and the Marine Corps changes, Alvarez said.
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The model of military precision
ayoneted rifles flying from Marine to Marine, the lineup of crisp dress blue uniforms, the rhythmic slap of rifles caught by leather-gloved hands: The Silent Drill Platoon exemplifies Marine Corps disci-
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Purple Heart Its creation, history
he Purple Heart is the oldest military decoration in the world and the first American award made available to the military. It was initially created as the Badge of Military Merit by Gen. George Washington. Washington’s keen appreciation of the importance of the military impelled him to recognize outstanding valor and merit by granting a commission or an advance in rank to deserving individuals. In 1782 he was ordered by the Continental Congress to cease due to the lack of funds. Deprived of his usual means of reward, he searched for a substitute and Aug. 7, 1782, his general orders established the Badge of Military Merit, which read in part as follows: “The General, ever desirous to cherish virtuous ambition in his soldiers as well as foster and encourage every species of military merit, directs that whenever any singularly meritorious action is performed, the author of it shall be permitted to wear on his facings, over his
left breast, the figure of a heart in purple cloth or silk edged with narrow lace or binding. Not only instances of unusual gallantry but also of extraordinary fidelity and essential service in any way shall meet with due reward. The name and regiment of the persons so certified are to be enrolled in a Book of Merit which shall be kept in the orderly room.” This award was open only to enlisted men and granted them the distinction of being permitted to pass all guards and sentinels as could commissioned officers. Lost or misfiled for almost 150 years among the War Department Records in Washington, D.C., this important paper came to light prior to the celebration of Washington’s bicentennial in 1932, along with the dramatic accounts of three soldiers who received the decoration. The Book of Merit has never been found. The U.S. War Department revived the Purple Heart decoration Feb. 22, 1932 in recognition of Washington’s ideals. General Order No.3 announced
the establishment of the award: “...By order of the President of the United States, the Purple Heart, established by General George Washington at Newburgh, Aug. 7, 1782, during the War of the Revolution is hereby revived out of respect to his memory and military achievements. The revived form is of metal, instead of perishable cloth, made in the shape of a rich purple heart bordered with gold, with a bust of Washington in the center and the Washington coat-of-arms at the top. The latter is believed to have been the source of the stars and stripes of the American flag. The Purple Heart has undergone many changes with respect to the
criteria for being awarded. At first, the Purple Heart was exclusively awarded to Army and Army Air Corps personnel and could not be awarded posthumously to the next of kin. In 1942, President Franklin Roosevelt signed an executive order allowing the Navy to award the Purple Heart to sailors, Marines, and Coast Guard personnel. Also in that year, the Purple Heart was made available for posthumous award to any member of the military killed on or after Dec. 7, 1941. Editor’s note: the sources of this article are the following websites: purpleheart.org. and thepurpleheart.com.
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What is your favorite Marine Corps birthday tradition? SERVING THE MARINE CORPS AIR STATION NEW RIVER COMMUNITY
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“My favorite is the cutting of the cake. I like how the oldest Marine and the youngest Marine receive the first pieces.”
Markers in historyy
uring the American Revolution, many important political discussions took place in the inns and taverns of Philadelphia, including the founding of the Marine Corps. A committee of the Continental Congress met at Tun Tavern to draft a resolution calling for two battalions of Marines able to fight for independence at sea and on shore. The resolution was approved Nov. 10, 1775, officially forming the Continental Marines. As the first order of business, Samuel Nicholas became commandant of the newly formed Marines. Tun Tavern’s owner and popular patriot, Robert Mullan, became his first captain and recruiter. They began gathering support and were ready for action by early 1776. Each year, the Marine Corps marks Nov. 10 with a celebration of the brave spirit which compelled these men and thousands since to defend our country as United States Marines.
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What is your favorite Marine Corps birthday tradition? “I like that fact that all of the Marines, young and old, get together to celebrate old times and new times.” CELEBRATING USMC 235TH BIRTHDAY | SPECIAL EDITION 25
Revolutionary War Streamer
Civil War Streamer
World War I Victory Streamer with one silver and one bronze star, one Maltese Cross, and Siberia and West Indies clasps
arine Barracks, Washington, D.C., holds the official Battle Colors of the Marine Corps. A duplicate is maintained in the office of the commandant of the Marine Corps in the Pentagon. The Battle Colors bear the same 50 streamers authorized for the Marine Corps as a whole. These streamers represent U.S. and foreign unit awards as well as those periods of service, expeditions and campaigns in which the Marine Corps has participated from the American Revolution to today. During the Marine Corps’ first 150 years, Marines in the field carried a variety of flags. It was not until April 18,
1925 that Marine Corps Order Number 4 designated gold and scarlet as the official Colorss of the U.S. Marine Corps. These Colorss, however, were not reflected in the official Marine Corps flag until Jan. 18, 1939, when a new design incorporating the new Colorss was approved. This design was essentially that of today’s Marine Corps standard, and was the result of a two-year study concerning the design of a standard Marine Corps flag, and the units to which such a flag should be issued. The 54 Colorsed streamers which adorn the Battle Colors represent the history and accomplishments of the Marine Corps. The newest streamers to be added to the Battle Colors are the Afghanistan and Iraq Campaign Streamers.
World War II Victory Streamer
Korean Service Streamer with two silver stars
Vietnam Service Streamer with three silver and two bronze stars
Afghanistan Campaign Streamer with three bronze stars
Iraq Campaign Streamer with four bronze stars
Global War on Terrorism Service Streamer
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Gunnery Sgt. Jerome E. Taylor 1st Battalion, 9th Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Division Columbia, S.C.
What is your favorite Marine Corps birthday tradition? “The after party, the dancing and the music is a whole different show.”
unique aspect of military courtesy is the salute. It is a gesture of respect and sign of comradeship among military service personnel. Accordingly, the salute is a uniform gesture; meaning that the highest man in rank returns the salute in the same form in which it is rendered to him. By saluting first, no officer implies that he is in any sense inferior to the senior whom he salutes. The origins of saluting, like so many military customs and traditions, is shrouded in the past, but there are several possibilities concerning its beginnings. In the medieval days of chivalry, mounted knights in mail raised their visors to friends for the purpose of
identification. Because of strict adherence to rank, the junior was required to make the first gesture. Another possibility concerning the origins of saluting comes from an age when assassinations by dagger were not uncommon. It became the custom in such times for potential adversaries to approach each other with raised hand, palm to the front, showing that there was no concealed weapon It seems reasonable to assume, however, that the hand salute as now rendered in the military, evolved to some degree from the British navy. There is general agreement among scholars that the hand salute is actually the first part of “uncovering” in front of a senior. That practice gradually evolved over time into merely touch-
ing the cap, and became the present salute. There are several types of military salutes - the hand salute, the rifle salute at order arms, a rifle salute at right shoulder, and still another rifle salute at present arms. “Eyes Right” is another type of military salute which is rendered by troops in rank when passing in review. A unique type of salute is the respect that is rendered
over a grave by a military honor guard. Originally, three rifle volleys were fired into the air over the grave of a fallen soldier. This custom may well have originated in a perceived need to scare away evil spirits “escaping” from the dead. As in ancient times, it was believed that the hearts of the recently deceased were ajar at such times, allowing the devil to enter. Today, the homage and respect displayed at
military funerals is a visible final tribute to those individuals who have served their country. The various forms of military hand and gun salutes are administered by an individual or group as a sign of respect. Originating in customs, traditions, and even superstitions from our distant past, the salute has evolved from ancient times to become an important part of military etiquette.
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Sgt. Jacob Martin 8th Communications Battalion, II Marine Expeditionary Force Headquarters Group Tulsa, Okla.
What is your favorite Marine Corps birthday tradition? “Drinking, considering the fact that we were born in a tavern.” CELEBRATING USMC 235TH BIRTHDAY | SPECIAL EDITION 27
Markers in history VERTICAL ENVELOPMENT
he Marine Corps realized the potential of the helicopter during World War II, but it wasn’t until 1946 they realized how radically it could improve amphibious strategies. Lt. Gen. Roy Geiger was the first to suggest using helicopters in amphibious landings in order to disperse the landing force and reduce the impact of a potential nuclear attack. Geiger’s proposal led to the creation of research boards in 1946 and 1947, which combined helicopters and ships to create a doctrine of amphibious vertical envelopment. Two missions tested the new strategy: Operation Summit proved the effectiveness of helicopters in transporting troops and supplies into combat zones, while Operation Starlite successfully combined a helicopter with an amphibious landing. When both helicopter operations proved successful, the Marine air wing rapidly expanded, supporting multiple missions on land and sea. The vertical envelopment concept shaped the basic structure of similar Marine operations carried out today, and illustrates the technological foresight of Marine officers past and present.
This Marine is Proudly Sponsored by Chief Warrant Officer 3 Joseph Chrivia Marine Corps Forces Central Command Lupton, Mich.
What is your favorite Marine Corps birthday tradition? Building 825 Stone Street, Room 115 (910) 451-0951 or (910) 451-4407 28 SPECIAL EDITION | CELEBRATING USMC 235TH BIRTHDAY
“My favorite part of the ball is the passing of the cake. The symbolism of the knowledge going from the oldest to the youngest Marine is what’s kept the Marine Corps going for more than 200 years, and that tradition is what takes us forward to each new century.”
he 21-gun salute honoring the president of the United States, like many American military traditions, appears to be another custom inherited from Great Britain. In early times, it was customary for a ship entering a friendly port to discharge its broadsides to demonstrate that they were unloaded; eventually it became a British practice to fire a seven-gun salute. The forts ashore would fire three shots
for each shot fired afloat. The three guns fired on shore to one gun fired on ship had a practical explanation. In earlier days, gunpowder was made of sodium nitrate and was easier to keep on shore than at sea. When gunpowder was improved by the use of potassium nitrate, the sea salute was made equal to the shore salute. The use of numbers “seven” and “three” in early gun salutes probably was connected to the mystical or religious significance surrounding
these numbers in many cultures. Today, a 21-gun salute on arrival and departure, with four ruffles and flourishes, is rendered to the president of the United States, to an former president, and to a president elect. The national anthem or “Hail to the Chief,” as appropriate, is played for the president, and the national anthem for the others. A 21-gun salute on arrival and departure with four ruffles and flourishes also is rendered to the sovereign or
chief of state of a foreign country, or a member of a reigning royal family. In these ceremonies, the national anthem of his or her country also is played. Incidentally, U.S. Naval Regulations require that a 21-gun salute be fired at noon on Presidents Day, Independence Day and Memorial Day. Editor’s note: The source of this story is the Reference Branch of the U.S. Marine Corps History Division.
This Marine is Proudly Sponsored by Cpl. Carlos Diaz Combat Logistics Regiment 25, 2nd Marine Logistics Group Richmond, Va.
What is your favorite Marine Corps birthday tradition? Building 825 Stone Street, Room 115 (910) 451-0951 or (910) 451-4407
“I think the cutting of the cake is the most significant tradition.” CELEBRATING USMC 235TH BIRTHDAY | SPECIAL EDITION 29
ixty years ago, the United States Marine Corps - as it has throughout our history demonstrated its vital role as America’s Expeditionary Force in Readiness. Just weeks after North Korean Communist forces crossed the 38th Parallel, the First Marine Provisional Brigade landed in South Korea, forming the backbone of the perimeter around the city of Pusan. The efforts of the “Fire Brigade” at Pusan allowed for the daring amphibious landing at Inchon and set the stage for one of the most savage campaigns in our Corps’ history - the Chosin Reservoir. As we pause to celebrate our 235th Birthday, we pay special tribute to the Marines of the Korean War and recognize their contributions to our enduring legacy.
This past year marked the end of Marine Corps combat operations in Iraq. Beginning with the invasion in March 2003 and through the next seven years of fighting, our Corps acquitted itself valiantly in the Anbar province and throughout the country. Locations such as Fallujah and Ramadi have taken their place in the illustrious battle history of our Corps. Our efforts in defeating the insurgency helped to build a brighter future for all Iraqis. For 235 years, at sea and ashore, Marines have succeeded in every clime and place ... where hardship and adversity have often been the common thread. Today, in the rugged mountains and valleys of Afghanistan - and recently in earthquake-damaged Haiti ... in flood-ravaged Pakistan ... or off the coast of Africa - we continue to protect our Nation,
just as we did 60 years ago in Korea. To the Marines and Sailors deployed overseas, to those training and preparing for their next deployment and to the warriors who no longer wear our uniform ... we honor your selfless service to the Nation. To our loved ones who endure the many difficulties that come with being part of the Marine Family, I want to extend my sincerest thanks for all you have done and all you continue to do. Happy 235th Birthday, Marines!
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16 NATIONAL MARINE MUSEUM
PUBLISHER James M. Connors
Honoring our past and present
ADVERTISING MANAGER Heather Gibson EDITORIAL Maj. Bradley Gordon Staff Sgt. Kristin S. Bagley Ena Sellers Hillary Bratton Amy Binkley Russell Varner
5 CAMP LEJEUNE: A logistical Gem
4 MARINE CORPS EMBLEMS AND SEAL
18 A TOAST TO TRADITION
9 THE HISTORY OF THE DRESS BLUES
20 RECRUITS LEARN CORPS’ VALUES
10 MARINE CORPS MASCOT Bulldogs: A long line of loyalty
10 FEMALE MARINES Dedication to the Corps
13 MARINE CORPS BALL TRADITIONS 14 MEDAL OF HONOR The highest award for bravery
Marine Corps Mess Night
22 SILENT DRILL PLATOON The model of military precision
24 HISTORY OF THE PURPLE HEART 25 FOUNDING OF THE MARINE CORPS Markers in history
26 BATTLE COLORS
ADVERTISING DESIGN Scott Schwartz Dorian Gibson
27 MILITARY SALUTES A sign of respect and comradeship
28 VERTICAL ENVELOPMENT 29 THE 21-GUN SALUTE A practice steeped in tradition
30 PARADE PRECEDENCE
The special birthday edition is published by Landmark Military Newspapers of N.C., a private enterprise not connected with the DoD or the U.S. Marine Corps. The appearance of advertising in this publication does not constitute endorsement of these products or services by the DoD, the U.S. Marine Corps, or Landmark Military Newspapers of N.C. Everything advertised in this publication shall be made available for purchase, use or patronage without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, marital status, physical handicap, political affiliation, or any other nonmerit factor of the purchaser, user, or patron. If a violation or rejection of this equal opportunity policy by an advertiser is confirmed, the publisher shall refuse to print advertising from that source until the violation is corrected. The editorial content of this publication is the responsibility of Landmark Military Newspapers of N.C. For distribution and advertising inquiries, call 347-9624.
CELEBRATING USMC 235TH BIRTHDAY | SPECIAL EDITION 3
he rationale behind the present parade precedence structure appears to be based more on custom than on any documented set of criteria. The majority of texts, manuals, and guides on the subject of military and naval customs and traditions appear to cite service seniority as the determining factor in deciding the precedence of the armed forces in parades. There exists among the various branches of the services a divergence of opinion on the issue of dates which mark the beginnings of their respective branches. Service seniority can be interpreted in a number of ways. For example, one could trace the origins of the various branches in their respective dates when the Continental Congress passed initiating resolutions. Using this criteria we
could find the Army being established in June 1775, the Navy in October 1775, and the Marines on 10 November 1775. The Marine Corps was actually a force in readiness before the Army or the Navy. Samuel Nicholas was commissioned a Captain of Marines on 28 November 1775, a month before the first officer of the Continental Navy was commissioned. The Marine Corps appears, therefore, to be the first truly “federal” armed services branch. The question of seniority of the armed services is confused by the fact that nearly all of the original Colonies placed militia, ships, and troops serving as Marines in action at the opening of hostilities, before the establishment of the Continental Congress. It could be argued that these forces, having been
taken under Continental pay and control, constituted the beginning of the American Army, Navy, and Marines. No definitive case can be made for establishing the relative seniority of the Army, Navy and Marine Corps. The present order of parade precedence has evolved over
the years, perhaps initially based on early opinions of the actual dates of origin of the services. In any case, the present order of parade precedence has become one of our foremost military customs and as the foregoing has indicated, there appears to be
little evidence to support any change in that order. The present order of parade precedence is indicated in DoD Directive 1005.8 as Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force. Therefore, by analogy, the order of display of colors should be in the same order.
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What is your favorite Marine Corps birthday tradition? “My favorite part is seeing the junior Marine’s camaraderie and morale go up.”
Our salute to you. Join or renew and receive a $15 Gift Card.* In appreciation of your service to our country, Sam’s Club® will give a $15 Sam’s Club Gift Card to military personnel** when you join or renew at your newly expanded Jacksonville Sam’s Club.
Bring this certiﬁcate along with your valid military ID to the Member Services Desk of your newly expanded Jacksonville Sam’s Club. Upon payment, you will receive a $15 Sam’s Club Gift Card. Sam’s Club® Membership
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Sam’s Club congratulates the U.S. Marine Corps on celebrating 235 years of service. CELEBRATING USMC 235TH BIRTHDAY | SPECIAL EDITION 31
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32 SPECIAL EDITION | CELEBRATING USMC 235TH BIRTHDAY
he history of the Marine Corps emblem is a story related to the history of the Corps itself. The emblem of today traces its roots to the designs and ornaments of early Continental Marines as well as British Royal Marines. The emblem took its present form in 1868. Before that time many devices, ornaments and distinguishing marks followed one another as official marks of the Corps. In 1776, the device consisted of a “foul anchor” of silver or pewter. The foul anchor still forms a part of the emblem today. (A foul anchor is an anchor which has one or more turns of the chain around it). Changes were made in 1798, 1821 and 1824. In 1834, it was prescribed that a brass eagle be worn on the hat, the eagle to measure 3 ½ inches from wingtip to wingtip. The large “living” emblem (right) is composed of hundreds of Marines. The photo was taken aboard Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island in 1919. During the early years, numerous distinguishing marks were prescribed, including “black cockades,” “scarlet plumes,” and “yellow bands and tassels.” In 1859, the origin of the present color scheme for the officer’s dress uniform ornaments appeared on an elaborate device of solid white metal and yellow metal. The design included a U.S. shield, half wreath, a bugle and the letter “M.” In 1868, Brig. Gen. Jacob Zeilin, the seventh commandant of the Marine Corps appointed a board “to decide and report upon the various devices of cap ornaments of the Marine Corps.” On Nov. 13, 1868, the board turned in its report. It was approved by the commandant four days
4 SPECIAL EDITION | CELEBRATING USMC 235TH BIRTHDAY
later, and on Nov. 19, 1868 was signed by the Secretary of the Navy. The emblem recommended by this board consists of a globe (showing the Western Hemisphere) intersected by a foul anchor, and surmounted by a spread eagle. On the emblem itself, the device is topped by a ribbon inscribed with the Latin motto “Semper Fidelis” (Always Faithful). The uniform ornaments omit the motto ribbon. The general design of the emblem was probably derived from the British Royal Marines’ “Globe and Laurel.” The globe on the U.S. Marine emblem signifies service in any part of the world. The eagle also indirectly signifies service worldwide, although this may not have been the intention of the designers in 1868. The eagle they selected for the Marine emblem is a crested eagle, a type found all over the world. The eagle pictured on the great seal and the currency of the United States, on the other hand, is the bald eagle, strictly a North American variety. The anchor, whose origin dates back to the founding of the Marine Corps in 1775, indicates the amphibious nature of Marines’ duties. On June 22, 1954, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed an executive order, which approved the design of an official seal for the United States Marine Corps. The new seal had been designed at the request of the Commandant of the Marine Corps, Gen. Lemuel C. Shepherd Jr. The new seal consisted of the traditional Marine Corps emblem in bronze; however, an American bald eagle replaced the crested eagle depicted on the 1868 emblem. It is depicted with wings displayed, standing upon the
western hemisphere of the terrestrial globe, holding in his beak a scroll inscribed with the Marine Corps motto “Semper Fidelis” with the hemisphere superimposed on a foul anchor. The seal is displayed on a scarlet background encircled with a Navy blue band edged in a gold rope rim and inscribed “Department of the Navy, United States Marine Corps” in gold letters. Coincident with the approval of this seal by the President, the emblem centered on the seal was adopted in 1955 as the official Marine Corps emblem.
irthdays regardless of race, creed or nationality, are something that every person around the world has in common. But for some, for the few and proud, the opportunity to celebrate this special occasion comes not once, but twice a year. Today is a day for Marines across the globe to take a look back at what millions before them have accomplished over the past 235 years. For the Marines of Camp Lejeune, N.C., it is a day to look back at how their duty station came into existence. Though known by the moniker of “First to Fight,” Marines were by no means the first to set foot in what is now Onslow County. The earliest known inhabitants of the area were nomadic hunters and gatherers who migrated here between 10,000 and 12,000 years ago. Modern European contact with the area most likely came in 1524 when Giovanni
da Verrazzano, an Italian navigator, stumbled upon the region during an exploratory voyage. Most of the early settlers operated small plantations, which focused on raising corn and livestock. In 1739, the county was officially named for Sir Arthur Onslow, the speaker of the British House of Commons from 1728 to 1761. The city of Jacksonville, Onslow’s only incorporated town before the Civil War, evolved at the site of the county courthouse on the New River at Wantland’s Ferry. It was officially named in 1842 for Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the United States and a native of North Carolina. As Onslow entered the 20th century, it was still very much a rural county. Throughout the years, its economy remained firmly based on the bounty of nature, emphasizing agriculture, fishing, logging and other related enterprises. Suddenly, Sept. 1, 1939, World War II
erupted in Europe. Though the populace didn’t know it at the time, the emergence of this global conflict would bring about immediate and irreversible change to the area with the establishment of several military installations. At the beginning of the war, a huge mobilization effort was underway in case the need to enter the fray at a moment’s notice arose. With Parris Island, S.C. and Quantico, Va., quickly becoming overcrowded, the need for one large Marine Corps base on the East Coast that could serve as an operational staging area and training center became increasingly vital. In the summer of 1940, Maj. Gen. Thomas Holcomb, then Marine Corps commandant, ordered Maj. John C. McQueen to find a training center. Within a month, McQueen and his pilot, Capt. Verne McCaul, set off on an aerial survey that covered the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from Norfolk, Va., to Corpus
Ch i i T h ciri Christi, Texas. A As they cled over the Onslow County coast, they saw below them the only remaining beach on the East Coast, where, it was determined, two divisions could be landed side by side and move inland. It was an ideal training area for maneuvering large formations, firing
ill d major j ffacility ili artillery and construction. Because of the predominantly underdeveloped and under-populated nature of the area, the land was both available and inexpensive. The area also met most of
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Happy 235th Birthday United States Marine Corps! Thank you for all that you do!
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CONTINUED FROM 5 the technical site selection criteria established by the Corps. It had access to deep-water ports and was an area with minimal human habitation that was free of interference from aircraft, industry and roads. With close proximity to ports at Wilmington and Morehead City, Lejeune was a logistical gem. On Dec. 30, 1940, Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox approved the site selection for the East Coast divisional training center at New River. The geography, topography, oceanfront, climate and isolation of Onslow made the county’s coast a great location for a Marine Corps base. Marine Corps Barracks, New River was established in May 1941. In December 1942, Marine Barracks New River was renamed Marine Barracks Camp Lejeune, in honor of the 13th Commandant of the Marine Corps, Gen. John A. Lejeune. In 1946, it was renamed Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. During WWII, Camp Lejeune was the only training facility for the first African-Americans ever to wear the uniform. From 1942, until the desegregation of the armed forces in 1948, all African-American Marines went through recruit and advanced training at Camp Lejeune’s Montford Point. And, with the forming of the Marine Corps Women’s
Reserve in November 1942, the majority of the approximately 20,000 women who joined during WWII also trained at Camp Lejeune. Taking up more than 1/5 of the land area, altering the demographic complexion of the county and fueling the local economy, Camp Lejeune has changed life in Onslow. The value of this land to the Marine Corps has grown over the years as men have trained to fight wars in Korea, Vietnam and the Middle East, and have deployed on a host of peacekeeping and noncombatant evacuation operations throughout this decade. The idea of special operations capable Marine Expeditionary Units was born at Camp Lejeune and Marines here continue to make strides toward the future of warfare in such areas as urban and riverine operations. At the beginning of the century, the population of the city of Jacksonville was 309 people. By the halfway mark, that number had increased by over 1,000 percent to 3,960 residents. The War Department initially purchased an 11.2 square mile tract of land for the base’s construction. Today, Camp Lejeune occupies 246 square miles, 41 of which are underwater. The 92-mile perimeter of the base includes 14 miles of beaches, making it a
major training area for amphibious assaults. There are 6,946 building, 54 live-fire ranges, 89 maneuver areas, 33 gun positions, 25 tactical landing zones and a state-of-the-art Military Operations on Urban Terrain training complex. The base, which is home to an active duty, dependent, retiree and civilian employee population of nearly 150,000 people, generates $2 billion in commerce a year. As America’s finest fighting force, it’s only fitting that Marines are stationed on one of the finest bases the Department of Defense has to offer. A six-time (1987, 1992, 1998, 2001, 2005, 2009) recipient of the Commander-in-Chief ’s Award for Installation Excellence, Camp Lejeune has been recognized for the outstanding and innovative efforts of the people who operate and maintain military installations. In addition to main side, Camp Lejeune also consists of three satellite facilities at Camp Geiger, Camp Johnson and Stone Bay. Include Marine Corps Air Station New River and you’ve got the largest concentration of Marines and sailors in the world.
Editor’s note: Article written by Cpl. Adam Johnston CELEBRATING USMC 235TH BIRTHDAY | SPECIAL EDITION 7
ieutenant Presley O’Bannon led the Marines’ first battle on foreign soil in April 1805. He and his Marines relentlessly marched across 600 miles of the Libyan Desert to storm the fortified Tripolitan city
of Derna and rescue the kidnapped crew of the USS Philadelphia. The victory helped Prince Hamet Bey reclaim his rightful throne as ruler of Tripoli. In gratitude, Bey presented his Mameluke Sword to O’Bannon. This famous sword became part of the officer uniform in 1825
and remains the oldest ceremonial weapon in use by United States armed forces today. The Battle of Derna is notably recalled in the opening verse of the Marines’ Hymn: “From the Halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli, we fight our country’s battles in the air, on land and sea.”
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noncommissioned officers and officers feature the scarlet “blood stripe” down each trouser leg. Originally it honored those Marines who died in the Battle of Chapultepec during the Mexican War in 1847. Today, the blood stripe honors the memory of all our fallen comrades. Dress blues are worn for many events, including ceremonies with foreign officials, visits with U.S. civil officials and formal social functions within an official capacity. Because it embodies Marine Corps history, rigorous standards apply to wearing this uniform and every Marine upholds those standards with pride.
arines are known by their distinctive dress blue uniform, which has origins dating back to the American Revolution. In 1776, Marines wore green jackets featuring a high leather collar to protect against close-combat attacks, but in 1798, the jacket changed to blue to represent the Corps’ naval tradition. In 1841, Marines began wearing a dark blue jacket and light blue trousers. The high collar remains intact on today’s uniform and is also preserved by the nickname “Leatherneck.” The dress blue uniform worn by noncommissioned officers, staff
CELEBRATING USMC 235TH BIRTHDAY | SPECIAL EDITION 9