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May-June 2017 Volume 37, Issue 3

Non-Profit Org. U.S. Postage PAID Permit #115 Albany, OR

Extending Knowledge and Changing Lives in Linn and Benton Counties May 2014

Arial Bold 12pt Old Armory, Fourth & Lyon, Albany, Oregon 97321


Farming Skills Grow in Women’s Farm Network Women are turning to each other for answers to difficult farm questions in a nearly tenyear old organization called Willamette Women’s Farm Network. And they are reaping benefits. “People will ask, ‘How do you do this?’ or ‘How do you do that?’ and we use ourselves, use the group as a resource,” said Scottie Jones, one of the original members of Willamette Women’s Farm Network. “We have a really good listserv,” she said. Membership in the group, one of two such groups operating in Oregon and one of many nationwide, has grown from a dozen in 2008 to 180 today. And the network keeps adding members annually. The network has its origins in a steering committee formed by Oregon State University Extension Small Farms Program agent Melissa Fery. Fery, who serves small farms in Linn, Benton and Lane counties, said she originally pulled together a dozen women farmers in 2008 to find out if a network would be useful. “They said it would,” Fery said. “From there, for the most part, it has just grown through word of mouth.” Fery said the thought of

Photo Provided by Melissa Fery

By Mitch Lies, GrowinG Editor

Willamette Women’s Farm Network members get instructions to expand their knowledge of basic carpentry.

starting the network came out of the realization that the role of women in agriculture has been changing, particularly in the increasingly prominent area of small farms.


“Farming historically has been a pretty male dominated field,” Fery said. “Women were often seen, and in some ways still are seen, as farm wives to the farmers. They are kind of

underserved when it comes to educational programs. And small farms have a large population of new women farmers. “And there is something to

be said for learning from other women, instead of having a guy come in and teach you what you need to know,” Fery said. “The learning style is very collaborative, very open. They are willing to ask questions. It is a very different energy than some of the other programs I’m involved in.” The network includes almost exclusively small farmers, with 70 percent farming on less than 30 acres, and most of them selling direct to customers, with 82 percent marketing their product consumers through farmers’ markets and similar venues. As unique as she is, Jones is somewhat typical of the network’s membership. While many are young farmers just starting out, many, like Jones, have taken up farming later in life as part of professional and lifestyle transitions. Jones and her husband, Greg Jones, decided to leave behind their professional positions in Phoenix, Arizona, to pursue life on a small farm at the age of 50. Other than some hobby gardening and internet research, the couple knew little about farming when they purchased what was then a 40acre farm near Alsea, Oregon. “It was called being naïve at 50,” Jones said. “That is what it was.”

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Prepare to Preserve! OSU Forage Management series offered. OSU partners with Red Cross to offer Prepare Out Loud event. Through the Garden Gate Albany Garden Tour scheduled for June 17.

May/June 2017 —


Farming Skills Grow in Women’s Farm Network

Who We Are

Office locations and hours

The Benton County office is located at 4077 SW Research Way in Corvallis. Office hours are 8 a.m. until 5 p.m. Monday through Friday. Telephone: 541766-6750. Fax: 541-766-3549. The Linn County office is located at 33630 McFarland Rd (on the corner of Old Highway 34 and McFarland Road), in Tangent. Office hours are from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., Monday through Friday. Phone 541-967-3871. Seed Certification phone 541-967-3810.

Program Staff Phone Numbers

Linn County 4-H Youth Development Robin Galloway Linn County 4-H Youth Development Andrea Leao Benton County 4-H Youth Development Carolyn Ashton Benton County 4-H Natural Science and Benton County Leader Maggie Livesay 4-H Latino Outreach Coordinator Ana Lu Fonseca Field Crops* Vacant Livestock & Forages* Shelby Filley Dairy* Jenifer Cruickshank Commercial Swine & Forage* Gene Pirelli Small Farms* Melissa Fery Small Farms* Amy Garrett* Small Farms & Groundwater Education* Chrissy Lucas Community Horticulture* Brooke Edmunds Community Horticulture* Pami Opfer Forestry, Natural Resources* Brad Withrow-Robinson Forestry and 4-H Youth Jody Einerson Family & Community Health (FCH)* Jeanne Brandt FCH & SNAP Ed* Tina Dodge Vera SNAP Ed* Brooke Jackson SNAP Ed* Constanza Maureira SNAP Ed* Yosvan Campos FCH & EFNEP* Leonor Chavez * Multi-county assignment

541-730-3469 541-730-3534 541-766-6750 541-766-6750 541-766-6750

541-672-4461 971-600-1222 541-623-8395 541-730-3538 541-766-6750 541-766-3556 541-730-3470 541-730-3471 541-967-3871 541-766-6311 541-730-3544 541-730-3541 541-766-6750 541-766-6750 541-967-3871 541-730-3542

Administration and program support serving Linn County

Office specialist Office specialist Office manager & Linn County Leader Seed certification

Laurie Gibson JoLynn O’Hearn Michele Webster Doug Huff

541-248-1088 541-967-3871 541-248-1087 541-967-3810

Administration and program support serving Benton County Office specialist Office manager Office specialist

Regional Administrator GROWING editor

Kelly Cotter 541-766-6750 Liz McGovern 541-766-6750 Andrea Watson 541-766-6750 Derek Godwin 541-967-3871 Mitch Lies 541-967-3871

Oregon State University Extension Service offers educational programs, activities and materials without discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, national origin, age, marital status, disability, disabled veteran or Vietnam-era veteran status. Oregon State University Extension Service is an Equal Opportunity Employer. Reasonable accommodations to persons with physical or mental disabilities will be provided. Please notify the Extension office five working days prior to the event you are interested in attending to request reasonable accommodations.

2 — May/June 2017

Continued from Page 1 After a year or so, Jones said it became obvious the operation, Leaping Lamb Farm, wasn’t paying for itself, so Greg took a position teaching psychology at LinnBenton Community College in Albany, a position he retired from earlier this year. Scottie also considered getting a job in town, and actually pursued and obtained a master’s degree in business administration. “I was thinking I was going to work off the farm,” she said, “but then it became pretty apparent that somebody really needed to be on the farm.” Jones met Fery shortly after the couple purchased Leaping Lamb Farm through a course Fery teaches called Living on the Land. “I decided that since I didn’t know anything that I better take some classes, so I had some concept of what we should be doing.” Jones said she realizes several benefits from Willamette Women’s Farm Network, including a tightknit camaraderie among the members that has been sustained since the group’s very first meeting. “When we first started, I remember thinking, oh good, I am going to be with all these older farmers and they are just going to know so much,” Jones said. “But most of who started with the group were brand new at farming. So we’ve all kind of come along and learned as we’ve gone. And I think we are really good at sharing what we’ve learned. “And now that a lot of us have been doing it for a decade or more, I guess we’re not new farmers anymore,” she said. “But it was enjoyable getting to grow with all of these people. It has just created a great camaraderie.” She added: “The network has helped us be better at what we do, and then having somebody like Melissa in Extension behind it all as a major resource, has been very helpful.” Jones said she also appreciates that the network opened up a unique opportunity that she doesn’t believe would have been

Photo Provided by Melissa Fery

The Oregon State University Extension offices in Linn County and Benton County offer practical, lifelong learning experiences. We sponsor conferences, workshops, demonstrations, tours, and short courses. We recruit, train and manage volunteers who assist us with community outreach and education. Our Extension faculty and volunteers answer questions and give advice by phone, in person, through e-mail, and on our Websites. We provide brochures and flyers with specific information on a variety of subjects. We are funded by a cooperative partnership between Oregon State University, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and our local counties.

Scottie Jones, one of the original members of Willamette Women’s Farm Network, shares about her farming practices at a network gathering. Jones took up farming later in life as part of a professional and lifestyle transition.

available without it. “I’ve gotten to know some people pretty well, and without the network, I don’t think there would have been another opportunity for me to have gotten into a farming community as easily,” Jones said. “Because I didn’t know anything. I was brand new. It would have been harder to figure out where to go, who to meet.” In its first few years, Willamette Women’s Farm Network would hold gatherings every other month or so, Fery said. Today the members hold workshops about three times a year. “Now I wait to find out from women farmers what they are interested in,” Fery said. “Most recently, someone said they would be interested in learning the basics of electrician work. A class like that might mean giving them the confidence in trying to put in an outlet by themselves in their barn. “I let the members tell me if there is an educational need or a need to gather and get together and support each other,” Fery said. “Farmer-to-farmer networking is not a traditional Extension program, because farmers are the educators in this network, sharing information with each other. I’m just the facilitator, creating space for these women to share observations, ideas, needs and solutions,” Fery said. “With the

network, I’m not trying so much to determine what they need to know, but letting them tell me.” The network serves several purposes in addition to sharing information and building camaraderie, Fery said. “We’ve seen different things develop, from business relationships, where they are actually working with each other, as well as equipment sharing, support and networking opportunities in general,” Fery said. The primary communication method used by members is to send an email to the group’s listserv, or email list. “We also have a Facebook page,” Fery said. Members also use the listserv to sell items. “I’ve found the listserv to be very useful, Jones said. “Instead of selling something on Craigslist, you can put it on the listserv.” Jones said she also uses the listserv to alert other members about the availability of certain tools that are designed with women in mind. Because farming is a male-dominated profession, she said, often it is difficult for women to find tools that fit their needs. “A lot of implements aren’t made for women’s hands, women’s bodies, so people on the network are a great resource,” Jones said. “They’ll say things like ‘Oh, I found these clippers that really fit my hand,’ or ‘I found these gloves where the fingers aren’t too long.’” “This network is a way for women farmers to gain confidence,” Fery said, “but also a way to network with each other and support each other, which I think is really important. “In the long term,” Fery said, as women become more dominant as principle operators of farms, networks like this won’t be needed.” Still, the network might survive, but with another function. “It might turn into more of a social opportunity,” Fery said.

Community Horticulture

Pami Monnette 541-730-3471 pamela.opfer@

Brooke Edmunds 541-730-3470 brooke.edmunds@

Beevent Pollinator Conference Recap Master Gardener Program coordinator, Pami Monnette takes a spin on the Bee Bike.

Photo Provided by PaMi Monnette

Approximately 150 pollinator advocates attended the 3rd Annual Beevent hosted by the Linn County Master Gardeners. The event was held at the Linn County Fair and Expo Center, and featured a full day of expert speakers, local vendors, raffle prizes and more. Attendees came away with a wealth of knowledge about local pollinators and how to boost their health through sustainable gardening and farming practices. A huge thank you to our amazing speakers and all of the Master Gardener volunteers who made this event such a success!

Photo Provided by PaMi Monnette

Horticulture faculty, Brooke edmunds and Master Gardeners, Bill Pintard and Randy Peckham man the MG booth

Benton County Master Gardener Associate Member Have you thought about becoming a Master Gardener? Many people love to garden but don’t have time to take the Master Gardener training, aren’t sure if they have the right skills, or are just unsure about what a Master Gardener does. Becoming a Master Gardener Associate Member is

MAy/JuNe Planning

• Prepare and prime irrigation system for summer. • Use a soil thermometer to help you know when to plant vegetables. Wait until twhe soil is consistently above 70 degrees Fahrenheit to plant tomatoes, squash, melons, peppers and eggplant. • Construct trellises for tomatoes, cucumbers, pole beans, and vining ornamentals.

Maintenance and clean up

Photo Provided by PaMi Monnette

Speakers Rich Little and Andony Melathopoulos share a laugh between talks.

May-June Gardening Calendar for Western Oregon

an easy way to connect with the program and see if it’s right for you. The Benton County Master Gardeners are always looking for help with various projects, events, and committees. As an Associate Member, you can participate and learn alongside trained Master Gardeners. The

only thing you cannot do is give gardening advice without having taken the training classes. If this sounds like something you would like to try, contact Pami at pamela.opfer@, or call the Extension office at 541-7666750, for an application.

• If needed, fertilize rhododendrons and azaleas with acid-type fertilizer. If established and healthy, their nutrient needs should be minimal. Remove spent blossoms. • When selecting new roses, choose plants labeled for resistance to diseases. Fertilize roses and control rose diseases such as mildew with a registered fungicide. • Make sure raised beds receive enough water for plants to avoid drought stress. • Fertilize vegetable garden 1 month after plants emerge by side dressing alongside rows. • Use organic mulches to conserve soil moisture in ornamental beds. An inch or two of sawdust, barkdust, or composted leaves will minimize loss of water through evaporation. • Harvest thinnings from new plantings of lettuce, onion, and chard.

Planting/propagation • • • •

Plant dahlias, gladioli, and tuberous begonias in mid-May. Plant chrysanthemums for fall color. Plant these vegetables Mid-May, transplant tomato and pepper seedlings.

Pest monitoring and management

• Manage weeds while they are small and actively growing with light cultivation or herbicides. Once the weed has gone to bud, herbicides are less effective.

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The Power of Flowers!



5470 NE Hwy 20, Corvallis 97330 (541) 753-6601 May/June 2017 —


‘Through the Garden Gate Albany Garden Tour’ Set for June 17 Spring is in the air! The time for daydreaming over seed catalogs is past. The time to dig in and get dirty is upon us. Gardeners all over Linn and Benton counties can be seen out in force pulling weeds and preparing garden beds for planting. Even with this annual flurry of gardening activity, it’s never too late to be on the lookout for inspiration and ideas. The Linn County Master Gardeners’ Annual Garden Tour – Through the Garden Gate – on Saturday, June 17, is just the place to do this. From postage stamp gardens to rolling park-like acres, there will be something for everyone on the tour to enjoy. The six gardens featured this year have been selected by Master Gardeners to show what can be done to create beautiful outdoor living spaces regardless of location or the size of your garden space. Through the Garden Gate Albany Garden Tour tickets will be on sale May 1 at Garland Nursery in Corvallis, Tom’s Garden Center, Albany Visitor Center, Nichols Garden Nursery, Green Thumb in Lebanon and Shonnards Nursery in Philomath. New this year, tickets will also be available for purchase online at The tour will take place in the Albany area from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. This is a self-guided tour. Once you purchase your ticket, you will be provided with a map of where the gardens are located. Linn County Master Gardeners will welcome you with information tables and treats at each garden.

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By Kym Pokorny No matter how muddy the spring, it’s time to slip on your boots and gloves and take care of blackberries and raspberries. Established red raspberries, including Meeker, Cascade Delight, and Vintage; black raspberries such as Jewel; and blackberries like Marion, Boysen, Columbia Star, Navaho, and Triple Crown, need some care in early spring in order to stay healthy and productive. These caneberries should be fertilized starting in early spring when new growth begins, said Bernadine Strik, berry crops professor with the Oregon State University Extension Service. For raspberries, apply 1 ounce of actual nitrogen (N) per plant. For blackberries, apply 2 ounces. Split the total amount of nitrogen into thirds, applying the first in early April, the second portion in late May, and the last portion in mid- to late June. To calculate the amount of fertilizer to use, divide the recommended amount of actual nitrogen needed by the percent nitrogen in the product, which is shown as the first number on the front of the bag. For example, in raspberries if you are using a granular fertilizer such as 1616-16 (16 percent nitrogen), then you would divide 2 by .16 to get 6.25 ounces of fertilizer. So, you’ll need to use about 6 ounces of product (2 ounces of fertilizer per application); double this for blackberries. “It’s best to spread the fertilizer evenly around the plant over the surface of the soil in the row,” Strik said. “I suggest an area about 2½ to

3 feet wide by 3 feet long for raspberries. For blackberries go 5 feet long.” Keep the area where berries are growing free of weeds by removing them by hand. You can use a layer of sawdust or bark mulch to help reduce germination of weed seeds. Don’t apply more than about 2 inches deep. In all these caneberries, the plants are perennial with long-lived roots and crowns (base of plant), but the canes are biennial. They are called primocanes in their first year of growth. Then after they overwinter, they become floricanes. They flower, fruit and then die. Foliage on the new primocanes should be a healthy green color. A pale green or yellow color may indicate nitrogen deficiency, Strik said. If the plants seem to lack vigor, apply a little more nitrogen fertilizer. Pruning caneberries can be confusing because different categories of raspberries and blackberries have separate pruning requirements. Strik lays it out like this: Erect and semi-erect blackberries (as well as black raspberries), need summer and winter pruning to improve yield and fruit size. Erect blackberries form stiff, upright branches that don’t need much trellising. Semi-erect cultivars are vigorous and need sturdy supports. They should be pruned during the growing season so that they form lateral branches. Cut the new primocanes to about 3 feet high in black raspberries and erect blackberries and 5 feet in semi-erect blackberries. Now is the time to prune those lateral branches to 18 to 24 inches long for black raspberries and erect blackberries or up to 4 feet

Photo by bernadine strik

Photo Provided by PaMi Monnette

A sneak peek at one of the incredible gardens that are on the 2017 tour.

Time to Turn Attention to Blackberries, Raspberries

Columbia Star is a new trailing blackberry.

long for semi-erect varieties. For trailing blackberries, the new primocanes should not be pruned in summer. After harvest, floricanes die and should be cut to the ground and removed from the trellis in late August. The new primocanes should be trellised in August or late winter after severe cold temperatures have passed. Wrap these around a twowire trellis. Summer-bearing red or yellow raspberries do not need to be pruned in summer. Take out the dead floricanes after fruiting in late summer. From January through early March, when plants are dormant, remove all the weak, broken and diseased primocanes to crown or soil level. If your plants are grown in a hedgerow, narrow the row to about 6 to 12 inches wide. You can shorten canes to about 5½- to 6-feet tall to make training and picking easier. Tie these canes to the trellis wires. Everbearing (or primocane-fruiting) red and yellow raspberries will produce fruit at the tips of the new primocanes in late summer through fall and can produce an early summer crop on the base of the floricanes. In winter, to prune for two crops a year, remove all of the primocane

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Insights Into Gardening Review By Jana Tindall, Benton County oSU Master Gardener The 2017 Insights Into Gardening held in Corvallis provided more than 300 participants with upto-date, research-based gardening information. The annual, day-long educational event sponsored

by the Benton County Master Gardener Association is for anyone interested in gardening—from beginners to experienced gardeners. Master Gardeners may count the class hours toward recertification. This year’s event offered 16 classes in four concurrent sessions taught by local experts. In addition to

classes, participants were able to visit with exhibitors for one-on-one advice and make a few purchases. Save the date for next year’s Insights Into Gardening scheduled for Saturday, Feb. 10, 2018. Proceeds from this event help fund grants, scholarships, and more educational events.

Photos Provided by Jana tindall

Photo Provided by Jana tindall

Master Gardener Caroline Flamez making sure the treats are restocked at this year’s insights into Gardening! Photo Provided by Jana tindall

Aaron Jeschke from Territorial Seeds talks about growing heirloom tomatoes and maximizing your harvest.

Nichols Garden Nursery, Sebright Gardens, and Shonnards Nursery were just a few of the fantastic vendors at Insights.

Upcoming Benton County Master Gardener Association Meetings Monday, May 15: Amy Garret from OSU Extension Small Farms, “Observations of Dry Farming” Location: Sunset Conference Room, Benton County Office Building, 4077 SW Research Way, Corvallis. Doors open at 6:30 p.m. and the meeting starts at 7 p.m. Please use the eastside entrance.

Upcoming Linn County Master Gardener Association Meetings

Mark your calendars—the Linn County Master Gardeners have scheduled a guided tour of Schreiner’s Iris Garden on Wednesday, May 17. The tour begins at 10 a.m. Those interested in carpooling will meet at the MG Demo Garden at 9 a.m. This is not our regular meeting time, but the time the flowers should be near peak. If you have never been to Schreiner’s during the spring bloom, prepare to have your doors blown off.

Calendar continued from Page 3 • Trap moles and gophers as new mounds appear. • Leafrolling worms may affect apples and blueberries. Prune off and destroy affected leaves. • Monitor aphids on strawberries, ornamentals, and vegetables. If present, control options include washing off with water, hand removal, or using registered insecticides labeled for the problem plant. • Spittle bugs may appear on ornamental plants as foam on stems. In most cases, they don’t require management. If desired, wash off with water or use insecticidal soap as a contact spray. Read and follow label directions when using insecticides, including insecticidal soap. • Control cabbage worms in cabbage and cauliflower, 12-spotted cucumber beetles in beans and lettuce, and maggots in radishes. Control can involve hand removal, placing barrier screen over newly planted rows, or spraying or dusting with registered pesticides, labeled for use on the problem plant. • Tiny holes in foliage and shiny, black beetles on tomato, beets, radishes, and potato indicate flea beetle attack. Treat with Neem, Bt-s, or use nematodes for larvae. Read and follow label directions when using insecticides. • Prevent root maggots when planting cole crops (cabbage, broccoli, collards and kale) by covering with row covers or screens, or by applying appropriate insecticides. • Control slugs with bait or traps and by removing or mowing vegetation near garden plots.

Agricultural Business Management • Agricultural Sciences Animal Science • Animal Technology Animal Technology: Horse Management Crop Production • Equine Science Horticulture • Profitable Small Farms Veterinary Assistant

May/June 2017 —


Family and Community Health

Jeanne Brandt 541-730-3544 jeanne.brandt@

Tina Dodge Vera 541-730-3541

Processed Sugars vs. Natural Sugars: What’s the difference? Too much sugar is a bad idea, and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) isn’t better. But neither is inherently good or evil. Despite what the media may say, (such as in this March 1 blog post: “Sugar is poison. High fructose corn syrup causes cancer. Just google it.”), a little added sugar isn’t going to instantly kill anyone. Added sugars make things sweeter and tastier. They have a number of positive qualities when baking and bring a smile to both young and old. Sugar tastes so good that most American adults can credit 14.6 percent of their daily calories from added sugars (see source 1, which I’ve listed at the end of this article.) While sugar may make our taste buds happy, it isn’t very nutritious. It contains energy, but not much else. It is essentially “empty calories,” meaning that you get no nutritional benefit, aside from instant blood-sugar spiking energy, from consuming it. Sugar comes in many different forms in food. Most healthy foods, including fruits, vegetables, dairy, and grains, contain naturally occurring sugars or carbohydrates. Processed foods can contain naturally occurring carbohydrates plus added sugars. These added sugars come in many forms, and some are labeled “natural” to be more appealing to consumers. The FDA does not have a definition of the word natural; they do allow the word to be used if a

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product has no added colors, artificial flavors or synthetic substances but this is a loose regulation. “Naturally” added sugars like agave nectar, honey and maple syrup also have calories but are reported to have more helpful nutrients as well, like B vitamins, selenium and iron. Unfortunately in order to see those nutritional benefits you’d have to eat quite a bit of these added sugars each day. Processed foods, like boxed, canned, wrapped or frozen (not usually fruits and vegetables), generally contain added sugars, though not all do. Processed foods must go through processing (obviously) which tends to remove essential nutrients. Generally speaking, the more processed a food is the less nutritious it will be. If a food is processed, look at the label and ingredients to figure out what it contains and whether you should be consuming it. According to the American Heart Association added sugar, in all forms, should be restricted to no more than 6 teaspoons (24 grams) a day for women (approximately 100 calories) and 9 teaspoons a day for men (approximately 150 calories) or less than 5 percent of total daily calories. For label reference 4 grams of sugar=1 teaspoon of sugar and 1 gram of sugar=4 calories. UsUaL sUsPecTs Cane/Granulated/Table/ White Sugar Cane sugar is 100 percent sucrose, which means it contains 50 percent glucose sugar and 50 percent fructose

sugar. It can come from either sugarcane or sugar beet. 1 teaspoon contains 4 grams of simple carbohydrate or 16 calories. Much is known about sugar so there’s no need to dive into the finer details. It is also well-known that sugar in excess isn’t healthy so let’s not further debate the point. High Fructose Corn Syrup High fructose corn syrup comes from corn syrup and has 17 calories in 1 teaspoon. Due to its relatively cheap price and other food product characteristics it became very popular in the 1980s in many processed and refined products, including sugar-sweetened beverages (see source 3). The most commonly used form of HFCS contains 45 percent glucose and 55 percent fructose (the sweetest form of sugar, also called fruit sugar) and is called HFCS 55. HFCS has come under strong public investigation in the last few years. Due to the large consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in the last few decades, it has actually been accused of

causing the obesity epidemic (4). Fructose is a controversial topic with limited proof to show it as the only offender of the obesity epidemic. Since HFCS typically contains more fructose than table sugar, less is needed to produce the same sweetness. HFCS is not available for the public to use at home but it is abundantly used in processed foods, so that may be a red flag when it comes to personal use. added NaTUraL sUgars Agave Nectar Agave nectar comes from the agave plant and contains 21 calories per teaspoon. There is a bit of controversy surrounding agave nectar because the agave plant contains inulin, a form of fiber, and other helpful nutrients. Unfortunately it was found that by the time the processing is complete the fiber and nutrients are essentially stripped (5). Agave nectar’s composition is difficult to pinpoint because different brands contain varying amounts of fructose. All differences aside, agave is found to have a remarkably high fructose content (one source estimated it to be as much as 70-90 percent fructose) (6). Because it contains such a high content of fructose, less is needed to produce a sweet effect. Maple Syrup Maple syrup is pretty trendy these days. Since maple syrup comes directly from a tree (not the maple flavored sugar water that

Aunt Jemima puts out) it tends to contain more minerals than other added sugars do (9). However, benefits may be minor if not nonexistent considering the small quantities of these minerals that are consumed. Maple syrup is more than half sucrose, which means it contains about 1/3 fructose. This may mean that you have to use more in order to produce the sweetness you want. Maple syrup can also be more expensive than other sweeteners which may limit the desire or ability to purchase and use it. Honey Honey is 2/3 sucrose with the remaining 1/3 being water. It contains 21 calories in every teaspoon but has been advertised as having a number of helpful nutrients (10). Similar to maple syrup, these nutrients may not be in high enough quantities to be an advantage at the recommended dosage. 4 tablespoons (252 calories) of honey would be needed per day to reap any health benefit (11). Honey isn’t expensive but it’s also not cheap and its flavor profile can be very distinctive. While this may be a good thing for some, it might also be unwelcome for others. BoTToM LiNe Added sugars are not the devil. That being said they still don’t have much nutritional value and should be eaten less than the average American typically consumes,

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Introducing the Canning Timer and Checklist App

Prepare to Preserve Food preservation season is on its way, so now is the time to get ready. Here are soMe THiNgs To do Now: Check your canning publications. Are they current and from a reliable, researchbased source? OSU Extension has all of their most up-to-date food preservation, food safety and storage publications in one place, online for you to download or read on your electronic device free. http:// fch/food-preservation For a simple checklist of the steps in canning see: http://extension.oregonstate. edu/fch/sites/default/ files/documents/canning_ checklists_osu_bookmarks. pdf If you don’t have electronic access, stop by the Extension office for a copy of current publications. Have the gauge on your pressure canner checked for accuracy. This free service is available Monday-Friday at the Benton and Linn County Extension offices. It is essential that your canner gauge read accurately so the food you preserve is safe. If your gauge reads just 1-pound off, it can make a measurable difference in the safety of the content of the jars. It’s a good idea to have a test run with your pressure canner before using it each year. Just place 2-3 inches of water in the canner and go through the steps to bring it up to pressure to make sure all the parts are working. Inventory the preserved products you have on hand. Take a look at what you have in your freezer and pantry. That may help you

This free app from OSU Extension provides simple checklists and a built-in timer to guide users in canning vegetables, fruits, meats and fish. Intended for people with a bit of previous experience, the app provides reminders of each of the essential steps in the canning process. Created by Linn/ Benton County Family and Community Health faculty Jeanne Brandt. Andriod and iOS options available. https://catalog.extension.

Fresh Herbs, Now and Later

determine what to grow, harvest, and preserve this year. Preserved foods are best quality for a year, but are safe past that if preserved properly and stored without overheating or freezing. Plan to attend a food preservation class for an update on the latest techniques and products. • Tuesday, June 6; Wednesday, July 5; Thursday, August 3 Preserving Fruit Products/Boiling Water Canning: This is where we begin. Review how and why different methods of preservation are used, basic techniques, necessary equipment, references and resources used for preserving fruits and fruit products. • Tuesday, June 13; Wednesday, July 12; Thursday, August 10 Vegetables & Meat/ Pressure Canning and Drying: This class covers

the safe and simple process of pressure canning vegetables and meats, including fish. Learn to use and care for your pressure canner then review tips for high-quality and nutritious dried foods. • Tuesday, June 20; Wednesday, July 19; Thursday, August 17 Tomatoes, Sauces & Salsas: Tomatoes are the most preserved item of produce. This class covers options for preserving plain tomatoes, tomato sauces, juice and “The Laws of Salsa.” Make and compare a variety of salsas in class. • Tuesday, June 27; Wednesday, July 26; Thursday, August 24 Pickle Making: Pickles are gaining popularity again. This class covers safe procedures for pickling vegetables, including fermented and fresh pack pickles, and selecting and preparing ingredients.

As the ground and air warms, herbs start flourishing. The best time to harvest herbs is just before the flowers open. If you are growing them yourself, gather herbs in the early morning after the dew has evaporated to minimize wilting. Rinse the herbs in cool water and shake gently to remove excess moisture. Sort through them and discard all bruised, soiled or damaged leaves and stems. Fresh herbs can be stored for a few days and retain good quality. Store them upright in a glass with a small amount of water in the refrigerator. Drape a damp paper towel or plastic wrap over them to prevent wilting. Wash herbs thoroughly under running water when you are ready to use them. Shake off moisture and pat off any remaining moisture with clean paper towels. When using fresh herbs in a recipe, use 3 times as much as you would use of a dried herb. When substituting, you will be more successful substituting fresh herbs for dried herbs, rather than the other way around. For most recipes, unless otherwise directed, mince herbs into tiny pieces. Chop with a knife on a cutting board or snip with kitchen scissors. While some recipes call for a sprig of herbs, normally the part of the herb you harvest will be the leaves. For herbs with sturdier stems, such as marjoram, oregano, rosemary, sage and thyme, you can strip off the leaves by running your fingers down the stem from top to bottom. For herbs with tender stems, such as parsley and cilantro, snip the stem in with the leaves. Unlike dried herbs, fresh herbs are usually added toward the end in cooked dishes to preserve their flavor. Add the more delicate herbs — basil, chives, cilantro, dill leaves, parsley, marjoram and mint — a minute or two before the end of cooking or sprinkle them on the food before it’s served. The less delicate herbs, such as dill seeds, oregano, rosemary, tarragon and thyme, can be added about the last 20 minutes of cooking. Drying, freezing and making them into herbal flavored vinegars are effective ways to store your herb crop or purchase for later use.

Continued on Page 8 May/June 2017 —


Herbs continued from Page 7

Freezing Herbs We are seeing frozen herb cubes in stores now. It is easy to make them at home. Chop your chosen herb or herb mixture finely, place a spoon full in each compartment of an ice cube tray and add enough oil or water to cover then freeze. Or, run a cup of herbs and enough oil or water to make a paste through your blender and then pour it into the ice cube tray. Once the mixture is frozen solid, pop them out of the tray and place the cubes in an airtight container in the freezer. There is no need to thaw these before adding them to foods during cooking. Herbs can be placed in a single layer on a cookie sheet and then frozen. Once the herbs are frozen they can be placed in freezer containers or bags. This method prevents the herbs from freezing in clumps, and it may be easier to remove individual quantities for cooking. Basil is one herb that may benefit from blanching before freezing to keep it from turning a disgusting black. Pour boiling water over the basil for just one second and then immerse it in ice water. If you don’t mind the color change, freezing it without blanching keeps a better flavor. Herb Flavored Vinegars Vinegars are an effective way to preserve herbs as well as impart their flavor into foods. They are gaining in popularity and are even touted as a refreshing drink base when mixed with a carbonated beverage. Vinegars absorb the flavor compounds from herbs, spices, citrus peel or berries that are allowed to steep for 10 days – 3 weeks before the vinegar is strained and used. They are then effective in transferring those flavors into foods during marinating, cooking or when used as part of a dressing or sauce. To make, simply place desired herbs, dried spices, citrus peel or fresh berries in a sterilized jar, fill with vinegar and cover. Some people prefer to heat the vinegar to simmering before pouring over the herbs. This may make the infusion go more quickly and can help destroy any mold spores that might be present, giving the vinegar a longer shelf life. Distilled white, apple cider, wine and rice vinegars will all work for this. The flavoring ingredients can be from a few sprigs of herbs to enough to fill the jar half full before adding the vinegar. Chunks of vegetables such as garlic, hot peppers, or onion can be added as well. Store the steeping or strained vinegar in tightly sealed bottles in the refrigerator for best quality. If the vinegar ever shows any signs of fermentation or mold, discard it without tasting. Use within 4-6 months for best quality. Since the liquid is undiluted vinegar, there is little food safety risk. For more details and some flavor-combination suggestions, see: documents/sp_50_736_flavoredvinegars.pdf

8 — May/June 2017

You may still have winter squash such as acorn, butternut, buttercup, hubbard, or sweet meat in storage and we are seeing some good prices on them in stores. With spring on the way, it’s time to get those out of storage and on the table. Carol, one of our Master Food Preservers and a Master Gardener, served Autumn Squash Bisque, a fancy name for pureed squash soup, at a recent Seed to Supper class session and participants were surprised how good it was. Here is the Food Hero recipe for you to try. It works well with frozen or canned squash as well. The ginger is optional. You could add more thyme and some oregano for a different spice option. A shake of chili powder can give it a nice, warm feature on a rainy day. Squash can be safely canned in cubes or frozen either in cubes or puree. Check out this fact sheet for preservation instructions as well as storage instructions for pumpkins and squash for this year’s crop. http://extension. sites/default/files/ documents/sp_50_767_ preservingpumpkinswinter squash.pdf

Photo by Jeanne brandt

drying herbs Herbs can be dried in a microwave. Place tender leaves between 2 layers of paper towels and cook on high, stirring every 30 seconds and checking for dryness. This may take 3-4 minutes of drying time. Herbs also dry very well in an electric food dehydrator, or hung in small bunches in a warm, dry room, although in our area we don’t have dry enough air most of the year to let herbs dry while hanging without molding first. When they are crisp, they are dry enough to store. Package well so they don’t reabsorb moisture out of the air and mold.

Use up that Squash

Carol and her squash soup

Autumn Squash Bisque • 2 teaspoons oil • 2 cups sliced onions • 2 pounds winter squash, peeled, seeded, and cut into 2-inch cubes (4 generous cups) • 2 pears, peeled, cored, and diced, or 1 can (15 ounces) Directions • Heat oil in a large pot over medium heat. • Add onions and cook, stirring constantly until softened, 3 to 4 minutes. • Add squash, pears, garlic, ginger and thyme; cook, stirring, for 1 minute. • Add broth and water; bring to a simmer. • Reduce heat to low, cover, and simmer until squash is tender, 35-45 minutes.

sliced pears, drained and chopped • 2 cloves garlic, peeled and crushed • 2 Tablespoons coarsely chopped, peeled fresh ginger, or 1 teaspoon powdered ginger

• Puree soup, in batches if necessary, in a blender. (If using a blender, follow manufacturer’s directions for pureeing hot liquids.) • Return soup to pot and heat through. Stir in lemon juice. • Garnish each serving with a spoonful of yogurt. • Refrigerate leftovers within 2 hours.

• 1⁄2 teaspoon thyme • 4 cups chicken or vegetable broth (see notes) • 1 cup water • 1 Tablespoon lemon juice • 1⁄2 cup plain nonfat yogurt

Notes • Broth can be canned or made using bouillon. For each cup of broth use 1 cup very hot water and 1 teaspoon or 1 cube bouillon. recipes/autumn-squash-bisqueginger For more nutritious, lowcost recipes using common ingredients, remember visit

Groundwater Protection education

Chrissy Lucas 541-766-3556 chrissy.lucas@

Getting and Interpreting Well Water Tests Locally, Linn and Benton County Extension offices offer free nitrate screenings. If you want to test for other contaminants (and you should), such as coliform bacteria, you will need to work with a certified drinking water lab. To find your options visit the National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Management System http:// search and enter Oregon for the state. Make sure you call around if there are several options to price compare. iNTerPreTiNg waTer TesTs Many well owners need help interpreting their water test results. One way to understand them is to ask the lab that did the testing to explain whether any of the results exceed an established health risk level. The local Extension Service office can assist with interpreting your results. Another option is to use an online tool that allows you to type in your watertest results to automatically get simple explanations

Water test results can be hard to read. It is a good idea to work with a professional to understand your results.

about the potential health risks, treatment options, and more. Following are five online water test interpretation tools you can try. Since these tools are not identical, you may want to try several to see how they differ. 1. Colorado State University - wqtool/ 2. New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services - http://xml2.des.state.

3. The Ohio State University - http://ohiowatersheds. 4. Penn State University - http://www. water/dwit.asp 5. Utah State University http://extension.usu. edu/waterquality/htm/ wqtool acTiNg oN waTer-TesT resULTs If a water test shows a

health risk in your water, it should be determined whether the risk is naturally occurring in the groundwater, or whether there is a well maintenance issue or contamination source that is affecting your drinking water quality. This will determine how to best go about eliminating the risk. With your water test results in hand, find a qualified water well system professional who can inspect your well system and assess your property to determine if well maintenance or a

contamination source are problematic. If there’s not a water well system professional you use, find certified-professional by using National Groundwater Association’s Contractor Lookup, consult the local Yellow Pages, or ask another well owner for any recommendations. Reprinted from the May 2016 Well Owner Tip Sheet with local information added

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May/June 2017 —


Commerical Agriculture Livestock and Forages

Shelby Filley 541-672-4461 shelby.filley@

Still time to sign up for OSU Forage Management Series Even though the first class in the series is past, there is still time to sign up for this multi-part series. Sessions include harvest management, irrigation, renovation techniques, and fertility and includes indoor meetings as well as outdoor to demonstrate the principles of the series. We will have a “project ranch” that we work on together, including site visits and an on-line document sharing and blog. The project ranch will be the Wilson Farm, the OSU sheep facility with sheep and cattle grazing the pastures. You can also work on your own ranch as a side project if desired. The

objective of the series is to improve knowledge about managing forage on properties in the Willamette Valley. Instructors: OSU Faculty - Shelby Filley, David Hannaway, Serkan Ates, Gene Pirelli, and Troy Downing, plus other local experts Fee: $30 per evening session per individual or ranch group. Includes materials and refreshments. Preregistration is required. See http:// or call 541-248-1088. Locations: Evening programs will be at the Oldfield Animal Teaching Facility (OATF) on the Corvallis

campus (3521 SW Campus Way, Corvallis, OR 97333). Find map at http://extension.oregonstate. edu/douglas/sites/default/files/

documents/lf/oldfieldtc97333.pdf Farm/field visits, will be the morning following each class from 10 am to noon. Thursday mornings, 5/25, 6/29, 8/17, and 9/21/2017. Time/Dates/Topics: Evening Classes are from 6:30 – 8:30 pm • Wednesday, May 24, 2017 – Harvest Management • Wednesday, June 28, 2017 – Irrigation • July (no meetings, summer break) • Wednesday, August 16, 2017 – Renovation Techniques • Wednesday, September 20, 2017 – Fertility

Oregon Stays Free but Vigilant of Avian Influenza detections By the oregon department of agriculture Recent detections of avian influenza in commercial poultry in the southeast US, including Alabama, Georgia, and Tennessee, have caught the attention of animal health officials throughout the states. While Oregon has so far avoided detections of bird flu this spring in commercial and backyard flocks, the vigilance remains high– and necessarily so. “The strains of avian influenza virus are naturally occurring in wild waterfowl, it’s always there,” says State Veterinarian Dr. Brad LeaMaster of the Oregon Department of Agriculture. “It’s a constant test of a person’s biosecurity measures. If we end up getting a detection of avian influenza in a backyard flock or commercial operation, we know somewhere there was a breach in biosecurity.” On one hand, Oregon can be considered lucky to be free of bird

10 — May/June 2017

flu detections at this time. However, perhaps Oregon is making its own luck through strong and robust biosecurity measures taken by poultry owners who understand the threat of avian influenza. “I like to tell people we haven’t detected it yet, but that doesn’t mean it’s not out there and it’s not an excuse to let our guard down,” says LeaMaster. Wild waterfowl potentially carrying highly pathogenic bird flu virus are beginning their spring migration over Oregon and other states in the Pacific Flyway. More birds traveling increases the risk that they can come in contact with domestic poultry and spread the virus. As part of routine surveillance of wild birds, there have been two detections this past year of highly pathogenic H5N2, one in Alaska, the other in Montana. An H7N9 is the specific strain of avian influenza now impacting poultry in the southeastern states. The current strains do not pose a risk to the food supply or public health.

“The different strains of avian influenza virus can exist in both high pathogenic and low pathogenic forms as it circulates in the wild waterfowl populations,” says LeaMaster. “The waterfowl don’t get sick, but if the virus gets into another species or domestic poultry, it can multiply quickly. There’s also a chance it can switch from low path to high path and become very deadly to poultry.” In 2014 and 2015, Oregon became the first state to detect the high path H5N2 and H5N8 viruses in domestic backyard poultry in Douglas and Deschutes counties. In both cases, backyard birds came in contact with wild waterfowl. Efforts by ODA and USDA kept the viruses from spreading to other domestic poultry. Since then, Oregon has not recorded any detection of avian influenza in domestic birds. However, the seriousness of the initial detection became evident later in 2015 when those same viruses– H5N2 and H5N8– were responsible for huge losses of commercial poultry in California and the Midwest. For the past couple of years, ODA has ramped up outreach and education efforts, particularly to backyard bird

owners whose flocks might come in contact with wild waterfowl. “I feel our outreach and education efforts have gone a long way in protecting Oregon,” says LeaMaster. “It’s been a lot of hard work but I know both commercial poultry and backyard bird folks have upgraded and improved their biosecurity. They are paying attention. Our outreach materials just fly off the shelf. The interest is still out there, which is terrific.” Just since October, ODA has distributed more than 13,000 individual pieces of outreach materials and have reached about 2,900 people at various events that attract backyard bird owners. Educational tools available for bird owners include pamphlets, brochures, videos, and basic face-to-face conversations. “We’ve been working with our backyard producers to normalize the word biosecurity and make it a household term,” says ODA Avian Health Coordinator Mariah Crawford. “There are some simple steps to protect their birds from diseases like avian influenza. It only takes a couple of

Continued on Page 15

Melissa Fery 541-730-3538 melissa.fery@

Amy Garrett 541-766-6750 amy.garrett@

Commercial Agriculture Small Farms

d.i.Y. Farm Tools and equipment By Melissa Fery, oSU Extension Small Farms

Photos Provided by Melissa Fery

Recycling, repurposing, and modifying are not new concepts for farmers, who are constantly working to find the right piece of equipment for a task or a cost effective way to get a job done. Some people have a natural ability to engineer what they need and the rest of us have the wisdom to reproduce their ideas, legally, of course. Thanks to online resources, such as or Youtube videos, limitless ways to make something you need, utilizing materials you have laying around the farm are just a few clicks away. Need an example? Search ‘homemade chicken plucker’ on Youtube and you’ll find creative, yet functional designs that use an old washing machine drum and a 55 gallon barrel, to a cordless drill and PVC pipe. On a recent farm tour, Beth Hoinacki of Goodfoot Farm showed a great example of repurposing a broken chest freezer into a seed germination chamber. “The most expensive part was the new latch, purchased to keep the door securely closed,” said Beth. With a little wiring and experimentation with lightbulb wattage to get the needed temperature, she is able to germinate tomatoes and peppers with ease. Beth cautioned, “You need to watch carefully, because once the seed has germinated you need to get them out, otherwise they’ll turn leggy without sunlight.” Designing equipment to solve problems and increase efficiency is what Mark Luterra has been doing since

his employment with Wild Garden Seeds in 2014. As he helped winnow seeds with box fans, wind drip tape onto a reel, or other farm

Coolbot tricks an air conditioner into becoming cold storage for produce.

The Winnow Wizard was designed and built by Mark Luterra.

Flats of seeds prepare to germinate in an old freezer that has been re-purposed into a germination chamber.

tasks, Mark’s engineering and planning skills were also at work. As a result, he has designed and built equipment to meet needs at the farm. The Winnow Wizard and Wonder Winder are two examples with original designs available at Mark also offers a Problem-solving, Brainstorming, Design service where you can send him a need and he’ll ponder it and reply with some tentative ideas. Keeping fruit and vegetables fresh to minimize spoilage often requires cold storage, a cost that many small-scale farms can’t justify. What if you could find a way to insulate a simple structure and make your own walkin cooler for a few hundred dollars? Ron Khosla, a farmer and engineer who now resides in Oregon, developed the CoolBot®, a device that tricks a window air conditioner unit into getting colder without freezing. Within the last few years, many local farms have invested in a CoolBot® to make a DIY cooler that provides opportunity to extend the harvest-to-market period and the ability to store produce efficiently and safely. More information about the CoolBot® and designs for structures are available at https://www.storeitcold. com/agriculture Are you proud of a useful tool or piece of equipment you have made and would like to share with other farmers? Please email a photo, along with your name and a brief description of what it is to SmallFarmsProgram@ and we’ll post it on our OSU Small Farms Facebook page.

Dry Farming Collaborative Field Days More than ten Dry Farming Collaborative members will be hosting tours for our field days in August! Come learn about dry farming, see crops (tomatoes, potatoes, squash, melon, zucchini, dry beans, corn) grown without any supplemental irrigation in the field

SAVE THE DATES! August 1st - Corvallis August 8th Springfield August 15th Southern Oregon August 22nd Elmira/Veneta August 29th Philomath

Fertile Valley Seeds

More details soon and registration will open in June! Join the Dry Farming Collaborative Facebook group or visit:

Thanks to the support from all of our sponsors! Oregon State University Extension Service offers educational programs, activities, and materials without discrimination base d on age, color, disability, familial or parental status, gender identity or expression, genetic information, marital status, national origin, political b eliefs, race, religion, reprisal, sex, of an individual's income is derived from any public assistance program. Oregon State University Extension Service is an AA/EOE/Veterans/Disabled.

For questions contacat Chrissy Lucas at or (541) 766-3556

what would You Like Us to work on Next? Another survey? The short answer is yes. The longer answer is yes, and the results will be used in prioritizing our work for OSU Extension Service Small Farms program for Lane, Linn, and Benton counties. We have developed this survey with the sole purpose of better understanding the needs for small farm educational programming and support that may benefit your farm, ranch, or small-holding. Our hope is that we can help keep family farms vibrant, strengthen ecosystems, and support sustainable food systems. We anticipate this survey will take approximately 10 to 15 minutes to complete. To learn more about the work we do and to take the survey, which also includes questions that will assist our forestry and livestock programs (results are anonymous), please visit the South Willamette Valley Small Farms website at Click on the link to be directed to the electronic survey. Thank you!

May/June 2017 —


Commercial Agriculture Field Crops South Valley Field Crop Notes May/June

General management

• Seed certification: Submit paperwork for spring plantings, overseeding, and modified land history within 60 days of planting. Remember to use the on-line sample certificates. • Look for a notice on the timing of above-ground use of zinc phosphide for 2017, which is usually at the start of May.


• Control broadleaf weeds in spring-planted grasses when weeds are small. E.g. treat sharppoint fluevellin when “dime-sized” or herbicide control will be reduced. • Complete plant growth regulator applications on grasses. Avoid high rates and later timing on stressed fields. • Finish rust control sprays on grass seed crops. Be sure to check Pre-Harvest Intervals and feeding restrictions of fungicides before last use. • Apply final Bravo application on orchardgrass before flowering. Spraying after this period is not cost-effective. • Measure seed moisture 3-5 days ahead of expected cutting date to predict when to swath grass seed crops. See table insert and OSU extension publication EM 9012 for more information.


• Control Septoria on winter wheat at flag leaf emergence (Feeks GS8). Make use of SDHI chemistry at this timing to combat Septoria fungicide resistance, but be aware SDHIs are not effective rust control. • Use mixed modes of action (triazole + strobilurin, such as Quilt) to control stripe rust on winter wheat. Triazoles will kill the stripe rust and strobes will provide longer protection. • Most years there is no economic advantage to fungicide applications once heading is reached. • Keep an eye out for sharp eyespot – typical symptoms include lodging and eyespot legions on the lower stem, with white heads developing in June. If found during scouting please be in touch with Chris Mundt. • Scout wheat fields for cereal leaf beetle larvae and apply insecticides only if the threshold level is reached (average of 1 larvae per flag leaf). • Finish weed control in spring-planted small grains. Pay particular attention to herbicide labels with respect to small grain growth stages.

Continued on Page 13

12 — May/June 2017

Clare Sullivan 541-730-3537 clare.sullivan@

The white clover seed weevil – some Timely reminders The white clover seed weevil (WCSW) is the key pest in white clover seed production and can cause serious damage that reduces seed yield. The WCSW in adult stage is a small grey beetle, approximately 0.1-inch long, with a characteristically long snout (see photo). Female WCSW lay eggs in developing seed heads, where the larvae hatch and feed upon the seeds in a pod. Larvae feeding decreases seed quality and quantity, as damaged seeds are lighter and lost out the back of the combine. Field scouting to determine whether fields need to be sprayed is common practice, and in the past a single insecticidal spray has often provided sufficient control. Based on reports from growers and fieldmen, 2015 and 2016 were unusual years in terms of successfully controlling WCSW. In some areas, fieldmen were finding extremely high numbers of WCSW adults (> 100 in sweeps), and were still finding high numbers after insecticide applications. Some fields in the Southern Willamette Valley were sprayed three times throughout bloom. So why this change in WCSW control? And what can be done about it? The recent high numbers are likely due to a combination of factors, of which a major factor is expanded WCSW

habitat. White clover has become a high value crop, which has invariably resulted in increased acreage. From 2015 to 2016, the white clover seed acreage in the Valley increased by approximately 1,000 acres; new fields were planted, and older fields were left in longer. Increased acreage, lack of non-host break crops, and large fields in close proximity has led to increased opportunity for a pest with one major host plant to expand. Insecticide application timing may also be a contributing factor to difficult control, and understanding the WCSW lifecycle can help refine timing. There are some key points of the WCSW that can optimize scouting and insecticide applications: • Adults hibernate in noncrop areas in the winter and migrate into white clover fields as blossoms turn brown in the spring. Start scouting fields once earliest blooms are turning brown (see insert).

• The adults do not emerge all at once – their emergence is like a bell curve and treatment should be delayed until the majority of adults are out of hibernation to avoid multiple sprays. Delay application until ~20% of clover blossoms have turned brown to catch the height of the bell curve. • Females insert eggs into pods with partially developed seeds (larvae need food), and cannot lay eggs once seed start to harden. Therefore, late control once seeds have hardened is not useful. • Larvae are protected from insecticides as they feed for 2 to 3 weeks, eating 2 to 4 seeds per pod. Continued on Page 23

reduce indoor allergens This spring Tips for a Healthier Indoor environment Allergy triggers, or allergens, can be found on surfaces and in the air in your home. geT BUsY THis sPriNg wiTH PracTicaL TiPs To coNTroL aLLergeNs iNdoors Limit the amount of allergens that enter your did you know? You can measure the humidity at home with a small, home. inexpensive moisture or humidity meter, available at many hardware stores. • Use doormats to help Try to keep indoor humidity below 60 percent and ideally between 30 and 50 trap allergens before percent. they enter the home. Clean doormats dehumidifiers as Make sure to fix any frequently. needed to help control leaks promptly as well. • Consider removing shoes indoor humidity. Air • Dust often. Vacuum and after entering the home. conditioners reduce wash bedding weekly. • Change heating, humidity as they cool House dust mites, ventilation and air the air. animal dander and conditioning (HVAC) other allergy-causing system and air cleaner If using a humidifier or agents can be reduced, filters on schedule (see dehumidifier, routinely although not completely the manufacturer’s empty the water and eliminated, through instructions). clean the unit according regular cleaning. • Do not smoke indoors. to the manufacturer’s Control indoor humidity to instructions to prevent Reduce allergens that are help prevent the growth of mold and bacteria from produced or can develop mold and other organisms. growing or getting into the indoors. air. • Use kitchen exhaust fans Clean window• Dry wet items quickly. when cooking. Exhaust unit air conditioner Prevent mold growth fans should be vented to drip pans routinely, from water spills or the outdoors. and replace filters per leaks by acting quickly • Use bathroom exhaust the manufacturer’s when home furnishings fans or open the window recommendations. or other items get wet. when showering. Usually mold won’t • Consider using air Source: EPA Indoor grow if items are dried Environments Division conditioners or within 24–48 hours.

Crop Notes continued from Page 12


• N uptake of peppermint peaks in May to early June. Supply 175 lbs N/ac by mid-May, with a total of 200-250 lbs N/ac over spring and summer. • Scout mint fields for insect pests such as loopers and cutworms.


• Sweep white clover fields for the clover seed weevil and spray infested fields as first blooms turn brown. Treatment threshold is 2 or more weevils per straight line sweep. • Optimal plant growth regulator timing for red clover is at stem elongation, approx. 8-10 inches of regrowth.


• Move beehives into meadowfoam fields when 5-10 percent of plants begin to bloom. Pollination period is typically 2-4 weeks.

May/June 2017 —



Commercial Agriculture eeeeK!!! Tips for dealing with home invading insect pests Stinkbugs on your ceiling? Ladybugs on your windows? Lines of ants on your counter? As temperatures warm up outside, insects become more active and may find their way indoors. No need to panic, many of these accidental invaders can be dealt with using simple techniques and rarely are pesticides needed. Insects like stinkbugs, ladybugs, and boxelder bugs use our homes to escape the cold winter temperatures. As soon as it warms up outside, the insects become active indoors! Regardless of the type of insect, they can be dealt with the same way. The first line of defense is to seal up cracks and crevices around eaves, vents, doors and windows; use caulk or foam insulation tape. You’ll want to do this in the summer to avoid any insects moving indoors this fall. If you see them walking across your ceiling or flying towards windows (you’ll probably hear them hit into things with their hard elytra or wing covers) it is

easiest to vacuum them. The vacuum bag can be put in the freeze overnight to kill the insects or just placed inside another bag before disposing in the trash. If you’re not too squeamish, handpick the insects and drop into a dish of soapy water. Use a container with steep walls so they can’t crawl out. Pesticide applications are rarely warranted for these types of indoor insect invasions. Ant infestations require different tactics. There are many different species ranging from the harmless but very annoying odorous house ant to the possibly destructive carpenter ant. Proper identification is key to proper management. If you suspect a carpenter ant (Camponotus sp.) infestation, it may be best to consult with a pest control company. These ants are large (workers are 1/4-1/2” long) and have the potential to cause structural damage to your dwelling. They also tend to congregate in areas which are hard to access, like

Keep out invading ants by caulking crevices and cracks.

Stinkbugs can be blocked by mesh over vents.

crawlspaces or inside wood supports. Odorous House Ants (Tapinoma sessile) are a

bit easier to manage on your own. Small (1/16-1/8” long) and very active, these ants

will form lines to and from food sources and their nest. They are especially attracted to sweets and may also congregate around water sources (like drips behind a sink for example). Managing these sugar-loving ants will take persistence. Block access points such cracks and crevices with caulk or foam insulation tape. Clean up spilled food and crumbs quickly and manage any leaks. Pesticide baits containing active ingredients like boric acid may be useful. Keep in mind it may take a few weeks for the bait to affect the colony so keep the bait stations full and try to be patient. Make sure the bait stations can’t be accessed by children and pets. Always read the product label for the full application and safety instructions. If you have more questions about managing household insect pests, please contact your county Extension office. Our Master Gardener volunteers will be happy to help you!

Sugar continued from Page 6 no matter the claims they contain. Though 6 to 9 teaspoons may sound like a lot, added sugars are in more places than we think and add up throughout the day. TiPs When shopping: • Think about how much processing the food has undergone. More

14 — May/June 2017

processing means less nutrition, regardless of the type of added sugar.

When label reading: • Check the ingredient list to find added sugars in processed foods. • Look at the serving size too. If the serving size is 1 cup, then 2 cups means double the sugar on the label. • New FDA food labels will be on foods starting July 2018. The new label will

separate added sugars from naturally occurring sugars (for example, in Raisin Bran, some sugar comes from the raisins and some sugar is added to the flakes). when baking: • Find recipes that use the type of sugar you like; due to the different sweetness

and structure of each sugar it is best to try recipes that have been tested for you. • Keep in mind each sugar may not have a 1:1 ratio when substituting. Swapping out one for the other might give undesirable characteristics or flavor to your finished product.

Avian Influenza continued from Page 10

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Prepare Out Loud Learn the facts. Take action. Talk about it. Together we can rise to the challenge of a Cascadia Earthquake. The American Red Cross Prepare Out Loud presentation will empower you to be ready for disasters of all kinds (including a Cascadia earthquake) by taking practical steps to start preparing, being vocal about your preparedness and encouraging others to start preparing.

Learn more about: • The science and history of the Cascadia Subduction Zone • Human behavior during disasters



• What to expect during and after a Cascadia earthquake • How to prepare to quickly locate your loved ones following a disaster • How much food, water, and supplies you will need to take care of yourself and others

Free to attend TH U RS DAY · MAY 11, 2017 6:00 – 7:30 pm Boulder Falls Conference Center

Register at: PrepareOutLoudLinnCounty

community partners

changes to the normal routine.” Simplifying biosecurity has become a priority for outreach and education. Making it easily understood and easily applicable to backyard bird owners seems to be paying off. One specific handout, recently produced by ODA, lists six simple steps to protect poultry: • Keep your distance. Restrict access to your property. Keep your birds away from other birds. Prevent contact with wild birds, especially wild waterfowl. • Keep it clean. Wash hands before and after working with your birds. Clean and disinfect equipment. Wear clean clothes. Scrub your shoes with disinfectant. • Don’t haul disease home. Buy birds from reputable sources. Keep new birds separated for at least 30 days. Clean vehicles and cages. • Don’t borrow disease from your neighbor. Do not share equipment. If you must, disinfect first. • Know the signs. Early detection is critical to prevent the spread of disease. Check your birds frequently. Do not touch sick/dead birds. • Report sick or dead birds. For domestic poultry, call ODA at 1-800-347-7028. For wild birds, call the Oregon Department of Fish & Wildlife at 1-866-968-2600. Outreach events include poultry swaps, county fairs, and gatherings of 4-H and FFA participants. The plan is to reach more people this year than ever. “We have had a lot of interest from people who haven’t raised birds before,” says Crawford. “We like to see producers coming in before they start a flock to get a basic idea on bird husbandry as well as disease prevention. It’s really valuable to chat with those people so they can get off on the right foot.” Anyone with domestic poultry– from commercial operators to families with birds in the backyard– are going to have to incorporate biosecurity in their every day life. It’s the new normal. “Congratulations to all those who have changed their ways and have implemented biosecurity measures,” says LeaMaster. “But we still have a long way to go. We can’t ignore the threat of avian influenza.” For more information, contact Brad LeaMaster or Mariah Crawford at (503) 986-4680.

Linn County to assist small businesses and youth The Linn County Board of Commissioners announce its summer Small Business FirstTime Employment Youth Wage Grant Program, which will assist County small businesses (35 employees or less) in hiring first-time employment youth; a youth who has not previously worked for the employer. The

Commissioners understand that the current Oregon minimum wage is making it difficult for Linn County small businesses to employ entry-level youth who are then unable to gain valuable work experience. This will be the twelfth year this program has been offered. The County will reimburse Linn County

small businesses (who employ first-time employment youth) $2/hr for hours worked from May 1 through September 29, 2017. Maximum reimbursement per employer is $3,000. An employer can only hire three (3) qualifying youth at any given time. Each youth has to be legal to work in the U.S.,

a Linn County resident, and at least 14 years of age but not older than 19. Youth 14 through 17 must be hired with a Bureau of Labor & Industries permit. The employer has to certify they are in compliance with all Federal and State youth labor laws. In 2016, 19 companies participated

employing 42 youth for a total reimbursement of $28,132.00. Businesses can start applying today by obtaining an application at For additional information, contact the Linn County Board of Commissioners’ office at 541967-3825.

May/June 2017 —


Forestry and Natural Resources

Brad WithrowRobinson 541-766-6750 brad.w-r@

Jody Einerson 541-766-6311 jody.einerson@

Recipes for Growing a diverse Forest

We often hear from landowners that that they want a diverse, natural-looking forest. Their reasons vary. Some folks are aware of the many ecological benefits that diversity brings to a woodland property, while others may have been inspired by the beauty of an old growth forest. Of course, it can take centuries for an old growth forest to develop, and many readers have young stands planted within the last decade or two. Happily, a landowner has many ways to influence and encourage diversity in their woodlands. Even if you have just bought some recently cut-over land, it does not have to remain a simple timber plantation if you don’t want it to be. You can grow a diverse forest – and it can be done within decades rather than centuries. No, it will not be old growth, but it may help reach many of the diversity-related objectives landowners commonly mention, including an attractive forest setting, better habitat for a variety of animals, and a resilient forest. But how to get there? Imagine a network of paths leading from the starting point of a young woodland stand to any of a variety of future conditions. Each trail crossing is an event (or a decision) that keeps you on or changes your course. There is a lot you can do to restore, enhance, and maintain woodland diversity if that is your objective. But what makes a forest diverse? There are several key parts to

16 — May/June 2017

diversity: those things that grow and live in a forest, how those things are arranged, and when those things happen. Each may be influenced by the physical environment (like soils or elevation), natural processes (like competition, storms, or fire), and people. Certainly, what is growing in the forest (the species composition) is an important part of diversity. A mix of trees that includes cedar and maple along with Douglas-fir is more diverse than a monocrop of Douglasfir alone in the forest canopy. Think of the different kinds of plants as the building blocks of a forest, or better, as ingredients in a recipe. An oatmeal raisin cookie is more diverse than an oatmeal cookie. Also, there are many ingredients in cookies that go unobserved or unseen. While trees are the most obvious and the defining elements of the forest (like the oatmeal and raisins), other things like understory plants, soil microorganisms, fungi play less glamorous but essential roles, like the flour, sugar and baking powder in making the cookie a cookie. Another easily observed feature of diversity is the forest’s structure, or how things are arranged. Looking up and down you may see one or more layers of vegetation from the tree canopy to the leafy plants growing on the forest floor. Looking at these layers, you are looking at the vertical diversity. An Oreo cookie has more of it than our oatmeal cookie does. This structure affects how the woods look, but also how things work. Having more vertical diversity can be visually appealing. And because different animals use different parts of this vertical forest structure to forage, roost or nest, it may mean more types of animals using your woods, too. Likewise, looking side to side we

Photo Provided by brad WithroW robinson

By Brad withrow-robinson and amy grotta, oSU Forestry & natural resources Extension. reprinted from TreeTopics blog, treetopics

Older forests often have considerable diversity.

Think of the different kinds of plants as the building blocks of a forest, or better, as ingredients in a recipe. An oatmeal raisin cookie is more diverse than an oatmeal cookie.

different paths lead to different forest outcomes.

can see the texture of the forest (its horizontal diversity). The woods may be uniform throughout with little difference from place to place, or uneven with groups or patches of different things scattered about.

These could be areas with different ages, sizes, or species of trees. To picture this horizontal diversity, let’s think about cookies with similar ingredients but different horizontal structure: Chocolate cookies are uniform throughout, but chocolate chip cookies are patchy and more diverse. Like vertical structure, this horizontal structure provides different conditions that may be visually appealing or suit different animals. Perhaps the least obvious part of woodland diversity is time, or actually processes that take time. Some kinds of diversity can happen quickly, others just take time to develop. Cookie dough is great, but it is not a cookie until it has spent some time in the oven. Imagine a riparian restoration planting along a stream. You can quickly create species diversity by planting a mix of species, and horizontal diversity by planting patches of different trees or shrubs rather than blending them together. However, to get vertical diversity with layers including large trees (desired to shade more of the stream longer and/or have large logs to fall in the steam), you need decades, maybe even a century or more for that to fully develop. As a landowner, you have many opportunities (such as planting, controlling invasives, or thinning) to shape your woodland property. Each is a choice between paths that take you to different destinations, with different outcomes, depending on the recipe you pick. We hope this introduction will help you choose a path to your destination. In our next article, we will identify specific steps you can take to enhance your woodland’s diversity according to you objectives.

Add new Flavor to the Table with 8 Unusual Vegetables David Coon is on a mission. Not exactly a Mission Impossible save-the-world mission; more of a quest. He’s out to educate others about the potential for unusual vegetables in the garden and the kitchen. Coon, an Oregon State University Extension Service master gardener, knew he was on to something when he’d be stopped in the grocery store by shoppers fascinated by the produce he was sending through the checkstand. “For instance, a few years ago when I could finally find fennel in the store, I would take it up to the cashier and nine times out of 10 someone would ask me what it was,” he said. “I got used to giving my spiel. I realized a lot of people don’t know about these vegetables. That’s one reason I got interested.” The lifelong gardener became aware of what people in the U.S. were missing back in the 1970s when he was stationed in Germany. “I saw a lot of things that people were eating and I came back here and didn’t see any of it,” he said. “After a period of time I could see them gradually moving into the U.S. and wondered how they moved around. They’re like

little ambassadors all over the world.” As much as he can, Coon helps them on their way. He buys them, grows them and urges them on others. In that vein, he offers eight of his favorite largely unknown vegetables. Though seeds can be hard to find, a search online will pull up some sources. Some nurseries will sell starts of a few, including cardoon, kohlrabi and broccoli rabe. Try them out and see what you think. Shishito pepper: A small, usually sweet pepper that runs around 2 inches. Perhaps one in 10 will surprise you with a little kick, but “never crying hot,” Coon said. He turns the green pepper into snacks by throwing them in a hot pan with some oil for a few seconds and then dresses them with a dash of kosher salt. The plant originally came from the Americas and was one of the first new world peppers to make it around the world, first gathered by Europeans, then passed along to the Far East. This is a warm-weather plant that does best in soil that’s about 80 degrees. Kohlrabi: Coon’s research shows kohlrabi originating in central Asia and now popping up occasionally on grocery shelves. It looks like a bulb about the size of

a baseball and tastes like a cross between cabbage and broccoli. Use it raw, sautéed, steamed, roasted or stuffed. He recommends the variety White Vienna. Kohlrabi is another cool-weather plant to put in the garden spring and fall. Broccoli rabe or rapini: Related to turnips, rapini arrived in the U.S. in 1927 from Italy. It looks a little like mustard with tiny broccoli heads and features a pleasantly peppery taste. Coon has been known to sauté, braise, stir-fry and steam it, but advises not eating it raw. Plant in spring and fall. Mache - also known as lamb’s lettuce (not lamb’s quarters), corn salad and field salad: This plant – related to broccoli but with small heads – has been cultivated in temperate Europe since Neolithic times, according to Coon. “I saw it when I was in Germany, but never saw it again until recently,” he said. Mache sometimes shows up in the grocery store nowadays, but then drops out of sight when it doesn’t sell. Coon thinks that should change. It’s easy to grow and tastes like sweet, nutty lettuce with no bitterness. Leaves are used in salads. Plant in spring and summer; it overwinters beautifully in much of

Oregon. Spigarello: Common in southern Italy, spigarello is related to broccoli but doesn’t form large heads. Eat the small heads, stems and curly leaves in salads, steam, sauté or throw in soup. The flavor, Coon says, is sweet and grassy, a mix of kale and broccoli. Plant in spring and fall. Frost hardy, but will die out after a freeze. Sorrel (also called spinach dock or narrow-leaved dock): A perennial herb or salad vegetable native to Europe, western Asia and north Africa, sorrel has leaves used raw in salads or in sauces and soups. The flavor is tart and lemony with a crunch when raw. Coon said it makes a great pesto and pairs well with

favorites in your local nursery or mail-order catalog. Most nurseries will order plants if they don’t carry the one you want. Strik recommends: • Trailing blackberries: New thornless Columbia Star and old favorites Marion and Boysen. • Erect, late-season thornless blackberries: Navaho • Semi-erect, last-season

blackberries: Triple Crown. • Summer-bearing red raspberries: new Cascade Delight and Chemainus. • Yellow raspberries: new Cascade Gold and older favorite Meeker. • Everbearing (also called primocane-fruiting) raspberries: Vintage is a new red; Anne is the best yellow. • Black raspberries: Jewel

Photo FroM Flickr by katie’s FarM, cc by-nc-nd 2.0.

By Kym Pokorny

Shishito peppers, which are native to the Americas, grow best in warm soil.

eggs, cream and pasta. Plant in spring for summer harvest. Scarlet runner bean: A vining bean with beautiful, red flowers that call out to hummingbirds. Comes from Central America and is widely grown in England. Try these mild beans raw, steamed, sautéed or as a dry bean. Plant in spring and fall. Cardoon: This Mediterranean native is one of Coon’s favorites, not only because of the mellow taste similar to artichoke, but also for the dramatic statement its big, silvery leaves make as an ornamental plant. He grew it in Germany and was impressed by the thistle heads “just as spectacular as artichokes but smaller.” Instead of eating the head and heart like artichokes, cook and serve the stems. Before using, Coon suggests peeling off the ridges on the stem, which contain strings like celery, and blanching them to remove some bitterness and to keep their pretty green color. Eat raw, sautéed, steamed, boiled or in soups and stews. Pairs well with thyme, cream sauces, garlic and mild cheeses. Plant this perennial vegetable in spring and you’ll have cardoons every year. Source: David Coon

Blackberries continued from Page 4 tips that fruited last year. The base of these canes will fruit in June or July, when they are floricanes, which should be removed when they die after harvest in July. The late-summer/fall crop will be produced on the new primocanes that grow next season. Keep the hedgerow of primocane-fruiting raspberries to about 12 inches wide during the growing

season. To prune everbearing raspberries to produce in late summer to early fall, cut all canes to ground level in late February or early March when plants are dormant. When the new canes emerge, keep the row width to 12 inches apart. This spring is a good time to look for new, improved varieties and established

For more information about growing caneberries, check out these Extension publications: Growing Blackberries in Your Home Garden, Growing Raspberries in Your Home Garden, Blackberry Cultivars for Oregon and Raspberry Cultivars for the Pacific Northwest. Source: Bernadine Strik May/June 2017 —


Benton County 4-H youth Development

Maggie Livesay 541-766-3550 maggie.livesay@

Carolyn Ashton 541-766-3555 carolyn.ashton@

get outdoors day Saturday, June 3, 10 a.m.-3 p.m. I Peavy Arboretum, Corvallis JoiN Us For a Free FUN daY iN THe ForesT! • Family fun activities • Fishing (kids 13 and under) • Learn camping, hiking, and outdoor skills • English/Spanish interpretation available

Photo Provided

Benton county and Linn county extension programs may offer opportunities that are only open to the citizens of their respective counties. Please check with your county extension office if you have any questions about participation eligibility for specific programs.

AnaLu Fonseca 541-766-6249 analu.fonseca@

wHaT sHoULd i BriNg? • Bring a picnic lunch or purchase food on-site. • Bring your walking shoes, sunhat or rain jackets!

don’t Miss out on osU 4-H summer conference This year is the 100th anniversary of OSU 4-H Summer Conference! It will be an extra special event that will celebrate 100 years of Summer Conference adventures. More than 400 7-12 grade youth from across Oregon participate in this four-day program from Wednesday, June 21, through Saturday, June 24. There will be more than 80 workshops covering topics from dog agility to chemistry. Participants will explore campus life, stay in dormitories, attend hands on educational classes, take part in a community service project, and a dance Come join us and experience your own exciting adventure! Cost is $200. Online registration opens May 15. Both 4-H and non 4-H youth are welcome to attend. Contact your county for scholarship information.

18 — May/June 2017

geTTiNg THere On-site parking will NOT be allowed at Peavy Arboretum or on NW Arboretum Road Park at Crescent Valley High School and a take the shuttle provided to Peavy Arboretum From Corvallis: Take 99W north, and turn left on NW Walnut Blvd. Turn right and travel 1.6 miles on NW Highland Dr. From Albany: Take 20W west 5 miles, turn right onto NE Granger (2.5

Linus Pauling Middle School students volunteer at Get Outdoors day.

mi). Continue onto NW Lewisburg Ave (1 mi) and turn left and travel 1 mile on NW Highland Drive. Buses from certain schools are provided for students and their families (minors must be accompanied by an adult). Contact us for more information. ADA accommodations available. This event is sponsored by OSU

Extension Benton & Linn County, OSU College Research Forests and Benton County Health Department and many community partners. For More iNForMaTioN Call OSU Extension Service, Benton County at (541) 766-6750 or visit our website at http://cf.forestry.

Congratulations Benton County 4-H Members! coUNTY scHoLarsHiP award reciPieNTs Six scholarships were awarded to Benton County 4-H members. Youth receiving these scholarships have participated in club & county leadership, community service, and project work. The Hitchcock, Decker, and Bateman Scholarships are awarded to youth in any project area. The Steve Moos Scholarships are awarded to youth participating in sheep, swine, beef- or dairy-cattle projects. Many of the recipients have also received a 4-H County Medal. Each year a 4-H club raises a donation animal to be auctioned off in the Lee Allen Memorial Youth Livestock Auction with proceeds to benefit the

Steve Moos Scholarship. This year, the Mid Valley Livestock Club will be raising the donation animal. • Steve Moos ($4,000) - Natalie Dumble • Hitchcock ($1,000) - Shawn Hinz and Lilly Greenough • Decker ($1,000) - Josephine Crofoot and Noel Collins • Bateman ($500) - Sana Tepley There are also two additional scholarships available, the Horse Project Leaders Committee Scholarship, and the Kathy Wells Memorial Scholarship. Awardees have not yet been selected for these. Thanks to all of our generous sponsors!

sTaTe 4-H scHoLarsHiP award reciPieNT Josephine Crofoot received a $2,000 scholarship sponsored by the MacGregor Family. NaTioNaL 4-H coNgress FiNaLisTs We are proud to announce that two Benton County youth have been selected as National 4-H Congress finalists. Lilly Greenough and Eloise Navarro will interview at Summer Conference for a spot on the National 4-H Congress team. Good luck to each of our representatives!

Benton County Spring 4-H School Programs in Full Swing Forests Organisms Creek yoU Study (FOCUS) is a five-hour field-based program offered in partnership between Benton Extension 4-H and Benton County Parks & Natural areas. Students study air quality, aquatic ecology, birds, and wildlife found at Beazell Memorial Forest. Third-fourth grade classrooms from Mt View, Wilson, Philomath, Alsea and Blodgett will be attending one of the four days. Participating teachers report that this handson program reinforces classroom concepts and helps students meet educational standards. 4-H Wildlife Stewards Youth Summit will be hosted at Muddy Creek Charter School on May 4. This is the 15th Anniversary of this annual event that showcases student research on local flora and fauna. Students in grades 1-5 from Muddy Creek Charter School, Jefferson, Hoover, and Kings

save the date

cloverbud summer sTeM camp July 7, 9 a.m. to noon Walnut Park Barn Join us for a morning of hands-on STeM activities and fun. For more information contact Benton County 4-H at 541-766-6750.

OSU Pet day – Lizards, Llamas, and Lots of Fun Student project display at Summit.

Valley Charter School will present their projects to local professionals and participate in hands-on natural science exploration presented by community partners from Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Avery House Nature Center, Oregon Jr. Naturalists, 4-H Wildlife Steward Volunteers. Muddy Creek students in grades 4 and 5 will act as emcees, greeters, and provided tours of the schoolyard habitat to

Youth Field Journal: Student taking observation data at FOCUS.

visiting students and community members. “These research projects bring science alive for my students and are excellent work samples for meeting state standards in speaking, research and process and production skills.” Kristen Silbernagel 4th grade teacher

Benton County 4-H Horse Tack Sale – Saturday, May 27 Come check out our large selection of Show Apparel, Clothing, Boots, Accessories, English, Western, Saddle Seat, Reining, Gaming, Packing & Jumping Equipment/ Saddles and more. You are sure to find something you will love! All proceeds will go to support the Benton County 4-H Horse Program. Donated items are tax deductible. iNTeresTed iN coNsigNiNg? • Contact Elaine Schrock for more information at:

Are you a Pet lover? Then be sure to visit the Pet Day event, at Magruder Hall on the OSU Corvallis campus on Saturday, May 6, from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. This is open to the public at no cost, and one of the most popular annual events in Corvallis. There are many fun activities including a petting zoo, teddy bear surgery, dog wash, dog agility demos, veterinary hospital tours, and more. There will be numerous booths staffed by vendors and volunteers providing information on animal health and wellness, nutrition, adoption, and therapy. Several Benton County 4-H clubs will be participating in the event. Students in the College of Veterinary Medicine create, organize, and staff Pet Day as a way of giving back to the community and continuing a legacy of public service at the college.

Benton County Fair – All American Fun! Participating at the county fair provides 4-H members an opportunity to showcase the projects that they have been working on all year. This year, the Benton County Fair will be Wednesday, August 2–Saturday, August 5. 4-Her’s will be exhibiting projects including animal science, family and consumer science, expressive arts, natural science, and more. Stay tuned for more detailed information in the next issue of GROWING.

• When: Saturday, May 27 • Time: 9 a.m.-1 p.m. • Where: Benton County Fairgrounds - Guerber Hall, 110 SW 53rd St, Corvallis, OR 97333 • Cost: $2 Entry Fee per Person

May/June 2017 —


Linn County 4-H youth Development Photo by andrea leao

driving and Skills Course during tractor safety training last summer.

Youth Tractor Safety Do you want to drive a tractor for a summer job? Do you have your Tractor Driving Certificate? Federal and state laws require youth 14-17 years of age, who are seeking employment in Oregon’s agricultural industries, to complete an education, training, and certification program. The certification program is designed to consistently cover core content areas: including safety basics, agricultural hazards, tractors, connecting and using implements with tractors and materials handling. Testing includes a written exam, a skills test, and a driving test. Students need to pass all three components to receive their tractor driving certificate and be eligible for employment on a farm. The Oregon Safe Tractor and Machinery Operation Program typically offers classes beginning on or around spring break and continue through June. Classes that will be offered locally include: • May 15-25, McMinnville – contact Yamhill Extension • June 9-11, Santiam Christian – contact Santiam Christian School • June 15-17, Aumsville – contact Linn County Extension • June 22-24, Aurora – contact North Willamette Experiment Station • June 23-25, Albany – contact Linn Benton Community College

Benton county and Linn county extension programs may offer opportunities that are only open to the citizens of their respective counties. Please check with your county extension office if you have any questions about participation eligibility for specific programs. 20 — May/June 2017

Robin Galloway 541-730-3469 robin.galloway@

Andrea Leao 541-730-3534 andrea.leao@

Youth ATV Safety Classes Offered The Oregon ATV Safetytm is a youth rider endorsement program developed by the Oregon 4-H Youth Development Program, the College of Health and Human Sciences, and the Oregon State University Extension Service. Oregon ATV Safety is a response to the rising number of ATV related injuries and deaths, and Oregon Administrative Rules. The Oregon Administrative Rule requires youth, 15 years of age and younger, to receive a hands-on endorsement of their mental and physical ATV riding skills. Since Jan. 1, 2012, this age group has been required to possess an endorsed All-Terrain Safety Education Card. The Oregon ATV Safety Youth Rider Endorsement Program plays an integral role in helping young (6-15 years old) ATV (4 wheeler and sideby-side) riders get endorsed so they can have fun and stay safe while riding on Oregon public lands. Classes allow youth riders to learn or demonstrate safe mental and physical riding skills. Quad (4 Wheeler) ATV Evaluations classes will be held in Lebanon on Saturday, April 29, 10 a.m. – noon; Sunday, May 7, 10 a.m. – noon; and Tuesday, June 6, 6-8 p.m. The class registration fee for evaluation or training for Oregon residents is $25. Class Requirements: There are things you need to know and things you can do to assure that your child has a safe, fun, and successful experience in the OASYREP class. The following is required for your child to participate in the OASYREP class: 1. OPRD ATV Safety Education

card - rideATVoregon. org. The Safety Education card or documentation of completion must be presented to the evaluator at the start of the class. You must take the Oregon online ATV safety education exam to get your Safety Education card. 2. An appropriately sized ATV that is in good running condition. An ATV safety check will be conducted. ATVs not passing the safety check will not be permitted. Be sure the engine starts and runs smoothly. Check to assure that all ATV controls are functional including that the: throttle snaps back, engine cut-off switch operates properly, brakes function smoothly and are adjusted per manufacturer’s specifications, tires must have good tread and must be properly and uniformly inflated. 3. The following protective gear must be worn by your child: DOT-approved helmet with fastening chin-strap, goggles or face shield, full-finger gloves, long pants, long-sleeved shirt or jacket, over-theankle boots. 4. Attendance requirements: You must arrive on time. Classes will start on time. If your child is late, you will lose your place in the class and your non-refundable registration fee. Your child must complete and pass all evaluations. If your child does not meet the minimum standard, he/she will be dismissed from the remainder of the class. Your child will not receive an

endorsement. 5. Parent supervision: You must accompany and observe your child’s entire class (for participants 15 years of age and younger). 6. Read the entire OASYREP Rider Guide with your child. For safety reasons, you will not be permitted to coach your child during the evaluation process. Your child is expected to demonstrate the necessary mental and physical riding skills without assistance. Please enjoy your child’s success by remaining in the off-range endorsement site. 7. Three-wheeled ATVs are not permitted. 8. You will sign a Release of Liability at the endorsement range site. 9. Please review your registration carefully before submitting payment. The Oregon ATV Safety Program does not issue refunds. The OASYREP Evaluators are eager to meet with and evaluate your child’s mental and physical riding skills. Your attention to these details will greatly assist the evaluator in helping your child achieve success. Questions regarding the Oregon ATV Safety Youth Rider Endorsement Program can be directed to Dr. David White at oregonATVsafety@, or you can call 541-548-6088. For more information about the Lebanon hands-on trainings, contact instructor Robin Galloway, Linn County 4-H Faculty at 541-7303469, or robin.galloway@

Photo by deb burns

Linn County Communications Contest Results

The following younger members participated in the contest and did a fantastic job, too: • Ryan Henry, Junior,

Photo by andrea leao

In March, we had more than 14 members compete in the Linn County Communications Contest. The members either prepared a presentation, gave a memorized speech, or gave an impromptu speech. It is exciting to recognize the following members who have qualified for the state competition that will take place at the Oregon State Fair: • Micah Morehead, Illustrated Talk, Senior Champion; • Conner Tye & Jacob Barazza, Team Presentation, Intermediate Champion; • Luke Milburn & Riley Bond, Team Presentation, Intermediate Reserve Champion; • Natali Tomlin, Impromptu, Intermediate Blue; • Emily Henry, Impromptu, Senior Champion; • LR Burns, Impromptu, Senior Reserve Champion.

LR Burns and Natali Tomlin attended Youth Voices in Action from Linn County.

Youth Voices in Action Conference By Lr Burns

Riley Bond and Luke Milburn presenting “A Beginners Guide To Chickens.”

Public Speaking Champion; • Haley Tye, Junior, Illustrated Talk Champion; • Andrew Bradford, Junior, Illustrated Talk Reserve

Champion; • Zoe Ransom, Junior, Illustrated Talk Blue; • Alexis Gazeley, Junior, Illustrated Talk Blue; • Lorelai Adams, Cloverbud, Pledge.

Hello, my name is LR Burns. This is my seventh year in 4-H. I am a member of the Lucky Livestock 4-H Club and the Linn County 4-H Youth Leadership Team. I was given the opportunity to attend the Youth Voices in Action 4-H Conference in Salem over spring break. I learned so much about the 4-H program, as well as my own leadership abilities. The first day at the conference we moved into our rooms and we met our roommates. We also did some basic leadership activities. The second day we attended sessions to learn how to do a job interview, give a speech, and how a law is passed. Later that day we did a mock job interview. I was selected to interview with the Bureau of Land Management. I learned a lot about what employers want to see in potential employees and I realized just how much 4-H has prepared me for the future. The next day we visited the State Capitol. We went on a guided tour and also got to see the House of Representatives in session. It was really cool to see how our state’s government functions and to see our beautiful Capitol building. The last day we presented with our groups. We were each assigned a topic that faces our local government. I met a lot of new friends from all around our state, and I am so excited to participate in future conferences. I would encourage members to attend in the future. You will learn a lot, as well as make new friends.

The Gardening Season Has Arrived Your success is our number one priority! Hanging Baskets | Vegetable Starts | Beekeeping Fruits & Berries | Soil & Supplies 6600 SW Philomath Blvd, Corvallis 541-929-3524 |

Mon-Fri: 8 am - 7 pm | Sat: 8 am - 6 pm | Sun: 9 am - 6 pm

LCB 5718

May/June 2017 —


Linn County extension Association Linn county extension association college Tuition scholarships available deadline June 15 LCEA offers five college scholarships, up to $500 each, annually to new and continuing college students. These scholarships are based on residency in geographical areas served by Linn County Extension, financial need, and GPA. Activities in OSU Linn County Extension programs, community service hours and/or work experience are also considered. Applicants must graduate from high school or possess a high school equivalent or G.E.D. certificate, transcripts must be sent with the application. Preference is given to applicants that are active, or have been active, in OSU Linn County Extension programs. Please include a cover letter outlining/ explaining the request for a scholarship and two letters of recommendation. A letter of acceptance from your college/university and a statement of financial need must be included. Please go to the website to download the entire application. Scholarships are renewable for up to four years, however, applicants must reapply each new scholastic year. The funds are paid directly to the college in the name of the scholarship recipient. You can find the application at www. Questions? Email: Good luck! yes, I want to support Linn County extension association! enclosed is my tax-deductible gift.

Make check payable to LCea and mail to: 33630 McFarland Rd, Tangent OR 97389

[ ] I am making a one-time donation of: __$250 Sponsor __$100 Benefactor __$50 Sustaining Member __$25 Contributing __ any amount $____

name _________________

[ ] I want to be a monthly donor and give $ ______ per month for ____year(s).

22 — May/June 2017

address ________________ email _________________ Phone _________________

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We realize you have many donation choices, thank you so much for choosing to enhance Linn extension Service!

President Sheryl Casteen

Get Involved with extension and LCeA This will be my last column to our LCEA members and the many Extension members in Linn County. New officers will be selected in the coming months and new voices will be heard from LCEA in future GROWING issues. During the last year and half we revitalized LCEA by adding new Board members and association goals, updating by-laws, and writing policies to conform with present and future needs. We opened a dialogue with the community and changed our image with a new association logo and tagline, “Growing Community – Connect, Inspire, Advocate.” While changes were made, we are still committed to supporting and/or assisting in extending OSU Linn County Extension services through educational classes, clinics, workshops, e-newsletters and printed publications. In 2016 for the first time, LCEA funded four grants for Linn County Extension faculty, while continuing our long tradition of providing college scholarships to Linn County college-bound students. *If you know any graduating seniors or continuing college students, please advise them of our scholarships. See Scholarship information on this page. 2016 graNTs • The 4-H grant was issued for a Special Needs

Program. This training is used as a gateway to reach children that otherwise cannot participate in 4-H activities. • The Forestry and Natural Resources program received funds to continue the Citizen Scientist program already ongoing. Volunteers are trained to observe and report data on precipitation and plant phenology. Sign up now for this program! • Family & Community Health was awarded funds for classes on abating mold in residences. • The Home Horticulture Department trains Master Gardeners. Their grant paid for 100 Seed to Supper booklets to accompany the free classes given through Linn County Master Gardeners during winter 2017. LCEA is an all-volunteer association: no one receives a salary. We function as an advisory board, marketing channel, and advocate for

OSU Linn County Extension Service. Our goals are focused on helping you, the public, from kindergarteners to senior citizens, improve your environment, home, and health through Extension programs. The programs advise and educate about cooking and preserving foods, improving health through better nutrition, developing agriculture practices, starting farms, raising livestock, or just sharing scientifically research-based information. It’s been an interesting and educating year for me. There are so many people partaking of Extension’s programs, yet so many that have yet to learn about them. I’d like to close with one of Benjamin Franklin’s many quotes: “Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn.” Come, get involved with Extension and learn. With warm regards, Sheryl Casteen

Calendar of events for Linn and Benton Counties May 2017 *


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Linn and Benton Master Food Preserver Training, Tuesdays, April 11-May 30, 9 a.m.-4 p.m. at the Linn County Extension Office. Benton County 4-H Wildlife Stewards Summit, 2:45-4 p.m., Muddy Creek Charter School, Corvallis Benton County Master Gardener Plant Sale, 9 a.m.-3 p.m., Benton County Fairgrounds Spring Garden Festival, 9 a.m.-4 p.m., at the Arts Center Plaza at Corvallis Central Park. Master Gardeners will be displaying educational booths and hosting a plant clinic. Know Your Woodland Plants Identification Walk, 6:30-8 p.m., Beazell Memorial Forest 4-H FOCUS Classroom Science Field Day at Beazell Memorial Forest Master Gardener Plant Problem Walk, 12-1 p.m., OSU Oak Creek Center for Urban Horticulture Know Your Woodland Plants Identification Walk, 6:30-8 p.m., Finley Wildlife Refuge Benton County Master Gardener Association

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Membership Meeting, 6-8 p.m., Sunset room of the Benton County Extension Office. Topic: TBA. Open to the public! 4-H FOCUS Classroom Science Field Day at Beazell Memorial Forest 4-H Benton Rabbiteers Small Animal Show, 9 a.m.-4 p.m., Benton County Fairgrounds 4-H FOCUS Classroom Science Field Day at Beazell Memorial Forest OSU Forage Management Series, 6-8:30 p.m., OSU Oldfield Animal Teaching Facility OSU Forage Management Series Field Tour 10 a.m.-noon Benton County 4-H Horse Leader’s Tack Sale, 9 a.m.-1 p.m., Benton County Fairgrounds, Guerber Hall, Corvallis Extension Offices Closed for Memorial Day

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Get Outdoors Day, 10 a.m.-3 p.m., Peavy Arboretum, McDonald Forest, Corvallis Know Your Woodland Plants Walk & Forest History Tour at Canyon Life Museum, Mill City from 4:30-5:45 p.m., followed by a plant ID

walk at Fisherman’s Bend from 6:30-8 p.m. 6 Food Preservation Class – Preserving Fruit Products/Boiling Water Canning, 6-9 p.m., Linn County Extension, Tangent. 8 Master Gardener Plant & Tree Identification Walk, 1-3 p.m., OSU Memorial Union, Corvallis. 13 Food Preservation Class – Vegetables & Meat/ Pressure Canning and Drying, 6-9 p.m., Linn County Extension, Tangent. 16-18 Benton County 4-H Horse Pre-Fair starts at 9 a.m. each day, Benton County Fairgrounds Arena, Corvallis. 20 Food Preservation Class – Tomatoes, Sauces and Salsa, 6-9 p.m., Linn County Extension, Tangent. 24 Master Gardener Irrigation Water Conservation Workshop, Linn County Demo Garden. 27 Food Preservation Class – Pickle Making, 6-9 p.m., Linn County Extension, Tangent. 28 OSU Forage Management Series, 6-8:30 p.m., OSU Oldfield Animal Teaching Facility 29 OSU Forage Management Series Field Tour 10 a.m.-noon

White Clover Seed Weevil continued from Page 12

Scouting for WCSW in White Clover Seed Fields • Begin scouting once the earliest white clover blooms in the field are turning brown • Use a standard 15-inch diameter sweep net • Use a 90° straight-line sweep (from side to front of body) • Walk in a straight line and sweep with each step, 10-15 sweeps per straight line • Conduct this straight-line sweep in multiple spots of field Treatment threshold: “Treat when an average of 2 or more weevils are found per 90° straight line sweep” (PNW Handbook) • 18 weevils in straight line with 10 sweeps is below threshold • 25 weevils in 10 sweeps is above threshold

• Mature larvae bore out of seed pods and drop to the soil to pupate. • Within two weeks new adults emerge – these are second generation adults. Second generation weevils cause no damage and do not lay eggs until the spring (if they survive the winter). There is no point in controlling the second generation as they are in dispersal mode and not as metabolically active to insecticides. Scouting fields when first white clover blossoms turn brown, and delaying treatment until 20% of blossoms have turned are the main recommendations given through OSU. Even with these recommendations, it may be necessary to do a second application if adult emergence is over a long period of time, which can vary by year. Some growers and fieldmen are concerned that resistance is developing to the main insecticide used, bifenthrin. This is a research area that needs to be addressed, ideally with leadership from OSU. Please visit the PNW Hanbook for currently registered insecticides for WCSW control in white clover seed production. May/June 2017 —


Assisted Living at Quail Run Set on 275 scenic acres with lakes, meadows, oak groves, and views of the Cascade Mountains, Mennonite Village is an inclusive community of amazing people. Quail Run at Mennonite Village is Albany’s only not-for-profit assisted living facility. The building is specially designed to accommodate the changing needs of its residents over time. Spacious studio and one-bedroom suites with kitchenettes combine convenience and comfort with 24-hour availability of personal assistance and support. Mennonite Village and its employees foster the respect, care, dignity, and worth of every resident by providing freedom of choice and opportunities for physical, intellectual, emotional, and spiritual growth. Each apartment offers generous amenities and services: • Three farm-fresh meals served daily, from 7 AM to 6 PM • Private dining rooms available for family dining • Weekly housekeeping and linen service • Utilities, including cable television and air conditioning • Pull-cord call system and other optional call systems • Ample closet and storage space • A variety of daily wellness and social activities, both on and off campus • Scheduled bus service within Albany city limits • Laundry room for personal use • Whirlpool bathing options • Full-service salon and nail care options Mennonite Village is an“open campus”that welcomes new residents to all areas of our Village. You do not need to start in independent living. Should a need arise for additional health services, they’re available on campus, and you’ll pay only for the services you use. Mennonite Village is proud to be a smoke-free, tobacco-free community. Mennonite Village is subject to the federal Fair Housing Act, which prohibits any preference, limitation, or discrimination because of race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, or national origin, or intention to make such a preference, limitation, or discrimination.

Mennonite Village Assisted Living 2525 47th Ave. S.E., Albany, OR 541-928-1122

OSU Growing Mary-June 2017  
OSU Growing Mary-June 2017