Miami University Art Museum Fall 2013 Capstone Exhibition - Distributing Knowledge

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Gallery Guide, Fall 2013

Distributing Knowledge: The printed Image, 1500 to 1800

ArtMuseum and Sculpture Park Miami University, 801 S. Patterson Ave., Oxford, OH 45056


ArtMuseum and Sculpture Park Art Museum Staff: Robert S. Wicks, Ph.D. Director

Jason E. Shaiman

Curator of Exhibitions

Cynthia Collins

Curator of Education

Mark DeGennaro Preparator Sherri Krazl Coordinator of Marketing and Communications

Laura Stewart Collections Manager/ Registrar

Sue Gambrell

Program Coordinator

Debbie Caudill Program Assistant

35

Celebrating

years

Miami University Art Museum 801 S. Patterson Ave. Oxford, OH 45056 www.MiamiOH.edu/Art-Museum artmuseum@miamioh.edu (513) 529-2232 The art museum is accredited by the American Alliance of Museums.

Museum Gallery Hours: Tuesday-Friday 10 a.m.-5 p.m. Saturday 12 p.m.-5 p.m. Sunday-Monday CLOSED

Construction of the Miami University Art Museum in 1978 was made possible by private contributions to Miami University’s Goals for Enrichment capital campaign in the mid-1970s. A major gift for the building came as a bequest from Miami alumnus Fred C. Yager, class of 1914. Walter Netsch, the museum’s architect, Walter I. Farmer, class of 1935, and Orpha B. Webster generously donated extensive art collections and were all instrumental in developing early support for the museum.


Introduction p

rintmaking facilitated the spread of knowledge and ideas in the early modern period (15th-18th centuries). The medium was fundamental for such an expansion, as the process used by artists allowed them to mass produce images and distribute them inexpensively to a growing audience. Printmaking, in addition to aiding the spread of knowledge, also is a marker of the expansion itself. A desire for new ideas and information can be seen in the innovative artistic printmaking techniques that were developed and shared throughout western Europe.

w

ith the advent of the Gutenberg movable-type printing press the demand for printed images helped drive the early market. This market expanded to suit an array of consumer needs for religious, artistic and cultural images. Some prints commemorated special occasions, while others recorded specific places. They allowed viewers to experience events they otherwise might not have attended and may have even inspired viewers to travel to the places depicted. Other prints revealed a cultural awareness for the Classics, or consumer interests in the works of specific artists. Printmakers could spread their own ideas regarding artistic techniques and their own interpretations of religious events. In summary, the artists who produced prints responded to a demand for knowledge by the people, either creating what the audience wanted or giving the collectors something they had never seen before. Jost Amman (German, 1539-1591). The Printer’s Workshop, from the Book of Trades, 1568. Woodcut. Source: Wikimedia Commons.


Religious Knowledge T

he creation of Johannes Gutenberg’s movable-type printing press, ca. 1440, made bookmaking, once a costly handwritten process undertaken by monks, a new commercial enterprise. Demand for books, especially religious texts like the Bible, generated a market for devotional images, which encouraged silent prayer and meditation for the viewer. For those unable to afford books of collected images, single prints were available for private devotion. These images were marketed mostly to the illiterate public unable to read the Bible. In depicting certain biblical passages, artists strove to create prints that were recognizable to any member of the viewing public by using certain characters, themes and settings, although each artist did so in his own unique style. Even though secular prints gradually became more popular commercially, artists continued to experiment with printmaking techniques in the pursuit of the most effective religious image.

St. Luke with images from the birth and infancy of Jesus, from the 1483 German Bible printed at Nuremberg by Anton Koberger. Source: Union Theological Seminary Library, NY.


The Koherger Bible T

he Koberger Bible is an example of an incunabula, a book printed before 1501, and represents one of the earliest forms of printed imagery for an illustrated bible. Although dating to 1483, some of the woodcuts included in Anton Koberger’s bible are the same as those published in two versions of Heinrich Quentell’s Cologne Low German Bible of 1478, and thus the artistic contributions predate this version. The Koberger Bible includes 109 woodcuts. This page details the story of Noah’s Ark and illustrates an improved understanding of space and depth of field over earlier hand-painted bible illustrations, yet maintains remnants 1. Germany of medieval tilted Page from the Koberger Bible, 1483 perspective prominent Wood type and woodcut illustration with before the 15th century. hand-painted letters on paper

Written by Jason E. Shaiman

Gift to Miami University 1950.M.0.2


The Raising of Lazarus G

iovanni Benedetto Castiglione presented the viewer with an image of Christ raising Lazarus from the dead. Castiglione was able to emphasize this spectacular moment through his artistic style. While he was 2. Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, also known as Il Grechetto, greatly influenced (Italian, 1609-1664) by the ornate and The Raising of Lazarus, ca. 1652 exaggerated style Etching on paper of the Baroque Miami University Art Museum Purchase through the Harry and Lucy Williams Memorial Fund period during 1990.156 the 17th century, he also included some unique stylistic elements. His use of soft-ground etching, with short and scribble-like markings, creates a sense of movement. There is an energy emanating through this work that allows the viewer to feel as if he or she could be present at this event. Written by Madison Graney


pilatus tradidit illum ut crucifigeretur T

he image of Pontius Pilate condemning Christ to his death was intended to evoke a strong sense of devotion from the person who owned this print and was used to tell the story through image to those who could not read. The image of Christ being led away from Pilate, who is washing his hands of the judgment, is the climax of the story. Jacques Callot referenced his study of Italian Renaissance drawings to create tiny, refined, human-like figures in the image. A sense of theatricality is created by the contrast between light and dark to draw attention to certain figures. This print is one of a series of 12 etchings.

Written by Rachel Sacks

3. Jacques Callot (French, 1592-1635) [Possibly by Jacques Jean Pasquier (French, 1718-1785)] Pilatus tradidit illum ut crucifigeretur, 1623 Etching on paper Gift of Walter I. Farmer 1997.312


The Man of sorrows MocKed by a soldier

a

deeply religious man, Albrecht D端rer intended his prints to evoke feelings of piety in his viewers. In Man of Sorrows, Jesus gazes soulfully outwards, his pain apparent on his face. The hands are clasped in front of his body, urging the viewer to feel pity and grief for the agonizing death that Jesus is about 4. Albrecht D端rer (German, 1471-1528) to endure. D端rer The Man of Sorrows Mocked by a Soldier, ca. 1511 inserted the Wood engraving on paper mocking soldier Gift to Miami University confronting Jesus 1950.PR.0.76 with a broken reed whip to create a contrast between his cruel actions and the viewer, who will sympathize with the tormented Christ instead of his Roman antagonist. Written by Natalie Bogatschow


The Lamenation T

he 12th of 16 prints in Albrecht Dürer’s Engraved Passion series, this print depicts the physical suffering, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The scene portrayed shows the Virgin Mary, Saint John the Evangeliest, Mary Magdalene, Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea mourning over Christ’s dead body. Albrecht Dürer’s use of smooth, steady lines and extreme detail immediately draws the viewer’s attention to the tragic subject matter. He skillfully depicted the different forms of grief for each figure, creating an extremely personal devotional experience. Written by Mary Schullenberger

5. Albrecht Dürer (German, 1471-1528) The Lamentation, 1507 Engraving on paper Gift of Eleanor Handschin McCann, ‘29, in memory of her mother, Helena Daumerlang Handschin 1981.2


artistic Knowledge p

rintmakers recognized the potential for prints to develop and spread artistic knowledge. Within this medium, artists studied both nature and the human form, thus contributing to their personal education; meanwhile, the distribution of their works served as examples for their followers to study, which proved to be a common practice for teaching. In addition, the ability of printmakers to replicate works of other artists and widely distribute them in the form of prints allowed the public to see the works they would not otherwise have access to. The development of artistic techniques meant that artists could make more reliable reproductions of works from other media. As artistic knowledge grew, so did the popularity of prints. Consumers who admired specific artists often collected prints of their work. As a result of this, the careers of many famous printmakers began to flourish and the demands for specific subjects were on the rise. Albrecht D端rer (German, 1471-1528), Man Drawing a Lute (The Draughtsman of the Lute), 1525. Source: Schillerinstitute.org


The Miracle of saint MarK

6. John Baptist Jackson (British, 1701-1780); The Miracle of Saint Mark, (after Tintoretto), from the Venetian Set, 1745; Chiaroscuro woodcut on paper; Miami University Art Museum Purchase; 2004.1 and 2004.2

J

ohn Baptist Jackson’s large-scale woodcut prints were part of a commissioned series that copied 17 paintings by great Venetian masters. The original work was an oil painting by Jacopo Tintoretto, characterized by vivid and intense colors. Jackson was able to copy the wide chromatic range of the oil painting in ink by experimenting with the printing technique chiaroscuro, which uses multiple woodblocks with different shades of color. The site of the original painting had limited public access, but these prints allowed collectors and art enthusiasts to appreciate the great Venetian work within their own homes. Jackson’s reproductions facilitated wider exposure to masterpieces of Renaissance art. Written by Caitlin Carlin


Hercules and achelous B

7. Heinrich Aldegrever (German, 1502-1558/61) Hercules and Achelous, from The Labors of Hercules, 1550 Engraving on paper Gift of Itto F. Langmann 1982.39

y creating an appealing composition of nude figures in action, Heinrich Aldegrever effectively depicted an unprecedented scene from The Labors of Hercules. The scene portrayed is of Hercules fighting the river god Achelous to win the hand of the princess of Calydon. In this rendition, the form of Achelous is human rather than creature and the viewer’s eye is drawn to the struggling, twisting bodies that are both compositionally pleasing and informative. One of the many prints made for an audience expanding beyond religious or private commissions, it communicated a growing interest in prints as aesthetic imagery. Hercules and Achelous showcases the artistic qualities and techniques typical of the time. Written by Kelsey Sturgill


Head of saskia and Others R

embrandt van Rijn brought a careful rendering of light and shadow to his body of work, but his mastery of comprehending the psychological properties of an individual was even more notable. This print is a complete understanding and imitation of the human psyche seen throughout this medium. While Leonardo da Vinci, whom Rembrandt had studied, paid particular attention 8. Rembrandt van Rijn (Dutch, 1606-1669) to the anatomy of Head of Saskia and Others, 1636 the human form in his Etching on paper sketches and studies, Miami University Art Museum Purchase 2004.5 Rembrandt focused on the psychological aspects of his subjects through a series of quick markings and etchings. These studies were distributed to his followers as teaching aids for the study of style and technique. Written by Caroline Buck


The Cascades of Tivoli

9. Giovanni Battista Piranesi (Italian, 1720-1778); The Cascades of Tivoli, ca. 1766 Etching on paper; Gift to Miami University; 1981.88

T

his print is part of Giovanni Battista Piranesi’s series, Vedute di Roma (Views of Rome), which portrayed desirable destinations for travelers on their Grand Tours. It is an exemplary display of mastery in landscape perspective, with the elevated view of the falls allowing for maximum depiction of depth and detail while giving Piranesi the opportunity to demonstrate his etching technique. It is also an example of Piranesi’s Romantic style, characterized by embellished scenery and images of grandeur. His rendering not only referred to the present state of the falls, but also drew from his extensive knowledge of ancient Rome. Written by Kathryn Landers


Cultural Knowledge p

rints also exhibit aspects of travel, enlightened learning, politics and social satire that contributed to the cultural knowledge of the early modern era. During the 18th century, wealthy young men embarked on Grand Tours to broaden their academic experience. Printmakers capitalized on this tourism by creating prints that were purchased as souvenirs or used as tools for learning about specific cultural features of the region. The Enlightenment sparked curiosity about the world, and an intellectual movement occurred during the late 17th century. The scholar represented this prominent new aspect of the early modern period: education. Because they could be mass-produced, prints also had the ability to spread information about political authority or military events. The medium of prints has been a constant outlet for disseminating political or social commentary. A print could portray social satire or promote social or political change, both of which provide a look into the cultural climate of the time.

Michael Wolgemut (German, 1434-1519) and Wilhelm Pleydenwurff (German, 1460-1494), View of Nuremberg. Woodcut in Hartmann Schedel, Liber Chronicarum (Nuremberg Chronicle) (Nuremberg: Anton Koberger, 1493), folios 99v-100r. Source: Museen der Stadt N端rnberg.


avanzi del Tempio Dio nella villa adrianna, in Tivoli O

riginally part of Piranesi’s Vedute di Roma (Views of Rome) series, this print portrayed a romanticized image of Roman ruins to wealthy travelers and provided a souvenir of the trip for 10. Giovanni Battista Piranesi (Italian, 1720-1778) the viewer. Avanzi del Tempio del Dio Canopo nella Villa Adriana, in Tivoli; At the same ca. 1768; Etching on paper (from a later Paris edition, between time, the 1835-1900); Bequest of John Schaal; 2002.35 work was part of a much larger series that included measured diagrams. The lettered key at the bottom provided tourists with information on specific architectural features of the site, revealing the larger artistic culture of Rome. The dual use of the print as a souvenir and diagram allowed viewers to see the print as artistically beautiful, while also using it to refine their cultural knowledge of ancient Rome. Written by Krista Dunkman


Faust (a scholar in His study) T

he subject of this print reflects the Enlightenment and the importance placed on investigation and knowledge at this time. The dark room appears to be a scholar’s study with books on the table and a globe in the foreground. Here an old man is confronted by an eerie vision. The apparition reveals something to the man, but the meaning of it is unknown. The mystery behind Rembrandt’s print allows for numerous interpretations. Faust was a scholar from a German legend who sold his soul to the devil to gain knowledge. However, Rembrandt never confirmed that the figure depicted was indeed Faust. Written by Alexandra Morris

11. Rembrandt van Rijn (Dutch, 1606-1669) Faust (A Scholar in His Study), ca. 1652 Etching & drypoint on paper Miami University Art Museum Purchase 2004.4


Triumph of MaXimilian H

i

ans Burgkmair was one of several noted 16th century printmakers who produced woodcuts for this series that formed a continuous frieze measuring 177 feet. Burgkmair was responsible for 66 of the 139 prints. The first edition was completed after the Holy Roman Emperor’s death in 1519 and first 12. Hans Burgkmair (German, 1473-1531) printed in 1526. As From the series Triumph of Maximilian I a result, the battle Third issue, 1796 standard plaque Handcolored woodcut on paper of this 33rd print Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Richard George in the series was 1979.PR.9.12 never carved with an inscription commemorating the Holy Roman Emperor’s allegorical triumphal procession. The intention of the series was to preserve the memory of the noble ruler’s reign through political propaganda that ultimately became known as an ambitious artistic triumph. Written by Justin Schumacher


southwarK Fair D

uring the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions in England, William Hogarth witnessed an influx of people into the cities. Driven by social justice, Hogarth painted images satirizing this upheaval and transformed them into prints available to 13. William Hogarth (British, 1697-1764) all social classes Engraved by Thomas Cook Southwark Fair, 1796 upon subscription. Engraving on paper This scene depicts Gift of William B. and L. Gail Phelps in memory of the transition of Lois D. Lehmkuhl the fair from an 2007.21 event of traditional necessity to one of entertainment and vice. To fight piracy of his work Hogarth lobbied to pass the Engraver’s Copyright Act of 1735, the first of its kind. Perhaps ironically, this particular edition of the print is a copied engraving by Thomas Cook of Hogarth’s original painting, many years after Hogarth’s death. Written by Emily Ketterer


acKnowledgements This exhibition is the final project of the Spring 2013 Senior Capstone seminar for the Art and Architecture History major at Miami University.

With the guidance of Dr. Andrew Casper and Jason Shaiman, Curator of Exhibitions at the Miami University Art Museum, students worked collaboratively and individually through all the necessary stages of the curatorial process, from defining the focus of the exhibition and organizing the thematic approach to the selection of prints from the art museum’s collection and writing the associated texts. Active classroom discussions based on texts by numerous scholars provided the essential foundation for the development of this exhibition. The results of individual research were presented in class and in term papers written on the works of art currently on display.

Special appreciation is extended to Dr. Robert S. Wicks, Director; Laura Stewart, Collections Manager/ Registrar, and all the art museum staff for their interest in and assistance with this project. Gallery guide and text panels were designed by Morgan Murray, design student.

ART498: History and Methods in Art & Architectural History

Dr. Andrew Casper, Professor Natalie Bogatschow Caroline Buck Caitlin Carlin

Krista Dunkman Madison Graney Emily Ketterer

Kathryn Landers

Alexandra Morris Rachel Sacks

Mary Schullenberger Justin Schumacher Kelsey Sturgill


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