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Matthew Greenwood

BENEATH UNKNOWN SKIES F i n d i n g Fo r m o n D i st a n t Wo r l d s Design Thesis


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Matthew Greenwood

BENEATH UNKNOWN SKIES F i n d i n g Fo r m o n D i st a n t Wo r l d s

Masters of Architecture Thesis Studio: Flir ting with Space Studio Leader: Christina Bozsan

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank all the people that have helped me throughout my architectural studies at The University of Melbourne. All my lecturers and tutors who have guided my studies and provided invaluable feedback and support. Thank you to my thesis studio leader Christina for helping me through the semester and keeping us all on track. To the team at UDMK thank you for continually pushing me to achieve my best throughout my degree and providing me with a wealth of resources and your time. Thank you to all my family and friends for supporting me through 5 years of study and always being there for me. And Brodie, for everything you do for me. I couldn’t have done this without you. Thank you, MG

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CONTENTS 9 Introduction Preface Thesis Statement

15 Beneath Unknown Skies We Are Explorers Titan What Is Vernacular To Site Mapping Titan Finding Form On Titan Process & Time Habitation A Form For Exploration

5 1 Vi s u a l i s i n g D i st a n t Wo r l d s Advertising Space From Data To Landscapes Opportunities Of Site The Architecture Of Exploration

87 Exploring Representation

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95 Our Solar System The Planets The Dwarf Planets The Moons

141 Precedents

Exploration Architecture Space Exploration In Video Games Space Exploration In Film

161 A Visual Appendix 173 References

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INTRODUCTION

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P R E FA C E Flir ting with Space 2016 Design Thesis

Beneath Unknown Skies explores the possibility of form and habitation on other worlds in our solar system. The initially looked at how we can understand place through visual representation, looking at various worlds in our system and attempting to recreate them. After settling on a location various experiments were performed in how to best represent the natural forces of Titan. Different methods of representation where used the most successful of which was distorting pixels using a script in order to convey a sense of movement. The final project is a formal exploration of the architectural possibilities on Titan manifesting as a research and exploration outpost.

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T H E S I S STAT E M E N T

As a species we are drawn to discover, explore and understand. The idea of exploring new frontiers can conjure romantic visions of discovery, the picturesque, and the unknown. Exploration can be about re-discovery of place, a tool for inspiration and a method of understanding. As the chapter on Ruskin details in the book The Art of Travel, we can begin to understand a great deal by visualising a space. We have explored and been inspired by much of earth and arguably we will look to the skies as our next frontier, beyond our planet and into the stars. Q: As we make this journey of exploration into unknown locations how can architecture respond to these new environments and the sense of discovery? What does it mean to be the first building in a place? This thesis argues that through form, framing and experience we can create architecture that embodies unknown locations and enhances the sense of discovery, associated with the idea of space exploration. This will be explored through the design of an outpost on Saturn’s moon Titan that acts as a staging point for research and discovery. A space for the inhabitants to uncover and be inspired by the unknown. The Architecture of Exploration aims to spatially develop ideas on what it means to explore new frontiers and how this can be translated through forms inspired by distant worlds. To arrive at this argument the initial stages of the thesis focused on understanding and visualising site. By researching the makeup of the planets we can begin to build a picture of the unique formal qualities that exist in our solar system that are not of earth. The first series of posters from planets (shown below) started this process of visualising these distant worlds. Through mapping and design explorations a formal quality emerges. These other worldly forms are tested against three principles that lend to the notion of exploration. That is the idea of the unknown, the site and the actions of the explorer themselves.

REFERENCES Image Right: Winters, D. (2012). Launch. [image] Available at: http://www.mymodernmet.com/profiles/blogs/dan-winters-last-launch [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016].

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BENEATH UNKNOWN SKIES

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W E A R E E X P LO R E R S Beneath Unknown Skies The Stor y

Driven by exploration and a sense of discovery humankind has expanded its space exploration activities and sent explorers to the far reaches of our solar system. One such expedition is sent to Titan one of the moons of Saturn. The explorers landing pods are designed to take advantage of the unique cryovolcanoes on Titans surface and are integrated into the ice magma flows. Every six years, the time it takes to travel to Titan the base is expanded, with each mission adding additional pods to whole structure with varying functions such as habitation, research and life support modules. The end result is a structure that is integrated into the natural processes of Titan, embodying the local materials and growth over time.

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T I TA N Saturn IV

Titan is a moon of the gas giant Saturn, one of 62 other moons to orbit the planet. It is the second largest moon in our solar system following Jupiter’s moon Ganymede. Titan is larger than a number of planets and dwarf planets in our solar system and is the only other object to have confirmed bodies of stable liquid on the surface. Titan is also unique in our system as it is the only moon known to have a dense atmosphere. Discovered in 1655 by the Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens it is one of the furthest objects in our solar system that we have landed a probe on and transmitted surface image. We didn’t know much about Saturn’s intriguing planet due to its thick opaque atmosphere however when Cassini and its lander Huygens arrived in 2004 we learned a great deal about Titan’s surface. Since then we have discovered lakes, and oceans of liquid methane and ethane. A geological cycle driven by melting and freezing of water called cryovolcanism creating unique features such as cryovolcanoes. Titans has slightly less gravity than the moon and an atmospheric pressure equivalent to being a metre underwater. It is however a frozen landscape with an average temperature around -175ºC and a toxic atmosphere of 95% Nitrogen and 5% Methane.

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CRYOVOLCANO

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W H AT I S V E R N AC U LA R TO S I T E The Composition and Human Interaction with Titan

When considering built form on Titan is was important to look at a number of factors. which were distilled down to 4 key ideas. The materials available, the natural processes of titan, what human objects exist already and what is contextual to the site visually. The geological composition of Titan is such that ice not rock is the predominant feature close to the surface that is readily available for construction. Given the extremely low temperatures and light gravity, ice could be an appropriate building material. With its cryovolcanism Titan also presents an opportunity for formal exploration in terms of its natural processes. As we have never witnessed cryovolcanoes up close we have the artistic license to imagine the forms these may take. In terms of human interaction with Titan we have sent one probe to its surface which relayed numerous images back to earth. The Huygens probe as it is named is the closest to an existing built human form on Titan as precedence. The probe consists of a golden curved heat shield and a disk like structure behind. It was from these two sources that the formal qualities of the project drew from and explored through various means of representation and testing.

REFERENCES Image Left Top: NASA, (n.d.). Titan Surface. [image] Available at: http://www.nasa.gov/topics/solarsystem/features/titan20130403.html [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Image Left Bottom: European Space Agency. Huygens Probe Sheild. [image] Available at: http://sci.esa.int/cassini-huygens/18550-shieldinsulation-on-the-huygens-probe/ [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016].

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M A P P I N G T I TA N The Xanadu Region

This section of the Titans surface contains the landing site of the Huygens probe, the outermost landing of a human probe. Its point of contact was the Shangri-La region, on dusty rocky plains with hydrocarbon sands. To the East of Shangri-La is the region of Xanadu. This location is a bright albedo feature most likely a plateau of highly reflective water ice. On this map everything to the East of Xanadu is always facing away from Saturn whilst everything to the West permanently has Saturn on its horizon.

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M A P P I N G T I TA N The Quivira Region

This region of Titan predominantly faces away from Saturn. Some of its notable features include the dark albedo features of Fensal and Aztlan most likely hydrocarbon dunes or plains. And the brighter albedo feature of Quivira. The North hosts Punga Mare one of the largest discovered oceans on Titan as well as many smaller lakes. The dark Aztlan feature also contains the largest mountain by mass on Titan, Doom Mons. This mountain range is speculated to also contain a large cryovolcano.

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M A P P I N G T I TA N The Belet Region

This portion of Titan is on the cusp of both facing and facing away from Saturn. Causing it to appear in some regions permanently on the horizon. It contains the dark regions of Belet and Senkyo as wells as a large mountain range with prominent peaks. The mountains on Titan are all names after mountains from Lord of the Rings such as Angmar Montes and Doom Mons. The Northern lands are home to extensive lakes and oceans including the largest ocean on the planet, Kraken Mare and the second largest Ligeia Mare.

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M A P P I N G T I TA N Ligeia Mare

The second largest ocean on Titan, Ligeia mare is composed like all the lakes on Titan of an ethane and methane mix. It has a surface area of roughly 120,000km2 and has many bays, rivers and coves. The project is sited on 78ยบ latitude and between 255ยบ & 250ยบ longitude. This location was chosen due to the mis of topography; lakes, dunes and some small mountains. this is also at a point in which Saturn appears large on its surface.

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PROJECT

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F I N D I N G F O R M O N T I TA N Inspiration & Integration

During the process of researching the natural forces on Titan the visualisation on the left was created. Imagining what cryovolcanoes might look like amongst hydrocarbon dunes. It was from this image that the form of the project began to take shape. When deciding on the form that the exploration outpost on Titan would take it was decided that the first building on Titan should reflect and be integrated into the natural systems of that world. Much like the primitive hut and post and beam system were a result of the trees of earth. The question was asked, what would the first building on Titan look like and how could these visualisations be reinterpreted as habitable space?. How would the cryovolcano be occupied? In order to do this it required having to find ways of representing the natural forces of Titan and cryovolcanoes. The following pages are examples of a few of these explorations.

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PIXEL SORTING


PIXEL SORTING


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PROCESS & TIME Construction Methodology

The result of the formal explorations was a building integrated into the eruptions of a cryovocano. The building would have a sense of time built into it. Every 6 years, the time it takes for a craft to reach titan a number of pods would be placed around the cryovolcano. These pods are designed to channel the cryomagma in particular ways to form structural supports as eruptions coat them. These caverns are then inhabited by the travelers. With each 6 year journey more pods are added until the volcano becomes dormant. The result is that each outpost would vary depending on the size, scale and flow of the volcano it is built upon. This process integrates the built form and nature allowing a degree of control.

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STAGE 01

Pods Arrive on Site

STAGE 05

Additional Layering & Explorers

Preperation for Next Layer

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STAGE 02

Scan

STAGE 06


STAGE 03

Cryovolcano Eruption

STAGE 07

Additional Framework & Pods

STAGE 04

First Explorers Arrive

STAGE 08

Additional Layering & Explorers

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26960 8070

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H A B I TAT I O N Designing an Integrated Structure

The landing pods can be fitted with a variety of functions yet they all integrate into the larger structure in the same manner. They land on the surface and await an eruption from the cryovolcano. This coats the pods in a layer of ice which is funneled over the surface and through hollow columns in the pods simultaneously strengthening the structure and anchoring it to the growing volcano. With modulated panels various segments could be removed and replaced with windows in order to control the open or closed feel of the space. The larger space in the centre of the pod could be used for common spaces or activities that require a larger space. The smaller spaces on the periphery can be used as personal rooms, airlocks, storage and smaller research spaces. The following pages show experiments in how the cryomagma may envelop and form around the pods.

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A F O R M F O R E X P LO R AT I O N Continuing The Journey Within A Structure

The resulting form is relatable to humans on the inside yet to a degree random and unknown once outside the pods. The project imagines the spaces as vast vertically directed ice caverns. Spaces in which the explorers can continue the experience of exploration not only on the surface of titan but also within the megastructure itself.

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VISUALISING DISTANT WORLDS

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ADV E R T I S I N G S PAC E Deep Space Diving

One of the first visuals created this semester focused on creating posters to advertise space. The image on the right started with a physical model (Below) that attempted to spacially visualise zero gravity. This was then three dimensionally scanned using photogrammety and inserted into the poster. The aim of this poster in particular is to try and make space more relatable and sell-able to something familiar on Earth. Space is a particularly dangerous environment. The colors and the scuba diving is intended to invoke a sense of playfulness and safety.

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LA FRONTIĂˆRE The Romanticism of Space Exploration

This second poster was exploring the idea of romanticism of place. Using the idea of traveling to new worlds and exploring the frontier as a way of drawing tourists to be a part of something elite and special. It also attempts to tap into the adventure of being on the cutting edge of discovering the unknown and being the first in a place.

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T H E D E M O C R AT I SAT I O N O F S PAC E TO U R I S M Vir tual Reality & The Accessibility of Space

One of the key challenges of space is the fact that it is expensive and so far predominantly the realm of the wealthy entrepreneurs and government funded space agencies. The Democratisation of Space poster looks at the idea of sending virtual tourists to explore the expanses of space. Using virtual reality the explorers would inhabit a robotic surrogate on the destination planet. By controlling robots the need for life support and expensive human protection would be erased and the cost would be much less. It would also give people that cant afford to get into space the ability to experience it and physically contribute even if the interface it virtual.

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F R O M DATA TO LA N D S CA P E S Reinterpreting Data From NASA & The ESA as Visuals.

During the design research phase of the project an exercise that was important to the thesis was visualising the various worlds in our solar system using the data we have from NASA and the E.S.A. The idea was to create these worlds without looking at previous artists interpretations. The results in return vary from accurate to abstractions. The idea of drawing place in order to understand it was inspired by a reading that discussed John Ruskin and his associations between representing environments and understanding them. The first world visualised to the right is Ceres. The dwarf planet existing in the asteroid belt between Jupiter and mars. The visualisation shows a rocky surface pitted with craters caused by many asteroid impacts. The asteroids of the belt casting dynamic shadows over the small surface. The truth in fact is no where near as romantic, in reality you would not the other asteroids as the distance between each would be much larger than this image would suggest. It does not however diminish the fact that it was a helpful exercise in representation and understanding of space.

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ERIS A World In Darkness

The next two images envisage Eris as a world in darkness. Being the furthest body from the sun the light on Eris would be much more minimal than compared to Earth or any of the closer worlds. The first image explores the idea of exploration in darkness. The only light in the stark landscapes being the explorers headlamps.

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VISIONS OF SPACE La Frontiere

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E U R O PA The Endless Glaciers

Trekkers explore the frozen plains of Europa under the shadow of giant Jupiter and its first moon Io. The world of Europa is thought to be endless thick ice coating over a deep layer of water. The pastel image on the next to pages are an attempt to visualise the surface of Europa at a closer level of detail .

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PASTEL PAINTING O


OF EUROPA


T I TA N Ye l l o w S k i e s & B l u e V o l c a n o e s

As previously shown during the main section of the project this visualising was an attempt to show the dynamic and active world of Titan. A world that is so similar to our own yet at the same time entirely different. The image shows the cryovolcanoes and hydrocarbon dunes as well as the ethane methane blend ‘hydrological’ cycle.

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IO A Suf fering World

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OPPORTUNITIES OF SITE Associating Place and Program

The following image on the next page explores the various opportunities of program that might be present on the distant world of Eris. They include utilizing the extremely low temperatures in order to store biological matter such as seeds was well as using the low light conditions to allow for much more powerful observatories. Taking advantage of the low light conditions. The pages following this show a similar exercise for Titan. This includes using hot air balloons as they are an efficient mode of transportation in the thick atmosphere, a fuel refinery to process the abundant reserves of biofuels and a prebiotic research facility as Titan resembles an Earth before the emergence of life.

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T H E A R C H I T E C T U R E O F E X P LO R AT I O N Archetypes of Exploration & Their Spacial Qualities

At an earlier stage the project was going to focus more on the architecture of exploration more literally. How architecture can be shaped by various exploration activities that take place within it. In order to break it down and work out who the potential occupants might be the idea of exploration was broken into three archetypes. Each archetype is characterised by a different mode of consumption and understand of place.

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T H E C R E AT I V E Consumption of Place Through Representation

Characterised by architects and artists. The creative may understand place through representation and inspiration. The architecture of the creative should help to facilitate art, contemplation and design, through which greater understanding of the details of place can be attained.

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THE SCIENTIST Consumption of Place Through Research

Catalogs, research and experimentation characterise the scientists. Their architectural vessel draws upon traditional institutions and methods of scientific naturalist exploration whilst exploring how the built form can facilitate archiving and study.

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THE PIONEER Consumption of Place Through Ownership

Discovery of place has historically led to a sense of ownership or conflict over space. Through cartography and titles, landscapes are divided and converted into owned territories. The architecture of the pioneer should explore the role of the map and built civic institutions.

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EXPLORING REPRESENTATION

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REPRESENTING CELESTIAL FORCES G r a v i t y, Vo l c a n i s m , E n t ro p y & M o v e m e n t

These following images show some further examples of exploring form. Using a script in the program called processing. Images can be abstracted according to the colour value of pixels which can be frozen in time to create lineal distorted images. These were all in the attempt to find a way of representing these extreme forces prevalent in the cosmos.

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CONTROLLED ABSTRACTION

As this technique was further experimented with it became progressively easier to control the seemingly chaotic abstractions. For example the colour white does not move or get distorted and acts as a barrier that stops any pixels moving towards it. by knowing rules such as this the images being produced could be all the more controlled.

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OUR SOLAR SYSTEM

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THE PLANETS

REFERENCES Image Left: The Great Red Spot on Jupiter. Source: NASA, (2016). Reprocessed View of the Great Red Spot.. [image] Available at: http://www.universetoday.com/108257/will-jupiters-greatred-spot-turn-into-a-wee-red-dot/ [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016].

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MERCURY Te r r e s t r i a l P l a n e t

The closet planet to our sun, Mercury is also the smallest planet in our solar system. as well as being the fastest to orbit the sun at a mere 88 Earth days. Although Mercury is the closest planet to the sun it is not the hottest that title is reserved for Venus. The reason for this is the lack of a thick atmosphere causing Mercury’s temperature to vary drastically between day and night. There is no insulation to hold the heat in. The thin atmosphere also meant hat meteors do not burn up on entry causing Mercury to have a surface of craters not dissimilar to Earths moon. From Mercury’s surface the sun would appear 3 times larger than it does on Earth. Mercury has had two visits by human spacecraft. The first being Mariner 10 and the second is Messenger which has been in orbit since 2011 and has mapped almost the entirety of the surface in great detail.

REFERENCES 1) NASA Solar System Exploration. (2016). Mercury - Overview | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration. [online] Available at: http://solarsystem. nasa.gov/planets/mercury [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016]. 2) Sci.esa.int. (2016). ESA Science & Technology: Mercury. [online] Available at: http://sci.esa.int/solar-system/35647-mercury/ [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016].

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VENUS Te r r e s t r i a l P l a n e t

Our closest neighbor Venus is also similar in size and composition to Earth. It has a dense atmosphere caused by a runaway greenhouse effect. This has caused Venus to become the hottest planet in our solar system with surface temperatures that can surpass 470ยบC. Venus has terrain similar to Earth in the form of mountains and valleys but differs in that is has many more active volcanoes. Photos returned by surface landers on Venus show an orange landscape however in reality the colour of the soil would most likely be grayish with the orange coming form the light that is filtered through the dense atmosphere. Most probes last no more than 2 hours in the extreme heat on Venus.

REFERENCES 1) NASA Solar System Exploration. (2016). Venus - In Depth | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration. [online] Available at: http://solarsystem. nasa.gov/planets/venus/indepth [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016]. 2) Sci.esa.int. (2016). ESA Science & Technology: Venus. [online] Available at: http://sci.esa.int/solar-system/35648-venus/ [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016].

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EARTH Te r r e s t r i a l P l a n e t

Our home amongst the stars. Earth is the only planet that we have discovered to contain life. Our planet is the fith largest in the solar system and the largest terrestrial planet. Our atmosphere is composed of nitrogen and oxygen and shields us from most of the harmful radiation from the sun. Earth is covered predominantly in water almost 70%.

REFERENCES 1) NASA Solar System Exploration. (2016). Earth - In Depth | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration. [online] Available at: http://solarsystem. nasa.gov/planets/earth/indepth [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016].

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MARS Te r r e s t r i a l P l a n e t

Mars has had a long history with the inhabitants of Earth with many once believe the red planet to have vegetation and harbor life. It came as a shock when orbiters first sent back images showing a dry, cold and cratered world. Mars experiences seasons just like Earth due to its tilt with polar ice caps that grow and recede throughout the Martian year which takes approximately 687 Earth days. We have sent 4 rovers to Mars and it will most likely be the next step for human exploration with multiple missions by difference organisations in the works.

REFERENCES 1) NASA Solar System Exploration. (2016). Mars - In Depth | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration. [online] Available at: http://solarsystem. nasa.gov/planets/mars/indepth [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016]. 2) Sci.esa.int. (2016). ESA Science & Technology: Mars. [online] Available at: http://sci.esa.int/solar-system/35650-mars/ [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016].

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Jupiter Gas Giant

Named after the king of Roman gods, Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system. It has its own system of moons, 67 in total orbiting around it. The most intriguing to scientist being the Galilean moons: Europa, Ganymede, Callisto and Io. Jupiter whips around at an astonishing pace taking only 10 hours to do a full rotation. Its year is approximately 12 Earth years. So far we have sent 9 missions to Jupiter and although the potential for life on the gas giant is minimal its moons are a different story.

REFERENCES 1) NASA Solar System Exploration. (2016). Jupiter - In Depth | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration. [online] Available at: http://solarsystem. nasa.gov/planets/Jupiter/indepth [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016]. 2) Sci.esa.int. (2016). ESA Science & Technology: Jupiter. [online] Available at: http://sci.esa.int/solar-system/35651-jupiter/ [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016].

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SATU R N Gas Giant

Saturn is the furthest planet from Earth that can be observed with the human eye and is remarkable for its orbiting ring system that the two Voyager spacecraft confirmed to be composed primarily of water ice during their flybys. Its largest satellite, Titan, is of particular interests as it shows Earth like qualities and is bigger than the smallest planet Mercury. Saturn itself is composed primarily of hydrogen and helium much like Jupiter and the top speeds in the upper atmosphere can get to 500m a second.

REFERENCES 1) NASA Solar System Exploration. (2016). Saturn - In Depth | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration. [online] Available at: http://solarsystem. nasa.gov/planets/saturn/indepth [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016]. 2) Sci.esa.int. (2016). ESA Science & Technology: Saturn. [online] Available at: http://sci.esa.int/solar-system/35652-saturn/ [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016].

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URANUS Ice Giant

A cold distant planet, Uranus is known as an ice giant, due to its temperature and being composed of a fluid icy material towards the core. It has an odd axial tilt compared to other worlds in the solar system at over 90ยบ making it appear as if it is rolling like a wheel as it orbits the sun. Uranus is named after the Greek god of the sky and was first discovered in 1781 by astronomer William Herschel. Because of its unique tilt the planet experiences extreme seasonal variance with half the planet being plunged into a 21 Earth year dark winter. It is the seventh planet from the sun.

REFERENCES 1) NASA Solar System Exploration. (2016). Uranus - In Depth | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration. [online] Available at: http://solarsystem. nasa.gov/planets/Uranus/indepth [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016]. 2) Sci.esa.int. (2016). ESA Science & Technology: Search. [online] Available at: http://sci.esa.int/services/36371-search/ [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016].

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NEPTUNE Ice Giant

The second ice giant in the solar system, Neptune is the farthest object from the sun designated as a planet. It has a core that is approximately the size of Earth which is surrounded by water and ice eventually dissipating to gases in the upper atmosphere. It times Neptune can be further from the sun than the dwarf planet Pluto due to Pluto’s highly eccentric orbit, despite this crossing of paths the two planets can never collide due to their orbital periods.

REFERENCES 1) NASA Solar System Exploration. (2016). Neptune - In Depth | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration. [online] Available at: http://solarsystem. nasa.gov/planets/Neptune/indepth [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016]. 2) Sci.esa.int. (2016). ESA Science & Technology: Neptune. [online] Available at: http://sci.esa.int/solar-system/35654-neptune/ [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016].

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T H E DWA R F P LA N ETS

REFERENCES Image Left: A crater on the surface of Ceres. Source: NASA, (2016). Dawn Takes A Closer Look Ar Occator. [image] Available at: https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/jpl/dawn-takes-a-closerlook-at-occator/ [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016].

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CERES Dwar f Planet

Ceres is the closest dwarf planet to Earth located in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. It was classified as an asteroid up until it was re-designated as a dwarf planet in 2006. Ceres is also the first dwarf planet to have hosted a spacecraft landing being visited by Dawn in 2015. It takes approximately 4.6 Earth years for Ceres to orbit around the sun at an average distance of 2.8 Astronomical Units from the sun. Ceres is one of the few bodies in our solar system to be confirmed to have water. As such it is of interest to the scientific community in regards to potentially having hosted microbial life at some point.

REFERENCES 1) NASA Solar System Exploration. (2016). Neptune - In Depth | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration. [online] Available at: http://solarsystem. nasa.gov/planets/Ceres/indepth [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016].

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P LUTO Dwar f Planet

Formerly the ninth planet in the solar system Pluto was famously demoted to the position of dwarf planet after the discovery of other trans-neptunium objects in the Kuiper belt. Pluto is smaller than Earth’s moon and has a number of its own moons, the largest Charon is almost half the size of Pluto. Due to Pluto’s highly eccentric orbit it briefly comes closer to the sun than Neptune at certain points of its orbit. It also causes the small dwarf planet to have a transient atmosphere due to the changes in temperature. This means that when Pluto is closer to the sun its various gases turn into vapor and form an atmosphere, as Pluto moves away from the sun the atmosphere condenses, freezes and falls as a planet-wide blanket of snow.

REFERENCES 1) NASA Solar System Exploration. (2016). Pluto - In Depth | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration. [online] Available at: http://solarsystem. nasa.gov/planets/pluto/indepth [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016].

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HAUMEA Dwar f Planet

Another icy world in the Kuiper belt Haumea was discovered in 2003 by astronomers in Spain. It is an oddly shaped object possibly caused by an impact billions of years ago that sped up its rotation to 4 hour days. This speed of rotations causes the planet to become elongated. Haumea got its name from the Hawaiian goddess of childbirth and fertility and its 2 moons are named after her daughters. Namaka & Hi’aka.

REFERENCES 1) NASA Solar System Exploration. (2016). Haumea - In Depth | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration. [online] Available at: http://solarsystem. nasa.gov/planets/haumea/indepth [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016].

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MAKEMAKE Dwar f Planet

Another trans-neptunium object Makemake (Mah-kee-mah-kee). is significant as its discovery along with the dwarf planet Eris caused scientists to think about the reclassification of planets to include the term dwarf planet. Little is known about this distant world other than it is slightly smaller than Pluto and may contain traces of frozen nitrogen, ethane and methane. Makemake is named after the Rapanui god of fertility.

REFERENCES 1) NASA Solar System Exploration. (2016). Makemake - In Depth | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration. [online] Available at: http:// solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/makemake/indepth [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016].

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ERIS Dwar f Planet

Taking 557 years to orbit the sun, Eris like Pluto has a transient atmosphere that for hundreds of years is frozen as an icy coating until it comes closer to the sun where astronomers believe it will thaw revealing a surface similar to Pluto. Eris is so far from Earth that it is difficult to get exact measurements however it is estimated to be around the same size as Pluto. Eris was discovered in 2003 and is named after the Greek goddess of discord and strife. Its moon Dysnomia is Eris’s daughter in mythology the demon goddess of lawlessness.

REFERENCES 1) NASA Solar System Exploration. (2016). Eris - In Depth | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration. [online] Available at: http://solarsystem. nasa.gov/planets/eris/indepth [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016].

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MOONS

REFERENCES Image Left: A stitched together image from NASA of the surface of Io, a moon of Jupiter. Source: NASA, (2016). Io Tiled Orbiter Images. [image] Available at: https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/io/galleries#! [Accessed 23 Oct. 2016].

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IO Moon of Jupiter

Io is the closest moon to the gas giant Jupiter, and was originally given the designation of Jupiter I when discovered by Galileo. After many more moons were discovered in the solar system it became apparent that the numbering system would be confusing it was given the name Io. Io is a treacherous world of active volcanoes and sulfur giving the moon its distinct colouration. These volcanoes are being caused by the planet being pulled apart by the gravity of Jupiter and the outer moons of Europa and Ganymede. Due to its path through Jupiter’s magnetic field Io generates 400,00 volts across its surface.

REFERENCES 1) NASA Solar System Exploration. (2016). Io - In Depth | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration. [online] Available at: https://solarsystem.nasa. gov/planets/io/indepth [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016].

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E U R O PA Moon of Jupiter

The second moon of Jupiter, Europa is considered one of the better chances for life to exist in our solar system due to the salty ocean that is believed to exist beneath its ice crust. The moon is slightly smaller than Earth’s moon orbiting Jupiter every 3.5 days. Evidence captured by the Hubble space telescope hint that Europa may be venting plumes of water into space. The discovery could confirm that Europa is indeed currently geologically active further increasing the chance of finding present day life.

REFERENCES 1) NASA Solar System Exploration. (2016). Europa - In Depth | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration. [online] Available at: https://solarsystem. nasa.gov/planets/europa/indepth [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016].

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GANYMEDE Moon of Jupiter

The largest satellite in our solar system Ganymede is the 3rd moon orbiting around the gas giant Jupiter. There is evidence of a thin oxygen atmosphere on Ganymede however it is not thick enough to support life that we know of. It is a dark coloured highly cratered moon with a thick icy shell surrounding a rock mantle and iron core. It was discovered by Galileo in 1610 and was the first moon discovered orbiting a planet other than Earth. The name Ganymede is from Greek mythology and is the name of the cup bearer of the Olympian Gods.

REFERENCES 1) NASA Solar System Exploration. (2016). Ganymede - In Depth | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration. [online] Available at: http:// solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/ganymede/indepth [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016].

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CA L L I STO Moon of Jupiter

The outermost Galilean satellite of Jupiter, Callisto is the third largest moon in our solar system and is roughly the size of the planet Mercury. Callisto is long dead world with very little geological activity and a surface age of 4 billion years. This means that Callisto has the oldest landscape in the solar system.

REFERENCES 1) NASA Solar System Exploration. (2016). Callisto - In Depth | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration. [online] Available at: http://solarsystem. nasa.gov/planets/callisto/indepth [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016].

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T I TA N Moon of Saturn

The second largest moon in the solar system, Titan is also the largest moon of Saturn. It is the only moon in our solar system to have a dense atmosphere, clouds and a earth-like cycle of liquids. It is a world of ethane and methane oceans, hydrocarbon dunes and cryovolcanoes. Like Earth is also shows the presence of Tectonic activity and any craters on the surface from meteors that do not burn up on entry are eroded by the rain and rivers. We have sent one lander to Titan, the Cassini-Huygens mission which gave us a look under the dense clouds of Titan. There are current plans to send further missions to Titan to explore its oceans and the potential for life.

REFERENCES 1) NASA Solar System Exploration. (2016). Titan - In Depth | Planets - NASA Solar System Exploration. [online] Available at: http://solarsystem. nasa.gov/planets/titan/indepth [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016].

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PRECEDENTS

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E X P LO R AT I O N A R C H I T E C T U R E T h e S t r u c t u r e s W e C r e a t e I n O u r D e s i r e To E x p l o r e

When thinking about the designing structures that we inhabit when exploring it was important to look at precedents that exist in the built worlds. In the course of looking at the examples it was apparent that there were re-occurring themes. The most obvious being the response to site. A lot of the time the site was largely inhospitable such as extreme temperature of the vacuum of space. As a result these structure are directly responding to the conditions of site and the health of the inhabitants. Other things to consider is the use of local materials, reuse of existing material, psychology of the inhabitants and integrated life support systems.

REFERENCES Image Left: A NASA astronaut suit on hanger. Source: Winters, D. (2012). Astronaut Suit. [image] Available at: http://www.mymodernmet.com/profiles/blogs/dan-winters-last-launch [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016].

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M C M U R D O STAT I O N Antarctica Built: 1956

A United State research station in Antarctica, McMurdo relies on a once a year resupply. Its creates its own water through desalination and waste treatment. It is self sufficient and must adhere to the protocol on environmental protection to the antarctic treaty. It is a self contained town with a population that can reach 1258 persons. McMurdo must keep its inhabitants safe during the intense periods of low temperatures during the long antarctic winter.

REFERENCES 1) Coolantarctica.com. (2016). McMurdo Station - Antarctica. [online] Available at: http://www.coolantarctica.com/Bases/McMurdo/mcmurdobase-antarctica.php [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Image Right: Swanson, J. (2015). McMurdo Night Winter Lights. [image] Available at: https://www.wired.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/ mcmurdo-night-winter-lights-HR.jpg [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016].

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T H E I N T E R N AT I O N A L S PAC E STAT I O N Lo w E a r t h O r b i t Launch Date: 1998

Being in space the ISS is required to be as self sufficient as possible. However due to regular resupply missions it does not need to grow its food on board. It captures water from sinks, showers, toilets and the atmosphere which is then treated and reused, including for drinking. The ISS responds to its site in space by having exercise equipment to keep astronauts healthy and avoid the effects of long term exposure to zero g. It has to be insulated from both temperature and radiation as well as provide mechanisms for enabling normal activities such as sleeping and using the bathroom.

REFERENCES 1) NASA. (2016). International Space Station. [online] Available at: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Image Left: NASA, (2016). Tracy_Caldwell_Dyson_in_Cupola_ISS. [image] Available at: http://www.nasa.gov/content/when-you-land-can-youstand-one-year-mission-video-miniseries-functional-performance [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016].

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HALLEY VI Brunt Ice Shelf, Caird Coast Hugh Broughton Architects

Halley 6 is a state of the art, award winning British research station in Antarctica. The building itself is the first relocatable research station on the continent and is supported on skies that both allow it to move and keep it from being blanketed in by snow. The legs can be lowered and raised on jacks. The central red module contains the communal areas whiles the blue modules contain labs, generators and other facilities. It accommodates 70 staff during the summer month and experiences 24hour darkness during winter.

REFERENCES 1) Bas.ac.uk. (2016). Halley VI Research Station - British Antarctic Survey. [online] Available at: https://www.bas.ac.uk/polar-operations/sites-andfacilities/facility/halley/ [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Image Left: Dubber, A. (2015). Reinforced steel structures help the station withstand Antarctica’s fierce storms.. [image] Available at: https://www. wired.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/credit-Antony-Dubber.jpg [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016].

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LU N A R H A B I TAT I O N STU D I E S The Moon, 2012 Fo st e r & Pa r t n e rs

Working with the European Space Agency, Foster and Partners are exploring the potential of 3D printed habitation on the moon. As a precedent the proposal uses materials vernacular to the moon to create structure.

REFERENCES 1) Fosterandpartners.com. (2012). Lunar Habitation | Foster + Partners. [online] Available at: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/lunarhabitation [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Image Right: Foster & Partners, (2012). Lunar Habitation. [image] Available at: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/media/1718270/Img0.jpg [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Image Above: Foster & Partners, (2012). 3D Printing Regolith Testing. [image] Available at: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/media/1718295/ Img5.jpg [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016].

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M A R S H A B I TAT I O N STU D I E S 2015 Fo st e r & Pa r t n e rs

A continuation of exploring habitation in extreme and extra-terrestrial habitats Foster & Partners worked on a NASA competition for 3D printed habitation on Mars. Again using soil native to the site. The proposal also considers the beneficial shape of the terrain situation the habitation modules in a shallow crater.

REFERENCES 1) Fosterandpartners.com. (2015). Mars Habitation | Foster + Partners. [online] Available at: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/marshabitation/ [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Image Left: Foster & Partners, (2015). Mars Habitation. [image] Available at: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/media/2477296/img3.gif [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Image Above: Foster & Partners, (2015). Interior of Mars Habitat. [image] Available at: http:// www.fosterandpartners.com/media/2477292/img9.gif [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016].

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I C E H O U S E 3 D P R I N T E D H A B I TAT 2015 SEArch & Clouds AO

Another entry into the NASA 3D printed Mars habitation competition. This example uses recently discovered underground deposits of ice water to construct a 3D printed habitat on Mars. Being a very cold planet the form should be much more structurally sound on Mars than it would be on Earth.

REFERENCES 1) MARS ICE HOUSE. (2016). Introduction. [online] Available at: http://www.marsicehouse.com/ [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Image Left: Mars Ice House, (2016). Ice House at Dusk. [image] Available at: https://static1.squarespace.com/ static/55edd735e4b02e95293af331/5603b74ce4b00b785628ee2e/5603b755e4b0aacbd51e1f4d/1444623783218/Mars-Ice-House_ Dusk+02_lr.jpg?format=1500w [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016].

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S PA C E E X P LO R AT I O N I N V I D E O S G A M E S No Mans Sky - Hello Games - 2016 Mass Effect Andromeda - Bioware - 2017

The realm of space and space exploration in particular is a hot topic in todays video game industry. Just this year the breakout title from Hello Games , No Mans Sky was one of the most anticipated games ever prior to its release. Despite the game not living up to the producers hype it offered the ability for players to travel to new worlds and be the first to explore new locations and claim/name them. This pays homage to the romanticism of space exploration and the ability to enjoy the sense of discovery and pioneering. The as yet unreleased Mass Effect Andromeda also plays on the current hype around space exploration offering players the ability to travel to our neighboring galaxy Andromeda and once again be a part of exploring new worlds and locations.

REFERENCES 1) No Man’s Sky. (2016). No Man’s Sky. [online] Available at: http://www.no-mans-sky.com/ [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. 2) masseffect.com. (2016). Mass Effect Official Website. [online] Available at: https://www.masseffect.com/ [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Image Left Top: Hello Games, (2016). No Mans Sky Eclipse Art. [image] Available at: https://cdn0.vox-cdn.com/uploads/chorus_image/ image/50325911/No-Mans-Sky---Eclipse-O.0.0.jpg [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Image Left Bottom: Bioware, (2016). Concept Art. [image] Available at: http://cdn3.dualshockers.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/ MassEffectAndromeda.jpg [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016].

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S PA C E E X P LO R AT I O N I N F I L M Interstellar The Mar tian

This fascination with space exploration in the media also carries over into the film industry. Just recently we have seen many new space films hit the big screen. Two of the recent large hits have been Interstellar and The Martian. Both films praised themselves for having an element of scientific truth and backing in the way they were presenting. This perhaps hints at the idea that the mainstream public are interested in the facts on space travel and are wanting a more realistic depiction of space in contrast to the more fantasy based science fiction. Within the movies themselves there are various elements talked that can be of interest in the design world such as habitation, psychological issue of living in a small place with a small group of people and the dangers associated with space travel.

REFERENCES 1) Interstellar. (2014). [DVD] United States: Christopher Nolan. 2) The Martian. (2015). [DVD] United States: Ridley Scott. Image Left Top: Nolan, C. (2014). Still from Insterstellar. [image] Available at: https://loquaciousscribbler.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/matthewmcconaughey-in-in-0141.jpg [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Image Left Bottom: Scott, R. (2015). Still from The Martian. [image] Available at: http://www.ablogtowatch.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/ The-Martian-Matt-Damon-Hamilton-Watch-5.jpg [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]..

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NASA. (2016). International Space Station. [online] Available at: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Swanson, J. (2015). McMurdo Night Winter Lights. [image] Available at: https://www.wired.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/mcmurdo-nightwinter-lights-HR.jpg [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Winters, D. (2012). Astronaut Suit. [image] Available at: http://www.mymodernmet.com/profiles/blogs/dan-winters-last-launch [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Bioware, (2016). Concept Art. [image] Available at: http://cdn3.dualshockers.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/MassEffectAndromeda.jpg [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Foster & Partners, (2015). Interior of Mars Habitat. [image] Available at: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/media/2477292/img9.gif [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Foster & Partners, (2015). Mars Habitation. [image] Available at: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/media/2477296/img3.gif [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Foster & Partners, (2016). Lunar Habitation. [image] Available at: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/media/1718270/Img0.jpg [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Foster & Partners, (2016). 3D Printing Regolith Testing. [image] Available at: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/media/1718295/Img5.jpg [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Fosterandpartners.com. (2012). Lunar Habitation | Foster + Partners. [online] Available at: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/lunarhabitation [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Fosterandpartners.com. (2015). Mars Habitation | Foster + Partners. [online] Available at: http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/marshabitation/ [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Hello Games, (2016). No Mans Sky Eclipse Art. [image] Available at: https://cdn0.vox-cdn.com/uploads/chorus_image/image/50325911/NoMans-Sky---Eclipse-O.0.0.jpg [Accessed 24 Oct. 2016]. Interstellar. (2014). [DVD] United States: Christopher Nolan. Mars Ice House, (2016). Ice House at Dusk. [image] Available at: https://static1.squarespace.com/

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