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Hole Notes The official publication of the MGCSA

Vol. 44, No. 8 September 2012

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Upcoming Events October 8 Wee One Event North Oaks GC Host: Brian Boll October 15th Fall Shoot Out Horse and Hunt Club Host: Bill Gullicks November 16th Pesticide Recertification Class Contact: MNLA/MTGF Page 2


Vol. 44, No. 8 September 2012

Feature Articles: Prairie Connections page Contributed by Mary Meyer, Extension Horticulturist and Professor, U of M


Establishing Creeping Bentgrass in Annual Bluegrass Fairways pages 18-31 Contributed by Dr. Brian Horgan, Dr. Eric Watkins, Sam Bauer and more


Monthly Columns:


R U Ready? GPS Tech Update Written by Ken Rost of Frost Services

Presidential Perspective Scottie Hines CGCS

page 5

In Bounds Jack MacKenzie CGCS

pages 7-9

Within the Leather Dave Kazmierczak CGCS

pages 48-49

Cover: Prairie once covered central and western Minnesota. The little bluestem shown at Windsong Farm is now found primarily along roadsides and in protected preserves. Although time consuming to establish, native prairie plantings can be long lived and low maintenance once they are established.

pages 42-46

Imagine GPS assited chemistry applications. The time is now and the equipment is available! Ken Roast shares the latest and greatest in spray technology.

...Even More Content... Natural Areas Management pages 14-20 Inger Lamb, Prairie Landscapes, Photos Mary Meyer Power Drainage!!! pages 38-40 by Pete VanDeHey, Superintendent Mid Vallee GC

Tools of the drainage trade. Read about a great idea shared by a neighbor to our east, Pete VanDeHey of Mid Vallee GC.

Hole Notes (ISSN 108-27994) is digitally published monthly except bimonthly in November/December and January/February by the Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents’ Association, 10050 204th Street North, Forest Lake, MN 55025. Jack MacKenzie CGCS publisher. Please send any address changes, articles for publication, advertising and concerns to Page 3

2012 Board of Directors Directors


Joe Churchill Reinders Inc.

David Kazmierczak CGCS Prestwick GC

Eric Counselman Somerby GC

Matt McKinnon The Legacy Courses

Kerry Glader Plaisted Companies

Bob Porter Hiawatha GC

Brian Brown Chisago Lakes GC

Bill Gullicks Bellwood Oaks GC

Jake Schmitz Olympic Hills GC


Jeff Ishe Golden Valley G&CC

Executive Director

Scottie Hines CGCS Windsong Farm GC


Roger Stewart Jr. TPC Twin Cities


E. Paul Eckhom CGCS Heritage Links GC

Jack MacKenzie CGCS MGCSA


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Presidential Perspective by Scottie Hines CGCS Well, here we are, September 2012. To me this seems like one extremely long year….I know, it isn’t over yet! I guess it was a long year as most of us were open 3-4 weeks early!

I have always loved autumn in the golf world. Any turf pressure from drought or heat is minimal. Disease pressure is low, although it always seems we have a late season outbreak of dollar spot. I think the last two weeks of September and the first two weeks of October are the best golfing weeks of the year! Warm enough but cool enough. No humidity, course conditions are usually spectacular. Does it get any better? It is also a time for my “therapy” sessions with Mother Nature. She kicks me in the shins all summer long but there is something to be said about watching the sunrise over the misty water as a 6-pack of woodies swoop in on your decoys. Or the damn red squirrel that keeps chattering at you as the sun sets while sitting in your tree stand waiting for that adrenalin rush when the “big one” steps into range. I welcome those sessions with or without the woodies and the big one. Helps me remember just how lucky we are to do what we do. Yesterday was September 11. The 11th anniversary of the 9-11 terror attacks. I hope everyone took a moment and said a good word for all those affected by that tragic day. I could see Manhattan from #4 Upper green at

Baltusrol. That day is forever marked in my mind. Hopefully everyone is getting comfortable with the new website as I think it is great and will just get better over time. I also hope the digital Hole Notes is being better accepted. Initially I thought not having the hard copy in my hands would take a little away from the reading experience. It hasn’t, in fact, I read it in a more timely fashion. There have been some major changes to the GIS this year. The biggest change is the length of the show. It is all compressed neatly into one week. I think this is a great change with shrinking budgets and a lot of guys are reluctant to be away for that long. I am interested to see how the attendance numbers pan out. I hope some of you will consider playing in the National Championship/Golf Classic now that the schedule is shortened. I truly feel that tournament is one big education event. You have the opportunity to play with up to 9 different superintendents from around this country for about 15 total hours. I should have asked Jeff Pint to throw in a few words as last year was his first experience playing. He would agree that the golf tournament part of the show is indeed an educational focus group……you just get to play golf during the talks! Enjoy the cooler temperatures. Take some extra time for family and friends. Get all you can out of your “therapy sessions”. See you next month at the Wee One and Fall Mixer!

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In Bounds by Jack MacKenzie CGCS Has your irrigation system ever gone down just when the weather became hot, humidity dropped, and the breezes whipped into zephyrs from the south? It never happens when the days are cool and we have had ample natural irrigation in the form of timely rains. Rather, it occurs when you need that finite resource the very most to keep your course alive, tills ringing and clientele happy.

your system is operational again. What happens however, in an extreme drought, if you are told that your water permit has been pulled and you may no longer use any water resource managed by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources? No, not a five percent reduction in your use, or even fifteen, but 100 percent no more water mandate!

Take a moment and imagine the consequences. Or, if you are Kevin Anderson, Superintendent at Fox Lake Golf Course, you know the sensation Although your heart may be racing, personally for on the 11th of September 2012 the DNR pulled your irrigation a few phone calls to your distributor, a permit until further notice due to a low well company, or pump representative river level reading upstream from the will hopefully rectify the issue in a lake you draw from. Place yourself short period of time. Perhaps you have in Kevin’s shoes and reflect upon the a secondary or pressure maintenance immediate loss of ALL IRRIGATION pump to limp through the crisis. Or RESOURCES. maybe you program your system to only irrigate your ‘money makers’, Rather unimaginable isn’t it? The the greens, as your irrigation pond is gradually drawn down. The remedy is in adjectives run afoul. If you think about your existing relationships with vendors, it long enough, you will view the long, and more than likely you have a plan ‘B’ long range ramifications with a painful heart. How much grass will you loose in your pocket to at the very least keep your finest of playing surfaces alive until in the first ten days? Do you have the

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resources to haul water and for how long? What will the economic impact be from the loss of revenue as golfers drive twenty miles to play the course a city away? Will recovery expenses push your course to bankruptcy? How many individuals will loose their jobs? What are the costs associated with drilling a well or drilling deeper for water? Will our club be allowed to? Without this finite resource how long would I have a viable golf club? Could my club recover from this crisis? What can I do today to limit my exposure to this calamity of epic proportions?

by golf courses, examines the economic impact of the golf and related industries, and supports existing BMPs in use at golf destinations throughout the state of Minnesota. It is hoped the MGCSA can partner with allied golf associations, state agencies and pubic organizations to develop a plan that would allow each club to determine when, where and if irrigation is necessary should restrictions be put into place. It is the goal to implement reductions on our own terms, rather than a wholesale ban on irrigation. Imagine how different the circumstances would be for Kevin if two months ago the local hydrologist had mandated a six percent reduction in irrigation use due to an anticipated depletion of water reserves. Anderson could easily have stopped irrigating his range. If four weeks later, another six percent reduction was demanded, Anderson could have taken his roughs out of the cycle. This long-term limit program could easily have prevented the crisis his course is in right at this moment.

In appreciation of the situation at Fox Lake, the MGCSA is pursuing discussions with the DNR to, at the very least, allow irrigation at a minimum level to keep the green surfaces alive until rain recharges the rivers, streams and lakes in the Sherburn area. Your Board of Directors has also begun additional work to complete the BMP Water Stewardship Program initiated by Paul Diegnau CGCS during his term as President. This plan, taken from other state initiatives, serves as a template to educate the public about the Drill a well? Perhaps, but it will environmental stewardship maintained not be long until even this is not an

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option without a plan in place to address water cut backs. The question begs:

our industry. You can begin today by promoting this BMP concept with your Green Committees, Owners, General Would you rather be in charge Managers, Industry Partners and players of your own regulated destiny, or have at large. immediate mandates placed upon you and thus limit, if not eliminate, your The whole ‘golf community’ ability to pursue your livelihood? has got to stand together to promote this program as the first of several The Board of Directors will be self-regulating programs sure to be seeking your help in implementing developed by the MGCSA for the good this statewide Stewardship program. of the game, and more importantly, your Together, we can develop self-regulating ability to maintain your position as a guidelines to be implemented when, professional turf manager. not if, the DNR posses mandates upon

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Prairie Connection

Other Choices For Go


e love grass, but sometimes forget there is a lot more to grass than mowed turf. Yes, it’s true! Even Minnesota’s rigorous weather doesn’t mean we cannot grow beautiful landscape grasses. Golfers appreciate the beauty of grasses and Page 10

one or several of these plantings can enhance your course with attractive, low maintenance plants. All grasses benefit from being mowed off in the late winter or early spring. Uncut plants look half dead when new


olf Course Grasses

Mary Meyer, Extension Horticulturist and Professor, University of Minnesota

growth starts in the spring, and cutback plants grow much faster than untrimmed plants. Large areas, such as prairies, should be mowed, hayed or burned every few years for best growth and removal of woody species. Once established, the grasses in this article grow with minimal maintenance, fertilizer, or water. As

someone who grows grass, you know that matching the species to the site is key to success. For more information, look for the new 2012 edition of U of M Extension publication, Ornamental Grasses for Cold Climates, online: PublicationDetail.aspx?ID=878.

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Previous page: Grasses combine well with other annual and perennial flowers. This mass planting of grasses shows front left, little bluestem; center, the red fall color of Blue HeavenTM little bluestem, and ‘Tara’ prairie dropseed along the front walk; upper right is more little bluestem. photo credit Mary Meyer Above: Prairie dropseed, Sporobolus heterolepis, covers a berm at the entrance to Windsong Farm Golf Club near Watertown, MN. photo credit Mary Meyer Below: Because switchrass (Panicum virgatum) is native to almost every state in the US, it has a wide range of forms and growth habits. Shown here are ‘Thundercloud’ 7’, left; ‘Prairie Sky’4’, center; and ‘Cloud 9’, 6’, right. photo credit Mary Meyer

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Create a mass of beauty by using one or two grasses in a large planting. Blue HeavenTM little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium ‘MinnBlueA’) shown above in the foreground at the Turf Center at the U of M in St Paul, is an introduction from the U. This native selection is upright, about 40” tall and has striking burgundy and red fall color. Blue-green foliage in the summer gives this grass its common name; it prefers well drained sites and full sun. phot credit Mary Meyer 7.5x5_MGCSA 7/13/09 5:36 PM Page 1

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Natural Areas Management Why we do things differently in Midwest native plant stands


Editorial by Inger Lamb, Photo credits Mary Meyer

he ultimate goal in natural areas management is to establish and maintain an area completely filled in with native plants, with essentially no bare ground. This is important because both erosion and management requirements are greatly reduced once the soil is covered with mature vegetation. Many natural areas management activities are based on this general goal; however additional goals may include increasing plant diversity, improving the stand as habitat for wildlife, improving accessibility, providing educational opportunities, and increasing public acceptance. Another important management concept is summarized by a phrase often used by successful natural

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areas manager Jack Pizzo: “natural areas management is not so much about making native plants grow, it’s about making non-native plants NOT grow�. In other words, get the undesirable plants out of the way and the native species will dominate; the competiveness of mature deep-rooted Midwest native species allows the land manager to stand back and let nature take its course. An additional natural areas management guideline to remember is that monitoring and management decisions are adaptive - they vary as the vegetation matures and with weather patterns. A young stand will require much more work and monitoring than a mature stand, and the management will be significantly different. All natural areas should

In the photograph on the left you can see the best selling grass in the US is feather reedgrass, Calamagrostis ×acutiflora ‘Karl Forester’. Growing to 4’, the wheat-like appearance is attractive throughout summer and fall. Feather reedgrass is sterile and forms a tight bunch, with no rhizomes. phot credit Mary Meyer

be routinely monitored, less so as the stand matures but at least annually. In particular, after extremes of weather it’s important to evaluate the stand condition and take action to counter any detrimental effects that have occurred. Think “low input” when contemplating natural areas management: no fertilizers, no watering, no annual re-planting, minimal mowing after establishment. These and other aspects of native vegetation/ natural areas management that vary significantly from traditional landscape management are outlined below.

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A review of natural area management rationale that differs from traditional landscape management: 1) Fertilizers are bad a) Native plants are adapted to our soils and environment and do not need fertilizer. b) Use of soil amendments such as compost and/or application of fertilizers will cause the native plants to exceed normal height, sometimes to a dramatic extent, become unattractive and “leggy�, flop over or break off at the ground, and sometimes, die. c) Additionally, fertilizers will benefit weedy non-native species.

2) Fire is good

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a) Prescribed fire is a commonly used natural areas management tool. For exam ple, the Polk County Conservation Board staff burn hundreds of acres in Polk County annually. b) Prescribed fire not only removes dead vegetation, it stimulates the natural

Shady, especially dry shade is difficult for most plants, however, the native oak sedge or Pennsylvania sedge is found in woods through Minnesota and the north central states. It grows easily in dry shade and grows only 8-12� tall. Plant Pa sedge along the edge of woods or a shady path and it will increase by rhizomes. photo credit Mary Meyer

vegetation. It is often said that native species are fire tolerant; however,

a more accurate phrase would be that our native species are fire dependant.

c) A large area can be cleared in a short amount of time using prescribed fire. This is much more efficient than mowing and removing clippings, and additionally kills tree seedlings that have to be individually stump-treated with herbicide if only mowing is employed to cut the old vegetation back. d) Proper training and preparation is essential before conducting a prescribed fire. The highest standard is the National Wildfire Coordinating Group guidelines & incident commnd system. e) Some individuals will coordinate prescribed fires for a fee, in addition to some County Conservation Boards and rural fire departments. f) In general, half to a third of a stand is burned at a time, providing refugia for insects and animals in the areas.

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3) Bare soil is bad a) To take advantage of the low-maintenance aspects of native vegetation, the area needs to be completely covered with vegetation. Otherwise, weeding (both native and non-native species will self-seed) will be a perennial requirement to maintain the site. b) Bare soil is subject to erosion, the deep roots of native species stabilize the ground. c) Mulched areas “count” as bare soil – weeds will grow just fine on mulch

4) Most weeds are not a problem once a native plant stand is established a) This is why mowing is so important the first years after seeding a natural area – it reduces seed set by annual weeds and aids establishment of the native species by reducing completion and increasing availability of sunlight. b) Once the native stand is mature, competition for water and nutrients from the deep rooted native species, and lack of bare soil, enormously reduces many weed problems. c) Some perennial weeds, and tree seedlings, do need ongoing monitoring and treatment if they become problematic.

5) Pre-emergent herbicides and seed germination inhibitors (e.g. “Preen”) are bad

a) It is desirable to allow the native plants to reseed naturally (and no weeds should be allowed to set seed anyway). In this manner the natives will “find” microenvironments that are the most suitable for them and the stand will evolve to it’s most stable state and be best suited to withstand environmental extremes. b) If a traditional landscaping style of groupings or drifts of similar species separated by mulched areas is desired, a seed inhibitor may be used in the unveg- etated areas, but it is to be expected that annual weeding will still be required. This style of landscaping is much higher maintenance than a solid stand of vegetation.

This article is a combination of two from Mary Meyer, who provided photographs and Inger Lamb of Prairie Landscapes of Iowa who did the editorial. If you have an article to write and insert into the Hole Notes or have an idea for an article please contact Page 18

6) Use of fertilizers or herbicides on areas adjacent to native vegetation must be done carefully

a) This applies especially to grass near ponds and rain garden areas – watch what is downslope and downwind from any chemical application. b) The broadleaf weed killer in “weed & feed” products will kill most native species. c) Fertilizers will cause native plants to grow inordinately tall AND will benefit weedy species. d) Also avoid aerial drift onto native plants if herbicides are sprayed nearby.

Blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) prefers full sun and well drained sites. Unmowed it grows to 12-18”, as shown here at the front of this flower border. Mass plantings can cover larger areas. photo credit Mary Meyer

This is often combined with sideoats grama, (Bouteloua curtipendula) which grows to 2’, as shown to the right: sideoats in background; blue grama in foreground. photo credit Mary Meyer

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7) Watering is bad a) Irrigation is needed for native plant seedlings and plant plugs during establishment stage (first month after planting) and during unusually dry spells for the first growing season only. b) Watering native plants after they are established will cause the same problems as fertilizing – they will get inordinately tall, flop over or break off at the root, or die.

8) Mowing is essential during establishment of a native plant stand – but at a MINIMUM height of 6 – 8 inches a) Minnesota native plants have extremely deep and fibrous root systems, which are established in the first few years of growth; during this establishment phase above-ground growth is quite reduced but needs ample sunlight. To keep the high sunlight - requiring young plants from being shaded by more vigorous weeds or the cover crop, mowing is necessary during the establishment phase. Native plants are adapted to grazing and trampling, so the effects of mowing are tolerated and are preferable to the effects of excess shade and nutrient competition from other plants. b) After mowing, clippings should be removed to further increase sun exposure. c) After the stand is established the site needs to be mowed or burned once per year. d) It is essential NOT to mow as short as a traditional turfgrass lawn – leave a minimum of 6 inches, and preferably 8 inches, of plant material intact. This will provide the benefit of reduced completion from weeds while not stressing the native seedlings with a severe cut. e) Use of a string trimmer is acceptable in smaller areas and for spot weed problems f) DO NOT MOW buffalo grass turf unless it gets more than 5 inches tall. This species usually stays less than 4”, if it does exceed 5”, mow to 4 inches NOT the standard turfgrass height of 2.5 inches. g) Routine lawn mowing adjacent to native areas should not encroach into native plant stands. If this tends to happen, large rocks, fence stakes, wooden poles, or signage placed along the edge of the stand will help define the natural area and deter mowers. h) Frequency of mowing: During first year after seeding a native plant stand should be mowed to 6 -8 inches about once per month, more often if there is high weed pressure and less often if there are few weeds. During the second and third year after establishment mowing, or spot mowing/weed whipping, should occur periodically as required by weed pressure. Mowing should be done at a height of 6 - 8 inches. Once established (three years and beyond), a native plant stand may need to be mowed once per year, particularly if it is not burned. This should be done to a height of approximately. 4 - 6 inches, preferably in early spring before April 15 start of nesting season. This allows the dead vegetation to provide winter habitat but is removed before significant spring growth occurs or bird nesting begins. In years when the stand is not burned it is preferable to remove the clippings after the spring mowing where feasible.

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What’s Creeping You Out Now Ideas In Pest Management Establishing Creeping Bentgrass in Annual Bluegrass Fairways Glyphosate and interseeding appears to be an effective approach in boosting creeping bentgrass in annual bluegrass fairways. Sam Bauer, M.S Brian P. Horgan, Ph.D. Eric Watkins, Ph.D. Aaron Hathaway, M.S. Ronald Calhoun, Ph.D. Kevin Frank, Ph.D.

Golf course fairways that are established with creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) are often invaded by annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.), which may easily become the dominant species over time. Undesirable traits associated with annual bluegrass are a light green color, prodigious seed head production, poor environmental stress tolerance, and high disease susceptibility. Interseeding and nonselective herbicides, like glyphosate, have often been used to increase creeping bentgrass on golf course fairways. The objective of this research was to determine the most effective glyphosate rate and application timing necessary to quickly increase creeping bentgrass populations through interseeding into predominantly annual bluegrass

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fairways, while keeping the golf course open for play. Research locations and management Research was conducted from July to October 2010 at the University of Minnesota Les Bolstad Golf Course in St. Paul, Minn., and Michigan State University Hancock Turfgrass Research Facility in East Lansing, Mich. The Minnesota location was established in 1929 and has since transitioned to annual bluegrass. The plots in Michigan were established in 2006 from seedheads collected during mowing of an annual bluegrass stand. Soil type in Minnesota was a Cathro Muck (organic material over loamy sediment); in Michigan soil type was a Colwood-Brookston loam.

Initial turfgrass species composition was evaluated before initiation of the study using a grid intersect method (6). Species compositions as averaged over the study areas at each location were: Minnesota, 99% annual bluegrass and 1% perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.); and Michigan, 96% annual bluegrass and 4% creeping bentgrass. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) abundance was less than 1% at both locations. The Minnesota site was subjected to normal golf traffic and received routine fairway maintenance (0.5-inch [12.5-millimeter] height of cut, mowing three times per week) throughout the duration of the study. The Michigan site was not subjected to golf traffic, but received the same routine fairway maintenance.


Timing of bentgrass interseeding To avoid high temperature and drought pressures of the summer months, creeping bentgrass seed is typically sown in late summer or early fall; however, this timing might not be best when seeding into an existing stand of annual bluegrass because of competition from germination of this winter annual (10). Annual bluegrass seed germination increases in the late summer when soil temperatures fall below 70 F (21 C) (4), putting tremendous pressure on newly seeded creeping bentgrass

fairways. Creeping bentgrass seed is able to germinate at higher temperatures than annual bluegrass (10), and annual bluegrass becomes physiologically stressed at these high temperatures after producing seedheads in late spring (12). Seeding dates were July 15 for Minnesota, and July 20, 2010 in Michigan. Seeding was conducted using a Turfco TriWave slit-seeder calibrated to deliver a total of 65.1 pounds/acre (73 kilograms/ hectare) T-1 creeping bentgrass seed to the study area by seeding in two directions on 45-degree angles from a fixed line. Seeder depth was set to penetrate the surface to the thatch-soil interface, not exceeding 0.5 inch (12.5 millimeters). Glyphosate application timing and rate Treatment factors included glyphosate rate and application timing relative to date of seeding. The glyphosate product used was Razor Pro (Nufarm Americas), containing 41% glyphosate in the form of isopropylamine salt. Glyphosate applications were applied with a CO2pressurized sprayer calibrated to deliver 1.8 gallons/1,000 square feet (7.5 liters/100 square meters). Application rates were 0, 0.25, 0.37, 0.75, 1.5, or 5.0 pounds ai/ acre (0, 0.28, 0.42, 0.84, 1.68 and 5.62 kilograms ai/hectare) applied either 14, seven, or zero days before seeding. A starter fertilizer was applied at a rate of 21.9 pounds nitrogen/acre (24.5 kilograms/

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IMAGE 1: RATING = 3. This image is from a plot containing mostly annual bluegrass. No glyphosate applied The annual bluegrass is suffering from summer stress and dollar spot. Photo taken at 6 WAS and represents the decline in TQ during this time. Demonstrates the superior TQ of plots that were converted to bentgrass. (University of Minnesota Les Bolstad Golf Course, St. Paul, MN. Photo: Sam Bauer)

hectare), 43.7 pounds phosphorus (P2O5)/ acre (49 kilograms hectare), and 21.9 pounds potassium (K2O)/acre on the day of seeding and three weeks after seeding. Subsequent fertilizer applications of 21.9 pounds nitrogen/acre and 21.9 pounds potassium/acre were applied at six weeks and nine weeks after seeding; additional phosphorus was not required based on a soil test. Irrigation during establishment was applied daily at 6 a.m., noon and 6 p.m. and delivered in uniform applications of no more than 0.5 inch (12.5 millimeters) water per day. Following establishment, irrigation schedules were adjusted

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to apply water at 80% to 100% of evapotranspiration as dictated by onsite or local weather station data. Subdue GR (1% mefanoxam, Syngenta Crop Protection) was applied and watered in with 0.16 inch (4 millimeters) of water on the day of seeding and two weeks after seeding to prevent Pythium. An infection of Pythium occurred in Minnesota on Aug. 12, 2010, and was controlled with Banol (propamocarb hydrochloride, Bayer Environmental Science); this was beyond the 14-day Subdue reapplication interval and was attributed to excessively wet, hot and humid weather. Dollar spot (Sclerotinia homoecarpa)

occurred at both locations throughout the study and was controlled with (Daconil Weather Stik, (clorothalonil, Syngenta Crop Protection). Additional fungicide applications were not required for the remainder of the study.

from the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP), visual turfgrass quality was assessed based on color, density, uniformity, texture, and biotic or abiotic stresses and rated on a 1 to 9 scale, where 9 is best turf quality and 6 or above is considered acceptable) (9). The experimental design was a 5 × 3 factorial with a control (no glyphosate) in a randomized complete block with four replicates. Plot size was 4 feet × 6 feet (1.2 × 1.8 meters) with a 1-foot (0.3-meter) border around each plot.

Data collection and experimental design Increase in bentgrass abundance was evaluated using the previously described grid-intersect method at three weeks after seeding and again when all plots received 100% cover ratings. Visual turfgrass quality was evaluated weekly following the initial glyphosate application Bentgrass increase with glyphosate and continued until all plots attained applications 100% cover. Following guidelines In Michigan, creeping bentgrass

IMAGE 2: RATING = 5, also taken at 6 WAS. Glyphosate applied at 0.28 kg a.i ha-1 at 7 DBS (University of Minnesota Les Bolstad Golf Course, St. Paul, MN. Photo: Sam Bauer)

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IMAGE 3: RATING = 8 glyphosate applied at 0.42 kg a.i. ha-1 at 0 WAS. (University of Minnesota Les Bolstad Golf Course, St. Paul, MN. Photo: Sam Bauer)

abundance was significantly affected by both glyphosate rate and timing of application. Creeping bentgrass abundance was always greatest with increasing glyphosate rates. The rate of 5.0 pounds ai/acre (5.62 kilograms ai/hectare) provided the greatest creeping bentgrass abundance (83% creeping bentgrass at three weeks after seeding and 53% at eight weeks after seeding), but the abundance was not statistically different from that produced with the 1.5 pounds ai/acre (1.68 kilograms ai/hectare) rate (Figure 1). [FIGURE1] Glyphosate treatments at seven days before seeding provided the greatest creeping bentgrass abundance (41%) at eight weeks after seeding, versus 14 days before seeding (26%) and zero

days before seeding (34%). Glyphosate rates also resulted in significant differences in creeping bentgrass abundance in Minnesota. Again, higher rates provided for the greatest bentgrass abundance at three weeks after seeding as well as 12 weeks after seeding, when all plots reached 100% cover. Maximum creeping bentgrass abundance was 30% at three weeks after seeding and 24% on the final rating date. This is approximately half of the increase as reported in Michigan, which is likely a result of additional golf traffic and a large annual bluegrass seed bank at the Minnesota site. The glyphosate rate of 0.25 lb a.i ac-1 achieved a bentgrass increase of 13% on the final rating date.

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Timing of application was not statistically significant in Minnesota on either rating date. Overall, greatest bentgrass abundance was associated with increasing glyphosate rates, with the assumption that higher glyphosate rates suppressed the existing turf enough to allow adequate germination of new bentgrass seedlings. Annual bluegrass regrowth and competition was likely the main factor inhibiting bentgrass germination and spread in the lower rate glyphosate treated plots. Because of this competition, both locations showed a reduction in creeping bentgrass populations from three weeks after seeding to the final rating date. Although not consistently significant, glyphosate application timing at seven days before seeding produced greater creeping bentgrass abundance on the final rating date at both locations. This was expected, as the 14 days before seeding application allowed for annual bluegrass regrowth before seeding was conducted. Additionally, when glyphosate was applied zero days before seeding, approximately five to seven days were required to suppress the existing annual bluegrass, but creeping bentgrass germination occurred as soon as three days after seeding and was therefore competing with the annual bluegrass. Turfgrass quality reflects glyphosate application and bentgrass abundance

Page 30

Effect of application rate Lower glyphosate rates were more closely correlated with better turfgrass quality in Michigan (Figure 2) than in Minnesota (Figure 3). [FIGURES 2,3] Minnesota applications were made earlier in the morning to avoid golf traffic and it is hypothesized that more glyphosate was taken up by the plant during this time period. Foliar uptake of glyphosate is enhanced in more humid environments (5) and weather data for St. Paul, Minn., demonstrates that the relative humidity is historically 27% higher in the morning than in the afternoon during the month of July (11). At the beginning of the study, all glyphosate-treated plots showed a reduction in turfgrass quality compared to the control plots. At approximately three weeks after seeding in both locations, the control plots, comprised primarily of annual bluegrass, showed a significant reduction in turfgrass quality. In terms of resistance to heat stress, annual bluegrass is inferior to creeping bentgrass (1). In Minnesota, the annual bluegrass quality reduction continued beyond five weeks after seeding, at which time the control plots received lower turfgrass quality ratings than all of the glyphosate-treated plots. In Michigan, control plots received lower turfgrass quality ratings beyond four weeks after seeding. Dollar spot disease played a role in the decline of the annual bluegrass control plots at both locations.

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IMAGE 4: Plot overview photo at 3 WAS (University of Minnesota Les Bolstad Golf Course, St. Paul, MN. Photo: Sam Bauer)

Trends in turfgrass quality ratings beyond five weeks after seeding reflected the amount of creeping bentgrass present; plots that had more creeping bentgrass received higher turfgrass quality ratings. This turfgrass quality difference based on glyphosate rate was statistically significant in Michigan, but not in Minnesota.

levels based on the timing of glyphosate application were not significantly different by five weeks after seeding. Although, on the final rating date, applications at zero and seven days before seeding had significantly higher turfgrass quality values than the application 14 days before seeding, which is reflected in the higher level of creeping bentgrass in these plots. Effect of application time In Minnesota, the timing of glyphosate Turfgrass quality as affected by application did not have a significant effect glyphosate application time showed similar on turfgrass quality beyond four weeks trends for both locations, with the 14 days after seeding. before seeding application having the longest duration of unacceptable turfgrass Conclusions and recommendations quality. In Michigan, turfgrass quality Results from this study demonstrate

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JANuARY 9-11, 2013 MiNNEaPolis CoNvENTioN CENTEr

Incredible educational value at Northern Green Expo 2013 – just look at these golf course speakers!

Erik Christiansen is president of EC Design Group, Ltd., an irrigation design and water management resource

company with over 30 years of turf and irrigation related experience backed by over 400 projects. For over 30 years, Christiansen has been actively involved in the golf and commercial irrigation industry. He started out in the golf course industry at Willow Creek Golf Club, a 36-hole operation, moving on to irrigation contracting and distribution of golf and commercial irrigation products before finally organizing EC Design Group, Ltd. in 1993. He holds several professional affiliations and certifications including: American Society of Irrigation Consultants, Golf Course Superintendents Association of America, Golf Course Builders Association of America, Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents Association, and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission.


Performing a Golf Course Irrigation Evaluation & Analysis

This session will review a step-bystep process, broken down by major irrigation components to properly evaluate an existing irrigation system. This evaluation will be the basis for a properly constructed report to illustrate standards in design and will also deliver budgetary costs to aid any club in appropriating funds to implement an irrigation upgrade.


Preparing Your Club for an Irrigation Renovation

Accurate communication is key for any club to consider future irrigation upgrades. This workshop will focus on the importance of quality and factual information by illustrating the specific needs and costs associated with an irrigation renovation. Furthermore, this seminar will demonstrate the appropriate timing and potential impact of a qualified irrigation installation from start to finish.

Dr. Rob Golembiewski is a Greens Solutions Specialist for

Bayer Environmental Science with the responsibility of providing technical expertise for the turf & ornamental industry. Most recently, he served as the Turfgrass Specialist at Oregon State University. Rob received his B.S. and M.S. from Michigan State University and his Ph.D. from The Ohio State University. Golembiewski’s career has included positions with Montana State University, Dow AgroSciences, Paramount Landscape, and the University of Minnesota, Crookston.


Enhancing Turf Performance with Soil Amendments

Minimizing turf irrigation needs has been a long sought after goal for turfgrass managers. It is more evident today than ever before that the goal of saving water is a necessity. Along with the innovations in new drought tolerant turf species, soil amendments continue to improve and show potential for water management and enhanced turf quality. Soil amendments can be defined as any additive placed directly into the soil profile which can create a better growing environment for the turf by modifying the soil. This presentation will focus on types of soil amendments available, their characteristics, uses, and research evaluating their potential in divot mixes and fairway incorporation trials.



Implementation of Irrigation Plans & Specifications

The proper process for quality design documents can aid any club in a successful irrigation installation. This class will take you through the steps in creating a custom irrigation bid documents that fit your particular club needs. By implementing these bid documents, both the club and contractor will clearly understand the scope expected of each other by minimizing unknowns.

Plus many more great seminars and speakers! To view the entire preliminary schedule-at-a-glance, visit Join the conversation on Twitter #GreenExpo13.

Interseeding into Established Greens - Truth or Fiction?

Seed companies continue to develop and market new creeping bentgrass cultivars that are said to be more aggressive and capable of being overseeded into existing creeping bentgrass and/or annual bluegrass putting greens. But is it really possible to interseed into an existing green and change that population without completely renovating the green? This presentation will review research trials from around the country that have tried to answer this very question. At the conclusion, you will decide if the money spent on seed and labor could be better used elsewhere. Page 33

that summer glyphosate application and slit-seeding has the potential to increase creeping bentgrass populations in annual bluegrass fairways, while keeping the golf course open for play. The control plots that were not treated with glyphosate showed a bentgrass increase of less than 5%, which indicates that interseeding without suppressing the existing turf is an ineffective technique. Other researchers have shown that creeping bentgrass has the potential to increase over time after the initial seeding (7,10), although our results showed a reduction over time, which may be due to competition with annual bluegrass. Aggressive creeping bentgrass varieties, such as T-1, have been shown to outcompete annual bluegrass (2). However, this result probably depends on altering management practices to favor creeping bentgrass over annual bluegrass, including collecting clippings, reducing irrigation frequency (6), alleviating soil compaction, improving drainage, using lightweight equipment, decreasing shade and minimizing soil disturbance (3). Annual bluegrass reduction programs have proved successful for selective control of annual bluegrass in creeping bentgrass fairways (6,8), but implementing a reduction program requires a moderate population of creeping bentgrass in order to maintain turfgrass quality and encourage creeping bentgrass growth and

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development. The glyphosate and interseeding approach appears to be a good strategy to quickly increase creeping bentgrass populations when initial populations are low. A specific recommendation based on this study would be to apply glyphosate at 1.5 pounds ai/acre (1.68 kilograms ai/ hectare) or greater zero to seven days before seeding, while interseeding creeping bentgrass at a rate of 65.1 pounds/ acre (73 kilograms/hectare) during midsummer high-stress periods. Lower rates of glyphosate will benefit turfgrass quality, but these rates will also reduce creeping bentgrass establishment. Since annual bluegrass fairways typically decline in summer in the Midwest, summer is an optimal time to increase creeping bentgrass populations. Timing glyphosate application from zero to seven days before seeding will maximize the duration of acceptable turfgrass quality and provide a greater increase in creeping bentgrass populations. The research says 路 Summer glyphosate application and slit-seeding has the potential to increase creeping bentgrass populations in annual bluegrass fairways, while keeping the golf course open for play. 路 Apply glyphosate at 1.5 pounds ai/ acre or greater at zero to seven days before seeding; interseed creeping




“Trading Sticks for Guns in Prior Lake”



This year’s Fall Mixer will again be a friendly, sporting clay shoot.

The Gun Raffle drawing will take place. SHOOTING FIELD LIMITED TO 100 PARTICIPANTS More than 100 people can attend the educational and meal portions of this event.


Cost for the event: and includes one raffle ticket per entry Additional costs include ammunition, along with gun rental if you or your team can not provide a gun. It is suggested to buy your own ammo beforehand at your local gun supply store. Our goal is to have at least one experienced hunter in each group. We are shooting (no pun intended) for 20 teams of 5 shooters on each team. Only one gun is needed per group.


9:30 – 10:00 a.m. 10:00 – 11:00 a.m. 11:00 – 11:02 a.m. 11:00 – 12:00 noon 12:00 – 3:00 p.m.

Registration SPEAKER: Scottie Hines CGCS Topic: Gun Cleaning Drawing for the over-under shotgun, $2,500 value Lunch Sporting Clay Shoot



Course / Co.:

Experience Level:

1 2 3 4 5

Gun: Yes No


Course / Co.:

Experience Level:

1 2 3 4 5

Gun: Yes No


Course / Co.:

Experience Level:

1 2 3 4 5

Gun: Yes No


Course / Co.:

Experience Level:

1 2 3 4 5

Gun: Yes No


Course / Co.:

Experience Level:

1 2 3 4 5

Gun: Yes No


Please register PAYMENT METHOD:

person(s) at $40 ea. For a total of $ Check

Credit Card:




Name exactly how it appears on credit card: Credit Card Number:

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Page 35

IMAGE 5: Plot overview photo at 4 WAS. (Michigan State University Hancock Turfgrass Research Facility, East Lansing, MI. Photo: Aaron Hathaway)

bentgrass at 65.1 pounds/acre during mid-summer high-stress periods.

the use of the TriWave.

Acknowledgments We thank Brent Belanger and Carl Mielke from Les Bolstad Golf Course, and Paul Diegnau and Brett Wenzel from · Timing glyphosate application from Keller Golf Course. zero to seven days before seeding This research was originally will maximize the duration of accept- published on Jan. 27, 2012, in the online able turfgrass quality and provide a journal Applied Turfgrass Science as greater increase in creeping bentgrass “Establishment of creeping bentgrass in populations. annual bluegrass fairways using glyphosate and interseeding” by Sam Bauer, Brian P. Horgan, Eric Watkins, Aaron Hathaway, Funding Ronald Calhoun and Kevin Frank The authors would like to thank Turfco (doi:10.1094/ATS-2012-0127-01-RS). Manufacturing for financial support and · Lower rates of glyphosate will benefit turfgrass quality, but will reduce creeping bentgrass establishment.

Page 36

Literature cited 1. Beard, J. B. 1970. An ecological study of annual bluegrass. USGA Green Sec. Rec. 8:13-18. 2. Brede, A. D. 2007. ‘Alpha’ and ‘T-1’ creeping bentgrass, new cultivars for golf. HortScience. 42:1301-1302. 3. Dernoeden, P. H. 2000. Creeping Bentgrass Management: Summer Stresses, Weeds, and Selected Maladies. Sleeping Bear Press, Chelsea, MI. 4. Engel, R. E. 1967. Temperatures required for germination of annual bluegrass and colonial bentgrass. The Golf Superintendent. 35:20,23. 5. Franz, J. E., Mao, M. K., and Sikorski, J. A. 1997. Glyphosate: A Unique Global Herbicide. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. 6. Gaussoin, R. E., and Branham, B. E. 1989. Influence of cultural factors on species dominance in a mixed stand of annual bluegrass/creeping bentgrass. Crop Sci. 29:480-484. 7. Henry, G. M., Hart, S. E., and Murphy, J. A. 2005. Overseeding bentgrass species into existing stands of annual bluegrass. HortScience. 40:468-470. 8. McCullough, P. E., Hart, S. E., and Lycan, D. W. 2005. Plant growth regulator regimens reduce Poa annua populations in creeping bentgrass. Online. Applied Turfgrass Science doi:10.1094/ATS-2005-0304-01-RS. 9. Morris, K. N., and Shearman, R. C. 2010. NTEP turfgrass evaluation guidelines. Online. National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP). Beltsville, MD. 10. Murphy, J. A., Samaranayake, H., Lawson, T. J., Honig, J. A., and Hart, S. 2005. Seeding date and cultivar impact on establishment of bentgrass in soil containing annual bluegrass seed. Int. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 10:410-415. 11. National Climatic Data Center. 2002. Average relative humidity. Online. NCDC, Asheville NC. 12. Vargas, J. M., and Turgeon, A. J. 2005. Poa Annua: Physiology, Culture, and Control of Annual Bluegrass. John Wiley and Sons Inc., Hoboken, NJ. Sam Bauer is extension educator, the University of Minnesota Extension, Andover, Minn. Brian P. Horgan ( and Eric Watkins are associate professors at the University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minn. Aaron Hathaway is a research associate and Kevin Frank is an associate professor at Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. Ronald Calhoun is Midwest Regional Manager at ResideX-Turfgrass, East Lansing. Mich.

This article was slightly modified and republished with permission from the Applied Turfgrass Science journal. To subscribe or learn more, visit

Page 37


Tools To Make Your Job Easier


By Pete VanDeHey, Golf Course Superintendent and Owner, Mid Vallee Golf Club

eing the superintendent at Mid Vallee Golf Course for the past 35 years and putting up with flooded fairways, ice damaged in spring, cancelled golf outings, and course closures; I decided to do something about it.

to build golf courses in the 1960’s. Add in the fact that the course sits on heavy soil and the two factors add up to severe drainage problems.

As we know, the problem with installing drain tile is the fact that it is very labor intensive and time consuming. Mid Vallee Golf Course has many That made it nearly impossible to do fairways that have no slope to promote during the golf season, until now. By natural drainage. Much of the course was purchasing some key equipment, I am built on cornfields that were worked up able to install tile at an incredibly speedy and seeded as this was the common way rate. Page 38

We have 4 key pieces of equipment: 1. Shelton Chain Trencher automatically loads the spoils into a trailer pulled alongside. 2. Top Con Lasers – correct slope is now very easy. 3. Fast Flow Hopper Trailer – back filling the trench is fast and easy. 4. Vermeer Compactor – no returning time and time again to backfill your trench.

The last 3 years, we have installed 30,000’ of tile, and for now have finished the majority of the work.

These are the main components that now allow us to install up to 800’ of tile in 6 hours. That includes trenching, laying of the tile, backfilling and compacting. Nice and STRAIGHT, nice and EASY!!!!

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Since owning all these pieces of equipment is quite expensive, I thought it might be beneficial to other courses with similar problems if you could rent our equipment instead of purchasing them. Here is how I envision it to work: I would deliver the equipment to your course, and I would spend a day or whatever it would take to get someone accustomed to the operation, and also

share all the secrets I have learned over the past 3 years. I would be willing to offer my help in the design of your drainage system, or better yet, have an outside firm implement a design for your particular problem. For more information, e-mail me at or call 920621- 5605. I would be glad to help you with your drainage problems.

Rocking out with an EASY flow hopper trailer! Could it be easier?

Rocked and ready to move some water. YEH, Baby! Page 40

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Industry Insight

R U Ready? GPS Tech Update

By Ken Rost of Frost Services

Tech Update: GPS Guided Sprayers for proper coverage. Safety for the applicator and patrons should not Spray applications are a critical be overlooked either. All aspects of tool for turf grass management. The the application process need to be emergence of targeted pesticides performed at a high level to ensure and growth enhancement products success. ensure that spray applications will continue on the golf course. The The latest technology to emerge cost of turf spray products prohibit addresses the accuracy in application negligent usage and require us to be and coverage using GPS guided spray as efficient as possible in all aspects at every nozzle position. That’s right, of the application process. These every nozzle position. It’s probably include product selection, application a concept that came to your mind timing, proper nozzle selection, proper when toggling switches for your boom mixing, and accurate application section valves in order to prevent over Page 42

spraying or under spraying. You may have thought, ‘Can’t this be done automatically?’ Our cousins in the agriculture industry have gone as far as GPS guided boom section control and pulsation at each nozzle, but never to the level of individual nozzles controlled by GPS. Two GPS guided spray systems have emerged this year. Capstan introduced a system to the market at the GIS in Las Vegas which is a product combination of Capstan Sharp Shooter/Pin Point system and Raven’s Envisio Controller. The Capstan components are responsible for the individual nozzle on/off function as well as flow control using pulse technology (no different from the fuel injectors in your car). The Raven components are responsible for GPS information, rate determination as well as the user interface. GPS information is WAAS based with RTK correction to get the best accuracy possible. The nozzle control devices are solenoids that attach to the diaphragm check valves on Wilger nozzle

Page 43

bodies. The other system that was shown at the GIS in Las Vegas was the Seletron system offered by the Italian company, Arag. This system is a complete aftermarket package that includes all of the components manufactured by Arag. The Seletron system uses a remote mounted computer (RCU) that communicates to the nozzle devices on an isobus system. The RCU then connects with a user interface screen as well as the GPS receiver. The RCU controls a

Page 44

choice of two nozzles and a main flow control valve to adjust for ground speed rate changes. The nozzle control devices are stepper motors that control flow just prior to the nozzles. The Seletron system uses WAAS with DGPS correction as long as there are at least 5 satellites in the open sky. Reviewing these systems this summer, we found that both systems did perform the functions of spray with incredible accuracy relative to previously sprayed areas and also rate control relative to ground speed. The

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maximum error in GPS positioning was reported to be 10”. However, we found that accuracy was better at about 2-3”. Both systems allow for adjustments to be made to overlap as well as advanced nozzle on/off control anticipating an upcoming spray area. These features allow the operator to choose the level of overlap to ensure complete coverage. Both systems use two nozzles on each nozzle position

so that at low rates, one nozzle is used and at higher rates the system can use the other nozzle or both nozzles together. Both systems were able to accept prescription maps or run on boundary exclusion areas. But that’s where the similarities end. Here are some differences that we found: As with all introductions of

The Capstan/Raven system could make flow adjustments for turning radius, the Seletron system did not. • The Capstan/Raven system is an OEM installed system, Seletron can be fitted to any sprayer in about 6-8 hours. • The Capstan/Raven system uses pulsing at the nozzles which do not allow the use of air inducted spray tip technology for drift control. The Page 45

Seletron system allows any spray tip to be selected. • The Seletron system was simple to install, set up and start using. The Capstan/Raven system had a bit of a learning curve to get to an adequate confidence level for spraying. • The Capstan/Raven system requires a subscription to RTK signals for GPS error corrections while the Seletron system uses DGPS for error correction and does not require a subscription. • The Seletron system is about two thirds the cost of the Capstan/Raven system. technology to our industry, the jury will be out for a while as to the value that these tools bring to the management of turf grass. Will the value of chemical saving ever warrant the initial expense? Is there other value that we aren’t considering, possibly error avoidance or labor

Page 46

savings? We do know that after technologies like these emerge; we wonder what we did before without them. Ken Rost, Frost Services ken@

Page 47

Within the Leather by David Kazmierczak CGCS I woke up on the morning of Thursday, September 13th kind of groggy. I did not sleep real well the night before, my eyes were kind of red and it felt like a herd of elephants had run me over. I had a bunch of things running through my mind but focus was a little tough. I downed a couple ibuprofen, grabbed some breakfast and I was on my way to the course. When I arrived there were only two other people there- my assistants. My foreman had already departed to mow tees. There was no equipment lined up in the dark ready for daybreak. The rest of the crew were home in bed, or drinking coffee watching the news. No borrowed help seeking direction, no pin sheets telling of specific hole locations or special tee markers. A feeling of emptiness and malaise had consumed me. Yes, clearly I was hung-over.

Page 48

But this was not the kind of hangover induced by my old buddy Weiser, or acquired with a long voyage with a certain captain. A couple more ibuprofen and something greasy to eat was not going

to fix this. For I was experiencing tournament hangover, something I had read about, but never experienced before. Prestwick Golf Club hosted the MGA Four-ball Championship on Sept. 11-12 this year, and the crew and I had the privilege of preparing the course for the event. We had never hosted something of this nature at Prestwick before. The closest we had come in the past to a significant tournament was a state amateur qualifier, a one-day event. I first learned of the event three years ago when my boss, who was planning on playing in the event, informed me of it in a meeting. You can kind of say he impressed upon me the importance of it at that meeting, and I had been prepping for it in the back of my mind ever since. Now, do not get me wrong, I realize this tournament pales in comparison to what more than a few guys reading this have had to prepare for tournament-wise in their careers. Obviously there is a big difference between what we went through, compared to what happens at the TPC Twin Cities every year, or the enormous undertaking at Hazeltine in 2002 and 2010. However for us, it was as big as it gets. The biggest hurdles were of the people-power nature. In September, we are down to the aforementioned four guys,

my mechanic and 8 retirees. The retirees were great, as they were able to adjust their personal schedules to accommodate the new mowing schedules, but the grunt work was up to us. I also was short one body on the two tournament mornings, and one piece of machinery. That void was filled by Jamie Bezanson, Superintendent Oneka Ridge Golf Course and Jeff Girard, superintendent of Stoneridge Golf Club. Girard lent us another vibratory roller, and Bezanson lent us his walk-mowing abilities that he used to display as an assistant at Prestwick. It is so gratifying to know you have friends in the industry that are willing to help in a time of needthanks guys! With the basics covered we tried to concentrate on the little things, and hope it all came together and for the most part it did. There were a few minor glitches, a few communication break downs, but judging by the positive comments from the players, the MGA guys and, of course, my boss we did a pretty good job. We had a few very long, exhausting days leading up to it but, I never felt tired or run down until- the morning after.

moment all of your focus and energy is directed to a common cause or goal and then in a few short days it is all over. Reflecting on it all, I can honestly say that I am proud of my crew for their hard work and accomplishments, and would without a doubt like to host another event like this. It is a chance to show off the golf course to high quality golfers who take the game seriously. It is an opportunity to display the skills for yourself and your crew that you can accomplish such a task. It is also a way to galvanize a crew into a single working unit and build a team mentality. But most of all, aside from the bunker work, it is just fun to do. If you have influence over such things, and have been contemplating whether or not to ask to host an MGA event, or something similar, give it a shot. I believe you will find it very rewarding.

As for the crew at Prestwick, we get one week of rest before airification and then the short slide into the winter abyss. If we do get the opportunity to host a similar event, I think in-season would be my preference- at least that I guess that is when the adrenaline is what my back is telling me. It has runs out. The nervous energy is over. Back been a great season for us, as I hope to the mundane tasks performed every it has been for all of you. day on an empty golf course, and this was just our little tournament. I cannot Now, where did that imagine the emptiness after something bottle of ibuprofen disappear like hosting a major tournament. It has to to? be an extremely surreal feeling. At one Page 49

September 2012 Hole Notes  

Professional golf turf magazine for superintendents and affiliate members

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