Hole Notes The Official Publication of the MGCSA
2016 Champion Jeff Pint
Vol. 50, No. 6 July 2016
A ToAsT, In ApprecIATIon of Your BusIness.
Here’s To You.
At Par Aide, we’d like to raise a paper cup to you, our valued customer. Because it’s your unyielding dedication to the course that inspires us to keep building the industry’s most innovative products. So from Par Aide, we salute all you do. Cheers.
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An old school problem meets a new age solution.
August 11th UMN Turf Field Days TROE Center Host Sam Bauer August 18th Pollinator Summit MN Arboretum Guest Speaker: Rick Fredericksen CGCS August 31st Western Exposure Oxbow Country Club Host David Wood September 19th The Scramble Town and Country Club Host Bill Larson CGCS
From the Ryder Cup to the local scramble, we’ve got you covered.
Learn more at www.duininckgolf.com
September 21st Wisconsin Outreach Kilkarney Hills GC Host Jeremy Chmielewski October 10 The Wee One Brackett’s Crossing CC Host Tom Proshek
Vol. 50, No. 6 July 2016
Feature Articles: Why I Walk
pages 14 - 16
pages 18 - 23
by Chris Tritabaugh, Hazeltine National GC
by Jeff Hahn , UMN Extension Entomologist
by Dr. Bob Milligan, Dairy Strategies, LLC
by Dr. Vera Krischik, UMN Entomology Department
Great Teams Need Psychological Safety EDITOR DAVE KAZMIERCZAK, CGCS
More Bugs to Bug You
Monthly Columns: Presidential Perspective pages Dave Kazmierczak, CGCS In Bounds Jack MacKenzie, CGCS
6 - 8
pages 10 - 13
Within the Leather pages 56 - 57 This Month’s Guest: Eric Ritter CGCS
Cover Shot: Jeff Pint shoots a 74 to claim 2016 MGCSA Championship Honor Affiliate Spotlight: Redexim Products
pages 24 - 31 pages 32 - 48
Historical and Legal Mercury Use Could Be An Issue On Your Course. Pages 10 - 13 Event Picture Spreads: MGCSA Northern Exposure Golf Event
MGCSA The Championship Golf Event
pages 50 - 51
Ryder Cup Entry Rules and Regulations Page 9 Hole Notes (ISSN 108-27994) is digitally published monthly except bimonthly in November/December and January/February by the Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents’ Association, 10050 204th Street North, Forest Lake, MN 55025. Jack MacKenzie CGCS publisher. Please send any address changes, articles for publication, Page 5 advertising and concerns to email@example.com.
Presidential Perspective by Dave Kazmierczak CGCS, Superintendent at Prestwick Golf Club
Greg Archer was a casual friend of mine back in College at South Dakota State in Brookings, South Dakota. We were in Journalism School together and ran in the same social circles but I wouldn’t consider us close friends, and I’m sure he wouldn’t either. What we had in common though, besides studies and a love for certain beverages, was we both worked at Brookings Country Club in the summer of 1988, but I never saw him. No, he didn’t work in the snack bar, nor was he confined to the cart shed. Arch was one the few remaining and quickly vanishing dinosaurs of turf maintenance: he was the night waterman. His job, for those of you under the age of 40 reading this, was to drive the course at night and move several large impact heads from coupler to coupler located in a row
down the center of the fairways, and move hoses on roller bases from spot to spot on greens and tees. He would use a watch with an alarm on it to track the time on each spot that the superintendent had given him. It took him all night to do it, and he did so on another dinosaur; a three-wheel ATV with tires that looked like inflated beach balls with knobs on them. So many accidents resulting in maiming or outright death from those things resulted in their getting banned by the government, and Arch was running around on it in the dark! Fast forward 28 years to Tuesday, June 21 2016. That morning I came in and the first thing I looked at as I passed by the course was whether or not the bunkers were wet. Had the irrigation run the night before? I was nervous because something zapped the irrigation computer the Wednesday before. Luckily we were on the Toro NSN and it was quickly replaced and set
back up and Monday night was the first attempt at night watering. It had rained slightly the night before, compounding the confusion of had it actually ran or not? The computer and program said yes, it did. The lake fill said no, it didn’t. By mid-day the turf indicated to us in its own special way that not only did it not run, but we had better be sure it ran tonight! I set up the irrigation at 4:30 and left. On the ride home, something just didn’t feel right. At 9:00PM I told my wife I’m just not going to be able to sleep if I don’t make sure water is flowing, it will just be a quick check and I’ll be back before bed time. Show time started at 9:20. The computer lit up, stations were starting to ramp up, all systems go. I jump into my cart to look at a station close by the shop and- no water. I turn up the volume on the hand-held radio- no beeps or buzzing of signals sent. Hello, NSN. After leaving an emergency message and getting a prompt call back, it was determined that the
“people finder,” the box that sends the signals out to the satellites, was not working. But how? We checked the damn thing with the hand held radio and it works fine! Apparently there are two separate chips for the hand-held and the computer communication. They would get a new one to me, sent the next day but that wasn’t going to help water the cookie of a golf course I had on my hands and right there, in that moment, I was going to have to go Old School. I was to become a night waterman. Ok, what’s a little sleep lost? I grabbed the radio and off I set to fire away codes and get the water flowing. Luckily I had the radio to work with and could set the run times- five minutes, eight minutes, 12 minutes and move to the next hole and satellite box. The only thing I needed to mind was the number of heads per box and the total amount to not crash the pumps. Six hours later my head hit the pillow for a couple hours sleep before dawn and a chance to do it all
PagePage 7 7
over again. At first it was fun. The moon was full that night, and as I drove around I remembered all the stories Arch would tell about the night waterman job. The various critters he would encounter, the perks of having a cooler with a few beverages in it you just couldn’t do during the day, and the occasional companion(s) that he would bring along to help kill the time inbetween sprinkler moving. The job seemed noble, romantic in a sense. It took about an hour before I got the first cannon blast in my ear. The head popped up very close to the cart and right at me. I took a second shortly thereafter. It wasn’t long before I started getting very cold. I even went in for a full sweatshirt and a winter hat. Seriously, on June (now) 22nd. The romance was gone. I was freaking tired and way over night waterman. The reason why I am spinning this hopefully entertaining tale in this Presidential column is simply to remind you all of how far technology has come for us as an
industry, but specifically in the area if irrigation. Less than 30 years ago a great many courses, like BCC, didn’t even have central irrigation. Now, we are delivering pinpoint, precise water in an increasingly efficient way. If you can afford it, the sky is virtually the limit it seems. Gone is the night waterman (RIP). Almost gone is the programming from the satellite. Even the hand-held radio is becoming a marked target with the advancement of software for cell phones and tablets. Heads are becoming more and more sophisticated, and programming easier. All of this leads to better, more efficient use of water which is becoming very important, better use of personnel and most important of all- better use of our time. My buddy Arch may have had a few moments of fun on those nights many moons ago, but I’ll take technology, thanks. My warm bed sure beats being cold, wet, tired and eaten alive by bugs.
Ryder Cup Entry Regulations: Class A, B and C gold card members who are also members of the Minnesota GCSA Complimentary daily Grounds ticket at the 2016 Ryder Cup, set for Sept. 27-Oct. 2 at Hazeltine National Golf Club in Chaska, Minn. To take advantage of this offer, take the shuttle from public parking and then show a current GCSAA membership card with photo identification at Admissions/Will Call, located at the main spectator entrance. More parking details are available at www.rydercup.com. The PGA of America offer does not extend to a memberâ€™s spouse or guest, and does not extend to GCSAA members outside of Minnesota due to the small player field and limited spectator gate. Thank you Chris Tritabaugh for negotiating the entry package on the MGCSAâ€™s behalf.
In Bounds by Jack MacKenzie, CGCS Following a recent Comfort Lake- Forest Lake Watershed Citizen Action Committee meeting, CLFLW Administrator Mike Kinney and I were talking about a “mystery” another state watershed had experienced; legacy pollution. Legacy pollution is caused by chemicals or their secondary byproducts following breakdown, often used or produced by industry, which remain in the environment long after they were first introduced. Oftentimes, they weren’t recognized as harmful when they were being used. One of Minnesota’s cleaner rivers was experiencing a sudden introduction of chemical reactants and nutrients, even though sources up stream had been mitigated through corrective action. Watershed detectives followed
every meandering stream, creek, drainage ditch and tile line to their source, eliminating former pollution starting points and identifying a couple of new potential sources: springs of “yuk,” considered buried in a time capsule of soil alongside distinct, yet inactive drainage swales. Those swales were inactive, until property repurposing rerouted surface water and eroded fissures into the dormant cesspool. Currently a mature housing development, influenced by rapid city expansion during the 1970’s, the property used to be a dairy production farm for over 80 years, complete with cheese manufacturing in more recent times. Dairies generate a waste product called whey, that is very detrimental to waterways as decomposition of it removes oxygen from the water. “Back in the day,” it was pretty common to literally dump waste products into the closest waterway, swale or low spot. Out of sight is
out of mind as the old saying goes. Also, about 70 years ago and for two decades, a corner of this property hosted a mink farm. Not only do these furbearers generate poop high in phosphorous, but when wet-rendered, the by-product waste, very high in nitrates, was very often diluted with water and sluiced directly to the drainage ditch or depression. Recall the old adage: “The solution to pollution is dilution?”
methods common during the time and buried as the local city expanded creating more residential and commercial properties. Those truly at fault didn’t know better and were long gone to pursue anyway. The watershed used grant money to remove up the polluted soils and enhance the properties in the local district and also downstream, thus cleaning up the whole watershed.
In recent years, Minnesota golf properties being repurposed or abandoned have been reviewed for Property development covered the another legacy pollutant; mercury. low areas and nobody was the wiser For several decades prior to 1994, until a recently permitted, developed when mercury products were and drained property upstream banned from use upon golf courses, routed water through the naturally it was common for spray rigs to occurring track and exposed the be pulled out upon sighting “Calolegacy pollution through erosion. Chlor” clouds on the horizon. Snow The area watershed organization bearing monsters piling in from the didn’t go on a witch-hunt to find northwest and sure to cover area who created the historical source golf courses from late November of pollution. Rather, they we until March. At the time, mercury much more interested in getting fungicides were the only snowmold the troubled areas cleaned up and protection guaranteed to allow turf preventing more discharge. The managers a peaceful winter season. legacy pollution was created by
Mercury is slowly soluble and thus can leach with irrigation and rainfall though any property upon which it was applied. The Minnesota Department of Agriculture is responsible to make sure that the new owner who builds upon a former golf course isn’t inheriting a legacy pollutioncontaminated backyard. The MDA created procedures for housing developments; excavation and disposal in a hazardous waste site, on-site burial in an approved and sealed cavity or left untouched and monitored until the property is developed, if ever. Similar to the watersheds, the MDA isn’t upset with anyone, they just want the sellers and buyers to be well aware of their responsibilities to state residents. Mercuric chloride is one of the most toxic salts of mercury. Mercuric chloride causes damage to the kidneys and nervous system. Symptoms may include oliguria, anuria, acute renal failure, weak pulse, seizures,
psychic disturbances, circulatory collapse, chest pain, and dyspnea (Sittig, 1991). Children exposed to inorganic mercury compounds may develop acrodynia. Acrodynia is a rare syndrome that is characterized by severe leg cramps, irritability, paresthesia, and painful pink fingers and peeling hands, feet, and nose. The primary effect from chronic exposure to inorganic mercury is kidney damage, primarily due to mercury-induced autoimmune glomerulonephritis (induction of an immune response to the body’s kidney tissue) (U.S. EPA, 1994a). Recently the legacy pollution issue became a little more “personal” for many Minnesota golf courses. The MDA requested discussions about mercury-laced soils being brought to the surface through core cultivation and cup cutting practices. They also inquired as to the extent of mercury applications on areas beyond green sites. Bare in mind, nobody is opening a “canof-worms” implicating golf as being an irresponsible industry. As
the agency charged with property development, the MDA is looking for data. Remember, the mercury used was applied under EPA guidance and according to law at the time. Through our advocacy efforts in the last half-decade, golf’s relationship with the MDA has created an open dialogue in an effort to create transparency. It is this partnership that prompted the MDA to contact us before beginning any investigation that may have triggered ugly consequences, especially if it was perceived that we, golf, are covering something up. You can imagine the “meaty” story this would make if the media blew it out of proportion.
to record where mercury was being used, so as to create a database for future development. The MDA is also interested in creating educational materials to be posted for employees who work upon mercury-contaminated courses. This information could be a simple BMP guideline to wear impervious gloves when changing cups and avoid breathing in dust particles when dragging aerified greens. Not that big of a deal.
What you need to remember is that the issue was caused through the legitimate use of a plant protectant. The golf industry never fought against the banning of mercury products and it developed even better alternatives. Nobody is the “bad guy” in this situation. There isn’t a concerted effort by the However, we can be the “good guy” MDA to undermine the golf industry very easily by helping the MDA when they seek soil testing and the through undo analysis. They dissemination of aerification and have an obligation to the people cup changing BMPs. of the state of Minnesota and are following through on the agencies’ Legacy pollution, who knew? mandate. Their long-term goal is
“Why I Walk” By Chris Tritabaugh, Superintendent at Hazeltine National Golf Club
One of the most frequent questions I’ve been asked this year, well next most frequent after anything having to do with sand, is “what’s in your backpack?” On one occasion a member asked me this question to which I responded; “I have my stuff in here.” As I begin opening the bag, I paused and said; “likely not the stuff your thinking.”
when playing. As my career has gone on, I’ve used walking more and more frequently as an observational tool. It has culminated this season with my walking almost 100% of the time.
So why do I traverse the course only on foot? Wouldn’t it be quicker and more efficient to just hop on a cart? It might be more efficient, but This is my tenth season as a it wouldn’t be as effective, which is golf course superintendent and from what it’s all about; effective obserday one, I’ve known the virtues vation of the golf course, in order of walking the course. In my early to make the proper decisions at the days, walking the course only came proper time. Page 14
With that, my top 5 reasons for walking the golf course:
other items of importance. When I walk, I see what I want to see, but I also see many things I didn’t know 1. I get a feel for it-A golf course I was going to see. Observing these is a playing surface, but it’s not a unexpected items can be the differgym floor; consistent from day to ence between good and great. day. Our surface is impacted by its environment and inputs, both natu- 3. Its calming¬-Using my body ral and artificial. How it feels is just to move from place to place on the as, if not more important than how course provides natural stress relief. it looks. When I walk the course, I Walking from place to place is quiet feel it through my feet and it gives and calming. Perfect medicine for a me feedback on what the course hectic day. needs, or doesn’t need. 4. It provides a connection with 2. I don’t miss things-When I people- Whether its Hazeltine members and guest, or members of head out to walk on the course, I generally have an item or two I am the turfgrass staff. Being on foot planning to look at. If I am on a cart, provides a better platform for conI’ll see those items, but I might miss necting with the people who are
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important to a golf course superintendent’s job.
“Any successful program functions as an integrated whole of many factors. Trying to select one aspect as 5. It’s healthy!-As mentioned the key one will not work. Each above, walking provides natural element depends on all the others.” stress relief and is one of the best I cannot find a better statement to means of exercise for the human sum up what is behind a successful body. The human body developed golf course maintenance staff. It’s based on a need to traverse long my job to make sure every element distances on foot. In a typical week, of our operation fits together, operI walk about 50 miles, 75% or more ating as one. I find it infinitely better of that is on the golf course. I get to done when on foot. keep myself healthy, while inspecting the golf course. A 2 for 1 that cannot be beat. Longtime Hazeltine employee, Blair Hawkins, gave me this newspaper clipping, and it sits on my desk, always within view. The clipping contains a quote from controversial 4-star admiral Hyman G. Rickover, who directed the Navy’s development of and conversion to nuclear propulsion. Finding this quote fitting and inspirational, I did some research on Admiral Rickover, which led me to another quote. This quote comes from Rickover’s testimony to congress, following the Three Mile Island accident. Rickover states: Page 16
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PHOTOS TAKEN 13 DAYS APART
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by Jeffrey Hahn, Extension Entomologist, University of Minnesota Extension
If you are in the landscape industry you undoubtedly have heard of emerald ash borer (EAB). This invasive insect pest was first identified in North America in 2002 in southeast Michigan. Since that time, EAB has spread and is now currently found in 26 states, including Minnesota, killing many millions of ash trees. EAB was first verified in Minnesota in 2009 and is
now found primarily in eastern Minnesota, especially in the Twin Cities, as well as in southeast Minnesota.
All native ash in Minnesota are susceptible to attack from EAB. Although EAB prefers stressed ash, they can also develop in healthy trees too. The larvae tunnel under the bark in the phloem layer and occasionally into the outer xylem.
Adult: EAB adults are iridescent green with a slender body Page 18
EAB larvae under the bark. A larva has a flat body and a head that is mostly hidden from view; just the mandibles can be seen protruding forward. Also, look for two tail-like projections on the tip of the abdo The adult beetle is about 1/3 – men. The larvae can be found at ½ inches long, iridescent green, and nearly any time of the year. fairly slender, its body gradually tapering to the tip of its abdomen. EAB can also be discovered Look carefully as there are other because of symptoms found in trees. green insects that can be confused Although watching for decline in as EAB. Adults are active primarthe canopy is the easiest symptom to ily June through August. Watch for see, it is also the least reliable methAlthough a few larvae will not kill a tree, continued attacks eventually cause trees to become so girdled that they are not able to transport water and nutrients and they die.
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Larva: EAB larvae are flat bodied with a hidden head and “tails” on the abdomen
od. While it’s true that the canopy will thin and eventually die back due to EAB, this symptom is too general and there are other reasons that can cause ash trees to decline. Two symptoms that are more helpful in diagnosing EAB infested trees are woodpecker pecks and vertical bark splits. Woodpeckers love to eat large, mature larvae which are found during winter. However, woodpeckers can also feed on native borers so this is not definitive, Page 20
but it certainly is a red flag that deserves closer inspection. The same with vertical bark splits; there could be other reasons for finding them in an ash tree so it is not a sure thing. If you do find such a crack, examine it more closely to see if you can find EAB galleries underneath it. Symptoms that are sure signs of EAB, if you can see them, are D-shaped exit holes and S-shaped galleries. Unfortunately, the exit holes are not always easy to see as
they are about 1/8 inch in size and easy to overlook. Infestations also start in the tops of trees and work their way down so exit holes may not be discovered until trees have become more severely infested. Sshaped galleries are created when the larvae tunnel under the bark, meandering back and forth. These galleries are very diagnostic of EAB but you have to look under the bark to find them which may not always
be practical. Remember that native borers can also be present which will create differently shaped and sized exit holes and galleries. What should you do with ash trees on your golf course? If you have not done so already, start by conducting an inventory of your ash. As you determine the status of your ash, keep in mind that you have two basic options for dealing
with these trees on your golf course; treating them or removing them. Technically there is a third option which is to do nothing but that is not a viable choice. When ash trees die, they become very brittle and can shed limbs too easily and unpredictably making them a hazard to people and property.
not really notice it. .
Just as important, you can judge the general health of these trees. Determine tree health by estimating the percent canopy that is intact. Tree health can influence what action you take with a particular tree. Ash trees that were An inevaluated ventory will as having tell you how less than many ash 50% or are present its canoand their py intact size. This are good gives you candian idea of dates for how prevaremoval. lent they Galleries: Watch for S-shaped galleries under the While it are in your bark; this is a sure sign of EAB may be landscape. possible to keep some of these trees An inventory will also tell you alive, it will likely take a lot of extra where they are located which can impact their value, e.g. is the tree in effort and high maintenance to do so. Ash should be considered to be a prominent location, perhaps proa low maintenance tree. Some landviding shade or adding to the general attractiveness of the landscape, scapers would even put the minior is off in an area where people do mum intact canopy at 60% - 70%. Page 22
This is less an issue of health as it is a treeâ€™s appearance. A tree might be alive but if it looks unattractive, that could be a reason to remove it. Trees that have most of their canopy intact and are valued are great candidates to preserve. There is a lot of research, especially in Michigan and Ohio, demonstrating the effectiveness of insecticides to treat trees and protect them from EAB. If you want to save your ash, you can!
ing your ash. While this range is not set in stone, the point is the closer EAB is to you the greater the risk. If you are, e.g. 50 miles away from the nearest known EAB infestation, your risk is very low and it is not worth treating your ash.
If the distance is borderline, also consider the relative numbers of EAB. If the nearest EAB populations to your golf course are very low, you can consider waiting until they are closer. How close you allow them before treating will de Before treating, consider how pend on how much risk you are close your golf course is to the near- willing to accept. Regardless of the est known EAB infestation. A gen- distance from known EAB infestations, you should still be sure to eral rule to use is that when EAB finish a tree inventory and remove are 10 â€“ 15 miles away or closer, you should be thinking about treat- undesired ash trees.
Jeffrey Hahn Extension Entomologist Entomology Expertise: Horticulture Entomology 236 Hodson Hall, 1980 Folwell Ave. St. Paul, MN 55108 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: 612-624-4977 Fax: 612-625-5299
Great Teams Need Psychological Safety Dr. Bob Milligan, Dairy Strategies LLC.
Many of you have heard me describe the PRO-DAIRY team as the greatest team I ever had the privilege of leading. In the twenty years since I was the leader of that team, I have often thought about two questions: • Why was the PRO-DAIRY team successful? • What is required for golf course teams to be successful? In this article, we draw from the “Team” chapter in a great new book - Smarter, Faster, Better: The Secrets of Being Productive in Life and Business by Charles Duhigg - to shed light on these two questions.
on the mission to bring management education and the resulting benefits to the New York dairy industry. The team developed great camaraderie, innovation, collaboration, cohesion, and success despite being in six different locations. Although none now work for PRO-DAIRY, there are numerous connections among team members.
The Smarter, Faster, Better book draws on research by and experiences at Google and the successes of the Saturday Night Live team to identify team success factors. Perhaps the most surprising result is First, a little about the PRO-DAIRY that the many aspects of team composition - size, location, individual team. The team was recruited and hired by Dr. Terry Smith and me to success, level of diversity, etc. - did not explain team success. implement a major new extension program funded by the State Of New York. I became the director of Research found that group or team the program and the team leader of norms are the key determinant of the seven-member newly hired staff. team success. Team norms are the Very quickly and increasingly over traditions, behaviors, standards, and time, the team became very focused unwritten rules about how the team
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REGISTRATION FORM FIELD DAY AGENDA - AUG. 11, 2016
The TURF & GROUNDS FIELD DAY is back on the St. Paul campus this year as the University of Minnesota once again partners with the Minnesota Turf and Grounds Foundation to produce this popular event at TROE Center and UFore Nursery.
7:00 - 8:00 - Coffee, Donuts and Vendor Time 8:00 - 11:00 - Turf and Grounds Tracks 11:00 - 11:30 - Networking and Vendor Time 11:30 - 12:30 - Catered Lunch 12:30 - Networking and Vendor Time EDUCATION POINTS CEU’sforCertifiedArborist,MunicipalSpecialist,BCMA-Science, .GCSAA-approvedEducationPointswillbeavailableandannounced.
MAKE PLANS TO JOIN US ON THURS., AUG. 11 for outdoor education presented by University of Minnesota faculty and staff working in turfgrass science, horticulture and forestry. The Field Day will run from 7 a.m. to 1 p.m., with presentation topics ranging from turfgrass species for natural areas to disease management in turf and trees.
COMPLETE AGENDA ON BACK FIELD DAY IS LOCATED ON THE NORTHEAST CORNER OF LARPENTEUR & CLEVELAND IN FALCON HEIGHTS
Our research and extension programs at the University of Minnesota are constantly evolving. This spring we had several graduate students defend their thesis projects and new students have entered the program. We have also had several new staff hires, and we are looking forward to showcasing their work.
Please register _____ people at $25 ea. for a total of $ ______________________ Name(s)_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Employer/Company__________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Address____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ City_______________________________________________________________________State______________Zip___________________________ Phone__________________________________________________
CheckAssociation(s): q MGCSAq MPSTMAq MSAq MASMSq MACq MTAq MTSCq MNLAq STUDENT TOTAL ENCLOSED: $ _______________________
MTGF FIELD DAY P. O. BOX 617 WAYZATA, MN 55391
8:00 -9:00 a.m. - GOLF FOCUS
8:00 -9:00 a.m. Jeff Hahn "IPM Programs for Insect Management"
Dr. Brian Horgan and Parker Anderson "Science of the Green Initiative" Dr. Angela Orshinsky "EIQ Reduction Programs for Dollar Spot Management" Ben VanRyzin "Curative Applications and Intervals for Dollar Spot" Sam Bauer "Soil Wetting Agents for Water Conservation"
9:00 -10:00 a.m. - TURFGRASS SPECIES Dr. Eric Watkins "The Potential of Tall Fescue in MN" Andrew Hollman "Fine Fescue No-Mow Grasses and Consumer Mixtures"
Michelle Grabowski "IPM Programs for Disease Management" 9:00 -10:00 a.m. Chad Giblin "Dutch Elm Disease Research" Andrew Jenks and Dan Heins "Use of Drones in Landscape Management" 10:00 -11:00 a.m. Dr. Gary Johnson "Community Gravel Beds: An Option for Developing Better Root Systems and Reforesting Landscapes on a Budget" Eric North "Planting, Staking, Watering, and Pruning: The First Year of Tree Maintenance"
Garett Heineck "Perennial Ryegrass Breeding and Seed Production" Yinji Qui "Fine Fescue Allelopathy and Snow Mold"
10:00 -11:00 a.m. - SPECIAL TOPICS Dr. Vera Krishik "New Insecticides for White Grubs" Dr. Jon Trappe "Carbon Sequestration of Turf" Jonah Reyes and Ryan Schwab "Irrigation Systems for Boulevards and Roadsides" - James Wolfin "Pollinator Friendly Lawns"
ON-LINE REGISTRATION AVAILABLE AT www.mtgf.org
functions. On great teams, these norms override individual tendencies, personalities, and strengths/ weaknesses.
while also encouraging people to take a chance and to disagree with each other.
The research by Google clearly identified two key norms for great The question then is what are the teams. The first is psychological norms that contribute to team sucsafety. Psychological safety recess? To illustrate the difficulty of quires that team members be able determining team success factors and to illustrate a norm, letâ€™s look at to sense how others feel from their a study of hospital error rates. The tone of voice, their expression, and initial results did not make sense as their body language. Members must the findings were that strong teams then respond empathically to the needs of team members. make more mistakes. Upon further analysis, it was determined that strong teams were actually making The second is that all team members speak roughly the same proportion far fewer mistakes; however, on of the time. This does not mean on weak teams many of the mistakes each topic or necessarily in an orwere not being reported. derly way. An informal atmosphere is more conducive to psychologiThe norm that was crucial in these cal safety that great formality. The hospital teams was whether peomembers of the Saturday Night Live ple were punished (different from coached or redirected) for mistakes. teams have not all been particularly From this we see an important good nice people or personal friends, but norm of encouraging team members the longevity and success of the program speaks to the greatness of the to speak up without retribution. team. Further research determined that good norms are behaviors that cre- The Google report identified five key norms that embody and expand ate a sense of â€œpsychological safethe two norms: ty.â€? Creating psychological safety requires a sense of togetherness Page 28
ample. Your actions must always contribute to psychological safety. • Recognize and practice active listening. Never interrupt and make certain every team members voice is heard. • Continually monitor the emotions of the team and of each individual. Reading tone of voice and body language is very important. Respond empathically to those experiencing negative emotions due to team actions or external impacts. • Make certain every team member is heard. This will require tactfully engaging passive team members and perhaps restricting assertive team members. • Provide structure - agendas, responsibilities, expectations, accountabilities, etc. - without formality that constrains discussion and debate. • Continually reinforce the vision, goals, and expectations for the These findings speak volumes about team. how to create an outstanding team - maintenance staff, Green Commit- As a team member, you can also tee, etc. The greatest responsibility contribute to team psychological for creating psychological safety safety. You can a) be a great lisrests with the leader: tener, b) monitor the emotions of the team and members and respond with empathy, c) draw out those who are • First, as usual, is lead by ex• ‘Teams need to believe their work is important. • Teams need to feel their work is personally meaningful. • Teams need clear goals and defined roles. • Team members need to know they can depend on one another. • But most important, teams need psychological safety.’ Returning to the PRO-DAIRY team, the five norms above were met. Team members came together with the great enthusiasm that comes from starting a new job. The requirements of the funder created clear goals and an almost impossible challenge that required everyone’s maximum effort and reliance on each other. The psychological safety developed as members learned to respect each other, appreciate each other’s contributions, and see the positive results of collaboration.
not participating, and d) visit with the leader if you feel he or she is not contributing to psychological safety. Concluding comment: Great teams are more about how the team functions - psychological safety - that who is on the team Contact Bob at: 651 647-0495 email@example.com
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Small advances in managing white grubs and adults, Do we have European chafer in and European crane flies in Minnesota? Vera Krischik, University of Minnesota, Department Entomology
With funding from the Minnesota Legislature, two centers for invasive species research were established at the University of Minnesota Twin Cites campus in the College of Food, Agriculture, and Natural Resources Sciences. In 2012, the Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center (MAISRC, http://www.maisrc.umn. edu/about/about-maisrc) was created to develop research-based solutions that can reduce the impacts of aquatic invasive species in Minnesota by preventing spread, controlling populations, and managing ecosystems; and to advance knowledge to inspire action by others. MAISRCâ€™s vision is to be a vibrant and durable research enterprise that advances the knowledge and builds the capacity that Minnesota needs in order to reduce the
impacts of aquatic invasive species on our cherished lakes, rivers, and wetlands. In 2014, the Minnesota Invasive Terrestrial Plants and Pests Center (MITPPC, http://www.mitppc.umn.edu/sites/g/files/pua746/f/ media/mitppc_priorities_for_public_comment.pdf) was established by the Minnesota Legislature. The legislatively mandated purpose of the MITPPC is to prevent and minimize the threats posed by terrestrial invasive plants, other weeds, pathogens, and pests in order to protect the stateâ€™s prairies, forests, wetlands, and agricultural resources. In June 2016 the Minnesota Invasive Terrestrial Plants and Pests Center undertook an expansive research prioritization to systematically evaluate threats posed by a wide array of terrestrial invasive insects, Page 33
plants, and plant pathogens. The methodology used to develop the prioritization process and the list of 124 top terrestrial invasive species can be found in the “Minnesota’s Top 124 Terrestrial Invasive Plants and Pests: Priorities for Research.” In that document, three invasive turf pests were identified for research: Japanese beetle, European crane flies, and European chafer. This new program to obtain funds for research on invasive terrestrial species made me think about the issues we have with Japanese beetle and its man-
agement. . European chafer adult (www.bugPage 34
wood.org) European chafer European chafer, Rhizotrogus majalis, is native to western and central Europe. It was discovered in the United States in 1940, when a grub was found in a nursery-growing area near Rochester, N.Y. Today, it has been reported from New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Ohio, Michigan, Delaware and southern Ontario. Most European chafer grubs complete development in one year, but a small proportion of the population may require two years to complete development. Adult beetles emerge from the soil between the middle of June and early July in Michigan and New York. Emergence may be two to three weeks earlier in southern Ohio, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. They fly on warm evenings
adult Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Japanese beetles have two white rear tufts and five white lateral tufts of hair. Adults found on plants.
adult False Japanese adult rose chafer beetle Macrodactylus Strigoderma arbicola subspinosus False Japanese beetles Rose chafer are a light lack the five white hair green tan color with tufts along wing long legs. Adults margin. Adults rarely found on plants. seen.
adult May/June beetle adult masked chafer Phyllophaga species Cyclocephala borealis Adults found at lights. Adults do not feed so not found at lights or plants.
adult black turfgrass Ataenius Ataenius spretulus The smallest species found in turf with high organic matter.
Figure 1. Adult stages of several white grub species.
(above 65 degrees F) for several hours just before and after sunset. Adult activity peaks within two to three weeks of first emergence. Eggs are deposited 2 to 4 inches below the soil surface. First instar
(or larval stage) grubs emerge from eggs in early August and molt to second larval instar by the middle of August. By September 1, nearly all grubs are second instar (1/2 inch long), and by October 1, most of the
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larvae are mature, third instar grubs (3/4 to 1 inch long). They continue feeding on turf roots until the soil surface freezes (usually sometime in November). On average, 24 percent of the grubs do not survive the winter. Surviving grubs return to the surface as soon as the ground thaws, feeding on grass roots again in late winter and spring. By late May, almost all of the grubs move down to a depth of two to ten inches to pupate. They remain as pupae for about two weeks before emerging as adults. Wet soil during pupation may cause high mortality.
estimated at five to ten grubs per square foot for low maintenance turf and 15 to 20 per square foot for daily irrigated turf. Frequent irrigation helps turf survive root pruning by grubs. Preventive insecticides containing the active ingredients imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, or clothianidin are very effective against grubs when applied in July.
These preventive treatments kill young grubs as they hatch but do not work as well against larger, established grubs. Insecticides containing carbaryl or trichlorfon can be used as curative treatment in late Natural control of European August, September, or early May. chafer by predators, parasites and Liquid insecticide sprays should be pathogens is excellent in Europe but followed immediately with 1/2 inch of irrigation to move the insecticide poor in the United States. Several parasites, including four species of into the thatch and root zone. Granflies and two wasp species, have ular formulations are more practical been released with little success. for low-maintenance turf because they remain stable until rain falls. Natural enemies reported in the European chafer grubs may not be United States include two species of ground beetles that feed on grubs as susceptible to some insecticides and eggs, a protozoan pathogen and as Japanese beetle grubs. a rickettsia pathogen. Japanese beetle Management The Japanese beetle (JB) is a serious Damage thresholds have been pest of turf and ornamental plants. Page 37
Adults emerge from the soil in early July, feed, mate, and lay eggs. In July adults are noticed feeding on vines, linden trees, roses, and many other ornamentals. Activity is most intense over a six to eight week period, after which the beetles gradually die off. Individual beetles live Grubs feed on the roots of grass and about 60 days. Over adults feed on the foliage of more two months females can lay a total of 60 eggs. Japanese beetle adult (www.bugwood.org) JB adults feed in full sun at the top of plants, moving downthan 300 plant species. Japanese ward as the leaves are consumed. beetles were first found in US in Odors emitted from beetle-damaged 1916, after being accidentally intro- leaves causes beetles to aggregate. duced into New Jersey. Until that Also, adults release an attraction time, this insect was known to occur pheromone that causes them to agonly in Japan where it is not a major gregate. At dusk, this pheromone is pest. There are two biological con- no longer produced and the females trol agents, the fly Istocheta aldrichi fly to turf to lay eggs. Females burand the tiphid wasp, Tiphia vernalis, row two to three inches into the soil but they do not control infestations. and lay their eggs. The grubs grow It is controlled in the eastern US by quickly and by late September are soil-inhabiting protozoans that are almost full-sized (about one inch not present in Minnesota. long). When the soil cools to about 60Â°F in the fall, the grubs begin to Page 38
move deeper. Most pass the winter two to six inches below the surface, although some may go as deep as eight to ten inches. Grubs feed again in May when ground temperatures are above 50Â°F.
are large and may be difficult to kill. Starting in mid- June most grubs are in the pupal stage and insecticides are not effective. In early July adults emerge to feed on plants, mate, and then at night fly to grass to lay eggs. The best time to apply insecManagement ticides for grubs is from mid-July until early September. Liquid in Adults fly long distances to secticide sprays should be followed food plants; so adult infestations do immediately with 1/2 inch of irrinot indicate turf infestations. Timing gation to move the insecticide into of pesticide treatment is important. the thatch and root zone. Granular Insecticides for grubs can be applied formulations are more practical for from May through mid-June, when low-maintenance turf because they recently overwintered grubs (larvae) remain stable until rain falls. start feeding. However, these grubs
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Future research to control white grubs in soil
eight km in a single flight, and thus represent a highly mobile stage of infected hosts. Research in Michigan and Ovavesicula popilliae infecKansas have centered on the estab- tion on Japanese beetle populations lishment of two soil microsporidian was measured by determining the pathogens of Japanese beetle grubs, survival of grubs from fall of 2005 Ovavesicula popilliae and Stictosto spring of 2006. At golf courses pora sp. Stictospora was found at where more than 25% of the grubs most locations in Michigan (25/36) were found to be infected, the dewhere Japanese beetle infestations crease in grub density from fall to spring was 57.4% compared with have been active for more than 20 years, but was scarce or absent from 28.2% at sites where no O. popilliae areas where Japanese beetle has be- was found. When the observed recome established in the last ten yrs. duction of egg production in infected females is added to grub survival Stictospora infects both the larvae and adults. rates, at sites where O. popilliae is active, Japanese beetle populations could decline 67% or more per year Infection initially develops in the malpighian tubules of the larvae, when compared with sites without O. popilliae. but becomes systemic in infected adults. O. popilliae has been used as a biological control agent for the Since the two biological conJapanese beetle and has been shown trol agents, the fly Istocheta aldrichi to be detrimental to both larval and and the tiphid wasp, Tiphia vernalis, adult beetles through an increase do not control infestations, in Minin larval winter mortality. Japanese nesota we should think about develbeetles become infected with O. oping some management program popilliae when larvae ingest spores. with traps baited with pathogens When infected larvae survive to and dissemination of O.popilliae adulthood, the infection may be car- in golfcourses. Something to think ried with it through pupation. Adult aboutâ€Ś.. beetles are capable of traveling over Page 41
Using insecticides preventively in pest was a problem in the previous season, preventive insecticide apan IPM program plications may be preferred to the There are many components to alternative of waiting for damage. an IPM program, including scouting Preventive materials are applied for pest activity, spot treating infest- before a noticeable pest population ed areas before the insectâ€™s spread, develops. Curative materials are and establishing thresholds of the typically applied after populations number of insects per unit area. Re- reach a damaging level. member that beneficial insects are free and the less insecticide that is For example, the neonicused the more beneficial insects will otinoids and chlorantraniliprole control your pest insects. A primary (Acelepryn) provide preventive target of IPM is to use cultural, protection against white grubs and sanitation, and biological controls are much less toxic than the older methods to suppress pest populaorganophosphate materials that tions below the economic threshwere used for many years. There old. However, when you know a are few cultural practices or effec-
Table 1. Insecticides available for control of white grubs in soil Insecticide
Chemical Class/ (IRA number)* * Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (www.iraconline.org) has assigned a number for each chemical class.
Neonicotinoid grub insecticides It may take a few days to be absorbed systemically and moved throughout the grass, but are effective for weeks. The best time to apply insecticides for grubs is from July until early September. Liquid insecticide sprays should be followed immediately with 1/2 inch of irrigation to move the insecticide into the thatch and root zone. Granular formulations are more practical for low-maintenance turf because they remain stable until rain falls. imidacloprid (Bayer, Merit and many generic products)
Preventive, low toxicity to mammals
Arena (Valent, 50% chlothianidin)
Preventive, low toxicity to mammals
Meridian (Syngenta, 0.33% thiamethoxam)
Preventive, low toxicity to mammals
Zylam (PBI-Gordon, 20% dinotefuran)
Neonicotinoid (4A) very water soluble, so can be diluted by irrigation
Preventive, low toxicity to mammals
Combination insecticide for grub and leaf feeders These insecticides contain less neonicotinoid AI (active ingredient) so if you have grub problems, use the single insecticide listed above. Allectus (Bayer Environmental Science, 0.020% imidacloprid and 0.16% bifenthrin)
Neonicotinoid (4A) and Pyrethroid (3)
Aloft (Valent, 0.25% chlothianidin and 0.125% bifenthrin)
Neonicotinoid (4A) and Pyrethroid (3)
Less toxic to pollinators and beneficial insects. Acelepryn G (Syngenta, 0.2% chlorantraniliprole)
Preventive, low toxicity to bees and beneficial insects, water before and after
Grubgone, Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae
Preventive, low toxicity to bees and beneficial insects, water before and after
The MGCSA is grateful for all of the support our industry receives from the University of Minnesota Entomology, Turf Science and Pathology Extension Services.
Table 1 Continued Milky spore disease, Paenibacillus popillia
Does not appear to be effective.
Entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae, S. glaseri, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora
Preventive, low toxicity to bees and beneficial insects, Water before and daily after application
Spray on grass blades, does not penetrate deep into the roots where the grubs feed. carbaryl (Sevin)
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tive biological control agents available that provide reliable control of white grub populations. The only option for effective management of high populations of white grubs in this circumstance is preventive application with a neonicotinoid or chlorantraniliprole.
species, but by far Japanese beetle adults that are attracted to lights and feed as adults are the most common white grub in turf. The adults of the Northern masked chafer (Cyclocephala borealis), are not attractive to lights and do not feed. The adults of the May/June beetle (Phyllophaga sp.) are attracted to lights and Management of newly hatched feed as adults. The very small Aphogrubs requires insecticide applicadius and Ataenius beetles overwintion in July thru September. Appli- ter in woodlots, and in the spring cations in September will kill grubs the adults form mating balls on turf if the soil temperature remains in early June. A second generation above 50 degrees F for two weeks, occurs in August. These beetles feed but these grubs are larger and more on rotting materials in soils and are not attracted to lights. An economic difficult to kill. threshold for Japanese beetle is sev Pheromone traps for Japanese en grubs/ sq ft and for Ataenius is beetles contain a synthetic phero50 grubs/sq ft. mone of the beetle and a scent lure that smells like roses. Beetles are Preventative treatments highly attractive to the traps and their use will only attract more bee- There are four neonicotinoids tles. currently available in turf. All of them are systemic and move from White grub (larval stage) manage- the roots and blades through the ment entire grass plant. Applications of imidacloprid made before early June White grubs are a general may not provide level of control of name for the larvae of various bee- the late summer grubs that was obtles in the family Scarabeidae. In served when it first appeared on the Minnesota, there are six common market. Recent field trials suggest Page 45
Table 2. Spray on foliage of ornamentals or turf for managing Japanese beetle adults bifenthrin
Curative, high toxicity to honeybees, birds, fish. Do not use nearer than 100 yards from water.
Curative, high toxicity to honeybees, birds, fish. Do not use nearer than 100 yards from water.
Curative, high toxicity to honeybees, birds, fish. Do not use nearer than 100 yards from water.
Curative, high toxicity to bees, earthworms; moderately toxic to birds, fish. Do not use adjacent to water.
Curative, high toxicity to birds, fish. Not available for consumers.
Curative, high toxicity to bees
Triple Crown (7.87% bifenthrin (3), 2.7% zeta-cypermethrin (3), and 13.83% imidacloprid (4A)
Neonicotinoid (4A) and Pyrethroid (3)
Adults on grass surface
Ortho Bug B Gon,0.115% bifenthrin
Scotts GrubEx, 0.08% chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)
Bayer Advanced season-long grub control, 1.47% imidacloprid
Curative, high toxicity to bees
Bayer Advanced, 24 hr grub killer plus, 9.3% trichlorofon (Dylox)
Bayer Advanced, Complete brand insect killer for soil & turf, 0.05% cyfluthrin , and 0.15% imidacloprid
Neonicotinoid (4A) and Pyrethroid (3)
Spectrazide triazicide insect killer for lawns, 0.08% gamma-cyhalothrin Spectrazide Triazicide Insect Killer For Lawns Granules, 0.05% gammacyhalothrin
Table 3. Consumer grub products
that chlothianidin and thiamethoxam have longer residual activity than does imidacloprid. However, I would try the granular formulation of imidacloprid, which takes longer to dissolve than the flowable formulation and is less subject to runoff. Neonicotinoids often take several days to start working, but remain active for several weeks or months. Imidacloprid is less water soluble than dinotefuran, thiamethoxam or clothianidin and has less chance of being washed off the grass by irrigation and rain. In my research, I find imidacloprid granular formulations (Merit 0.5%) that dissolve slowly compared to foliar sprays (Merit 2F), to be much more effective. A major issue with killing grubs is that imidacloprid can only be used 1 time in the season at the higher application rate for all formulations. If you apply imidacloprid in May at the maximum rate of 0.4lb/ acre, then your second application in late July can be another neonicotinyl such as thiamethoxam (Meridian 0.33G, 25WG) or clothianidin (Aloft GCG, Arena .5G, 50 WDG).
Care should be taken when using any neonicotinoid to avoid applications when honeybees are foraging, such as when clover or Creeping Charlie are in bloom. Environmentally friendly insecticides that do not kill predatory insects or bees are chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn) that can be used in May thru July. Curative treatments In mid-June grubs pupate and turn into adults so insecticide application is not effective. Most insecticides need to be applied before a grub problem develops, but curatively applications in late August can be made of trichlorfon (Dylox) and carbaryl (Sevin). Both break down quickly in alkaline water with a pH above 7.2, so you may need to buffer the pH of the water in the tank. Ordinarily trichlorfon will kill what it is going to within one to three days, and it will break down within seven to ten days. Carbaryl tends to be very inconsistent. Carbaryl is also very toxic to honeybees, native bees, and beneficial insects. Pyrethroids also do reach the grubs in the soil, Page 47
but may kill emerging adults. Once grubs have reached their full size by mid -September, these curative applications will only suppress populations and many grubs will survive to overwinter. Combination products Combination products, which contain a neonicotinoid and a pyrethroid, will kill blade and root feeders. The neonicotinoid usually is very effective against white grubs if it is applied when the beetles are laying eggs. The pyrethroid component of the product normally provides excellent control against many insects such as aphids, moth caterpillars, and weevil adults. However, check the labels and the amount of active ingredients, as the amount of neonicotinyl is often lower in combination formulations. If you have a bad grub problem, go with the single insecticide label. Managing adult Japanese beetles In July, adults that are emerging and are walking on the turf or when sitting on foliage, can be Page 48
killed with an application of bifenthrin (Talstar), carbaryl (Sevin), chlorantraniliprole (Acelypyrn), chloropyrifos (Dursban 50W, PRO), clothianidin (Aloft GCG, Arena .5G, 50 WDG), clothianidin +bifenthrin (Aloft), deltamethrin (Deltaguard), imidacloprid+bifenthrin (Allectus, Atera), lambda-cyhalothrin (Battle, Scmitar) and imidacloprid (Merit 2F). A soil application of imidacloprid on plants will kill adults in about 1 week on shrubs and 2 weeks on trees. However, do not use neonicotinoid insecticides on flowering plants that bees visit. See the bee protection box on neonicotinoid EPA labels. On shrub roses, Japanese beetle adults feed on flowers to avoid the spiny leaves and foliar sprays appear to be more effective. A very good summary of all pesticides for use on golf courses is the 2014 AG bulletin 408, that is available from North Carolina Cooperative Extension turf files at http://www.turffiles.ncsu.edu/PDFFiles/004176/AG408PestControl_ Professionals.pdf
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Within the Leather by Eric Ritter CGCS, Superintendent at Wild Marsh Golf Club Having been one of only a few golf course turf managers in the MGCSA to obtain their CGCS recently, I’ve had the pleasure to talk with many Certified Superintendents about the experience and demands of the process. I thought I would take this opportunity to briefly share on my personal experience going through it with all of you. Sparing the exact details and requirements, (that information is readily available from GCSAA), there are three main components you must complete to become certified. They are a portfolio, a written exam, and a site visit. The portfolio was by far the hardest component of becoming certified. Developing the content wasn’t necessarily difficult, but it was PagePage 56 56
time consuming. Some of the work samples were things I had already done throughout my career. Other topics I had to develop and put in place, as well as answering all of the scenario questions. In one aspect it wasn’t too hard as there really is no right or wrong answer for most components. However, the quality of work required by GCSAA is very demanding. Once I had assembled and completed my portfolio (with multiple proofreads), I was relieved to finally have finished. Shortly after submission, I was notified by GCSAA staff encouraging me to make further revisions before submitting for judging. That was little discouraging, however, with a little (professional) help in revising, my portfolio passed upon the first grading. The written exam was somewhat grueling as it is over 200 questions. It took me about four of the allotted six-hour time limit to complete the exam. Aside from brushing up on some
warm-season turf knowledge, I really didn’t study very much at all. Aside from being so long, I thought the exam was actually kind of easy and passed on my first take. For site attestation, GCSAA appoints two CGCS’s to do a site visit and attest your course. I will openly admit that I was a little bit nervous regarding the thought of two other superintendents coming in to inspect the course. I was worried about having the place looking perfect and all the right answers to anything that wasn’t…I mean what if they find some dollar spot on a tee box or a dandelion in the rough, right? Not the case whatsoever. I found my attesters to be very cordial and down to earth. They are there to make sure you are who you say you are, dedicated to the profession, and professional. We spent most of the visit in the office talking about my agronomics, business, and other unique oddities about my facility. After a quick tour of the golf course they were more interested in discussing
the landscape and design elements of the course as opposed to looking into turf conditions. In the end, it was truly an enjoyable experience. Site attestation was by far the easiest component of the certification process. I didn’t necessarily seek out certification for any one specific reason. For me it was more like, “why not.” While certification took me about three years longer than I expected it too, I enjoyed the challenge and the sense of accomplishment. It definitely impressed my employer and even some of our course’s membership. I was honestly a little overwhelmed by how many of my own peers reached out and congratulated me. While I’m not really sure there are many tangible benefits that come along with the CGCS designation (other than a free lunch at GIS and watch after 25 years of holding certification), I will say “the feel good alone made it all worthwhile.” Page 57 Page 57
EAB revisited, turfgrass insects, psychological team management tools, physical and mental conditioning, two great picture spreads and a Cha...