Hole Notes June 2017

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Hole Notes The Official Publication of the MGCSA

A Golf Memory: Can We Design it?

Vol. 52, No. 5 June 2017

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July 11 Northern Exposure Golf Event The Wilderness at Fortune Bay Host Vince Dodge CGCS September 14 North-West Exposure Golf Event Forest Hills Resort Host Chris Wiedenmeyer September 18 The Championship Golf Event St. Cloud Country Club Club Host Gary Deters Page 4


Vol. 52, No. 5 June 2017

Feature Articles: Help a Diagnostician Help You



by Kurt Hockemeyer, UW, Madison, Turf Diagnosis Lab

by Dr. Vera Krischik, UMN Entomolgy Extension

pages 14 - 19

A Golf Memory, Can We Design It? pages 20- 37 By Kari Haug, Landscape Architect, Golf Course Designer Longevity In The Workplace - Does It Hinder Growth? pages 38 - 42 By Dr. Bob Milligan, Learning Edge Soaring Numbers of Japanese Beetles Now Feeding On Turf pages 44 - 57 MDA: Applicators License and Use Categories by The Minnesota Department of Agriculture

Monthly Columns: Presidential Perspective pages 6 - 8 By Erin McManus In Bounds pages 10 - 13 By Jack MacKenzie, CGCS


58 - 61

Japanese Beetles They’re back. Read pages 44 - 57

Within the Leather pages 62 - 64 By Dave Kazmierczak CGCS

On The Cover: The 17th hole at Kinloch GC in New Zealand capitolizes upon expansive views Affiliate Spotlight: The MGCSA would like to feature your company. Please contact Dave Kazmierczak for more informaton.

Great Pictorial Content: Badgerland Outreach at Luck Golf Club Golf Course Industry Tech Tour

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Dr. Bob Milligan hits a personnel management Home Run on pages 38 - 42 Hole Notes (ISSN 108-27994) is digitally published monthly except bimonthly in November/December and January/February by the Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents’ Association, 10050 204th Street North, Forest Lake, MN 55025. Jack MacKenzie CGCS publisher. Please send any address changes, articles for publication, advertising and concerns to jack@mgcsa.org. Page 5

Presidential Perspective by Erin McManus, Superintendent Medina Golf and Country Club

Crazy weather turns into a crazy summer!

to April and May, but I am looking forward to the rest of summer. The course is looking good The weather has been up and the members are pretty happy. and down all spring and now that Most importantly, my new pup Lea summer is getting close we have is getting pretty comfortable on the had a taste of the hot weather that golf course. She is really enjoying usually begins in July. We are in the opportunities to get after some full tournament mode hosting our geese and the occasional squirrel. Invitational Tournament this past We finally got her swimming a weekend and getting into the full couple weeks ago and she definitely league schedule. The kids are out likes the water. I forgot how much of school and starting Junior Golf water they can hold on their coats Clinics. We are full tilt and full and need to make sure to have extra speed ahead. towels in the cart. She has gotten comfortable enough to sit in the cart The best part of the golf while I walk into the Pro Shop or season is getting the course that Clubhouse office for a few minutes. little bit better for tournament days. She knows if the cart is leaving Getting the staff to come back in the the shop she better be in it or she evenings to mow until dark and then won’t get to run the golf course. have the course mowed and ready We have had a couple close calls to go at 8:00am the next morning. I with the ducklings and are working am really not sure what happened on keeping her out of bunkers but

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overall she is turning out to be a hit the field this fall. Jeff’s Yellow pretty good pup. Labrador Casey has some pretty long legs and can hit the special gear It is hard to look ahead to when needed. fall with the long summer stretch just starting but Lea has given me I guess I should get focused back on the task at hand and get a lot to look forward to this fall. this golf course The grind of through the summer will not summer and be too tough, as not get too I look forward excited about to getting Lea fall yet. We on her first have a lot going rooster or duck on in the state this fall. of Minnesota for golf and My events that daughters the MGCSA are getting Just like at your course, summer is tournainterested in ment time at Medina Golf and Country Club is hosting and clubs are hunting and shooting with Annabel in her second hosting this season. year of trap. The only thing better Several demo days ahead of us than seeing Lea retrieve her first to look at some new equipment and rooster would be to see my daughter try to get some golf played on the shoot it for her. We might be looking nice days. I have seen a little Dollar at some early grouse this season or Spot on a couple fairways and have some training birds too. I hope Lea some very nice roots this year. The will be fast enough so I can take deep tine aerification we have been some $5 bets off Jeff Pint when we doing for the past couple of years

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has definitely helped us this year. Overall we are looking good going

into summer with a solid staff and a pretty good golf course.

Look familier? MG&CC Assistant Nick Walters cools his turf.

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Save the Dates and Destinations:

July 11th Northern Exposure at The Wilderness at Fortune Bay Host Vince Dodge CGCS September 14 Lakes Area Exposure at Forest Hills Resort Host Chris Wiedenmeyer September 18 The Championship at St. Cloud Country Club Host Gary Deters October 2 The Scramble at Edina Country Club Host Brandon Schindele

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In Bounds by Jack MacKenzie, CGCS

Almost viscous, the stream of deep yellowishgray liquid passed as a limited geyser upon the isolated shrub, out of sight from my neighbors. Following two hours of continuous chain sawing, brush dragging, log cutting and stacking upon a quickly growing woodpile, I had been impacted by a sudden urge to urinate. Obviously just perspiring wasn’t doing the trick!

but I had two new large and twisted woody impediments now gracing the yard and requiring cleanup. Fortunately for me, Mr. Jonsered and his brother Stihl reside in my garage and were ready for a work out.

After draining the power in my laptop upon office administration, as well as my “allocated” bottle of water, I grabbed my chainsaw partners and headed to the back yard for something you are all too familiar with; storm damage cleanup. Focused, I proceeded Unfortunately, beverages on the upon my task of campus remedial morning of June 14th were is maintenance, and didn’t pay short supply, as the second of two attention to how much water I wicked storm fronts visited my lost through my quickly drenched neighborhood over a three day tee shirt. Sure enough, with little period. The storms completed the job of tearing down weakened trees, consumable options, I very soon knocking out power and closing the became dehydrated. The tale of truth being oh so obvious as I road out of my local community. provided the Sambucus canadensis a My wife and I were fortunate to modicum of very marginal effluent have a couple of small bottles of water. water, which would have been adequate during normal conditions,

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Without water, an individual has the potential to think and act slower as the body reallocates moisture and often pulls water from brain tissue and muscles in the process. Appreciating this effect, I took a break until the power came back and I could grab some relief from my kitchen tap. As I relaxed in the shade, my mind wandered to ruminating on how critical water is to our survival and more importantly, our ability to function productively and clearly. The loss of water associated with overexertion can be expressed in numerous ways: Dark yellow urine Reduced urine output Constipation Dry skin and defined wrinkles Hunger and weight gain Thirst and dry mouth Headache Fatigue Joint pain Cramping

Dehydration is especially important to monitor when attempting mentally stimulating and physical endeavors. Living in a constant state of dehydration can cause you to experience frequent dizzy spells and light-headedness due to lack of blood flow and oxygen to the brain. In severe cases, vertigo and nausea may result. Slackened blood flow caused by chronic dehydration robs your brain of the oxygen and nutrients it needs to perform at peak capacity. As a result, you may find that your memory and concentration become severely impaired. Water is your body’s natural lubricant and cooling system. Without it, your muscles will overheat and seize up and your joints will start to grind. Keep your body in good working order with a constant supply of hydration. When following my hobby of canoe camping into the BWCA, I am well aware of my need to stay hydrated and I drink a lot of water and pee frequently. Some would say I have the bladder of a field mouse. Others,

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those who see how much water I consume, would appreciate my intentions of keeping hydrated. On a recent BWCA adventure I facilitated, one of my charges was not following the important rule of drinking water to compensate for loss, especially on hard portages and paddling the lakes and rivers. After a relatively easy portage of 200 rods (@ 2/3 of a mile) under a rather light load, my fellow adventurer set their pack down, began back-walking the portage for another load, and promptly stumbled, hitting the trail‌face first. Having not drank anything for the previous two hours, about four miles worth of paddling and one mile portaging, in hot conditions and limited shade, my newbie suffered from dehydration expressed by both mental and physical fatigue. A break was in order, along with plenty of water. As a turf agronomist, you manage water upon your grass with technical precision in an effort to

limit any potential negative effects of moisture stress. It is up to you to turn on the irrigation when necessary. What about your staff? Do they get the encouragement to maintain their fluids, or are they on their own. Please remember, people are stupid and often need reminders for their own good. I’m just saying. Yes, the recent storms wreaked havoc upon the MGCSA campus in Forest Lake. The once beautiful, lush, Hosta, bleeding heart and Astilbe bed positioned to grace the facility, is now a planting of green pulp. The peonies, irises and tall allium have lost their blooms and blossoms as well as much of their vegetation. And two beautiful trees will no longer provide an abundance of welcome summer shade. A powerful pair of storm fronts exemplified the fragility of nature and the ensuing cleanup efforts reminded me to stay hydrated at all times.

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Help A Turf Diagnostician, Help You Tips From the UW-Madison Turf Diagnostic Lab by Kurt Hockemeyer, TDL Manager

The Turfgrass Diagnostic Lab at the University of Wisconsin-Madison exists to serve the needs of turfgrass managers in need of some diagnostic help. Most of the time the samples sent into the lab are properly collected from the problem areas, the submission forms are properly filled out with sufficient information, and photos of the field symptoms accompany the sample. All of these things combined give your diagnostician all of the relevant information that they need to efficiently and accurately diagnose the issue affecting the turf. But oftentimes, one or more of these things is lacking or missing. This causes time to be lost when the diagnostician is trying to collect the missing information that can help them to diagnose a sample. This article is a kindly reminder of the things that you can do as a submitter to help your friendly, neighborhood diagnostician. 1. Collect samples from an area where the turf is actively being affected. By pulling samples from the transition area between healthy and affected turf, you give your diagnostician the best chance to find what’s wrong. In terms of fungal diseases, this is the area where the fungus is actively growing and infecting. If a sample were to be pulled from an area

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of completely dead grass, the only thing that would be found on the turf would be saprophytes, organisms that feed on already dead plant material. But by pulling from the transition zone, the pathogen can often be seen growing and moving on the turf from an already infected area to a healthy area. Same goes for insect problems. Also, sampling from the transition area, this is usually where the insects are actively feeding and causing problems, and therefore they can be found and diagnosed. It’s usually best to pull the sample before a fungicide or insecticide has been sprayed. By delaying the spray for only 5 minutes to pull a sample, you can avoid the risk of your pesticide application completely inhibiting a pathogen or insect from showing up in the lab. 2.

Fill out the submission form with as much information as possible.

The submission forms help to keep track of who has submitted a sample, but they also ask many relevant questions that can help a diagnostician. Sometimes these questions are ignored or only briefly answered because they don’t seem relevant to the submitter. But all of those questions are on that form for a reason. Describing the symptoms in detail, when Page Page 16


they appeared, getting worse or better, etc. is often the section that gets ignored. If all of this information is present right at the beginning of receiving a sample, this can help the speed of the diagnosis go much faster. 3.

Send photos of the problem

Photos of the field symptoms are not necessary for an accurate diagnosis, but they are usually extremely helpful. By giving the diagnostician some idea of what the problem looks like, they may be able to narrow down the list of possible causes and this can sometimes speed up the diagnosis. If photos are not possible, then a phone call can allow you to describe the symptoms in great detail and also give some information that you may not have been able to write down on the submission form. The Turfgrass Diagnostic Lab website (tdl.wisc.edu) contains a lot of great information about submitting samples. It even allows you to pay by credit card right on our website. By submitting samples early in the week, you can insure that you will get a response that same week. This also avoids


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the problem of samples sitting in shipping over a weekend where they can become completely degraded and it becomes very hard diagnose anything at that point. A cup cutter size sample that includes 2-3 inches of soil and roots is usually sufficient. Soil probe samples are too small. Once the proper sample is pulled, you can wrap it in foil to allow the sample to breathe while in shipping. Fill your shipping box with old newspaper or bubble wrap so the sample does not shift during transit. Ship however you want to the following address: Turfgrass Diagnostic Lab 2502 County Hwy M Verona, WI 53593 Include a submission form along with your sample, putting the form in a plastic bag to avoid the paper from getting dirty or wet. Or you can fill out the submission form directly on our website and submit electronically. This electronic form goes directly to my email and also gives me a heads up that a sample is coming from you. Once I receive a sample, I may contact you for more information. But I will always try to contact you within the first 24 hours of receiving your sample. Either with the completed diagnosis, or with my preliminary thoughts. Costs for professional sample submissions start at $100 for just a diagnosis. For a full written report with photos and recommendations, the cost is $150. We also have a special contract member status. You can buy a certain number of diagnoses at a discounted rate at the beginning of the season, and throughout the season you will receive our bi-weekly TDL Newsletter detailing everything we are seeing the lab, forecasting certain issues based on upcoming weather patterns, and our thoughts on the growing season. We sell contracts starting at $100, at $100 increments, all the way up to $1000. Each $100 increment entitles you to one full written report with photos and recommendations, which is discounted from the

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normal $150. A $1000 level contract gives you unlimited sample submissions throughout the summer. If you are interested in becoming a contract member, please contact me. If you have any other questions, or just want to chat, feel free to do so. Thanks and good luck this growing season.

Kurt Hockemeyer Turfgrass Diagnostic Lab Manager 608-845-2535 hockemeyer.wisc.edu tdl.wisc.edu

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A Golf Memory: Can We Design It? Kari Haug, MLA, MS, GCA

A Unique Sport The game of golf is extremely unique in how the sport’s participants relate to the landscape. First, golfers intensely focus on every bit of their environment, down to the direction the grain of the grass is growing and nearly imperceptible slopes on putting greens. We assess wind direction, location of hazards, vegetation edges, aiming points, topographical elevation, and the feel of the turf, soil, and slope under our feet. We also rely heavily on our senses in assessing our environment’s potential impact on our golf shot. How far is that bunker? What kind of elevation are we navigating, can we feel slope under our feet? Is there a water hazard to carry? What is our strategy? Is there a cool breeze, and if so, what direction is it blowing? Is it raining? Dry? Or is it hot and humid? In addition to sensing our environment, we call on our emotions to tell us how we feel about our golf shot… does it intimidate us or exhilarate us? Does it make us nervous, tense, or call us up to the challenge? Do we ask ourselves if we can make the shot? Or do we feel confident that we can? Our sensory system and the emotional center in our brain process all of this information and the memories of our day start to form. But what makes some memories stick and others just fade away? I propose it is a combination of four factors that I think can be influence by design that I call the “Biggest Bang Theory.”

The Biggest Bang Theory It is my theory that the combined integration of 1) sensory inputs, 2) spatial awareness, 3) intense focus or captivation of attention, and 4) emotional response create the strongest golf memories. I propose that golf course architects can enhance and trigger mental processes to create a golf memory through physical design techniques. I further propose that drawing on all four memory processes in a coherent way can create stronger golf memories than just drawing on one or two, and the design techniques that specifically target focus and emotional response in the golfer influence the strength of the memory.

A collision of all four mental processes that creates a near photographic image in our mind of the event is what I call the “Biggest Bang Theory.” Golf is uniquely predisposed to producing strong memorable moments where all four A Golf Memory: Can We Design It? © Copyright Kari Haug 2017. All rights reserved.

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conditions are met and integrated. The beauty of expansive vistas, camaraderie with friends, and emotions conjured by hazards, victories, and defeats provide much fodder for emotional processing.

When making strategic choices, golf is really just a game with risk or reward, and win or lose outcomes. But the emotion associated with these outcomes is processed in the same primitive part of the brain (the Limbic System) that saw choices lead to life or death outcomes in competition for survival. Therefore, I think emotional competition makes golf memories even more memorable. Vivid colors, weather conditions, fragrant smells, and sounds of nature or laughter contribute sensory input. But whether competing for our own personal best score or going for a tournament win, it is the intense focus required and emotional feelings that influence the strength of the golf memory.

Sensation, Emotion, Attention & Spatial Awareness Golf is a sport that inherently requires close attention to our natural environment. We are more in tune to our spatial surroundings on the golf course than in most any other location. We know generally how far our drive went and how far we have yet to go to reach our target – sometimes down to inches. We are acutely aware of our elevation relative to our surroundings. Is the ball above our feet or below or are we hitting off an uphill lie or a downhill one? Will we have to club up to hit that elevated green or club down to account of a drop in elevation? And we have to be fully aware of our body movements relative to our spatial surroundings. In fact, we follow a predetermined routing of our movement through the landscape, and at any given time, we know where the next hole is and what number it is in sequence. So the spatial awareness required for memorable moments is present, but what else is needed?

Think back to one of your strongest golf memories. You will probably remember something unusual or special about the moment. Maybe it was an incredible expansive view of an amazing golf hole, a lighthouse focal point in the distance, the visual color contrast between the fairway and rough, the sky and earth, or azaleas in bloom. You might remember the sound of the wind or smell of the sea, or the sound of friends laughing. You might remember the weather, the feel of salt or rain or sun on your skin, or the exhilaration of an imposing golf challenge that you faced – and whether or not you were triumphant. Or maybe it was a special place that produced an emotional response.

If you’ve ever played the Old Course at St. Andrews, you will likely never forget standing on the first tee looking out over the sacred golfing grounds, preparing to hit your first drive. Or standing on the eighteenth tee choosing a St. Andrew’s landmark at which to aim your final drive. The sensations and emotions that are perceived and felt when playing certain golf holes A Golf Memory: Can We Design It? © Copyright Kari Haug 2017. All rights reserved.

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or courses are part of the mental process that helped you form your golf memory. As golf course architects, we can facilitate the process of forming a golf memory by using architectural techniques that require golfers to activate emotion, attention, sensory, and spatial memory structures in the brain. Just by luck, the intense attention that the sport of golf inherently requires creates the potential for a golf memory to be extra strong as I have started to explain.

Unless you own, maintain, or design golf courses, you probably don’t know (or care) that the mere sight of an imposing challenge sets in motion adrenaline and emotional feelings that are part of the process of laying down a golf memory. It is important to note at this juncture that golf alone does not make the memory. The memory of your day at the golf course was created by the strategic choices you made, the emotions you experienced, the paths you walked, and the things that you saw, heard, smelled, and felt. The logical question for golf course architects is, “Can the golf course architect enhance the opportunities for making golf memories unforgettable?” I think we can.

The memory of your day at the golf course was created by the strategic choices you made, the emotions you experienced, the paths you walked, and the things that you saw, heard, smelled, and felt. – Kari Haug, Golf Course Architect

27 Design Techniques to Create and Enhance Memorability of your Golf Course I have divided the design techniques up amongst the four processes that aid in committing an event or place to memory, but that doesn’t mean they are exclusive to that process, only that each technique has a higher potential to impact the memory process in the assigned category.

Category 1: Design Techniques to Affect Emotion Most Important: Design Imposing Yet Surmountable Hazards. Hazards are the essence of the game! They set up challenges that stir the competitive spirit and all the emotions that go with victory and defeat. When hazards appear to be especially imposing, like the ocean carry on the 16th hole at Cypress Point, or closer to home in Minnesota, architect Jeffrey Brauer’s 7th hole on the Quarry Course or the 17th on the Legends at Giants Ridge in Biwabik, MN, the golfer has to confront their fear of failure and find the confidence to stand up to the challenge.

The Quarry – Hole 7

The Legends – Hole 17

A Golf Memory: Can We Design It? © Copyright Kari Haug 2017. All rights reserved.

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Capitalize on Expansive Vistas. The photo below on the left of the 5th Hole at New South Wales, designed by Alister MacKenzie in Australia, is a great example of capitalization on an expansive vista. Some may say that it is easy to take advantage of views like this; however, the architect must know how to route the course to deliver this view and the golf strategy associated with it. The photo below on the right is the finishing hole at Kingsbarns Golf Links in Scotland. It was designed by Kyle Phillips and Mark Parsinnen and has a similar effect of stirring awe and wonder in the human spirit. The expansive view of the 18th green from the clubhouse (see the shadow) has an additional hook that draws upon our psyche. During construction, a centuries old bridge and water conduit was unearthed. Called “The Brig over the Cundie,” the Phillips and Parsinnen team artfully incorporated this discovery into their design. New South Wales Golf Course, Australia The story behind the bridge has built an extra level of memorability into their masterpiece. More will be discussed about the significant role that history, story telling, and naming of golf holes and features has in creating memorable golf moments.

Views from a point of prospect draw up a sense of awe and wonder that sometimes borders on fear – this is called the sublime. Famous landscape artists in

Kingsbarns Golf Links, Scotland

A Golf Memory: Can We Design It? © Copyright Kari Haug 2017. All rights reserved.

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the late 1800’s knew this and used expansive views with vanishing points in the distant horizon to instill a sense of the unknown, conjuring the exploratory spirit of art enthusiasts. If the original routing of a golf course doesn’t capitalize on an expansive view, sometimes a rerouting can. In other situations, it may simply be that views have become overgrown by trees and a little work with a chainsaw is in order.

Create Surprises. Seth Raynor was a near magician at creating surprises. His Midland Hills CC design in St. Paul has a punch bowl green and a modified Biarritz green, both green types that can lead to surprising moments. The element of surprise with the punch bowl green is usually pleasant with the green corralling the golf ball. This creates an emotional feel-good moment. I’ll never forget the time I thought I was a mile from the flagstick at Dunbar GC in Scotland only to find my ball only feet from the hole at the bottom of a punch bowl!

As a golf course architect, I think it is desirable to design positive surprises to keep the game fun and enjoyable. The total blind hazard is no fun and in my opinion should be avoided. The only memory it might create would probably be a bad one. The Biarritz green creates a fun disappearing/reappearing act as the rolling golf ball vanishes into a dip only to re-appear on a back plateau of the green. The effect of this shot first plunges the spirit as the ball disappears, and then immediately elevates the spirit when the ball re-appears. One of the most memorable examples of the Biarritz green is the 16th at North Berwick, although this exaggerated Biarritz also has its share of quirk and challenge, which makes it extra memorable.

Create Mystery. Mystery leads to discovery and surprises. The mystery doesn’t always have to be part of the golf hole proper; it can be on pathways between holes. Both examples pictured here are from Kingsbarns Golf Links in Scotland.

A Golf Memory: Can We Design It? © Copyright Kari Haug 2017. All rights reserved.

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The Peek-a-boo. The Dell Hole at Lahinch in Ireland is a great example of hiding a portion of a target and creating the mystery that subliminally creates an emotional fear of the unknown. In golf, the peek-a-boo can push emotions related to curiosity, exploration and bravado.

Design Strategic Options that Require Decision-making. Beth Page Black in New York has a host of great strategically placed bunkers. Here in Minnesota, Richard Mandell’s 2nd hole at recently renovated Keller Golf Course in St. Paul has a deep center bunker that requires a strategic decision to be made off the tee. Imposing bunkers challenge the golfer and evoke an emotional response; therefore, I think it is critical that they have good visibility. Sinking them into a hillside improves visibility, and increases the visual drama.

Keller Golf Course – Hole 2, St. Paul, MN

Design the Love-to-Hate Hole. You might hate it, but you will remember it! Category 2: Design Techniques to Affect Sensory Systems Use Contrasting Color. Naturalized areas have been part of European golf course design for centuries. In America, we are seeing a revival of this practice due to drought and tightening maintenance budgets. I think this

The Famous or Historical. We can’t design this one, but when we experience golf on grounds that are culturally significant, emotions are often stirred. When I first hit a golf ball off the tee at the Old Course, I literally was swinging blind because at impact, I couldn’t see the ball at all! The key to capitalizing on this technique is to make sure golfers know the history and significance through good storytelling.

The Berkshire – Red Course, Hole 11, United Kingdom

A Golf Memory: Can We Design It? © Copyright Kari Haug 2017. All rights reserved.

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is an amazing opportunity for golf course architects to draw vegetative boundaries designed to frame golf holes and set up strategic hitting angles. See the photo of Royal Berkshire Red on the previous page.

Use Stunning Color Combinations. Undoubtedly one of the most memorable displays of color in golf are the azaleas that grace Amen Corner at Augusta National, or alternately, the gorse in bloom at Royal Dornoch in Scotland. The crabapple trees behind the 13th green at Keller GC in St. Paul, MN fill with blooms in the spring. In addition to the crabapples, Keller has naturalized areas teeming with native wildflowers, bees, birds, and dragonflies; and numerous maples that blaze with color in the fall. Seasonal color should be a consideration when developing the planting palette.

Above, Royal Dornoch, Scotland

Keller GC, St. Paul, MN – Hole 13 Forward Tees

When Available, Use Moving Water. Water is one of my favorite and most versatile elements in the design palette. It has the potential to stimulate multiple senses at once. If it is still and mirror-like, it reflects what is around it and can have striking visual appeal, but if it is moving, it can stimulate multiple senses. A fountain or waterfall can create a visual landmark, and water or mist can be felt. A babbling brook with check dams can stimulate auditory senses and provide memorable background sounds. If we are near the ocean, we will surely hear it and A Golf Memory: Can We Design It? Š Copyright Kari Haug 2017. All rights reserved.

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A ToAsT, In ApprecIATIon of Your BusIness.

Here’s To You.

At Par Aide, we’d like to raise a paper cup to you, our valued customer. Because it’s your unyielding dedication to the course that inspires us to keep building the industry’s most innovative products. So from Par Aide, we salute all you do. Cheers.

Wherever golf is played.


Par aide is a Proud sPonsor of MCCsa, GCsaa, The firsT Tee and The Wee one foundaTion.

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may even smell it. In Minnesota, the Land of 10,000 Lakes, we have ample opportunity to create memorable golf strategies using meandering streams and by building ponds. Some of the most memorable water features in the state can be found at The Meadows at Mystic Lake designed by Garrett Gill and Paul Miller. The Meadows has it all, fountains, meandering streams, check dams, and ponds. Making the water extra special at The Meadows is the cultural value it holds for the Native American community for whom the course was designed. This special note was not lost in the design.

Specify Fragrant Vegetation. Smell is the most primitive of all senses, and along with spatial mapping (discussed in the following section,) it is the most closely related to memory. However, except for taste, the sense of smell is probably the most difficult sensation to illicit through design. The use of fragrant plants is in our design palette, but golf course owners should consider opportunities to create a great golf experience starting in the clubhouse. Maybe consider an espresso bar, a cigar case, or create your own traditional clubhouse treat like the Master’s pimento cheese sandwich.

Category 3: Design Techniques to Affect Spatial Memory A spatial memory might best be thought of as a spatial map in our “mind’s eye” that we use to recall a certain place, like your childhood home, or the first tee at St. Andrews. Spatial awareness and memory is how we know where we are located relative to the rest of the world in order that we don’t feel lost. A spatial map is created in the mind’s eye by collecting sensory input from our surrounding environment and integrating it with proprioceptive and kinesthetic (body movement and location) information in the brain. A great routing of golf holes that uses design elements to affect the senses, assist with way finding, fixate attention, and conjure emotion can produce a very strong spatial map, which in turn can contribute to the creation of vivid golf memories.

Provide a Course Map. The sequential numbering of golf holes, their nature of being a series of pathways (fairways) and places (tees and greens,) and their arrangement in loops with a beginning and an end creates a very distinctive spatial map in the brain. An overall actual map of the golf course can reinforce the golfer’s own internal map. Stored in the “mind’s eye,” the spatial map is one of the most unforgettable forms of memory.

Use Unassuming Pathways Leading to Incredible Places. Since almost all golf courses are sequentially numbered loops, why are some golf courses more memorable than others? I think the answer is some golf course architects are more attentive to the entire route of the golf course including the movement between holes. Some are also more proficient at the use of landmarks, hazards, and focal points that compel the golfer to tune-in. Probably the most A Golf Memory: Can We Design It? © Copyright Kari Haug 2017. All rights reserved.

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effective landmark for a golfer is one that not only is a stunning visual place, but also one that produces an emotional response, like a hazard. The demanding tee shot over the ocean and rocky cliffs on the 16th hole at Cypress Point comes to mind as one of the most memorable shots in golf. What better way to create an emotional response (and a lasting golf memory) than setting up the ultimate golf challenge over an awe inspiring hazard, on the 16th hole, with an expansive view over water, and the focal point green framed by bunkers? How about adding one of the most unforgettable walks in golf through a tunnel of ancient cypress trees, with the golfer emerging like an explosion onto one of the greatest stages in golf?

Design a Great Routing. A golf course where every hole looks much like the last hole may be memorable, but probably only for how mundane it was. In contrast, a golf course that is has a rich linkage of distinctly memorable golf holes such as North Berwick in Scotland, has the first building block to create a golf memory… a great routing. North Berwick’s simple out and back figure-of-eight routing is just one of it’s memorable features. The path is easy to remember as a natural way to navigate the shoreline, and all along the way are distinctive landmarks and quirky golf features that lay down memory after memory. (Read more about quirk later.)

North Berwick GC, Figure Eight Routing.

Throughout the North Berwick routing, primitive human emotions related to motivation, awe, exploration, competition and conquest are called upon. We also experience emotion related to the excitement of the sport, strategic challenges faced, and social interactions (whether competitive or friendly.) Finally, the ever-changing beauty of North Berwick inundates the golfer’s sensory system with nature’s magnificent palette of sights, sounds, smells, and haptic sensations.

North Berwick GC, Hole 10. North Berwick Law in the background.

A Golf Memory: Can We Design It? © Copyright Kari Haug 2017. All rights reserved.

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Use Landmarks. North Berwick has numerous landmarks that make the round memorable. North Berwick Law (a huge rocky hill – see previous page) is a distant backdrop on Hole 10, and Bass Rock rises from the Firth of Forth (sea) in the distance behind Hole 14 green. Both landmarks capture attention as golfers take aim. Holy Hill is a stunning landmark that will awe visitors on 13 of the 18 holes at the 2017 U.S. Baker National GC, Three Rivers Park District, Hennepin County, Minnesota. Open venue, Erin Hills. These are examples of landmarks on the horizon, external to the golf course. But there can also be landmarks within the golf course that heighten the memorability of the golf hole. North Berwick has stone walls, the most famous of which is on the 13th Hole called “Pit.” At Baker National in the Three Rivers Park District, the red barn is an attractive landmark. Leave Room for Special Nodes in the Design. Nodes are crossroads or stopping points in the landscape, and gateways are markers of spatial transition in the landscape. The golf course has natural stopping points on greens and tees. These could be considered mini-nodes whereas a halfway house like the famous Carnoustie tea hut could be considered a true node. For some golfers, it is a tradition to visit the tea hut for Carnoustie GC “tea” hut, Scotland mid-round respite from “Carnasty” and to leave their bag tag behind with the others from around the world. While this memorable node came about organically, the architect can identify locations on his/her master plan where special A Golf Memory: Can We Design It? © Copyright Kari Haug 2017. All rights reserved.

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moments can be added into the golf experience. Nodes, gateways, greens and tees designed as “rooms” or “huts” within the golf landscape are all part of making the golf experience memorable.

Design Pathways and Gateways. The photo to the right is from Kingsbarns Golf Links in Scotland and is a crossroads example of a node, a pathway, and a gateway. Separating space makes each area more distinct and memorable as it’s own space. One space ends and the next one starts.

Kingsbarns Golf Links in Scotland.

Allow for Discoveries. Sculptures in the landscape at the Meadows at Mystic Lake were an addition made by the Mdewakanton Sioux community, and tie in extremely well with the design technique of creating surprises and using a common thread to create a coherent design, the importance of which will be discussed in the next section. The moose sculpture is located on the hillside adjacent to the 18th tee. The final hole is also called “Moose.” Category 4: Design Techniques to Captivate Attention and Increase Focus We have already discussed how golf inherently requires intense focus, both on the game and on the landscape. This section explains design techniques that can enhance the golfer’s ability to focus and ways that the architect can capture the attention of golfers from the moment they arrive.

The concepts discussed in this category can assist a talented designer with developing a memorable destination landscape that is easy for marketing departments to brand. The essence of this category is that all memorable places are distinctly recognizable. They are coherent in design, with a unique and consistent character. They have their own memorable identity. I call them “a place with a face.” A Golf Memory: Can We Design It? © Copyright Kari Haug 2017. All rights reserved.

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Design A Place with a Face or Place Identity. Designing a golf memory is more than designing the ‘sense of place’ that is so often referred to in the landscape architecture world. To design a golf memory, the architect must design a place that will allow for an experience that is like no other, a place that is uniquely distinguishable as different from all other places – a place with a face and a distinct identity. As golf course architects, we do this by using the physical palette of the natural environment, but in order to enrich the design, we create a design style and a charisma that makes our work identifiable, and the course owner’s product unique.

Find a Common Thread. A common thread is the absolute requirement of a place with a face. The common thread creates the design coherency and consistency of character required to formulate the place identity. Without coherency, the design is fragmented and the so is the identity.

The character of a memorable golf course is as distinct and unique as a charismatic individual. What I mean by this is that a California oceanside course like Cypress Point is distinctly different from the Scottish links course, Kingsbarns; and Tobacco Road in North Carolina is distinctly different from Hazeltine in Minnesota. Designing a distinctly identifiable golf course requires the designer to use a common thread throughout the design, but it goes one step further to draw upon the cultural history, geography, natural environment, authentic essence and location of the property so that the design does not feel contrived.

If a common thread is the necessary design technique for the design to hang together, then distinction is the element that sets it apart from all others. Without it, there is a sameness that blurs lines and makes one place look similar to many other places. Distinction can be affected by design of place identity. This is often confused with designing a “sense of place” which in my opinion cannot be designed. A sense of place can only be achieved via extraordinarily effective physical design of space that is authentic in respect to the natural and cultural history of the place.

Make it Unique and Distinct. A memorable golf course is recognized by its physical elements such as bunker style, character of the green complexes and tees, strategic style, and amenity style. The course is committed to memory by the sensations, emotions, and mental pictures or spatial maps that the physical elements conjure, and that the backstory enhances.

One golf course with very strong identity and design coherency is Tobacco Road in Sanford, North Carolina. The land itself is an expended sand mine, a landscape that at one time succumbed to man’s conquest over nature, but as a golf course has risen again to beat at the chest of competition. The essence of this place is man vs. nature. The name itself, Tobacco Road, has meaning in North Carolina’s competitive sports world and in literary history.

A Golf Memory: Can We Design It? © Copyright Kari Haug 2017. All rights reserved.

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Designed by the late Mike Strantz, Tobacco Road also has the elements required to well up emotion and fixate golf memories. After entering on an unassuming country road, one arrives at a rustic farmhouse-like clubhouse. The concept of rustic and rugged is consistent throughout the golf course with rusty farm implements supporting hole par signs, wooden half casks for benches and garbage bins, and large timbers for steps and retaining structures. The bunker style is part massive waste bunker, part gouged earth, part quarry remnant with some imposing forced carries. The common thread is that it is rugged and rustic and defiant. I even thought I smelled a cigar when I pulled up. Sure enough, they had them for sale.

Give it a Name. Don’t overuse this technique, but give special features names. Names are inseparable from identity and make places more memorable. Naming something humanizes it and attaches more emotion to that particular thing whether human or not. There probably are not many golfers who cannot see an image of Augusta National’s Amen Corner in their mind’s eye. Amen Corner is memorable for its exciting golf strategy, the emotional victories and defeats, the colors, fragrant azaleas, the water, the quiet of golf, and the roar!

Create Vanishing Points and Works of Art Using Angles. Famous golf course architect, Harry Colt was the master at using angles to create strategy and a memorable work of art on the golf

A Golf Memory: Can We Design It? © Copyright Kari Haug 2017. All rights reserved.

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course. The photo below is one of Colt’s many incredible par 3 designs at Swinley Forest near London. Notice the angles created by landform, vegetation, and even the cart path.

Photo above and below right: Swinley Forest, United Kingdom

Align Special Features as Focal Points or Plant Specimen Trees for Aiming. There are very few landscapes that require the intense focus that a golf course does. As we stand on a tee and survey the hole strategy and landing area, we often choose a focal point or target in the landscape or on the horizon. On short holes, sometimes the focal point is the flagstick on the green, but on longer holes, it is often another element, A Golf Memory: Can We Design It? Š Copyright Kari Haug 2017. All rights reserved.

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such as a tall tree, the edge of a bunker, or a building. Usually a focal point is in the distance, but The Old Course at St. Andrews has a shed dead ahead to hit over on the “Road Hole” 17th, and the strategy is to choose one of the letters in the words “Old Course” to aim at when hitting over the shed (photo below, left.) The focal point doesn’t always have to be a target at which to aim. The starter’s shack at Kingsbarns Golf Links is a memorable arrival focal point (photo below, right.)

Frame the View. Framing a view focuses the attention inward and sometimes toward a vanishing point, as this view of the 10th Hole at Sunningdale GC in the UK (photo below.) Focal points are similar to landmarks except that focal points focus attention, whereas landmarks enhance spatial mapping.

A Golf Memory: Can We Design It? © Copyright Kari Haug 2017. All rights reserved.

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Quirk is King: Let Design Quirks Happen. Quirk is a final design technique that captivates attention. The quirky moniker is reserved for the odd, unusual, but somehow beloved and weird experiences that grab our attention. An example of quirk is the floating island green at Coeur D’Alene Golf Resort in Idaho. The green can be moved by a series of cables under the water and golfers take a ferry to putt on the green. The mound in the photo to the right is called “Braid’s Hat.” The story I was told This quirky feature at Walton Heath in Surry is called Braid’s Hat, named after famous golfer and golf course architect, is that there were spoils from building James Braid who also served as the golf pro at Walton th the 4 Hole on the Old Course so they just Heath for 46 years. left them there and called the feature Briad’s Hat. These unique experiences and stories don’t disappoint and deliver lasting golf memories! Summary The four mental processes involved in creating a lasting golf memory are: sensation, spatial awareness, attentiveness, and emotional response. Sensory input such as smell, touch, sight, hearing, and spatial awareness begin the formation of a golf memory, while emotional response and sharp focus positively influence the strength of the memory. It is important to note that the memorability of golf courses can be enhanced by good design, but the golf course architect must be thoughtful in order to identify the design opportunities. She/he must also take an active role to appropriately and skillfully use the design techniques, and carry them out to fruition in a design that must first meet the exacting demands of a professionally designed golf course. © Copyright 2017 Kari Haug. All rights reserved.

Kari Haug, Associate Member European Institute of Golf Course Architecture (EIGCA) Kari has a Master of Landscape Architecture degree from the University of Minnesota, and holds a Master of Science in Golf Course Architecture from the University of Edinburgh – Edinburgh College of Art. She is an associate member of the European Institute of Golf Course Architects (EIGCA), and a licensed landscape architect in the state of Minnesota, MN Lic. # 54481. Her master’s thesis at the University of Minnesota focused on how to create a destination with a distinctive place identity. Her company, Kari Haug Planning & Design, Inc. is dedicated to the design of golf courses and practice facilities. She also is a licensed commercial drone pilot.

A Golf Memory: Can We Design It? © Copyright Kari Haug 2017. All rights reserved.

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Longevity in the Workplace Does It Hinder Growth? By Dr. Bob Milligan

As with many questions, the answer is “it depends.” We start by looking at two hypothetical but realistic employees. • John has worked on the farm for 20 years. During his first two or three years, he mastered the skills required in the position. He continues today in the same position and using the same skills. • Paul has worked for a different farm for 20 years. He also mastered the required skills in the first two or three years. Today, he remains in the same position because the farm has had no opportunities for promotion. Paul, however, has learned new skills and has been rewarded with increased responsibility (and compensation). Let’s analyze the situations of these two long-term employees: • John is still implementing processes that were cutting edge around the turn of the century (2000). John is often considered a “good employee” because he does his job, does not create problems, has a rea-

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sonable compensation package, and is unlikely to leave until he retires. At this point, John and employees like him are comfortable. However, typically they are not especially motivated or engaged. Unfortunately, his value to the farm is falling as his skills are increasingly out of date. • Paul, on the other, has increased his value to the farm and is likely motivated and engaged. Paul will increasingly be an asset to the farm due to his increasing responsibilities and his tremendous experience. Paul’s growth is likely a result of his self-motivation and encouragement from farm leadership. It is easy to conclude that John is a longevity challenge, perhaps even a disaster, while Paul is a longevity success. I am reminded of the question: “Does the employee have twenty years’ experience or one year’s experience repeated twenty times?” The answer here would be that John has one year’s experience repeated twenty times

while Paul truly has twenty years’ experience. Let’s look outside of agriculture. John and Paul are “first line employees,” meaning they do not supervise other employees - they do the work of the farm. McDonalds almost certainly has more first line employees than any other business in the world. McDonalds has always viewed its excellent training as one of its competitive advantages. In recent years, they have highlighted training and learning in their recruitment.

McDonalds, we can conclude that a, if not THE key, to our longevity question is that longevity is valuable when the employee continues to learn. The remainder of this article contains three ways to ensure that your farm or other business capitalizes on the longevity of employees: Understand motivation

For your business to succeed in producing high quality products, you must understand the biology of the animals, crops, etc. To retain employees and capitalize on their longevity, you need to understand While writing this article, I stopped at a McDonalds on my way motivation. Modern research on to visit a client. My breakfast place- human behavior (psychology) and mat was completely focused on the brain function (neuropsychology) educational opportunities of work- sheds great light on how to motivate individuals and a workforce. ing at McDonalds. Included was the tagline “Creating Opportunities The answer is surprisingly simple, but challenging to implement. As Together,” congratulations to two with many animal and crop relocal winners of McDonalds National Employee Scholarships, and search results, the answer forces several statements extolling the edu- us to abandon generally accepted cational opportunities of working at ways of thinking. The answer is that people are moved to be productive, McDonalds. engaged, and fulfilled when their psychological needs for autonomy, Analyzing the situations of relatedness, and competence are fulJohn and Paul and the actions of

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filled. The three needs are: • Autonomy: Our human need to perceive we have choices. It is our need to feel that what we are doing is of our own volition. It is our perception that we are the source of our own actions(1). • Relatedness: Our need to care about and be cared about. It is our need to feel connected to others without concerns about ulterior motives. It is our need to feel that we are contributing to something greater than ourselves(1). • Competence: Our need to feel effective at meeting everyday challenges and opportunities. It is demonstrating skill over time. It is a sense of growth and flourishing(1). Three points related to John and Paul jump out from these descriptions. Paul’s continuing learning and growth has certainly enhanced his competence and thus his motivation. Paul’s increasing responsibility has increased his perception that he has choices and, thus, his autonomy and motivation. Both, likely, have high relatedness, but, interestingly, John’s relatedness comes from being “comfortable” and thus does not necessarily increase his motivation. Page 40

Professional development and career orientation Employees, especially, long term employees, seek career enhancement by contributing to the farm/business and its success. They also seek to grow personally and in their career. To meet the needs of the farm/business and the long-term employee, you need a mutually beneficial partnership with the employee. This requires more than short-term training. Answer these questions: • How can his or her strengths and experiences best contribute to our business today and in the future? • What can the farm gain from these strengths and experiences? • How can the farm/business best contribute to the employee’s continuing growth and career advancement? Employees are more likely to stay when a) they perceive that the position fits well with and advances their career aspirations, b) they see interest in their career advancement,

and c) the business has career advancement possibilities and career oriented compensation packages. A “STAY” meeting An important component of successful longevity is an opportunity to discuss future opportunities with employees. I recommend an annual meeting, perhaps in late fall or early winter, with the objective of discussing future opportunities for increased responsibilities - maybe even a promotion - and to develop plans to prepare for the advancements. This meeting is often called a “STAY” meeting; its desired outcome is an increased interest by the

employee in staying with your farm/ business. Specific outcomes of the meeting include updating the job description, a professional development plan, and an increased understanding of future opportunities. Take Action As you finish reading, write down two or three actions you will take to ensure that you have more employees like Paul and fewer like John. (1) Susan Fowler in Why Motivating People Doesn’t Work ... and What Does.

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Coaching Tip: Encouragement

even angry.

Many of you are facing a challenging spring as a cold and rainy late April followed by hot and dry May weather made spring and early summer management much more urgent than in many recent years, especially 2016.

You also are focused on player expectations and likely will become tired and on edge. The last thing you want is for me to tell you to focus on your employees, but I am! Encouragement will go a long way to at least delay your people reaching the point where they are on edge. Look for appropriate places to express encouragement: • “I know we can do this.” • “I have confidence in you.” • “I know this will turn out well.” • “You can do it.”

The resulting long days and nights will not be a problem for your turf maintenance equipment. You have them ready to go.

Your people are also likely ready to go - maybe more than ready to go! Long hard days, however, can take their toll. People get Contact Dr. Bob Milligan at: tired and when we do, we are also 651 647-0495 more emotionally on edge. It is eas- rmilligan@trsmith.com ier to become discouraged, cranky,

The MGCSA wishes to thank Dr. Bob Milligan for his personal and personnel management articles. Although directed to the agricultural industry at large, Bob’s information is relevant and applies itself to the turf management.

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MGCSA Northern EXPOSURE Golf Event

Tuesday July 11th, 2017 AWESOME VENUE:

The Wilderness at Fortune Bay Golf Course

Registration with coffee and donuts between 9:30 and 9:50 Shotgun Start, mixer, two-man scramble, at 10:00/ lunch at the turn Host Superintendent: Vince Dodge CGCS

$40 per player includes lunch, golf, cart and prizes

RSVP NEEDED by July 1st due to demand

MGCSA and Non-MGCSA Area Superintendents and staff are welcome and encouraged to attend this event Contact Jack MacKenzie, Executive Director MGCSA jack@mgcsa.org 651-324-8873 Please use Registration Form avalable at: mgcsa.org

It wouldn’t be the same without you

Soaring Numbers of Japanese Beetles Now Feeding on Turf By Vera Krischik, UMN Entomology, krisc001@umn.edu, http://cues.cfans.umn.edu/

Above: Chickens love to eat Japanese beetle adults which are attracted to water. Growers place traps close to the ground near pans of water and the chickens dance around the traps eating the beetles. Not really an option for golf courses, but an upcoming management tactic in blueberries and raspberries. Page 44

JB history Japanese beetles (JB) were first found in the United States in 1916 near Riverton, New Jersey. The Japanese beetle is a highly destructive plant pest that can be very difficult and expensive to control. Japanese beetle grubs feed on grass roots and damage lawns, golf courses, and pastures. Japanese beetle adults attack the foliage, flowers, or fruits of more than 300 different ornamental and agricultural plants.

Adults emerge from the soil in early July, feed, mate, and lay eggs. In July adults are noticed feeding on vines, linden trees, roses, and many other ornamentals. Activity is most intense over a 6 to 8 week period, after which the beetles gradually die off. Individual beetles live about 60 days. Over two months females can lay a total of 60 eggs JB is a quarantine pest JB is a quarantine pest, which

Left: In corn, Japanese beetles can feed on leaves, but the most significant damage comes from eating pollen/silks during pollination. Three or more JB per ear are the threshold. Seed treatments of neonicotinoids on roots do not reduce feeding by grubs.

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The MGCSA Badgerland Exposure Golf Event at Luck Golf Course Host Kevin Clunis CGCS

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Thank you Affiliate Members for your continued support of the MGCSA

means populations must be eradistates to non-infested states and cated to zero numbers by the USDA plants or turf must be inspected by and state department of agricultures. the MN Department of Ag and given JB quarantine is in effect in Arizona, a phytosanitary certificate that they California, Colorado, Idaho, Monare JB free. JB is also monitored at tana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and airports. Washington. In addition, interstate Researchers now have a methshipment is restricted from infested od to fingerprint where JB come Figure 1. Adult stages of several white grub species.

Adult Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Japanese beetles have two white rear tufts and five white lateral tufts of hair. Adults found on plants.

Adult False Japanese Adult rose chafer beetle Macrodactylus Strigoderma arbicola subspinosus False Japanese beetles Rose chafer are a light lack the five white hair green tan color with tufts along wing long legs. Adults margin. Adults rarely found on plants. seen.

adult May/June beetle adult masked chafer Phyllophaga species Cyclocephala borealis Adults found at lights. Adults do not feed so not found at lights or plants.

adult black turfgrass Ataenius Ataenius spretulus The smallest species found in turf with high organic matter. Page 47

from. They have found a close relationship between the stable hydrogen isotope signature in beetle tissue and local water from 71 sites around the country. Combined with the signatures of water at known sources of Japanese beetles in the East, these results provide a sort of geographic fingerprint to determine where the beetle is from.

pic signature of the plant.

Avoid using JB pheromone traps Commercially available pheromone traps contain a synthetically made “sex pheromone” and plant products (eugenol, geraniol, and phenethyl propionate). However, the traps work so well that they attract thousands of beetles that miss the traps and fly onto the foliage and Also, researchers can use nitro- defoliate it and worse lay eggs in the turf. gen isotope analysis which allows us to determine 15N signatures, New products for controlling JB a ratio between two naturally ocadults and grubs curring stable isotopes of nitrogen (14N and 15N). When insects feed Two new products have arrived to help control grubs and adults. on plant material, they incorporate “Beetlegone” (Bacillus thuringiennitrogen into their tissues, and are essentially “marked” with the isoto- sis galleriae) and many who have Figure 2. Grub rastral patterns are used for identification. The hind end of the grub, its raster, contains sutures with hairs. JB has a small "V" shape suture with hairs. Clockwise from top are rasters of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, May/June beetle, and black turfgrass Ataenius.

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tried it say that it works on masked chafers, Phyllophaga and JB. “Beetlegone” is exempt from a 4 hr REI (reintry interval). However, you need to purchase it early as it sells out.

plication killed 100% of white grubs https://turf.purdue.edu/report/2012/ PDF/13_ENTM_JBeetle1.pdf.

Also, it is available to homeowners as the Scott product called “Grubex”. It has no adverse effects on beneficial insects and bees nest A new product called Acelepryn (AI, chlorantranilitropole) that ing in the ground or on the plant. controls grubs in the soil and adults on ornamentals. It provides excel There are two biological conlent, season-long grub control with trol agents, the fly Istocheta aldrichi and the tiphid wasp, Tiphia vernalis, a single (8–16 fl oz/A) application but they do not control infestations. in April or May. But Acelepryn is It is controlled in the eastern US by more than just outstanding grub control. That same application for soil-inhabiting protozoans that are grubs will control many key surface not present in Minnesota. feeding pests including cutworms, sod webworms, fall armyworms, JB adults feed in full sun at the billbugs, and annual bluegrass wee- top of plants, moving downward vil. This unique chemical has a very as the leaves are consumed. Odors low vertebrate toxicity and does not emitted from beetle-damaged leaves require a signal word on the label. It causes beetles to aggregate. Also, is effective on many landscape pests adults release an attraction pheroand can be used as a foliar spray or mone that causes them to aggregate. drench to provide translaminar and At dusk, this pheromone is no lonsystemic plant protection. Acelepryn ger produced and the females fly to also is soft on beneficial organisms turf to lay eggs. Females burrow 2 compared to older products. It can to 3 inches into the soil and lay their also be used as a foliar spray for eggs. The grubs grow quickly and JB adults. It takes about 4 weeks to by late September are almost fullbe taken up by turf, but studies at sized (about 1 inch long). When the Purdue demonstrated that July apsoil cools to about 50°F in the fall, Page 49

the grubs begin to move deeper. Most pass the winter 2 to 6 inches below the surface, although some may go as deep as 8 to 10 inches. Grubs feed again in May when ground temperatures are above 50°F. JB Management Adults fly long distances to food plants; so adult infestations do not indicate turf infestations. Timing of pesticide treatment is important. Insecticides for grubs can be applied from May through mid-June, when recently overwintered grubs (larvae) start feeding. However, these grubs are large and may be difficult to kill. Starting in mid- June most grubs are in the pupal stage and insecticides are not effective. In early July adults emerge to feed on plants, mate, and then at night fly to grass to lay eggs. The best time to apply insecticides for grubs is from mid-July until early September. Liquid insecticide sprays should be followed immediately with 1/2 inch of irrigation to move the insecticide into the thatch and root zone. Granular formulations are more practical for low-maintenance turf because they remain stable until rain falls. Page 50

UMinnesota hopes to perform future research to control white grubs in soil with pathogens Research in Michigan and Kansas have centered on the establishment of two soil microsporidian pathogens of Japanese beetle grubs, Ovavesicula popilliae and Stictospora sp. Stictospora was found at most locations in Michigan (25/36) where Japanese beetle infestations have been active for more than 20 yr, but was scarce or absent from areas where Japanese beetle has become established in the last 10 yr. Stictospora infects both the larvae and adults. Infection initially develops in the malpighian tubules of the larvae, but becomes systemic in infected adults. O. popilliae has been used as a biological control agent for the Japanese beetle and has been shown to be detrimental to both larval and adult beetles through an increase in larval winter mortality. Japanese beetles become infected with O. popilliae when larvae ingest spores. When infected larvae survive to adulthood, the infection may be carried with it through pupation. Adult beetles are capable of traveling over 8 km in a single flight, and thus represent a highly mobile stage

of infected hosts.

an IPM program, including scouting for pest activity, spot treating infest Ovavesicula popilliae infeced areas before the insect’s spread, tion on Japanese beetle populations and establishing thresholds of the number of insects per unit area. Rewas measured by determining the survival of grubs from fall of 2005 member that beneficial insects are to spring of 2006. At golf courses free and the less insecticide that is where more than 25% of the grubs used the more beneficial insects will control your pest insects. A primary were found to be infected, the detarget of IPM is to use cultural, crease in grub density from fall to spring was 57.4% compared with sanitation, and biological controls 28.2% at sites where no O. popilliae methods to suppress pest populations below the economic threshwas found. When the observed reduction of egg production in infect- old. However, when you know a ed females is added to grub survival pest was a problem in the previous season, preventive insecticide aprates, at sites where O. popilliae is active, Japanese beetle populations plications may be preferred to the could decline 67% or more per year alternative of waiting for damage. Preventive materials are applied when compared with sites without O. popilliae. Since the two biologi- before a noticeable pest population cal control agents, the fly Istocheta develops. Curative materials are aldrichi and the tiphid wasp, Tiphia typically applied after populations reach a damaging level. vernalis, do not control infestations, in Minnesota we should think about developing some manage For example, the neonicment program with traps baited with otinoids and chlorantraniliprole pathogens and dissemination of (Acelepryn) provide preventive O.popilliae in. Something to think protection against white grubs and about‌.. are much less toxic than the older organophosphate materials that Using insecticides preventively in were used for many years. There an IPM program are few cultural practices or effec There are many components to tive biological control agents availPage 51

market. Recent field trials suggest that chlothianidin and thiamethoxam have longer residual activity than does imidacloprid. However, I would try the granular formulation of imidacloprid, which takes longer to dissolve than the flowable formulation and is less subject to Management of newly hatched runoff. If you apply imidacloprid in May at the maximum rate of 0.4lb/ grubs requires insecticide application in July thru September. Appli- acre, then your second application cations in September will kill grubs in late July can be another neonicotinyl such as thiamethoxam (Meif the soil temperature remains above 50 degrees F for two weeks, ridian 0.33G, 25WG) or clothianibut these grubs are larger and more din (Aloft GCG, Arena 0.5G, 50 WDG). Care should be taken when difficult to kill. using any neonicotinoid to avoid applications when honeybees are Preventative treatments foraging, such as when clover or Environmentally friendly insecticides that do not kill predatory Creeping Charlie are in full bloom insects or bees are chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn) that can be used in Curative treatments May thru July. In mid-June grubs pupate and turn into adults so insecticide ap There are four neonicotinoids plication is not effective. Most incurrently available in turf. All of secticides need to be applied before them are systemic and move from a grub problem develops, but cuthe roots and blades through the ratively applications in late August entire grass plant. Applications of can be made of trichlorfon (Dylox) imidacloprid made before early June and carbaryl (Sevin). Both break may not provide level of control of down quickly in alkaline water with the late summer grubs that was ob- a pH above 7.2, so you may need served when it first appeared on the to buffer the pH of the water in the able that provide reliable control of white grub populations. The only option for effective management of high populations of white grubs in this circumstance is preventive application with a neonicotinoid or chlorantraniliprole.

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The Golf Course Industry Tech Tour At Midland Hills Hosted by Superintendent Mike Manthy

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tank. Ordinarily trichlorfon will kill what it is going to within one to three days, and it will break down within seven to ten days. Carbaryl

tends to be very inconsistent. Carbaryl is also very toxic to honeybees, native bees, and beneficial insects. Pyrethroids also do reach the grubs

1. Insecticides available for control of white grubs in soil Insecticide

Chemical Class/ (IRA number)* * Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (www.iraconline.org) has assigned a number for each chemical class.

Timing, benefits

Neonicotinoid grub insecticides It may take a few days to be absorbed systemically and moved throughout the grass, but are effective for weeks. The best time to apply insecticides for grubs is from July until early September. Liquid insecticide sprays should be followed immediately with 1/2 inch of irrigation to move the insecticide into the thatch and root zone. Granular formulations are more practical for low-maintenance turf because they remain stable until rain falls.

imidacloprid (Bayer, Merit and many generic products)

Neonicotinoid (4A)

Preventive, low toxicity to mammals

Arena (Valent, 50% chlothianidin)

Neonicotinoid (4A)

Preventive, low toxicity to mammals

Meridian (Syngenta, 0.33% thiamethoxam)

Neonicotinoid (4A)

Preventive, low toxicity to mammals

Zylam (PBI-Gordon, 20% dinotefuran)

Neonicotinoid (4A) very water soluble, so can be diluted by irrigation

Preventive, low toxicity to mammals

Combination insecticide for grub and leaf feeders These insecticides contain less neonicotinoid AI (active ingredient) so if you have grub problems, use the single insecticide listed above. Allectus (Bayer Environmental Science, 0.020% imidacloprid and 0.16% bifenthrin)

Neonicotinoid (4A) and Pyrethroid (3)


Aloft (Valent, 0.25% chlothianidin and 0.125% bifenthrin)

Neonicotinoid (4A) and Pyrethroid (3)


Acelepryn G (Syngenta, 0.2% chlorantraniliprole)

Anthranilic Diamide(28)

Preventive, low toxicity to bees and beneficial insects, water before and after

Grubgone, Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae


Preventive, low toxicity to bees and beneficial insects, water before and after

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Milky spore disease, Paenibacillus popillia


Does not appear to be effective.

Entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae, S. glaseri, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora


Preventive, low toxicity to bees and beneficial insects, Water before and daily after application

Spray on grass blades, does not penetrate deep into the roots where the grubs feed. carbaryl (Sevin)

Carbamate (1B)


in the soil, but may kill emerging adults. Once grubs have reached their full size by mid -September, these curative applications will only suppress populations and many grubs will survive to overwinter.

Managing adult Japanese beetles In July, adults that are emerging and are walking on the turf or when sitting on foliage, can be killed with an application of bifenthrin (Talstar), carbaryl (Sevin), chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn), Combination products chloropyrifos (Dursban 50W, PRO), Combination products, which clothianidin (Aloft GCG, Arena contain a neonicotinoid and a pyre.5G, 50 WDG), clothianidin +bithroid, will kill blade and root feedfenthrin (Aloft), deltamethrin (Delers. The neonicotinoid usually is taguard), imidacloprid+bifenthrin very effective against white grubs (Allectus, Atera), lambda-cyhaloif it is applied when the beetles are thrin (Battle, Scmitar) and imidaclolaying eggs. The pyrethroid compoprid (Merit 2F). A soil application nent of the product normally proof imidacloprid on plants will kill vides excellent control against many adults in about 1 week on shrubs insects such as aphids, moth caterand 2 weeks on trees. However, do pillars, and weevil adults. However, not use neonicotinoid insecticides check the labels and the amount of on flowering plants that bees visit. active ingredients, as the amount of See the bee protection box on neoneonicotinyl is often lower in comnicotinoid EPA labels. On shrub bination formulations. If you have roses, Japanese beetle adults feed a bad grub problem, go with the on flowers to avoid the spiny leaves single insecticide label. Page 55

Table 2. Spray on foliage of ornamentals or turf for managing Japanese beetle adults Acelepryn G (Syngenta, 0.2% chlorantraniliprole)

Anthranilic Diamide(28)

Preventive, low toxicity to bees and beneficial insects, water before and after


Pyrethroid (3)

Curative, high toxicity to honeybees, birds, fish. Do not use nearer than 100 yards from water.


Pyrethroid (3)

Curative, high toxicity to honeybees, birds, fish. Do not use nearer than 100 yards from water.


Pyrethroid (3)

Curative, high toxicity to honeybees, birds, fish. Do not use nearer than 100 yards from water.


Carbamate (1B)

Curative, high toxicity to bees, earthworms; moderately toxic to birds, fish. Do not use adjacent to water.


Neonicotinoid (4A)

Curative, high toxicity to bees

Triple Crown (7.87% bifenthrin (3), 2.7% zeta-cypermethrin (3), and 13.83% imidacloprid (4A)

Neonicotinoid (4A) and Pyrethroid (3)

Adults on grass surface

Scotts GrubEx, 0.08% chlorantraniliprole (Acelepryn)

Anthranilic Diamide(28)

Preventive, low toxicity to bees and beneficial insects, water before and after

Ortho Bug B Gon,0.115% bifenthrin

Pyrethroid (3)


Bayer Advanced season-long grub control, 1.47% imidacloprid

Neonicotinoid (4A)

Curative, high toxicity to bees

Bayer Advanced, 24 hr grub killer plus, 9.3% trichlorofon (Dylox)

Pyrethroid (3)


Bayer Advanced, Complete brand insect killer for soil & turf, 0.05% cyfluthrin , and 0.15% imidacloprid

Neonicotinoid (4A) and Pyrethroid (3)


Spectrazide triazicide insect killer for lawns, 0.08% gamma-cyhalothrin Spectrazide Triazicide Insect Killer For Lawns Granules, 0.05% gammacyhalothrin

Pyrethroid (3)


Table 3. Consumer grub products

Grubgone, Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae

Milky spore disease, Paenibacillus popillia

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Preventive, low toxicity to bees and beneficial insects, water before and after


Does not appear to be effective.

and foliar sprays appear to be more effective. A very good summary of all pesticides for use on golf courses is the 2014 AG bulletin 408, that is available from North Carolina Cooperative Extension turf files at http://www.turffiles.ncsu.edu/PDFFiles/004176/AG408PestControl_ Professionals.pdf Management of white grubs of other species is similar, but not always the same as JB. White grubs are a general name for the larvae of various beetles in the family Scarabeidae. In Minnesota, there are six common species, but by far Japanese beetle adults that are attracted to lights and

feed as adults are the most common white grub in turf. The adults of the Northern masked chafer (Cyclocephala borealis), are not attractive to lights and do not feed. The adults of the May/June beetle (Phyllophaga sp.) are attracted to lights and feed as adults. The very small Aphodius and Ataenius beetles overwinter in woodlots, and in the spring the adults form mating balls on turf in early June. A second generation occurs in August. These beetles feed on rotting materials in soils and are not attracted to lights. An economic threshold for Japanese beetle is seven grubs/ sq ft and for Ataenius is 50 grubs/sq ft. The grubs of all these species can be in the soil.

The MGCSA wishes to thank Dr. Vera Krischik for her support of turfgrass entomology.

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Applicators License and Use Categories 2017

Do you have a license to apply pesticides?

A common violation documented by the Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA) is unlicensed pesticide applicators. Improperly licensed and certified individuals can lead to misuse, human exposure, and environmental harm. Complying with Minnesota’s requirements will help protect citizens and our resources. This article will describe license types most commonly used by the golf course industry, how to maintain a valid license, enforcement, and statutory authority.


Commercial Applicators License: Required for pesticide applicators that receive financial compensation/charge for their service or are for hire.

Non-Commercial Applicators License: Required for golf course employees that apply General Use and Restricted Use Pesticides (RUP) on the golf course as part of their job. Non-golf course employees must have this license type only to apply RUPs on property owned or controlled by their employer. MDA links that help applicators get started with licensing are: 1. Pesticide and Fertilizer Licenses/Certification application fees 2. Online Licensing and Payment Options 3. Pesticide Applicator Licensing: See License Types These are the basic steps to obtaining a license: 1) Complete applications accurately; 2) Submit application to MDA and pay license application fees; 3) Schedule and pass the category certification exams; and 4) Keep a copy of your license in your possession. Licensees must pass at least two (2) certification exams: Core and one, or more, categories. Beginning August 1, 2016, legislative changes removed the requirement for noncommercial golf course employees to hold multiple certifications for application of general use pesticides on golf course property. Golf course employees should seek certification in the category where training best aligns with the work they do or the sites of application where they apply restricted use pesticides. In most situations, individuals will be licensed as a noncommercial applicator with certifications in categories A (core) and E (turf and ornamental). A. Core: Basic principles of pesticide regulation and application; required for all license categories. E. Turf and Ornamentals: For pesticide applications to non-agricultural areas for ornamental purposes. This includes maintaining plants for aesthetic value on indoor and

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outdoor sites such as lawns, parks, athletic fields, golf courses, nurseries, and greenhouse. F. Aquatic: For pesticide applications to surface water to control aquatic pest organisms. J. Natural Areas, Forests, and Rights-of-Way: For pesticide applications to treat terrestrial vegetation and some insects and diseases found in natural areas (prairie restoration and buckthorn removal), forests (forest areas and forest plantations), and rights-of-way (including roads, utilities, and ditch banks). L. Mosquito Control: For pesticide applications made to control mosquitos and black flies. P. Vertebrate Pest Control: For pesticide applications to control vertebrate pests in the landscape using chemical baits, repellents or toxicants. Examples include liquid fence, dried pig’s blood, geese, rabbit, or deer repellants; in addition to underground animals like gophers and moles. This certification is not required for use of traps, unless poison bait is used in the trap. S. Non-Commercial Structural: For noncommercial use of RUPs in, on, under or around structures. The MDA issues 20 different certification types. To determine which certification categories are required for the work you do, see additional License Categories.

Valid License

After initial licensure, license holders are responsible for maintaining a valid license. The following conditions must be met to keep a license valid: • • • •

Renewal and recertification dates listed on the card must be current. Certify in the correct pesticide use categories for work performed. Employer/company information must be listed correctly on the card including an address to conduct business. Employers must meet workers compensation and financial responsibility requirements for commercial licenses.

All Structural, Commercial and NonCommercial licenses expire on December 31st and must be renewed annually. Renewal forms are mailed to the listed employer near the end of the calendar year as notification that the renewal fee is due. Applicators must also recertify in each use category in which they are certified. Certifications expire on December 31st. Individuals must attend training or retest in the cycle specific to the

Questions? Reach out to the MDA: Pesticide Applicator Licensure Page 59

category. Most category certifications require recertification every 2 years. It is the applicator’s responsibility to know when they are due for recertification. Printed on each license identification card is a Valid date and Categories/Recertify-by date. To check the license status and Recertify-By date of an applicator, look on the license identification card or go to License Lookup.

In order to be qualified to renew, applicators must recertify each category before the recertify-by date.  Applicators recertify by attending a recertification workshop or by retesting.  Attendance at a qualifying workshop allows applicators to renew their license without retesting. If a workshop is missed or is unavailable for that category certification, the applicator must pass the closed-book certification exams and pay a retest fee. 

Applicators must notify the MDA immediately when changing employers as the license becomes invalid when an applicator leaves an employer. Licensed applicators must notify the MDA of any change in address, name, change of employer, or change of license type (i.e. noncommercial to commercial). An applicator may not perform pesticide application work for a new company without first obtaining a license under that company's name.

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To make any of these changes, contact the MDA at 651-201-6615. Pesticide.Licensing@state.mn.us See License Changes Learn more online about pesticide applicator certification requirements: Recertification Requirements


Due to potential human and environmental risks from lack of proper applicator license and use categories, be advised that documented non-compliance will result in a Notice of Violation ORDER and may include additional enforcement or financial penalties.

Statutory Authority

Minnesota Statute 18B.345 Pesticide Application on Golf Courses. www.revisor.leg.state.mn.us/statutes/?id=18B.345 Thank you, Corinne du Preez, Agricultural Advisor/ACI Minnesota Department of Agriculture Pesticide and Fertilizer Management Division 3555 9th St NW, Suite 350 Rochester, MN 55901 Office (507) 206-2883 Corinne.dupreez@state.mn.us



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Within the Leather by Dave Kazmierczak CGCS Prestwick Golf Club

I was at a gathering of superintendents in the middle of last year and somebody made a comment about how his crew was just not up to par with the crews of previous years. (Truth be told- he wasn’t that kind with his words, but I digress….). Others chimed in with similar gripes about their own situations, or what they had to do, or the hoops they had to jump through to get a quality crew. When it came my turn I kind of sheepishly indicated that I didn’t really have that problem, thankfully. I explained that my crew was made up of retirees who operated our main mowers and college and high school kids all of whom seemed to have a decent enough work ethic or kind of fit in right away with the culture of accountability we had created at Prestwick. Most of the workers we get are word of mouth guysPagePage 62 62

guys who knew others who have worked on the crew or had some connection to the course. They all seem to fit in. Although it seemed the cool thing to do, I simply didn’t have the ammo to contend in this superintendent piss and whine session. Fast forward to June 20, 2017. Guess what? It seems the good Lord has blessed me with the same issues and challenges as my peers. I now have a howitzer for the piss and whine session. Whether it is not showing up on time, not doing what was specifically told of them, or seemingly just not giving a damn, this year’s crew has caused all of the management team to pull a few hairs out of their heads in frustration. To be fair, this crew is very green. We only had two returnees on the regular crew and they only had one year under their belt. I figured it would be rough at first and told my assistants just that-

that it would take extra time and diligence to accomplish what we needed to. Still, there seems to be a disconnect with this bunch. The message just isn’t getting through in the conventional manor. Group meetings look like a sermon to the living dead. I almost walked over and checked the pulse of one kid sitting in the corner. Sound familiar? My first couples of crews, when I started in 2001, were of similar quality to 2017. I think I fired six individuals my first year and another handful my second. Back then, I had a stack of applications to call up the next guy and proceed. This season, there is no stack. I am usually full in February and beating them off with a stick come April. This year I filled out the crew in early May.

his or her response. There seemingly is no answer for the shortage of quality workers, so now what? Well, there are two main questions my assistants and I need to ask ourselves: 1) Have we given our guys enough training and the right kind of training? 2) Have we found the correct motivator for each individual and/ or the group in order to have them to do what we need them to do and in the manner in which we want them to do it? Clearly it seems we have not so far, and that will be addressed in a large meeting shortly after this column is done being written.

This magazine has been running articles written by Bob Milligan concerning personnel and tips for people There is no bigger topic management. They are all currently in the world of golf well written and offer tips course management, and probably to help in this area of our business which increasingly any kind of management for that matter, than the issue of labor. Ask is consuming our time any Superintendent what keeps and energy. From what I gather overall, and him up at night and personnel applying it our situation, issues will more than likely be

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many of our challenges this year are indeed not employee issues, but management issues. We have not conveyed or found the right motivator or communication vehicle. We have not impressed upon our guys what it takes to be outstanding and why being outstanding matters. Until I am sure that my assistants and I have done our due diligence, I will accept responsibility for the aggravation. Each crew and each individual is different, and perhaps the methods of the past simply will not work with this year’s edition. It is incumbent upon us to find a better way. The funny thing is, I have people coming up to me remarking on how they think this is the best year the course has ever been shape-wise. I’m still trying to figure that out and don’t know whether I should be proud or offended. Ask me in September if today’s meeting worked or not. If I don’t have any hair on my head- don’t ask. PagePage 64 64

If you have something to say about any topic relevant to your peers, and would like to help support the In The Leater column, please reach out to Jamie Bezanson, Jesse Trcka or Dave Kazmierczak CGCS for insertion into a future issue of the Hole Notes Magazine. Your viewpoint is important. Please share.




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