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Hole Notes The Official Publication of the MGCSA

Superintendent Uncovers Historical Blue Prints

Vol. 53, No. 3 April 2018


Thank You 2018 Annual MGCSA Sponsors

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Legacy Scholarships pages 14 - 16 Monarch Joint Venture pages 18 - 19 EM Education and Networking page 54 USGA Case Study: Pollinator BMPs pages 56-57

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Hole Notes Magazine Vol. 53, No. 3 April 2018 Feature Articles: Evolution of Homo Sapians, Grass and A Game pages 20 - 29 By Dave Ward, Superintendent at Coyote Run Golf Course thick-skinned: Paul Koch, UW Madison pages 30 - 35 By Matt Cavanaugh, Assistant Superintendent Rush Creek GC Raynor’s lost plans pages 36 - 43 By Seth Dudley, Golf Course Architect Magazine Gasoline Guidelines For Outdoor Equipment pages 44 - 47 By Steve Hagen and Stihl Dollar Spot Control Using Alternative Methods pages 48 - 55 By Dr. Paul Koch, UW Madison Monthly Columns: Presidential Perspective By Brandon Schindele In Bounds By Jack MacKenzie, CGCS Within The Leather By Liza Chmielewski

pages 6 - 9 pages 10 - 11 pages 58 - 59

On The Cover:

A “secret find” hidden for years and discovered by Midland Hills Country Club Superintendent Mike Manthey

EDITORIAL COMMITEE JAMIE BEZANSON JAMIE_HONDA@YAHOO.COM JESSE TRCKA JATRCKA@WAYZATACC.COM LIZA CHMIELEWSKI LIZA@GERTENS.COM Hole Notes (ISSN 108-27994) is digitally published monthly except bimonthly in November/December and January/ February by the Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents’ Association, 10050 204th Street North, Forest Lake, MN 55025. Jack MacKenzie CGCS publisher. Please send any address changes, articles for publication, advertising and concerns to jack@mgcsa.org. Page 5


Presidential Perspective by Brandon Schindele, Superintendent Edina Country Club

performance review process and as part of that process I added a questionnaire about our operation and tried to dive into things that my team: likes, dislikes, what we should do more of, do less of, etc. I told them that there were no right or wrong answers and that I just wanted everyone to be as candid as possible and not worry about hurting anyone’s feelings. We will now come back as a group and talk about these things and see how we can improve as a team even if that means the conversation gets a little out of the comfort zone for all of us. The end goal is to be better and more efficient as a team and provide a better product for the membership here at Edina Country Club. Spending the time to do some “preventative maintenance” How many of you, however, with our staff members is have taken the opportunity to spend some quality time discussing something that I think most of us just do not do enough because we your operations with your full might be afraid of making waves or time staff members? I recently creating uncomfortable situations. finished up our annual employee Last month I had stated that, “Spring is on the doorstep!!! Hopefully by the time this issue of Hole Notes reaches your computer, tablet, phone, or any device of your choosing the majority of us will be venturing out onto the golf course to assess our turf conditions and will be making preparations for opening the courses throughout the state.” Well, let’s try that again and see if we can’t make spring happen. I am sure that everyone has put a fresh coat of paint on everything that they possibly can and swept and dusted every corner of their shops at least twice.

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I attribute it to the proverbial Minnesota nice/passive aggressive gene that we all carry as native Minnesotans or at the very least for those who grew up here. Now that I premised the idea of having an uncomfortable conversation I think it might be time to have a frank, uncomfortable discussion about a topic that we have been hearing about for the last 5-10 years, perhaps even longer than that: water and specifically how much water we are allocated through our permits from the DNR. I hope everyone read Jack Mackenzie’s article last month about the issues facing White Bear Lake and specifically the golf courses that are in a five mile radius of the lake. There is a very good chance that this will be the model for state water regulations as we move ahead. One highlight that I have observed in the time that I have spent in some meetings is that the DNR, from what I have seen, is leaning on us as the

Superintendents to guide them on how we set up the BMP’s and what are more realistic water allocation numbers for each golf course. How nice is it to hear this phrase from those involved, “You guys are the professionals and leaders in this area so we are asking you to give us some solutions.” So now we can get a little uncomfortable in the discussion…. How much can each one of us reduce our allocation amount? We have the opportunity to do this every year when we submit our water use report and I think we, as a group of professionals, have an opportunity to be the leaders on this front and to be proactive with an issue that is certain to become more important as time goes on. A few items to consider as you think about how much you could reduce your allocation amount: • How many gallons a year have you averaged over the last 10 years? 20 years? • When was the last time you reached your allocation number or

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went over your allocation number? • If you did reach your allocation number and went over it were there repercussions or consequences besides just paying for that extra water? Was your water shut off when you reached that amount?

can do our jobs with less water. Don’t get me wrong, I know all of us are trying to have the course play “fast and firm” but still satisfy the golfers that want green grass. Healthy grass is green grass so this is not a brown is the new green conversation, but are there ways we can become more efficient with our water? Have all of us explored I believe if you are honestly answering these questions you the methods and options that are should be able to confidently say out there to get better with our that you could amend your permit water usage? and allocated amount in a way that • Have you developed a drought still leaves you a healthy water management plan? allocation but makes the case that • Have you taken advantage of we are doing our part to conserve reading through and implementing water and communicate the good some of the Water Use BMP’s? story of golf and the environment, • Have you experimented the especially when we go to the use of drought resistant grasses in Capitol and communicate our story perennially dry areas? every year. • Do you have areas of your golf course that you can convert to no Taking advantage of a little mow, non-irrigated turf and use extra “down time” this late winter/ fescue grasses for example? These are just a few of things that pseudo spring all of us can take some time to think about pushing you can start with and there are many other options and ideas that out of our comfort zone as it can be implemented, but everyone relates to water and see how we

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needs to start somewhere and it might start with getting out of your comfort zone and having that uncomfortable discussion to start the process as it relates to water. As the year goes on, please keep this in mind and I will be bringing this up again as we get closer to the end of the year when it comes time to seriously consider

if your allocation amount can be more reflective of our needs at each golf course. Till next month – Once again – Take 2 “I wish everyone luck as they assess their turf from a long winter and open your courses for play.”

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In Bounds by Jack MacKenzie, CGCS

Straight teeth and a college education, two promises I kept with my children through a diligent savings plan and forgoing some of life’s extravagances as a single father. It was a very successful arrangement for the orthodontist, Winona State and UW Eau Claire. Two sets of perfect choppers and two degrees, the latter of which ended up as peripheral liberal arts degrees because neither child pursued their “specialties” as their vocation. This isn’t a condemnation on their choice, rather a failure in the school’s ability to encourage meaningful education and provide exceptional internships. Case in point, my daughter, romanced and inspired by juvenile justice, wasn’t allowed to take her on-the-job training until the last semester of her senior year. She HATED the field, primarily the bureaucracy of the lower court system. Wasted years?

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Not really as she made good friends and matured along the way. Perhaps the fault lay in my proper fiscal planning, as it relieved the youngsters of a heavy financial burden during those formative years and upon graduation. Although extremely grateful for the support, neither sought scholarships during their first foray into post-high school education. Eventually my son and daughter obtained degrees into fields that motivated them, this time however, it was on their own dime. Funny what the realities of life will do, as my son, who, after dabbling in accounting, computer science and economics during his first four years of school, eventually pursued additional education in turf studies at Rutgers, because he realized growing grass really was his passion. Suddenly, his coin purse close to empty, he realized the importance of scholarships. When I attended the University of Minnesota in the late 1970’s and


early 80’s, the price structure was such that an individual could work extremely hard all summer long and generate enough money to pay for a year at school. I was fortunate, as my parents also gave me “straight teeth and a college degree”, and almost all of my summer earnings went into investments. However, my former wife graduated with a $10,000 debt to the UMN financial program. Not bad when I consider my average income at the time was about $2,500 each summer while working at the White Bear Yacht Club, 40 hours each week, plus an amazing amount of over-time. Today the cost of a four-year college degree is frightful and many families take out second or third mortgages to accommodate continuing education. Or kids burden themselves with debt to the point that home ownership is far out of reach upon graduation, and for many years there after. This is a scary reality of life for those who choose the coveted “lambskin”, so why then do so few apply for the Legacy scholarships available through the Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents Association?

The average number of applications for the MGCSA and Joe Garske Par Aide Scholarships received by Scholarship America over the last six years is eight, several of which are not filled out properly, a requirement. Some years I am notified during the last couple of weeks of the opportunity, there are not enough applications to fill the available scholarships. Times have changed dramatically. College costs so darn much, and summer wages are so limited, ignoring scholarship opportunities just doesn’t make any sense. Our industry provides many scholarship opportunities. Take advantage of them and help your kids out. Now that I am blessed with grandchildren, saving for their future educational needs is becoming a consideration. Straight teeth will fall upon the parent’s shoulders, but my wife and I are strongly leaning toward starting 529 college savings plans for the little tikes. It makes sense for us today, to help support them tomorrow. Hopefully I will also be able to take advantage of the MGCSA and Par Aide Legacy Scholarships too.

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Can’t Miss Reel/Agronomic Education MGCSA and MTI Distributing Present:

The Science Behind Reel Mowing Fine Turf May 14, 2018 Where: Olympic Hills Golf Club 10625 Mt. Curve Road, Eden Prairie, MN Morning session in clubhouse

8:30 - 9:00 Registration with donuts and coffee 9:00 - 12:00 Classroom discussion: Mowing theory and all aspects of cutting unit adjustments and configurations to achieve high performance mowing results. 12:00 - 12:45 Incredible Pizza Buffet

Afternoon session at the Turf Management Center

12:45 - 3:00 Hands-on activity: How to measure / calculate reel mower; frequency of clip, cutting unit attitude, reel diameter, reel coning, blade path. -Discuss, demonstrate, perform maintenance procedures reel & bedknife grinding, back lapping, bedknife re-facing and de-burring techniques, setting bedknife attitude, paralleling cutting unit rollers. -Fairway mowers: adjust cutting unit turf compensation springs and traction unit counter balance springs. On the Turf (as time permits) -Determine effective height-of-cut and quality-of-cut performance via Turf Evaluator / prism, microscope, macroscope, stimpmeter etc. Cost is $30 per person includes lunch, coffee and donuts RSVP Requested by May 7, 2018 All MGCSA members are welcome Register at mgcsa.org or email jack@mgcsa.org

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2018 Legacy Scholarships Deadline for Application: June 1st, 2018

The Program: The Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents’ Association offers a scholarship program designed to assist children and grandchildren of Class AA, A, B, C, D, EM, Associate and Affiliate members. The MGCSA provides scholarships to students attending college or vocational programs at any accredited post-secondary institution. The program is independently managed by Scholarship America, a national non-profit student aid service organization. Awards will be granted without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sex, disability, national origin or financial need. Page 14

The Joseph S. Garske Legacy award, named after the founder of Par Aide Products Company, Joe Garske, is committed to further the education of children and grandchildren of MGCSA members through financial contributions. This is the 22nd consecutive year for these awards. Par Aide is located in Lino Lakes, Minnesota and owned by Steve Garske, son of Joseph.

The late Mr. Garske, who died at the age of 76 in 1982, started Par Aide in 1954 with plans to make a “good” ball washer. A foundry man and avid golfer, he knew little about


the golf business, tried to sell his ideas for design and tooling to two accessory companies, was turned down by both and so began Par Aide Products Company. Steve Garske started The Legacy Scholarship in his father’s honor in 1996. Selection of Recipients: Scholarship recipients are selected on the basis of academic record, potential to succeed, leadership and participation in school and community activities, honors, work experience, a statement of education and career goals and an outside appraisal. Selection of recipients is made by Scholarship Management Services. In no instance does any member of the MGCSA play a part in the selection. Applicants will be notified by the end of July whether they have been awarded or denied a scholarship.

Eligibility: Applicants for the MGCSA Legacy Scholarships must be: children/grandchildren of Class AA, A, B, C, D, EM, Associate or Affiliate members who have been members of the MGCSA at least five years; High school seniors or graduates who plan to enroll or students who are already enrolled in a fulltime undergraduate course of study at an accredited two- or four-year college, university or vocationaltechnical school, and under 23 years of age. Awards: Three awards will be given to children and grandchildren of Class AA, A, B and C members. One award of $1,500 in the name of Joseph S. Garske will be given to the highest evaluated applicant. That award will be renewable for one-year contingent upon full-time enrollment and satisfactory academic performance. One other $1,000 award will be given Page 15


to other qualified applicants from this group. One $1,000 award will be available to children and grandchildren of Class D, EM, Associate and Affiliate members. These awards are not renewable. However, students may reapply to the program each year they meet eligibility requirements. Awards are for undergraduate study only. Obligations: Recipients have no obligation to the MGCSA or its members. They are, however, required to supply Scholarship Management Services with current transcripts and to notify Scholarship Management Services of any changes of address, school enrollment or other relevant information. Except as described in this brochure, no obligation is assumed by the MGCSA.

Apply Today C u t y o u r Tu r f , n o t y o u r B u d g e t . And take advantage of Turfwerks’ Customized Financing Options! Think new or used equipment is out of your budget - Think Again! At Turfwerks can we work with you to offer your course customized financing. To find out how we can help, contact your sales rep today.

You get the equipment you need, golfers get the greens they want, we get a happy customer. Call Turfwerks today to discuss financing options for your Golf Course. Adam Hoffman Ph: 612-802-3149 • Nick Sherer Ph: 612-308-0102 • Mitch Stewart Ph: 515-240-8874 PAR AIDE

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MONARCH JOINT VENTURE Partnering across the U.S. to conserve the monarch migration w w w. m o n a r c h j o i n t v e n t u r e . o r g The Monarch Joint Venture is a partnership of federal and state agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and academic programs that are working together to protect the monarch migration across the lower 48 United States.

MISSION

Recognizing that North American monarch (Danaus plexippus) conservation is a responsibility of Mexico, Canada and the U.S., as identified in the North American Monarch Conservation Plan, this Joint Venture will coordinate efforts throughout the U.S. to conserve and protect monarch populations and their migratory phenomena by developing and implementing sciencebased habitat conservation and restoration measures in collaboration with multiple stakeholders. Our mission will be achieved by coordinating and facilitating partnerships and communications in the U.S. and North America to deliver a combination of habitat conservation, education, and research and monitoring.

VISION

The vision of this Joint Venture is abundant monarch populations to sustain the monarch migratory phenomena into perpetuity, and more broadly to promote monarchs as a flagship species whose conservation will sustain habitats for pollinators and other plants and animals. Monarch Joint Venture Page 18of Minnesota University

monarchs@monarchjointventure.org

Monarch and Milkweed Misconceptions

When it comes to monarch conservation, one thing is certain – without milkweed (plant species in the genus Asclepias) there would be no monarchs. Milkweed is not always recognized for its important connection to monarchs, in fact, historically it has come with some very negative connotations. In this document, the Monarch Task Force of the North American Pollinator Protection Campaign aims to de-mystify some common monarch and milkweed misconceptions.

Misconception: Milkweed is only useful to monarchs Despite their natural toxicity, milkweeds are utilized by a variety of insect species. Butterflies, moths, bees, and wasps and more visit milkweeds for pollen and/or nectar. Regional studies examining milkweed pollination found over two dozen insect species using milkweeds; and results indicate that honey bees, bumble bees, other large bees, large wasps, and larger butterflies were the most important milkweed pollinators (Borders, Shepherd 2011). Likewise, there are species that consume milkweed leaves or seeds, like milkweed beetles (Tetraopes tetrophthalmus), large milkweed bugs (Oncopeltus fasciatus), and tussock moths (family Lymantriidae). Predators, such as crab spiders (family Thomisidae) and mantises (order Mantodea), prey on the many insect species that frequent and depend upon milkweed. These multispecies relationships are all part of the milkweed ecosystem. The Milkweed, Monarchs and More field guide has more information on inhabitants of the milkweed patch (Rea, Oberhauser, Quinn 2003). For these reasons, milkweeds are an important component in any pollinator mix for restoration projects.

Misconception: Milkweed is an invasive weed There are many species of milkweed native to North America and while “weed” is part of their name, these milkweeds are native, beneficial wildflowers. In the U.S., neither the federal government nor any states list milkweeds as noxious weeds. In fact at least five species are listed as state or federal endangered species (Borders, LeeMäder 2014). According to the North American Invasive Species Network, an invasive species is “a non-native species...whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic harm, environmental harm, or harm to human health.” The invasiveness of any plant depends on the characteristics of the species and where it is

planted. Some species of milkweed, like common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), have a tendency to be more aggressive in garden settings or disturbed areas, and thus have a reputation of being “weedy”. If you are concerned about milkweed spreading too much, choose species that are native to your area, and avoid species that are particularly good at vegetative, clonal reproduction or are prolific seed producers. Local garden centers, Master Gardeners or Master Naturalists, and other conservation authorities can help you choose the most appropriate native milkweed species to plant in your setting.

Misconception: Monarch caterpillars will eat more than milkweed Milkweed (genus Asclepias) is the main host plant for monarch caterpillars, but there are a few few non-Asclepias species that monarchs also use. Female monarch butterflies know that their offspring can only eat milkweed, and thus are drawn to milkweed species to lay their eggs. Egg-laying in the wild has been documented on plants like non-native, invasive swallow-worts, but monarch caterpillars cannot survive on these plants and ultimately starve to death. Captive reared monarchs show some ability to adapt to non-milkweed food resources in more mature caterpillars (cucurbit fruits such as pumpkin, squash or cucumber) (Maeckle 2014), however, these plants/fruits are not viable substitutes for milkweed. In addition, other species of butterfly whose caterpillars look similar to monarchs but feed on plants other than milkweed can cause confusion upon casual observation.


Misconception: You should not grow milkweed plants because they are dangerous to livestock, pets, or children Although milkweed contains toxins, it rarely poses any significant threat to people or animals. The name milkweed derives from the milky sap contained in the stems and leaves of the plant. The sap contains toxins called cardiac glycosides or cardenolides, which are known to be toxic to animals if consumed in large quantities. The amount of toxin in the plant varies by milkweed species. A small taste of milkweed is typically not fatal to animals, but can be dangerous if large quantities are consumed. Medicinal uses of milkweed have been documented, but outside of such traditional practices any part of the milkweed plant should not be consumed by humans. Milkweed has a foul taste, and it is not likely that children would consume the plant. Take steps to prevent accidental ingestion, such as instructing children that the plant is poisonous and to avoid any contact with their eyes after touching the plant. Remember to always wash your hands thoroughly after handling milkweed. Milkweeds are generally not sought after by grazing livestock or other animals when sufficient forage is available. According to the USDA, poisoning typically occurs when animals are concentrated in areas of poor forage and abundant milkweed stands. Prepared feeds and hay should not contain high concentrations of milkweed. Pets may encounter milkweed growing in naturalized areas or in pollinator gardens, but consumption is rarely reported. While rare, if human or animal milkweed poisoning is suspected, seek medical attention.

Misconception: Tropical milkweed is bad for monarchs and must be removed completely While non-native tropical milkweed (Asclepias curassavica) is not inherently bad for monarchs if managed appropriately, it is recommended that, when possible, native milkweeds be used in plantings. Tropical milkweed may persist beyond the season of most native milkweeds, and in some places (that do not experience hard frost), year-round. The availability of out-of-season milkweed allows monarchs to remain in those areas and be reproductive during times they otherwise would not be. Milkweed that does not die back can result in the buildup of the protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (O.E.) on those milkweed plants and the subsequent infection of caterpillars that consume the spores of the parasite along with the milkweed leaves they are eating. O.E. is a debilitating parasite that is not necessarily fatal to monarchs, but affects their overall fitness and migratory success. All milkweeds have the potential to host O.E. parasite spores, but the year-round nature of tropical milkweed growing along the southern Gulf Coast and along the Pacific Coast are of concern because researchers

are documenting higher parasite infection rates in those areas (Satterfield, Maerz, Altizer 2015). As geographically important locations for the monarch migration, it is important to continually assess and control non-native milkweeds due to the interactions they have with migratory monarch generations and the potential to increase infection rates among the North American population at large. Measures to control tropical milkweed by cutting it back in the fall and winter, to mimic what native milkweeds are doing, can prevent winter breeding in monarchs and reduce O.E. transmission. See Potential risks of growing exotic (non-native) milkweeds for monarchs (listed in references section) for further information on this topic.

References Altizer, S., Satterfield, D., Oberhauser, K., Brower, L., Caldwell, W., & Nail, K. (2016). Potential risks of growing exotic (non-native) milkweeds for monarchs [PDF]. Monarch Joint Venture. Retrieved September 19, 2016, from http:// monarchjointventure.org/images/uploads/documents/Oe_fact_sheet.pdf Borders, B., & Lee-Mader, E. (2014). Milkweeds: A Conservation Practitioner’s Guide (Publication). Portland, OR. Retrieved September 19, 2016, from http:// www. xerces.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Milkweeds_XerSoc_june2014.pdf Borders, B., & Shepherd, M. (2011). Milkweeds: Not Just for Monarchs. Wings: Essays on Invertebrate Conservation, 14-18. Retrieved September 19, 2016, from http://www.xerces.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/06/Wings_sp11_milkweed. pdf Fulton, D.H. (1972). Poisonous Plant Groups. Technical Note: Range No. 1. USDA SCS: Boise, ID. General Invasive Species Information - North American Invasive Species Network. (2016). Retrieved September 19, 2016, from http://www.naisn.org/ information/ Maeckle, M. (2014). Milkweed Shortage Sparks “Alternative Fuels” for Hungry Monarch Caterpillars. Retrieved September 19, 2016, from http:// texasbutterflyranch.com/2014/04/11/milkweed-shortage-sparks-alternativefuelsfor-hungry-monarch-caterpillars/ Milkweed (Asclepias spp.). (2016). Retrieved September 19, 2016, from https:// www. ars.usda.gov/pacific-west-area/logan-ut/poisonous-plant-research/docs/ milkweedasclepias-spp/ Pfister, J.A., F.D. Provenza, K.E. Panter, B.L. Stegelmeier, and K.L. Launchbaugh. (2002) Risk management to reduce livestock losses from toxic plants. Journal of Range Management 55:291-300. Rea, B., Oberhauser, K., & Quinn, M. A. (2003). Milkweed, monarchs and more: A field guide to the invertebrate community in the milkweed patch. Glenshaw, PA: Bas Relief Pub. Group. Satterfield, D. A., Maerz, J. C., & Altizer, S. (2015). Loss of migratory behaviour increases infection risk for a butterfly host. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 282(1801). doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.1734

Photo credits: Candy Sarikonda, Wendy Caldwell, and USDA This document created by the 2015-16 Monarch Task Force of the North American Pollinator Protection Campaign.

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center. (2006). Plant Guide: Common Milkweed. Asclepias syriaca L. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Page 19


EVOLUTION OF HOMO SAPIENS, By Dave Ward, Superintendent Coyote Run Golf Course First printed in the MAGCS Publication, On Course, April 2017

Why do humans feel so comfortable on a golf course? Why do people find the golf course landscape so beautiful and calming? Why are they willing to devote vast sums of money and resources to create and maintain playing fields for the game of golf? Is it possible that humankind’s co-evolution with grasses and Africa’s savannah ecosystem provides the answers? Might the love of grass, trees, golf, the golf course, and swinging a club be somehow primal? Page 20


GRASS AND A GAME

Throughout history, people have had a love affair with grass and trees: grass to feed cattle, burning grass to attract game for hunting, living in and on the edge of wooded areas, and more recently, our infatuation with the home lawn and treed landscapes. Most outdoor sports and recreation, including golf, occur on grass. Golf course superintendents experience the serenity and beauty of a golf course on a daily basis. Look at any golf course superintendent’s Facebook page, and you will see picPage 21


tures of tree-lined fairways at dawn or perfect turf with intricate mowing patterns. Golfers apparently feel the same attraction to this natural beauty as superintendents. In a 2004 world-wide survey of over 18,000 active golfers, respondents were asked to list the most important reasons they play the game of golf. Enjoyment of the outdoors and nature ranked right up there with hitting good shots and personal challenge as the primary reasons.

close. The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support an unbroken herbaceous layer consisting primarily of grasses.� This definition also perfectly describes the typical parkland golf course, although without the lions, giraffes and zebras one typical envisions when imagining the African version. Golfers, golf carts, and maintenance equipment are a less exciting, but probably safer, substitution.

Wikipedia defines a savannah as: “a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterized by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not

About four million years ago our ape-like ancestors climbed down from the savannah trees into

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the grass and started to walk on two legs, which allowed the use of hands for reaching, carrying, using tools and swinging a club. Standing erect was critical for peering over the top of grasses for hunting and avoiding predation. Eventually bipedalism led to the ability to play golf (stick-and-ball games go back at least to Roman times). About 100,000 years ago Homo sapiens

appeared. Homo, meaning man and sapiens, meaning wise or “wise man,” although I am sure the term wise man is not an apt description of most golfers. In his book, PrairyErth: A Deep Map, about the prairies and people of the Flint Hills of Kansas, William Least Heat Moon writes about man’s evolutionary relationship to

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the African savannah, its grasses and man’s ability to walk on two feet:

that made man stand up: to be on all fours, to crouch in a six-foot-high world of thick cellulose, is to be blind and vulnerable. People may “I am recapitulating human prefer the obvious beauty of mounhistory, retracing in an hour the tains and seacoasts, but we are bisixty-five-million-year course of our pedal because of savannah; we are evolution from some small, bottom- human because of tallgrass. When I dwelling mammal that began to walk the prairie, I like to take along crawl in trees and evolve and then the notion that, while something climb down and move into the East primal in me may long for the haAfrican savannahs. It was tall grass ven of the forest, its apprenticeship

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in the trees, it also recognizes this can food production describes our grand openness as the kind of place species’ relationship with grass where it became itself.” from the grasses’ point of view: From the start Homo sapiens and grass have shared a symbiotic relationship, with humans cultivating the grass and the grass providing humans with sustenance and recreation. Omnivore’s Dilemma, Michael Pollan’s book on the four agricultural systems used for Ameri-

“But it is upon the grass, mediator of soil and sun that the human gaze has always tended to settle, and not just our gaze either. A great many animals, too, are drawn to grass, which partly accounts for our own deep attraction to it...for surely our abiding affection for the stuff –

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reflected in our scrupulously tended lawns and playing fields, as well as in the persistence of so many forms of grassy pastoral, in everything from poetry to supermarket labels – expresses an unconscious recognition of our one-time dependence.” “Our species’ co-evolutionary alliance with the grasses has deep roots and has probably done more to ensure our success as a species than any other, with the possible exception of our alliance with the trillion or so bacteria that inhabit the human gut. Working together, grass and man have overspread much of the earth, far more of it than would have been possible working alone.” “So at least it appeared to us. Regarded from the grasses’ point of view, the arrangement appears even cleverer. The existential challenge facing grasses in all but the most arid regions is how to successfully compete against trees for territory and sunlight. The evolutionary strategy they hit upon was to make their leaves nourishing and tasty to animals which in turn are nourishing and tasty to us, the big brained creature best equipped to vanquish the trees on their behalf. But for this strategy to succeed the grasses needed an anatomy that could withstand the rigors of both grazing and fire. So they developed a deep root system and a ground-hugging crown that in many cases puts out runners, allowing the grasses to recover quickly from fire and to reproduce even when grazers (or lawn mowers) prevent them from ever flowering and going to seed. (I used to think we were dominating the grass whenever we mowed the lawn, but in fact we’re playing right into its strategy for world domination, by helping it outcompete the shrubs and trees.)” According to Dr. James Beard, primitive ancestral grasses first appeared on earth between 55 and 70 million years ago, although recent evidence of grass remnants in fossilized dinosaur coprolites, (dung), may push the date back a bit. The first herbivorous grazing animals followed soon after. Grass is among the youngest groups of flowering plants, most Page 26


photo: Mary Meyer UMN Page 27


likely evolving from earlier monocots like lilies, irises and agaves. Cool season grasses appeared on the scene about 50 million years ago. As grass co-evolved with grazing animals, it became adapted to severe defoliation by developing basal meristems, prostrate and creeping growth habits along with stolons and rhizomes. Grasses may have first come to North America about 38 million years ago. Today, there are over 11,000 grass species and grasses cover almost a third of the world’s land surface.

probably first hitchhiked to the New World aboard ships in the straw bedding of sailors. Once here they spread fast. When the first European settlers crossed the Appalachians into Kentucky in the early 1800’s, they found that Poa pratensis, (Kentucky bluegrass), had beaten them there.

Because there were no mechanical grass cutters until the invention of the lawn mower by Edwin Budding in 1830, early golf courses were essentially maintained by grazing animals. Golf was pre For the last 100,000 years, old dominantly played in winter when world grasses, (grasses from Europe the grass was naturally short due to and Asia), evolved under domesti- the grazing. Sheep were still used to maintain grass on American golf cated grazing to produce the turf courses until the early 1900’s. Tograsses we recognize today. Inday, golf is played during the warm digenous North American grasses evolved with a different set of wild season and those grazing animals grazers like bison, antelope, elk and have been replaced by golf course deer that tended to produce annual superintendents, their crews and a fleet of very expensive equipment. grasses in the abundant rainfall of the east and bunch-type perennial Eventually mass production of affordable mowers not only revolugrasses in the arid west, both of which proved unsuitable for lawns tionized golf course management, but made possible for the masses and mowing. Indigenous Amerithe American dream of the perfect cans actively managed grasses uslawn. ing them for food, fuel, medicine and ceremony. Old world grasses Page 28


Golf course superintendents are possibly the preeminent grass farmers on earth today, manipulating the physical characteristics of grass and molding it to produce the perfect playing field for the game of golf. We are playing right in the grasses’ strategy by keeping trees at bay and by supporting the development of new and more vigorous varieties, abetting the grass in its quest for world domination. It took millions of years for the evolution of hominids and grass to arrive at the perfect moment where the game of golf could exist. Golf is unique among all games played on grass by today’s bipedal Homo sapiens. It is played on a grand expanse of savannah-like ground dominated by grass and trees. The grass is mowed so the chance of

a golfer being stalked and eaten by a predator is low. It is played on two feet and at a pace that allows the player to disappear into an enchanting world for four or five hours, immersed in a natural environment that feels oddly comfortable, somehow connected to our evolutionary beginnings. Since the arrival of Homo sapiens, our world has evolved but we have retained our primal desire to be amongst the grass and the trees. “Now: I am in the grasses, my arms upraised: spine and legs straight, everything upright like the bluestem, and I can walk a thousand miles over this prairie, but I can’t climb a tree worth a damn.” William Least Heat Moon

The MGCSA wishes to thank Dave Ward, Superintendent at Coyote Run, Wisconsin, for sharing this exceptional article which was first published in the MAGCS magazine On Course in April of 2018. Great job Dave. Page 29


with paul koch uw-madison interview by matt cavanaugh adjective: insensitive to criticism or insults. as in, “you have to be thick-skinned to work in the turf industry” ynonyms: insensitive, unfeeling, tough, hardened, callous People are stupid. That is my Dad’s favorite saying and at this moment I’m guessing many of you are nodding your head in agreement. I don’t actually think people are stupid - I think people are poor listeners or lazy or in many cases, both. A spouse may continue to question you about the same thing over and over again. Well guess what, there is probably something you need to do or change that either you are not listening to or you are too lazy to fix (or both), which is pretty stupid. In the movie Groundhog Day, Phil Connors was “living this day over again until he gets it right.” At first, Phil continued doing things his own way and not listening to the people around him. Day after day he would keep hearing the same message and finally he got it right. We often continue to hear the same message, but do not change our actions. It could be that we are not listening or we are lazy, but the fact remains, we don’t know what we don’t know and we may need to be thick-skinned to hear it (if in fact we even listen).

The one simple thick-skinned question: Paul, you visit with and have many conversations with golf course superintendents and assistants. Based on the current facts, research and knowledge, what is one thing you see that we as turfgrass managers could change to help improve turfgrass decisions? Paul: “The easiest change to implement is to manage fungicide resistance in dollar spot more proactively. More and more SDHI fungicides will be coming to market in the next few years, which basically leaves the DMIs, Page 30


the SDHIs, and chlorothalonil for dollar spot management. Using fungicides wisely and strategically, rather than blindly spraying because it’s 21 days since the last time you sprayed, will be important for extending the efficacy of these important tools.” thick-skinned: Do you think the success of fluxapyroxad can be dangerous for superintendents in terms of resistance? Paul: “I don’t think I would use the term dangerous, but it might set up unfair expectations for future SDHI fungicides to come out in the near future. The first year Xzemplar (i.e. fluxapyroxad) was on the market we received lots of reports of incredibly long residuals, 35 or more days. By year two, that was down to 28 days for most superintendents. Some level of SDHI resistance will likely be present in the population as new SDHI fungicides come to the market, so it’s important to implement resistance management from the start.” thick-skinned: Due to how long DMI’s have been around, how do you feel about recommending DMI’s in a rotation for dollar spot control in 2018? Are there some DMI’s that are better than others at this point? Paul: “DMI’s are still important rotation partners for dollar spot management. While some level of resistance to the DMI’s is widespread, it doesn’t mean we can’t use those products, it just means that the reapplication interval needs to be tightened from the 21 to 28 days it was when the products first came out to the 14 to 21 days we use now. Different Page 31


DMIs are better for different fungi, unrelated to resistance. I would argue that propiconazole (Banner Maxx) is more effective for dollar spot and other DMIs such as tebuconazole (Torque, Mirage, etc.) and triticonazole (Trinity) are better for anthracnose.” thick-skinned: Based on the phrase of “rather than blindly spraying because it’s 21 days,” my preference is to not do an early fungicide application and I generally wait until I start to see dollar spot development (historically for me late May or early June). This allows me to save a fungicide application for later in the year when I’m seeing more dollar spot. Do you like this strategy? Paul: “I actually still like this early-season application, at least on fairways. It knocks down the dollar spot inoculum early in the year, which gives you a little leeway when dealing with the disease through the rest of the summer. Waiting until disease starts to appear in certain areas means there is already a large buildup of the fungus, which can (depending on the weather) make dollar spot management a little trickier the rest of the season.” thick-skinned: To be honest, I have implemented the strategy of waiting until I start seeing dollar spot in late May or early June based on the fact that Xzemplar has been so dang good at cleaning things up. It can be very easy (and why I said dangerous before) to get caught up in how good that product is. This then allows me to shift an application (and be friendly to the budget) to the fall where year after year I continue to see much more dollar spot pressure in late September and into October than I do in April or May. Maybe I’m seeing more pressure late in the season because I’m not utilizing an early spring application. Possibly some food for thought on my end. Paul: “No response to your lack of an early season application, solid thinking there.” Page 32


thick-skinned: Beside scouting, are there additional tools superintendents should be using to determine the best time for dollar spot applications that may extend the application interval? Paul: “Well I’m glad you asked. We have recently launched a new model that uses air temperature and relative humidity to predict the onset of dollar spot symptoms. The model is known as the Smith-Kerns Dollar Spot Prediction Model (named after Dr. Damon Smith and Dr. Jim Kerns) and can aid superintendents in making spray decision before dollar spot symptoms become apparent. This is especially true in much of Minnesota and Wisconsin where prolonged periods of cool, dry weather can limit dollar spot activity. August of 2017 is a great example. More information on the model can be found at https://tdl.wisc.edu/dollar-spot-model/.” Page 33


thick-skinned: It is certainly worth your time to investigate utilizing this model during the 2018 season. As stated on the Turfgrass Diagnostic Lab (TDL) website, “One unique feature of this model is that it does not tell users when to spray, it simply gives them a probability of dollar spot occurring.” thick-skinned: I just want to ask one more question that I thought of that may not really fit with the topic, but it popped into my head. Do you think November snow mold applications have any impact on the dollar spot inoculum the following spring? Paul: “We conducted research a few years back that showed that while snow mold applications made in November don’t really have an impact on the following year’s dollar spot because the fungus isn’t active at that time of year, applications slightly earlier in the fall DO have an impact on the following year’s dollar spot. These are often referred to as either early snow mold apps or fall clean up apps, but if done in October when the dollar spot fungus is active it can certainly knock down the initial level of disease the following spring. This research was published in the International Turfgrass Research Journal back in 2013 on page 97 (http://turfsociety. com/itsjournal/vol12toc.pdf).” thick-skinned: Paul, since the Badgers didn’t make the NCAA basketball tournament this year, is there anything you’d like to get off your chest? Paul: “Well in addition to mentioning that the Badgers have held Paul Bunyan’s axe since 2003 (14 straight wins!), I would like to see more superintendents experiment with different, sometimes radical, management practices over small areas at their own course. Some of our best research ideas come from superintendents who tinker with different management practices. Some of them are flat out crazy, some of them turn into great research ideas that eventually get adopted by the mainstream.” Page 34


thick-skinned: You may have started reading this thinking “well, here is another dollar spot article,” but it continues to be the disease we spend the most money on. I think many times we can all be blind to what we are doing. We get stuck in a pattern that has worked or even in a pattern that we are not challenged to change. We go out every 21 days with a fungicide on tees or fairways because frankly it works, but if we are being honest, it’s pretty lazy too. So, I challenge you to oppose the “blindly spraying because it’s 21 days” and use new tools around you that have been developed to help you get the best out of your fungicide program. Yes, there may be some issues with some breakthrough along the way, but the good thing is we can still get lazy and clean up any issue that we may have. It is very easy to get stuck in the turf “Groundhog Day” and not listen to the information that is all around us. Paul Koch is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Paul can be reached at plkoch@wisc. edu or @uwpaul. If you can’t reach Paul he can be found with Kimmie in the biergarten.

Matt Cavanaugh is an Assistant Superintendent at Rush Creek Golf Club in Maple Grove, MN.

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Raynor’s lost plans

A treasure of golf design has been unco in St Paul, Minnesota: a map showing S course. Sean Dudley, from Golf Cour

Reprinted with permission and great appreciation from the magazine Golf Course Architecture, Issu 52, April 2018 One of the early pioneers of golf course architecture, Seth Raynor learned his trade from Charles Blair Macdonald before going onto forge his own legacy. The Long Island native designed more than 100 golf courses across the US before his death in 1926. One such course is at Midland Hills Country Club in St Paul, Minnesota. Over time, however, it was thought that any record of Raynor’s original plans for the course had been lost. “Starting in 2004, I attempted to access the business records of Seth Raynor, hoping I could find maps or plans of our golf course,” explains

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overed at Midland Hills Country Club Seth Raynor’s original plans for the rse Architecture, finds out more

John Hamburger, club historian at Midland Hills. “But according to a nephew I spoke with, John Raynor, most of his records were destroyed after his death in 1926.” This made a discovery by the club’s golf course superintendent Mike Manthey in the roof of his office all the more astonishing. “I have about 50 maps up on a shelf, about a foot from the false ceiling,” explains Manthey. “Since I started in 2010, I’ve noticed there was a ceiling tile, in the closet, in sideways, with a gap showing. A hunch came over me. At first, I was tired of looking at the gap in the ceiling, so I wanted to fix it. But before I did, I wondered if something had gone wrong in the past – maybe a ceiling leak or the running of a new communication or irrigation cable. I grabbed my cell phone, turned on the light and stood on my chair. Rolled up against the wall, above the false ceiling, there was a canvas map.”

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Manthey quickly realised he had come across a huge find – an annotated map of the irrigation system that provides a thrilling insight into Raynor’s plans for the course. “I immediately realised this wasn’t just any map – this was the map!” he says. “A map of Raynor’s original design. In the Midland Hills board minutes, it was documented that an irrigation system was desperately needed to water the new greens and tees during the grow-in of the course in 1921. Crane and Ordway of St Paul took a copy of the original Raynor drawings and designed an irrigation system over the top to present to the Midland board. This 3x6 ft map is from 7 February 1921, five months before the golf course officially opened for play. It’s in fantastic shape, no rips, and has what looks like just a few oil and coffee stains. At the far north-east corner of the property, the map is just slightly faded. But it’s all legible and you can see all of the design lines.”

Above, Midland Hills Clubhouse circa 1925 Page 38


Manthey was amazed at what the plans revealed. “The scale of the corridors are massive,” he says. “Raynor definitely used the topography of the land in his strategy. Now, seeing the exact grassing lines, he created much more strategy and variety and looked to maximise the landforms.” One big surprise is how the course seems to have changed between 1921 and the earliest aerial photograph the club has of the course, taken in 1937. “Bunkering, grassing lines, burying sloughs, even digging out a new pond had already occurred,” says Manthey. “I’m also surprised that it was not as geometric as I imagined. The design of the fronts of greens were fairly square, but his grass lines really followed the contours brilliantly. Our template par threes – Short, Eden, Biarritz and Redan – are things of beauty. I’d put them up against any of the Raynor courses I’ve played.” LLS and The discovery has been well received by the club’s membership A F N O N N A Raynor enthusiasts alike. “You could say I have been searching SC NGS for these

G I T N I S T A S H A OE A H C L A S O L O E EO SCE K C O A S E L E O L K E T E L A R K T L A U R Deere N THeadquartersLA HA UJohn LEMinnesota’s EL T D T L Golf R D T U O R N T O H-SCEO HM M C I C D TU HMOND I H R N R C O I O K R WAKE W A E M E L C W I N H N E E R C L T I R NRTLE SE- TURTL W NT TN U E U N O N O U M T U O M E D T LLS ROOND ON CHM N E S M S U E O O O S R N R NW RI O M S A M O S R N F L L H L A M S L N C C A L I H A F O R TINGSNT NE TNW RIC CANN FAL NNON F W N O E N U N O N S S O E N U S A N A T A N O M A G C M EOLA HROSE SC INMOUN EOLA H S E T G G S S N I A N O 651-437-7747 I T H C FALLS AKE FALL OSPoint HAST OLA HAS SCEOLA ROSLEAKE NOSFCALLSLARK12040 E LDriveNSouth Douglas N N E O L O E T O E E N C O R N L L E S N D U N T T AMON TING T GSMNC55033 KE O RTLE LAK ND TUR CANND TUIRNGS CMAONDHastings, H N I C LA HAESW I T O T O R S H U S C T A M M I A W RICH EW RICH LATHNEW CREOLAUNHT NE OSCEOOUNT N E LAKE OND W E N N N KE OSSEMO LAKREOSEM TURRTOLSE- T T U T N O N U U M LAALLS ROTURTFLAELLS MONFDALLS MOONND MO MO LS ROSE E S O F ONDNNON RICN R HNON RICCH N L S N A N L F O A L E N A N A A M F N S N W W O C C G A E E T N S S C N N N N N I G G S T A T T U T G IN OUHNASTIN OUANHAS C O AS M H E A S INGS LA HASTIN OLA HAST M L L M LS LA ROOSSECEO LLOSSRCOEO L O A E E E F O C C K E S S N LASKE LA FAAKE ANTNLO L EO EO E OSC www.frontieragturf.com A N K K A L L F O A A C E E L R L N L L S C D U E T T E N G T L S N L R R A GD O IN CTU FRONTIER TU YOUR T N N S M I S D O T G H TURT OND TURT MONDEXPLORE A S C N N M I H I A A AR HICH MO OW L L W A H H R O O E M L C C E E I T I N H C Page 39 R C R N C RI W W STCNE E EAMKEOUONST LSAEKMEOOUS E E O N N N T U T N O N L LE O COLUMBUS

ROSEMOUNT

TURTLE LAKE OSCEOLA NEW RICHMOND HASTINGS CANNON FALLS


A Raynor design feature, a biarritz, or biarritz green, is a putting green that features a deep gully, or swale, bisecting its middle. plans for 14 years,” says Hamburger. “You can imagine my joy that Mike found them!” The club has been working with architect Jim Urbina to create a masterplan for the course, and this map will likely play a major role in how that project moves forward. “When Mike sent me the information about his discovery, I circled the Redan on the photo and said ‘Thank you!’,” says Urbina. “These historical finds are priceless and will forever link Midland Hills with its Golden Age heritage.” Urbina explains that from an architectural perspective, there were a few elements of the design he needed to check before being convinced Midland Hills was an authentic Seth Raynor layout. Page 40


“Did it have the four one-shot holes? Could I identify other features that are characteristics of a Raynor course? Were the original landforms of the greens conducive to a Raynor course? These are just some of the clues I usually look for,” he says. “Every Raynor course is slightly different, but

Above, another classic Raynor design feature at Midland Hills Country Club: The Redan, which are green sites characterized by: • An elongated putting surface oriented at a 45-degree angle from the tee and positioned on a natural tableland, so it cannot be fully seen from the tee; • A putting surface that is boldly pitched from front right to back left, away from the tee; • Deep bunkers guarding the front and rear of the green; • A high shoulder along the outer edge of the green that serves to deflect balls toward the center.

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Midland Hills certainly satisfied my criteria. Mike’s discovery further confirmed to me that the intent of a Seth Raynor design was laid out on this property. One of the greens Urbina feels is unique to this property is on the course’s Eden hole. “The Strath bunker is drawn in the perfect location, with a green that was drawn perpendicular to the line of flight,” he says. “In many of the Eden renditions that have been built, the Strath bunker is shoved off to the side of the green and not in the location as this drawing depicts. This leads me to believe that Raynor was drawing the hole right from construction, while most golf courses were shying away from putting the bunker where it belonged and building greens that were not linear to the line of flight as depicted in this drawing.”

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The drawing proves, in Urbina’s opinion, that Raynor knew where he


wanted the Strath bunker to be. But for unknown reasons, this and many other greens were not built in this fashion. “I am not one to suggest that drawings should be followed to a tee,” he says. “But this drawing confirms that Raynor was aware of the ideal holes and what were important to their success. In the case of the Eden, the Strath bunker is in the right location and the lake serves as the Eden river behind the green, which really makes this a strong hole. For a man who never went to the UK to see the ideal holes, Raynor sure got the routings to work in each instance.” Though the plans give a great insight into Raynor’s vision, they do still raise a question or two. “I found the seventh hole to be a little odd,” Urbina admits. “Did Raynor really mean to bend the hole around property he didn’t own? Was this an ode to the Road Hole at St Andrews? It’s hard to say. Regardless, it’s simply a wonderful discovery and both Mike and the club should be delighted.”

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Gasoline Guidelines for STIHL Outdoor Power Equipment Gasoline plays an important role in everyday life, powering everything from your automobile to your outdoor power equipment. However, all gasoline is not the same. Knowing a few facts about your fuel can keep the engines in your STIHL equipment running strong.

What’s the difference between my car’s engine and engines used in small power equipment? Automobiles have comprehensive fuel and engine management systems controlled by electronics and numerous sensors. You may not feel or hear anything going on when your car is running, but there are many measurements and automatic adjustments being made to account for things like humidity, altitude, temperature and the quality of the gasoline being used. On the other hand, yard and garden power equipment like your STIHL tools are designed to be compact and lightweight. These tools don’t have the space available for the equipment found in automobiles and so are much Page 44 more sensitive to issues like fuel quality.


Gasoline Guidelines Gasoline storage life: You may not realize it, but gasoline begins to decompose and break down into other compounds in as little as one month when stored. This is not normally an issue for cars since people drive their cars and refill their tanks on a regular basis. Outdoor power equipment is often used far less frequently, sometimes as little as a few times in a year, and then can be stored away for weeks, months or years until it is needed again. And additional fuel is normally stored in containers that may only be refilled once or twice a year. This means there is a greater chance of the fuel breaking down and forming gum and varnish-like compounds that can easily restrict or block the tiny fuel passageways used in small engines.

Varnish in Carburetor

Any gasoline remaining in your storage can or left in your power equipment for more than 2-3 months can lead to expensive damage to your equipment’s fuel system and engine. This is why STIHL recommends always using fresh fuel or specially formulated fuel mixes like STIHL MotoMix® in your equipment. STIHL MotoMix® is a high-grade, high-octane, ethanol-free premixed fuel containing STIHL HP Ultra synthetic oil. It is a pure and stable fuel mixture that can be stored for up to two years in the original container and is ideal for machines that are used infrequently.

What you need to know about Ethanol:

Carburetor damage from stale fuel

Ethanol gasoline blends have different characteristics that need to be considered when fueling your STIHL power equipment. • Much of the gasoline sold throughout the United States contains ethanol. The maximum ethanol content allowed by law for use in outdoor power equipment is limited to 10% (E10). Most small power equipment engines are designed to use no more than a 10% ethanol gasoline blend. If you are not sure of the ethanol content in the gasoline you are purchasing, ask the station attendant. If they are unsure, purchase your fuel from another station that offers gasoline with no more than 10% ethanol.

Damage to carburetor diaphragm

• Ethanol is a stronger solvent than gasoline and can soften, swell and damage some rubber and plastic components that gasoline alone would not harm. The solvent properties of ethanol can also dissolve varnish and gum deposits that have previously formed inside fuel storage cans, fuel tanks or the equipment’s fuel system. When these deposits become dislodged, they can mix with the fuel and plug small openings and filters within the fuel system and cause costly damage to your equipment.

Left: Plugged fuel filter screen Page 45 Right: Clean fuel filter screen


Gasoline Guidelines • Ethanol easily attracts and mixes with water, so any moisture in the air can be absorbed by the ethanol gasoline blend. This moisture can corrode metal components in the fuel system leading to expensive repairs. If enough water is absorbed, the ethanol and water will settle out of the gasoline blend. The resulting ethanol and water mixture is heavier than the gasoline and settles to the bottom of the equipment’s tank or your storage can, leaving a layer of gasoline floating on top. With the ethanol separated from the gasoline, the layer of gasoline now has a lower octane level than the original ethanol gasoline blend. If you originally bought 87 or 89 octane fuel, the gasoline layer in your storage container now has a lower octane than what the engine manufacturer intended to be used, resulting in unstable engine operation, power loss and major engine failures.

Corrosion inside carburetor

This separation of ethanol and gasoline can also occur inside the fuel tank of your equipment. Since the fuel is often drawn from the bottom of the fuel tank, the engine is drawing in a mixture of ethanol and water with no gasoline and, in the case of 2-cycle engines, also has no lubricating oil. This ethanol/water mix is thicker than gasoline and cannot easily pass through the fuel system. This can result in hard starting, unsafe high idle speeds, stalling and can ultimately lead to engine damage or fuel system failure, resulting in costly repairs.

Guidelines for using E10 gasoline in STIHL power equipment: U.S. EPA regulations make it illegal to use gasoline containing higher than 10% ethanol content in outdoor power equipment like your STIHL power equipment and doing so can void your STIHL Limited Warranty.

Water and ethanol (bottom layer) separated from gasoline (top layer)

If the proper precautions are taken, however, gasoline containing a 10% quantity of ethanol can safely be used in your STIHL products. • Use a minimum of 89 octane gasoline and always use fresh fuel. Only buy enough gasoline that you can easily use up within a twomonth period. • For air-cooled, two-cycle engines, use a quality mix oil that meets the engine manufacturer’s recommendations. All STIHL oils are designed to readily mix with gasoline containing 10% ethanol. STIHL HP Ultra Oil is especially suited for use with E10 gasoline. • Shake your gas can well when first mixing the oil to thoroughly disperse the oil in the fuel mixture.

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Corrosion from water inside carburetor


Gasoline Guidelines • Gasoline containing ethanol has a tendency to “lean out” the carburetor mixture when compared to gasoline without ethanol. Make sure your Dealer is aware that you are using gasoline with ethanol in it so that he can ensure the carburetor is adjusted properly for the fuel that is being used. • Properly store your equipment. If your equipment is not going to be used for a couple of months, the remaining gasoline in the machine should be drained from the tank and disposed of properly. To ensure that any remaining ethanol is removed from your equipment, STIHL recommends adding a small amount of STIHL MotoMix® premixed fuel to the tank and running the engine for a few minutes to circulate the fuel through the carburetor. This will flush any of the original gasoline out of the system and protect the fuel system components from water absorption and fuel decomposition. If the machine is going to be stored for several months, it is good practice to empty the STIHL MotoMix® from the machine’s tank, then start the engine and run at idle (do not rev up the engine) until the machine runs out of fuel.

Seized piston

• Equipment should be serviced regularly by your STIHL Dealer. Items such as fuel filters, fuel lines, carburetor diaphragms and spark plugs should be checked and replaced if necessary, as part of a normal engine tune-up. By following these guidelines and suggestions, your STIHL equipment should perform the way it was designed and help you get the job done. For more information and tips to help you get the most out of your STIHL, visit STIHLusa.com.

Use STIHL MotoMix®

The MGCSA extends a big “thank You” to Stihl Representative Steve Hagen for his support of the industry Page 54

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Dollar Spot Control Using Alternative Methods Kurt Hockemeyer, Matt Kapushinski, and Paul Koch, Ph.D. Department of Plant Pathology University of Wisconsin - Madison OBJECTIVE To monitor the impacts of various fertilizer and other alternative suppression methods on dollar spot caused by the fungus Sclerotinia homoeocarpa. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted at the O. J. Noer Turfgrass Research and Education Facility in Madison, WI on a stand of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera ‘Penncross’) maintained at 0.5 inches. Individual plots measured 3 feet by 10 feet and were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments were applied at a nozzle pressure of 40 p.s.i. using a CO2 pressurized boom sprayer equipped with two XR Teejet AI8004 VS nozzles. All fungicides were agitated by hand and applied in the equivalent of 1.5 gallons of water per 1000 ft2. All treatments were initiated on June 1st and products were reapplied at a 14-day interval or as determined by the Smith-Kerns Dollar Spot Prediction Model. Number of dollar spot foci per plot and turfgrass quality (1-9, 9 being excellent, 6 acceptable, and 1 bare soil) were visually assessed while chlorophyll content was rated using a FieldScout CM1000 Chlorophyll Meter from Spectrum Technologies, Inc. every 2 weeks. Turf quality, disease severity, and chlorophyll content were subjected to an analysis of variance and means separated using Fisher’s LSD (P = 0.05). Results of disease severity, turfgrass quality and chlorophyll content ratings can be found in tables 1, 2 and 3, respectively. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Dollar spot pressure on the experimental area was moderate in 2017, likely due to repeated flooding in June and July. Non-treated controls averaged 66 dollar spot infection centers per plot on the June 26th rating date, and the only treatments to significantly reduce dollar spot severity was the fungicide treatment (positive control) and the urea treatments. These were also the only treatments to increase turf quality compared to the non-treated controls. The urea treatments also were the only treatments to increase turf color ratings.

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Table 1. Mean number of dollar spot foci per treatment at the OJ Noer Turfgrass Research and Education Facility in Madison, WI during 2017.

Treatment

Application Interval

Application Codea

Rate

Dollar Spot Severityb Jun 26

Jul 27

Aug 7

66.3a

33.5 a

25.8 a

1

Non-treated control

2

Urea

14 day

0.6 lbs N/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

29.3ab

0.0 b

1.1 b

3

Urea

20% risk

0.6 lbs N/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

16.7ab

0.5 b

1.4 b

4

Iron Sulfate

14 day

3 oz/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

59.6a

34.3 a

28.5 a

5

Iron Sulfate

20% risk

3 oz/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

42.5ab

48.5 a

26.5 a

6

Potassium Carbonate

14 day

1.1 oz/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

44.6ab

51.3 a

36.2 a

7

Potassium Carbonate

20% risk

1.1 oz/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

9.6ab

26.5 a

16.6 a

DFHJLNP

21.8ab

40.5 a

31.3 a

DFHJLNP

43.4ab

34.0 a

39.1 a

8 9

Sulfur Duraphite 12 Sulfur Duraphite 12

14 day 20% risk

0.25 lbs S/1000 ft2 3.14 fl oz/1000 ft2 0.25 lbs S/1000 ft2 3.14 fl oz/1000 ft2

10

Manganese Sulfate

14 day

3 oz/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

45.2ab

45.5 a

24.7 a

11

Manganese Sulfate

20% risk

3 oz/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

47.2ab

36.5 a

11.8 a

12

Xzemplar Banner Maxx Secure Xzemplar Secure

0.4b

4.5 b

0.6 b

48.58

18.29

0.26 fl oz/1000 ft2 1.5 fl oz/1000 ft2 0.5 fl oz/1000 ft2 0.26 fl oz/1000 ft2 0.5 fl oz/1000 ft2

D H J L P LSD P = .05

a

th

th

th

24.22 nd

Application code D=June 1st, F=June 15th, H=June 27th, J=July 11 , L=July 25 , N=August 8 , P= August 22 . Dollar spot severity assessed as number of dollar spot infection centers per plot. Means followed by the same letter do not significantly differ (P=.05, Fisher’s LSD). b

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Table 2. Mean turfgrass quality at the OJ Noer Turfgrass Research and Education Facility in Madison, WI during 2017. Treatment

Application Interval

Application Codea

Rate

Turf Qualityb Jun 26

Jul 27

Aug 7

5.0c

5.0 b

4.8 b

1

Non-treated control

2

Urea

14 day

0.6 lbs N/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

7.0ab

7.0 a

7.0 a

3

Urea

20% risk

0.6 lbs N/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

7.2a

7.0 a

7.0 a

4

Iron Sulfate

14 day

3 oz/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

5.2c

5.3 b

5.0 b

5

Iron Sulfate

20% risk

3 oz/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

5.0c

5.0 b

4.8 b

6

Potassium Carbonate

14 day

1.1 oz/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

5.2c

5.0 b

5.0 b

7

Potassium Carbonate

20% risk

1.1 oz/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

6.5abc

5.5 b

5.3 b

DFHJLNP

6.1abc

5.0 b

4.5 b

DFHJLNP

5.5bc

5.3 b

4.8 b

Sulfur Duraphite 12 Sulfur Duraphite 12

8 9

14 day 20% risk

0.25 lbs S/1000 ft2 3.14 fl oz/1000 ft2 0.25 lbs S/1000 ft2 3.14 fl oz/1000 ft2

10

Manganese Sulfate

14 day

3 oz/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

5.2c

5.3 b

4.5 b

11

Manganese Sulfate

20% risk

3 oz/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

5.7abc

5.0 b

5.3 b

12

Xzemplar Banner Maxx Secure Xzemplar Secure

0.26 fl oz/1000 ft2 1.5 fl oz/1000 ft2 0.5 fl oz/1000 ft2 0.26 fl oz/1000 ft2 0.5 fl oz/1000 ft2

D H J L P

7.0ab

7.0 a

7.0 a

LSD P = .05 a

th

th

1.09

0.41 th

0.78 nd

Application code D=June 1st, F=June 15th, H=June 27th, J=July 11 , L=July 25 , N=August 8 , P= August 22 . Turfgrass quality was rated visually on a 1 – 9 scale with 6 being acceptable. Means followed by the same letter do not significantly differ (P=.05, Fisher’s LSD).

b

The Turfgrass Diagnostic Lab (TDL) provides fast and accurate diagnostic information and management recommendations for all turf health issues. We can help with a variety of issues including lawn disease and dead grass. Proper diagnosis and management can provide a lush, healthy stand of turf with limited pesticide applications. This will benefit the environment, increase property values, and allow for recreational activity. We serve both commercial turfgrass managers and homeowners. TDL is a nonprofit service supported by faculty and staff of four departments at the University of Wisconsin-Madison: Plant Pathology, Horticulture, Soil Science, and Entomology. Page 52


Page 53


2018 Equipment Managers Spring Education and Forum at MTI Distributing Thank you Presenter Steve Hagen

Page 54


Table 3. Mean chlorophyll rating at the OJ Noer Turfgrass Research and Education Facility in Madison, WI during 2017. Treatment

Application Interval

Application Codea

Rate

Chlorophyll Ratingb Jun 26

Jul 27

Aug 7

289.5 b

268.3 b

271.3 b

1

Non-treated control

2

Urea

14 day

0.6 lbs N/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

391.8 a

280.5 b

405.5 a

3

Urea

20% risk

0.6 lbs N/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

387.3 a

293.3 b

386.3 a

4

Iron Sulfate

14 day

3 oz/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

300.5 b

274.3 b

300.0 b

5

Iron Sulfate

20% risk

3 oz/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

304.0 b

268.7 b

305.5 b

6

Potassium Carbonate

14 day

1.1 oz/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

294.3 b

270.8 b

293.5 b

7

Potassium Carbonate

20% risk

1.1 oz/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

315.3 b

298.8 b

314.3 b

DFHJLNP

298.8 b

274.0 b

317.3 b

DFHJLNP

293.8 b

286.0 b

298.3 b

Sulfur Duraphite 12 Sulfur Duraphite 12

8 9

14 day 20% risk

0.25 lbs S/1000 ft2 3.14 fl oz/1000 ft2 0.25 lbs S/1000 ft2 3.14 fl oz/1000 ft2

10

Manganese Sulfate

14 day

3 oz/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

298.0 b

274.3 b

276.0 b

11

Manganese Sulfate

20% risk

3 oz/1000 ft2

DFHJLNP

321.3 b

289.5 b

283.8 b

12

Xzemplar Banner Maxx Secure Xzemplar Secure

0.26 fl oz/1000 ft2 1.5 fl oz/1000 ft2 0.5 fl oz/1000 ft2 0.26 fl oz/1000 ft2 0.5 fl oz/1000 ft2

D H J L P

330.5 b

356.0 a

378.0 a

LSD P = .05 a

th

th

31.07

41.33 th

36.89 nd

Application code D=June 1st, F=June 15th, H=June 27th, J=July 11 , L=July 25 , N=August 8 , P= August 22 . Color was assessed using a FieldScout CM1000 Chlorophyll Meter from Spectrum Technologies, Inc. Means followed by the same letter do not significantly differ (P=.05, Fisher’s LSD).

b

The Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents Association wishes to thank Dr. Paul Koch for his continued support of the turfgrass industry. Page 55


Best Management Practices Resource Management

Increasing Pollinator Populations By Improving Habitat Rockland Country Club Matthew Ceplo, CGCS, superintendent

Sparkill, N.Y. 10976

Issue Superintendent Matt Ceplo, CGCS, has been promoting and implementing pollinator-friendly areas that save money, reduce resource consumption and provide habitat for native pollinators and other wildlife for many years. When pollinators are mentioned, people often think of honeybees. Although honeybees are great pollinators and produce valuable honey, Matt decided to focus more on promoting bees and butterflies that are native to the area around Rockland Country Club. In order for native pollinators to thrive, native plants needed to be established to provide a favorable habitat. Action The first step was identifying and protecting areas that were already providing suitable habitat for native pollinators. Rockland Country Club has a variety of native trees and shrubs that are good sources of pollen and nectar. The plant species include dogwood, tulip, sourwood, redbud, lindens, spicebush,

Native meadows benefit a variety of pollinators while adding beauty and environmental value to the golf course. Š2017 by United States Golf Association. All rights reserved. Please see Policies for the Reuse of USGA Green Section Publications.

Page 56

Page 1 of 2


serviceberry, witch hazel and clethra. These plants are all insect pollinated. Ceplo says identifying which plants are pollinated by wind and which require insects for pollination is paramount for improving pollinator habitat. Special thought was also given to providing food sources for caterpillars and nesting sites for bees. Fallen trees with exposed root balls are left in wooded sites because they serve as nesting sites for bees. Dead limbs and trees are left for carpenter bees. Areas of rough that are typically out of play were converted to native meadows, which consist of native grasses and perennial wildflowers. The native meadows take a few years to mature, but eventually serve as a food source and nesting area for bees and butterflies. Results Rockland Country Club’s efforts exemplify the positive impact that golf courses can have on the environment and community. The golf course now harbors more than 32 species of butterflies, a host of bee species and a diverse bird population. Consistent outreach and education has helped golfers embrace the program and has given them a sense of pride in the positive results. Throughout the process, Ceplo has learned about establishing native meadows and how to best maintain them. One lesson he learned was that these areas take a few to years to establish and they are sensitive to disturbance. During a construction project, part of a native meadow was used as a staging area for equipment and supplies. Despite efforts to re-establish this area, it has not returned to the same quality as the surrounding areas that were undisturbed. Ceplo feels it would have been easier to use a primary rough area for staging because any damage could have been easily repaired with sod following construction. Converting over 13 acres of primary rough to native meadows has increased the number of native pollinators at Rockland Country Club. In addition, the mature native meadows offer substantial savings in water, pesticides, fertilizer and maintenance time.

This article is reprinted from the November 17, 2017 BMP Case Study of the USGA Green Section Record. Copyright United States Golf Association. All rights reserved. The MGCSA expresses appreciation for permission to reprint this article. ©2017bybyUnited United States Golf Association. All rights ©2015 States Golf Association. All rights reserved.Please Please Policies Reuse of USGA reserved. seesee Policies for for thethe Reuse of USGA Green Section Publications. Green Section Publications. Page 2 of 2

Page 57


Within the Leather by Liza Chmielewski, Gertens Wholesale

and she said yes to every one of them. For example, I invited her to a Twins game with me and a Say YES. couple of my other friends. She Every day is a little busier than said yes. We were all meeting at a the last, plans are changing, and bar/restaurant for a pre-game that a financial company was hosting. schedules are being rearranged. We enjoyed a couple cocktails and How often have you been asked some free food. It was almost time to go to a sporting event or any other event and you declined the to start heading to the stadium when one of the hosts came up invitation because you had other to us, my co-worker and my best plans? How often have you said friend and me, and asked if we’d no because you just didn’t want to go out? What would happen if like to sing the National Anthem at you rearranged your schedule and the Twins game. said yes to these invites? We all looked at each other About 3 years ago a co-worker and tried to communicate nonof mine was going through a hard verbally to decide what our answer would be. Without hesitation my time. She was going through a co-worker said, “Yes, we would!” divorce, and her life with her There was no going back now. We 2 girls was about to change dramatically. Instead of feeling got our directions on which gate to be at and what time, and off sorry for herself and holing we went. We were nervous and herself up in her house she practicing the words to the song adopted the strategy to as we made our walk. Holy crap, “just say yes”. Friends were asking her to go out this was really happening. We got to the gate and thankfully (and to events and include her as much as possible luckily) there was a full church choir there rehearsing. Whew! Page 58 Page 42


Now we just had to blend in and act cool. The choir director asked if we were soprano or alto. Ummm...yes. Again, we all nonverbally tried to come up with a common answer. We shuffled our way to towards the back of the group. It was quite the experience to walk onto Target field with this choir and sing with them. We were on the big screen singing (or lipsyncing) to the best of our ability. What an experience and it never would have happened if we hadn’t taken a chance and said “Yes”. After we were done we met my husband any my best friend’s husband at our seats. “Did you see us?” we asked them. They danced around their answer and couldn’t agree on which section they were in when they heard us.

They missed it completely, so there is no documentation from them to prove the event ever happened, just a couple selfies that the girls and I took behind the stage.

We all have busy lives and there are commitments we just can’t break, but if you ever find yourself in a situation where saying no is the easy way out, try saying yes and see what happens. A pre-game party may land you on Target field, a tee time may find you playing golf with a famous athlete, or a family decision to say yes may lead to moving across the state for some more adventures.

You will never know

unless you say YES. Page 59

Profile for Minnesota Golf Course Superintendents Association

Hole Notes April 2018  

A professional magazine for golf course managers in Minnesota and the upper midwest. This issue is full of research results, a blue print d...

Hole Notes April 2018  

A professional magazine for golf course managers in Minnesota and the upper midwest. This issue is full of research results, a blue print d...

Profile for mgcsa