Metro rail news october 2017

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October 2017 / Monthly / Vol. I / Issue 10

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CONTENTS 09 News Highlights

12 Real time rain and fog removal from virtual videos technology (An innovative idea by IIT Kharagpur)

16 Virtual Passenger Modelling for the future of Railway Stations (By INCONTROL Simulation Solutions)


Need of advance technology for maintenance and monitoring of Rolling Stock (By Ali Siavashi, Rolling Stock Engineer)


Editor’s Note


Editorial Advisory Board


Metro Rail News Magazine Subscription Form



26 RPS: Can you realize an ATP 10 36 Is CBTC safer than times cheaper than the others…? Conventional Signalling

(By Auto Drive Solutions)

(By CBTC Solutions Inc.)

41 Exclusive Interview with Mr. Achal Khare, MD, National High Speed Rail Corporation Ltd. (By Vishwas Dass & Ms. Smriti Jain)

49 Know your Union Housing and Urban Affairs Minister : Mr. Hardeep Singh Puri (By Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs)


Metro Rail News Media Kit 2017-18


Selection and Appointments


Live Tender Notices


Upcoming Events


Metro Rail Current Job Openings



Editor’s Note

Dear Readers,

Wishing you happy and prosperous Diwali ! In India, the transportation sector alone accounts for more than one third of the country’s total crude oil consumption out of which more than 80 per cent is consumed by road transportation. This, hence, accounts for the transport to be smart, safe and green. It is observed that majority of the Indian population depends on public transport. However, public transport is an element of smart mobility and not the only element. In India’s context the term needs to be defined to include all modes of transport that can potentially enable ease of individual transport in rural and semi-urban areas as well as in urban megacities while attending to environmental concerns. Some implementations of Intelligent Transportation System Technologies prevalent already in the country that India has witnessed in various traffic addressing mechanisms, prove the country has massive potential for technology turnover. The measures included road intersection control, incident detection, road sensors, speed enforcement, toll revenue collection, vehicle weighing, radio frequency identification (RFID), individual vehicle management, infotainment, public transport information and vehicle tracking. As cities grow and expand, so will urban transportation systems – increasing traffic congestion, threatening safety, wasting commuter time and valuable fuel, and impacting the environment. Also cities are where traffic flows – cars, buses, taxis and metros epitomize city life. Therefore, the Government of India is focused on installation of high-tech solutions like in-vehicle technologies that consist of speed governors, GPS and CCTV cameras which will enhance security. Another reason for its need is that the mobility sector in India – in all facets and variations – is a sunrise industry and provides for excellent growth opportunities. On account of the mission of building 100 smart cities, it is recognized that infrastructure and investments are twin forces that make a city smart. Realizing the importance and growing potential of technology, the Government has unveiled investment plans totalling US $150 billion in highways and shipping sectors all over India by 2019. The Indian Government further has initiated an ambitious plan of introducing high-speed rail networks in the country and laid foundation of India’s first high speed bullet train project between Mumbai and Ahmedabad in last month. Other additions to the already working systems are red light violation detection, alcohol detectors, interceptors, automatic number plate recognition and driver assistance systems which will contribute greatly towards road safety. I would like to thank all the contributors and companies who are associated with the Metro Rail News. We highly appreciate your support and hope to continue our collaboration further. Mamta Shah Managing Editor Metro Rail News E-mail:



EDITORIAL BOARD (October 2017)

Vol. I / Issue 10 | October 2017 Managing Editor Mamta Shah Group Editor Shashi Prabha

IFS (Retd.) Kishor Dudani Advocate, Ex. Dy. Secretary Ministry of External Affairs, Govt. of India New Delhi (India)

Associate Editor Lallan Prasad

Sunil Srivastava Member Governing Council Institute of Metro & Rail Technology Hyderabad (India)

Director Advertising Rajesh Maheshwari Director Technical N.K. Shah Percy Bernard Brooks Project Management Specialist Faiveley Transport Rail Technologies Bengaluru (India)

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• • SEP 2, 2017

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SEP 2, 2017

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Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) keen to invest $ 1.5 billion in infrastructure and metro rail projects in India. Pune Metro: PMRDA appointed Deloitte as Transactional Advisor for Metro rail project. Indian Railways planned to use infrared camera system to check derailment on high-speed sections. Amaravati Metro: AMRC issued expression of interest (EOI) for preparation of DPR for Vijayawada Metro rail project. Kochi Metro : DMRC started construction work between Mahraja’s College Ekm South. National Capital Region Transport Corporation (NCRTC) planned to start DelhiGhaziabad-Meerut Rapid Rail project work from March 2018. Maharashtra Metro Rail Corporation (Maha Metro) started Nagpur metro trial run from Mihan Depot to South of Airport. Shri Hardeep Singh Puri, Minister of State (Independent charge) took charge of Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.



SEP 4, 2017

Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation (MMRC) completed 1000 piles of Mumbai Metro-3 Package 1 from Cuffe Parade to Hutatma Chowk.

SEP 5, 2017

Chief Minister Yogi Aditya Nath and Union Home Minister Shri Raj Nath Singh flagged off the Lucknow Metro Rail Services between Transport Nagar and Charbagh Station. Jaipur Metro Rail Corporation (JMRC) appointed French Firm EGIS Rail SA to review DPR of Jaipur Metro Phase-II project. Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation (MMRC) appointed Architects for KalbadeviGirgaum rehabilitation. Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation (MMRC) received first Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) from Robbins Company (USA) for Metro-3 project.

• • • SEP 6, 2017

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Chennai Metro Rail Ltd. (CMRL) planned to link IT Parks in Phase-II metro projects. Kochi Metro Rail Ltd (KMRL) planned to recruit / deploy 60 more transgenders in metro rail support services.

SEP 7, 2017

Guwahati Metro: State Cabinet gave green signal for implementation of metro rail project in City.

SEP 8, 2017

Metro Rail News and Institute of Metro & Rail Technology (IMRT) signed Memorandum of Undertaking (MoU) to work jointly for knowledge exchange and carry out research activity on metro rail development in India. Vijayawada Metro: Metroman Dr. E. Sreedharan sought exemption from new Metro Rail Policy for light metro in City. German Agency KfW ready to fund 12.5 million euro for Coimbatore Metro rail project. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) shown less interest to fund Delhi Metro’s phase-IV project. Telangana CM K Chandra Shekar Rao invited PM Narendra Modi to inaugurate Hyderabad Metro rail services in City.

• • • SEP 9, 2017

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SEP 10, 2017

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SEP 11, 2017

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Lucknow Metro Rail Corporation (LMRC) launches free internet wi-fi facility to ‘GoSmart’ card users. Kochi Metro Rail Ltd (KMRL) signal trial runs in the second reach up to Maharaja’s College. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) approved Rs.800 Crore for 1.878km extra length of the corridor of East-West Metro Rail Project of Kolkata Metro Rail Corporation (KMRC). Metro-Link Express for Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad (MEGA) planned to adopt the technology of ‘driverless metro trains’ for Ahmedabad Metro rail project. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) planned to open its first section of Pink Line (Line #7) in December 2018. Japanese firm Mitsui secured contract for supply of Head Hardened Rails for the track work of Ahmedabad Metro rail project. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) and Google Maps collaborated to show Delhi Metro network (route maps) on Google for commuters.


SEP 12, 2017

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SEP 13, 2017

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SEP 14, 2017

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SEP 16, 2017

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SEP 18, 2017

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SEP 19, 2017

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Japan Railways appointed IIT alumni Sanjeev Sinha as an Advisor for Ahmedabad – Mumbai High Speed Bullet Train project of India. Lucknow Metro Rail Corporation (LMRC) introduced passenger accident and public liability insurance cover for metro commuters. Hon’ble Minister of State Urban Development Ranjit Patil Mumbai Metro-3 project site at Azad Maidan. Metro Rail News published new Metro Rail Policy 2017 for public approved by Government of India. Metro Rail News launched Article Writing Contest for railway professionals, students and research associates. PM Narendra Modi and Japanese PM Shinzo Abe laid foundation of India’s first High Speed Bullet Train Project (Mumbai – Ahmedabad Corridor) Japan Government agreed to give $ 19 billion loan on 1% rate of interest to Govt. of India for first High Speed Bullet Train project. Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation (MMRC) received second Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) for package 2 from Terratech to build 4 km tunnel between CSTM and Mumbai Central. Bihar Government planned to Patna Metro Rail project in 2019. Centre rejects Detailed Project Report (DPR) of Agra Metro Rail project Union Urban Development Minister Harjeet Singh Puri released new Metro Rail Policy 2017 approved by Govt. of India. Hyderabad Metro Rail Ltd. (HMRL) planned to link metro pillars with Global Positioning System (GPS). Metro Rail News signed Memorandum of Undertaking (MoU) to organize Metro Rail Summits jointly in 2018. UP Government planned to set up special purpose vehicle Uttar Pradesh Metro Rail Corporation (UPMRCL) for metro rail projects in the state. CM Yogi Aditya Nath announced three new metro rail projects in Uttar Pradesh. Symbroj Media Pvt. Ltd. celebrated its first Foundation day and unveiled new logo for Metro Rail News in New Delhi. Metro Rail News launched week end based part-time editorial project for Metro Rail Professionals.

SEP 20, 2017

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) planned to upgrade ticketing technology to provide seamless journey to commuters.

SEP 21, 2017

Lucknow Metro Rail Corporation (LMRC) started tunneling work from Sachivalaya towards Hussainganj. Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation (MMRC) lowered first Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) to build Mumbai Metro-3 Underground Project. UP Government approved revised DPR and funding pattern for Ghaziabad Metro Rail project.

• • SEP 22, 2017

Kochi Metro Rail Ltd. (KMRL) planned to open Kochi Metro extension corridor for public on 3rd October 2017. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) started full trial run of driverless metro trains between South Campus and Majlis Park.



SEP 23, 2017

Third Tunnel Boring Machin (TBM) for package 5 to build Mumbai Metro Underground Project passed factory acceptance tests.

SEP 25, 2017

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Chennai Metro Rail Ltd (CMRL) achieved tunneling five month ahead of deadline. Hyderabad Metro Rail Ltd (HMRL) made Hyderabad Metro ready to launch for revenue services in November 2017.

SEP 27, 2017

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) announced to hike second phase metro fares from 10th October 2017. Delhi Government sent proposal of Delhi Metro’s Phase-IV project to Centre for approval. Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation (BMRC) planned to construct two new metro stations at Bengaluru Airport. Commissioner for Metro Railway Safety (CMRS) carried our inspection of Kochi Metro rail extension project. Cabinet approved transfer of 1899 sqm AAI land to Lucknow Metro Rail Corporation (LMRC). Sydney Metro received its 1st of 22 ‘Make in India’ driverless metro trains from Alstom’s Sri City plant in Andhra Pradesh.

• • • • • SEP 28, 2017

PMO sought detailed information on Hyderabad Metro Rail project before inaugural ceremony.



Real time rain and fog removal from Videos



- Dr. Sudipta Mukhopadhyay & Team IIT Kharagpur, India

isibility is necessary to drive. A good visibility is a guaranty for passenger’s safety. Reduction of visibility (owing to bad weather) causes the risk of accident. Car accidents are common during bad weather. It is estimated that about two million people die per year of car accidents across the world. Poor visibility is the biggest cause of accidents. On an average, there are over 60 lakh vehicle crashes each year. 24% of these crashes, approximately 15 lakh are those crashes that occur in adverse weather conditions (i.e., rain, snow, and/or fog). In bad weather driving a vehicle is more difficult than normal weather condition. The main cause of road accidents is driver’s inability to recognize all visual information (i.e. road signs, traffic signs and other vehicles) they receive while driving.

The technology, Real-time Rain and Fog Removal from Videos are proprietary algorithms that can remove the effect of rain and fog from videos in real time and display it on the windscreen of vehicles to increase the clarity of the view. In this technology, videos captured from the camera mounted in the vehicles are processed in real-time to remove the effect of rain and fog, and then this clear video can be displayed on the windscreen of the vehicles. This technology can also be used in various Advanced Driver assistance systems (ADAS) that assist the driver to navigate vehicle by providing road signs information. Global ADAS Market is a fast growing market and it is expected to garner $60.14 billion by 2020.


All the major car companies like Tesla etc. are now developing self-driving cars. These self driving cars collect information about road signs, other vehicles, pedestrians etc. They use various sensors to collect this information and image sensor (cameras) is one of the main sensor that is used. The image sensor can be rendered useless in the presence of rain and fog. So, our technology can also be used to remove the effect of rain and fog in real time from the captured videos by image sensors, so that correct information is collected by the sensor. The technology can also be used to enhance the safety of air, rail and ship transportation. Railways can be said to be the lifeline of India. On average, about 22 million people travel on trains everyday in India. In the presence of fog, as the visibility is reduced, the trains are often delayed so that accidents do not occur, ensuring the safety of the passengers. The proposed technology can be used to remove the effect of fog so that the trains are not delayed. The airways can also benefit from this technology as the presence of fog and rain results in the delaying of flights.

Photo #1 : Before using device

This research project was successfully carried out by a team of following engineers in IIT Kharagpur under supervision of Dr. Sudipta Mukhopadhyay, Associate Professor (Department of Electrical & Electronics Communications Engineering):1. Mr. Harsh Vardhan Mall (M.Tech) 2. Mr. Joshua Peter Ebenezer (B.Tech)

In the proposed solution, time evolution properties of the consecutive video frames are analysed and the detection of regions affected by rain and fog along with their restoration is proposed. Unlike previous approaches of rain removal, the proposed algorithm does not assume the shape, size, direction and velocity of the raindrops and the intensity of rain, which makes it robust to different rain conditions. It is also able to distinguish moving objects from the rain regions in the video. This approach requires less number of frames for removal of rain and fog from videos, reducing the delay and execution time of the algorithm and thus providing better frame rates than other approaches. Instead of working on the colour components, the proposed algorithm works only on the intensity of component of the video, so in systems like DAS that does not need the videos to be displayed on a screen, we can work directly on monochrome videos rather than colour videos. Use of a single component (intensity) instead of three colour components further reduces the execution time of the algorithm. This technology is very useful for rail and metro systems to operate smoothly in winter and rainy seasons.

Photo #2 : After using device

3. Dr. (Ms.) Bijaylaxmi Das (PhD) 4. Mr. Hariharan Raju (M.Tech 5. Mr. Hardik Leuva (M.Tech) 6. Mr. Manish Kumar Sharma (M.Tech) 7. Ms. Bhamidipati Sridevi (M.Tech) 8. Ms. Ashwini R.Patil (M.Tech) 9. Mr. Nishant Gaurav (M.Tech) 10. Dr. Abhishek Tripathi (PhD)



Virtual passenger modelling for the future of railway stations


- Marlies Wouters, Sr. Simulation Engineer INCONTROL Simulation Solutions

ow virtual passenger modelling prepares you for the future of railway stations? The rail industry is changing. The focus shifts from the most effective and efficient way of getting passengers from A to B, to the total seamless journey. The trend is that railway stations only function as a location for catching a train, but also leisure and business. Restaurants, shops and office buildings become an integrated part of the station. This is where the cohesion between travel, leisure and the city arises, as railway stations are a central point of social interaction for cities. Imagine picking up orders at the online-shopping point or meeting-up with a friend, drinking coffee at one of the shops. Urbanization and growing population numbers contribute to added stress on city- and rail infrastructures. The United Nations states that


globally, the world population is likely to reach 9.7 billion citizens by 2050, approximately 66% of the population will reside in cities. Utilizing the city infrastructure in a more efficient, intelligent and integrated manner seems to be the key. Yet, how will the rail sector anticipate towards a rising amount in passengers? it comes to this industry, the desires and expectations of passengers push towards innovation. Convenience, comfort, safety and reliability remain to be the vital elements for passengers to choose for travel by rail. In addition, rail is a sustainable and responsible means of transportation. Passenger expectations indicate limited waiting times, reliable time schedules and seamless journeys integrated with other modes of transport which


Virtual Modelling

(Crowd of people walking through a metro stations) could be offered as a service, the so-called “Mobility as a Service”. Imagine planning journeys ahead, taking advantage of a combination of various transport modes like trains and a shared automated vehicle to cover the last mile from the central station to work.

In order to cope with all the future changes involved, creating insight in the passenger journey is essential. Insights can either be created in the (re)design phase of the building but also during operations. This is where virtual modelling comes into play. Simulation provides one of the solutions as a modelling tool to create a virtual representation of reality. Developing a crowd model of enables the designer to create insight in the crowd flows of alternative designs. Visualizing processes, while dealing with uncertainty in an understandable way, allows to assess, compare and improve alternative designs, plans and policies without having to experiment in a real life situation. Data insights and analytics help to eventually shed light on the underlying problem areas while keeping customer experience, station capacity and the safety perspective in mind.

Individual, custom information marks excellent customer service. To realize these expectations, insights need to be created and future possibilities must be addressed. For railway stations this means a removal of the thin line between railway function and community services. Passengers will not only commute but also dwell around the station environment. The British Rail Delivery Group has indicated 9 key principles for the future of railway stations. The principles are described as Increased customer focus, Intelligent use of technology, Seamless journey experience, Reflect local needs and opportunities, Safe and secure environment, Entrepreneurial spirit, Flexible and long term stewardship, Shared industry know-how and Optimized network. All of these principles have a significant impact on passenger flows and therefore the use of the station’s infrastructure. Industry innovations like pedestrian location tracking significantly support in the monitoring and analysis of passenger flows. But how can future changes of the railway station be achieved? Is the current station infrastructure capable of dealing with the ongoing growth of passengers number’s, technological innovations and change of use?

(Illustration of a pedestrian facing three other subjects and trying to reach the destination point O₁. (PNAS/Moussaïd et al)



(Detailed image of a simulation model of a train station made in the Pedestrian Dynamics software.)

The evaluated scenarios help to reduce timeconsuming mistakes and overall cost while improving continuity and creating insight in safety. Simulation supports in answering the “What if” scenario involved and how a process will perform in the (near) future. With the use of simulation, the city- and rail infrastructure can be utilized in a more efficient, intelligent and integrated way. Assessing the entire infrastructure and pedestrian flows in and around the train station and surrounding areas is of importance. Bottlenecks in the infrastructure, timetables, flow and safety of passengers can be analyzed and pinpointed. Commercial attractive areas can be identified. The technology can be used to predict consequences of various incidents and other emergency situations. Surrounding areas of the station are influenced by incidents, so necessary changes in design, plans or policies might need to be identified in order to help the area perform better. Overall, simulation provides the possibility to increase throughput rates to accommodate rising passenger numbers, simulate morning and evening peak moments, calculate the ‘social cost’ involved, increase overall revenue and


improve customer experience. Implementation of Virtual Modelling Simulation as a virtual modelling tool enables to visualize crowd flow scenarios. The implementation can be realized by importing CAD drawings or BIM models in the software. The outcome reflects the geometry of the design. The ability to define input such as train schedules, train load, passenger demand and route preferences brings the design to life and simulates the passenger flows through the 3D model.

(Example of a density map in Pedestrian Dynamics)


(Example of Generalized journey times per agent (in Pedestrian Dynamics®)

Data generated in the simulation software provides the designer with quantitative statistics to assess the overall design of the railway station. Density maps analyze the crowdedness in the stations; which can be distinguished by various travel times to ensure passengers can get to their next destination in time. The so-called „social costs“ element determines the business case of the train station in terms of capital and resources.

desires and expectations of passengers push towards innovations like intelligent use of technology, the seamless journey experience as well as ensuring safe and secure environments. Simulation, as a virtual modelling tool, creates the insight needed to meet the above mentioned innovations for all public transport passengers.

Preparing for the future As indicated previously, the rail industry changes. Whether the future of the industry leads into more futuristic ways like the ‘Hyper Speed Vertical Train Hub’ as envisioned by Christopher Christophi and Lucus Mazarrasa or the proposed ‘Hyperloop’, anticipated as “the fifth mode of transport” by entrepreneur Elon Musk, no one really knows.

One thing is for certain, the rail industry has to deal with current changes in the field of urbanization and growing population numbers. The increasing

(High Speed Vertical Train Hub’ as envisioned by Christopher Christophi and Lucas Mazarrasa (Courtesy: eVolo)



About the Author Marlies Wouters is a Senior Simulation Engineer, specialized in crowd simulation. She’s best known for her expert knowledge in modelling and analysis of public transport environments using Pedestrian Dynamics® software. Marlies has a twelve year career at INCONTROL Simulation Solutions, were she worked on many projects like Utrecht Central Station (250.000 travelers daily) and Metro Amsterdam. If you would like to further discuss the implementation of simulation as a virtual modeling tool in the field of rail, feel free to contact our simulation experts at Any further questions regarding INCONTROL Simulation Solutions, Pedestrian Dynamics® or its affiliated products? Requests can be send to More info at or

Pedestrian Dynamics® Pedestrian Dynamics® is a comprehensive crowd simulation software application, designed for the creation and execution of large pedestrian simulation models in complex infrastructures. The software can be used to evaluate the performance and safety of environments in every phase of the life cycle; from design to operations. Pedestrian Dynamics® offers a rapid model building simulation environment which saves time and costs. Only a few activities are required to model pedestrian flows in complex operations. The software has been used widely in numerous large scale projects to simulate crowd flows in many critical infrastructure environments including stadiums, airports, public transport terminals, mega events and urban planning. The Pedestrian Dynamics® software is flexible, robust and easy to use.


INCONTROL Simulation Solutions BV INCONTROL Simulation Solutions is the leading manufacturer of simulation software. The product portfolio contains of Enterprise Dynamics®, Pedestrian Dynamics® and TopVenue®. The core business is to bring simulation platforms and applications to the market for the Industry & Manufacturing-, Logistics-, Airports-, Rail- & Public Transport sector. INCONTROL’s simulation software enables users to test scenarios and visualize time, costs, resources, reliability, safety, risks and sustainability issues in a clear manner.



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Need of advance technology for maintenance and monitoring of Rolling Stock


n Railway systems, the next level of intelligence that has to be incorporated into rolling stocks might be the online condition monitoring and predictive maintenance (OCMPM) of critical systems (e.g. propulsion and brake systems) and also an intelligent maintenance action recommender system (MARS) which efficiently indicates the most appropriate action to be taken at any time. Currently, most of the condition monitoring and health assessment exercises are conducted manually or semiautomated manner at predefined intervals. The interpretation of data is done by the operators in charge based on their knowledge and experience which is more likely to lead human



Ali Siavashi, Rolling Stock Engineer Sydney (Australia)

errors. Moreover, the quantity and frequency of alarms or routine inspections can easily overwhelm the maintenance crews leading to ignorance of vital data or inspections. The information obtained by online condition monitoring (OCM) can be used to estimate the remaining useful life (RUL) of the critical systems and also the outcome of the predictive maintenance gives an accurate estimate of the likelihood of failure under a given operational condition. Maintenance action recommender system (MARS), on the other hand, would be an intelligent data filtering module that provides advice on which actions at what times and (even) how should be done considering the spare


be done considering the spare parts, technician staffing, daily-weekly-monthly services and so forth. As a result, it could be realistic to calculate a few-day window when maintenance is likely to be needed and define the best time to take the trains out of operation and maintain them with the lowest impact on their services and highest maintenance efficiency. This approach aims to develop OCMPM and provide MARS using low-cost, tiny sensor to create an IoT (Internet-of-Things) sensor platform for railway maintenance application and employing Artificial Intelligence (AI). The proposed project will have a fundamental impact on train maintenance planning. The ultimate goal is to deploy this maintenance approach to enable automation of maintenance management. In addition, this project undoubtedly would be one of the major steps towards the realization of autonomous and connected trains. Online Condition Monitoring (OCM) The online condition monitoring is a growing

industrial trend which uses data gathered through various sensors to compare with known conditions. For example, in a train propulsion system, the traction motors are critical components which have to be monitored for any abnormalities. Apart from the basic speed, voltage and current measurements, vibration, acoustic noise, magnetic flux, stress and strain at certain locations help estimate the condition of the motor accurately. The comparison of these measurements against known thresholds help identify anomalies. Moreover, certain patterns of the collected data and their combinations give indications of degradation. By comparing those extracted information against degradation models the health of the motors can be assessed. This approach can be extended for other critical systems as well and a complete condition assessment system for trains can be developed. Standard EN 13306(CEN, 2001) defines Predictive Maintenance (PM) as condition based maintenance carried out following a forecast derived from the analysis and evaluation of significant parameters of the degradation of the item. According to the standard the approaches to maintenance can be categorised as presented in Figure 1.

Fig. 1- Maintenance Strategies – based on EN 13306(CEN, 2001)



Even though the concept of online condition monitoring (OCM) and preventive maintenance (PM) has been there for a long time it was not practical to implement in trains mainly due to the great deal of data handling involved in these work and the computational intelligence required. With development of the Industrial Internet-of-things (IIoT), machine learning, pattern recognition, and recommender systems technique this is no longer considered as a technological barrier. Therefore, online condition monitoring and predictive maintenance (OCMPM) has now been practically achievable.

Sensor Networks (WSNs). Simply, the Internet-ofThings (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. A thing, in the IoT, can be a person with a heart monitor implant, a farm animal with a biochip transponder, an automobile that has built-in sensors to alert the driver when tire pressure is low, a train or its traction motors or any other natural or man-made object that can be assigned an IP address and provided with the ability to transfer data over a network.

3.2 Internet-of-Things (IoT) With advancement of automation technology, automatic systems are being preferred over manual system. Internet-of-Things (IoT) is a growing network of everyday object, from industrial machine to consumer goods that can share information and complete tasks while you are busy with other activities.

According to Cisco, Figure 2, expected penetration of connected objects by the year 2020 would be around 50 billion things and back in 2008, there were already more objects connected to the internet than people. RFID is the key technology for making the objects uniquely identifiable, its reduced size and cost facilitate the integration of it with any object.

Fig. 2- Expected penetration of connected objects by the year 2020

The basic idea of IoT is autonomous exchange of useful information between invisibly embedded different uniquely identifiable real world devices around us, fuelled by the leading technologies like Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless


Solution Approach Three key steps of Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) programs are: (1) data acquisition, (2) data processing, and (3) maintenance decision making, Figure 3.


Fig. 3- Three steps of Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM)

Since a critical failure or degradation of the trains during their operation can damage the belief of passengers on the railway service reliability and could potentially cause serious problems, it seems that precedence must be given to the maintenance enhancement for preventing this kind of failure or degradation. To this end, as can be seen in Figure 4, three sub-modules will be added to each step of CBM, namely IoT to the data acquisition step, machine learning and recommender system to the data processing and decision making steps, respectively.

in railway transportation systems. Unscheduled maintenance, spare parts planning, shortage of qualified technicians, unavailability of workshop and tracks as well as train shunting are just some of everyday issues that a maintenance planner struggles to accomplish an on-time, safe, and accurate maintenance task. As a result, we are trying to adopt cutting-edge technologies to improve maintenance planning. The specific aims of this pilot project are:

Fig. 4- Three steps of Proposed Maintenance Approach

The proposed maintenance approach efficiently optimize train maintenance procedure through broadly gather data using low-cost IoT sensor platform, effectively process data using machine learning algorithms to elicit appropriate patterns, and practically make a decision by using recommender system. Approach Objectives Due to its nature, train maintenance, repair, and overhaul is one of the most demanding processes

• Providing an effective and low-cost data gathering method using IoT • Realising train predictive maintenance and providing just-in-time maintenance • Eliminating unscheduled maintenance and Improving maintenance planning • Ensuring passengers satisfaction as well as passengers and maintenance staffs safety • Minimizing trains downtime as well as decreasing maintenance budgets • Establishing one of the pillars of intelligent and connected trains.





Jesus A. Del Castillo Igareda & Team Auto Drive Solutions , Madrid (Spain)

uto Drive Drive Solutions (ADS) has registered a disruptive Radar Positioning System (RPS) able to locate a train by using ultra-bandwidth radars. RPS brings to the railway industry a cheaper, safer and more-accurate technology than its competitors. RPS is composed of a small device installed on each train, whose dimensions are similar to a shoebox, and a minimum modification of the infrastructure which consists of attaching plastic parts, similar in size to tobacco boxes, in the sleepers of given kilometric points and stations. ADS will exploit its disruptive technology in the next years by marketing services to operators and railway signaling companies.


RPS: Can you realize an ATP 10 times cheaper than the others...? Main services are: • Low-cost ATP systems • Efficient Speed Control • Target Braking.

Efficient Speed Control involves the application of a pre-recorded acceleration to trains according to their position, optimizing the consumption pattern. Target Braking and enables controlled deceleration of trains as they arrive at their stations, allowing their stop at a precise point. ADS will develop in the near future low-cost CBTC systems based on RPS and his patented highaccuracy mm-wave radar cinemometer (±0.0025% expected error) that will allow the introduction of the moving block concept which


would double the capacity of current ERTMS2 systems. ADS technology is called Radar Positioning System. RPS equipment consists of a highfrequency radar installed on the underbody of the train pointed to the ground and scanning 1 cm2 of surface. The radar, whose dimensions are similar to a shoebox, measures, at a rate of 150,000 times per second, the distance to the surface with an accuracy of 100 Âľm. Thus, the radar obtains a detailed ground profile as the train moves through the railway infrastructure. Signal processing of the profile allows the sleeper detection, since they will protrude from ground level and present a smooth surface in contrast to the irregular profile of the ballast. By a simple count of the sleepers, it is possible to determine the position of the train with accuracy equivalent to the spacing between two consecutive sleepers. This technique suffers from the possible cumulative positioning error that occurs by false detections or loss detection sleepers.

Grouping a set of 32 bits (32 different thicknesses), logical words are formed that are able to uniquely encode more than 4,000 million track segments. Once the radar has decoded a complete word, the position of the train can be associated to the encoded location. Since the scanned area interrogated by the radar is one square cm, the bit length may be just a cm long and thus the information can be compacted. RPS uses 16 types of plastic beacons, whose dimensions are similar to a tobacco box, to encode information. Each balise contains 4 bits of information, which are what limit the balise set to 16 types, simplifying the installation and its maintenance. Appropriately combining these balises into sets, balise words of 8, 16, 24, 32 or 64 bits can be formed. Two additional bits are added at the edges of each balise, corresponding to s tart and end bits, so the radar is able to detect the reading direction and reorder the bits if it is reading in reverse way.

However, RPS solves this problem because its patented design includes reading information encoded in plastic balises installed in the railway infrastructure. The millimeter-wave radar signal penetrates all plastics, so the radar is able to measure the thickness of the balise. By associating certain thicknesses to certain logic levels, it is possible to encode information in the plastic that the radar can read. For example, it is possible to encode a 0 bit by installing a 2 cm thickness plastic laminate over a sleeper and encode a 1 bit by installing a 4 cm laminate.



• Increasing the safety by setting speed-limit according to the position of the train • Reducing the energy costs up to 10% by applying efficient speed algorithms • Reducing the pollutant emissions, due to energy saving • Increasing the accuracy of the train stop at stations enabling the deployment of low-cost and reliable Platform Screen Doors.

As shown in the figure, ADS has already tested the radar module in real scenarios achieving TRL6 successfully thanks to the collaboration of Metro de Madrid and is currently under SIL4 (Safety Integrity Level) certification process.

RPS contributes to railway industry by developing more competitive rail networks: • Reducing significantly the costs of signalling systems providing very low-cost ATP systems • Increasing the traffic capacity by introducing the moving block concept • Increasing the security providing hacking-free signalling


Most of the railway infrastructures in Europe have national signaling systems that hinder communications in the European marketplace. The European ERTMS standard in versions 1 and 2 solves this problem, ensuring interoperability and improving safety standards. However, the high cost of ERTMS 2 (more than 300,000 €/Km) has limited its deployment to the main corridors and high-speed lines. Spain with 15% of its updated network ERTMS 2 is one of the countries with greater deployment but still needs another investment of 4,200 M € to complete its extension. ERTMS 2 deployment throughout the European network is unachieved because of its high cost. Furthermore, currently, experts are proposing deployment of ERTMS 2 in a limited lower-cost version for rural areas that

involves the undertaking of greater responsabilities by the driver. ERTMS versions 1 and 2 use blockcircuit segments technology to manage traffic, which clearly limits the ability of the lines. Circuit segments are delimited by Eurobalises, which are RFID tags. Most of them are pasive: A train borne transmitter excites the Eurobalise at crossing and some amount of energy is absorbed by the tag. The tag uses this energy to respond with a weak message that identifies it.


The Efficient Speed Control service involves the application of pre-recorded accelerations to the train according to its position, optimizing the consumption pattern. The system will work under the supervision of the national/ERTMS ATO / ATP (Automatic Train Operation / Automatic Train Protection) installed on the train. The command speed will always be less than the limit set by the ATO / ATP. This system provides a reduction of pollutant emissions and energy savings of over 10% in addition to preventing accidents due to inappropriate speed caused by a combination of technical failures, human errors or limitations of the signalling system. ERTMS 3 solves the track-circuit limitation by implementing the moving block concept and minimizing the signalling over the infrastructure. However, ERTMS 3 is still in conceptual phase, mainly due to the technical limitations of positioning trains accurately and reliably along the route without expensive track signalling equipments. ERSAT, RHINOS and STARS H2020 projects or 3INSAT ESA project try to resolve the on-board train localization (Location Determination System), combining on-board sensors (tachometer, accelerometers and doppler radar information) with GNSS systems. The paper Field Experience with GPS based Train Control System published by the International Union of Railways (UIC), calculates a residual risk of higher than 10-5/h based on operational experiences, which is near SIL 1 (Safety Integrity Level 1) and does not accomplish what the SIL4 requires for critical signalling systems. Furthermore, GNSS signals are vulnerable to interference due to being extremely weak when received on Earth’s surface. Therefore, even a low-power interference signal can easily disrupt the operation of commercial GNSS receivers within a range of several kilometers. ADS provides a disruptive positioning solution which solves in a reliable, safe, sustainable and low-cost manner the geolocation for railway industry.



These benefits are easily achievable as long as the position of the train is precisely known. Although intuitively surpassing these limitations may seem easy to solve, the reality is very different.

In USA, the Federal Railroad Administration applies the Positive Train Control project (see and PTC technology uses GPS satellite positioning and differential GPS stations along the infrastructure. There is some controversy as to whether PTC makes sense in the form mandated by Congress. Not only is the cost of nationwide PTC installation expected to be as much as US$6–22 billion, there are questions as to the reliability and maturity of the technology for all forms of mainline freight trains and high density environments. The PTC requirement could also impose startup barriers to new passenger rail or freight services that would trigger millions of dollars in additional PTC costs. In 2012, Siemens submitted the PCT / EP2012 / 057459 application that describes another technique for positioning trains by deploying an optical fiber along the tracks. Train vibrations interfere with the light traveling through the fiber and an OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) equipment connected to the fiber determines the distance where the vibration has occurred. Still in 2016 this solution has many drawbacks that prevent it from becoming a standard rail signalling system in the medium term. The service Target Braking is mostly oriented to underground applications and allows a smooth deceleration of the train in stations until its stop


at a precise point. To achieve this goal, a continuous encoded plastic ruler will be deployed in the tracks of each station. This service, in addition to providing greater comfort and safety to passengers, reduces wear of materials, improves energy efficiency and allows a reliable and low-cost solution for Platform Screens Doors (PSD) deployment. PSD increases the capacity and safety of people who are in the station. Just accounting for the London Underground, on average, a person dies every week by falling to the tracks. Besides the psychological and human impact that this implies, these events cause major disruptions of operation. The technique currently used to stop trains precisely consists in costly trials where the stop position is estimated depending on the speed of the train as it passes by a balise installed at the begining to the station. These tests are specific for each station, each train and determined load conditions. In addition, the system requires continuous calibration. Instead, Target Breaking provides a continuous position feedback to the braking system with 1 cm accuracy.

Each of the two services includes the supply of equipment, installation thereof, its implementation and the remote monitoring and support. The service also includes the maintenance and repairing of possible equipment malfunctions. Once the service has started, the tasks of replacing the equipment will be carried out by the railway operator / signalling company itself, who will have enough spare equipment to deal with potential failures. ADS personnel monitoring the service remotely will detect service anomalies in real-time and request the appropriate substitution of equipment if needed.


The RPS technology is more economical, more precise and safer than the rest of positioning technologies:-

• More economical (see the table 1). • More accurate because, without using odometry (systems that estimate the position of the train between balises by calculating train speed and detecting spins wheel), RPS technology allows locating the train with an accuracy of 50 cm (which is the gap between sleepers) along the complete trajectory, compared with the current technology whose ambiguity in the position is determined by the separation between balises

whose values range from 400 meters in highspeed lines to tens of kilometers in conventional lines. When the train is over a RPS balise, the position accuracy is + -1 cm compared to +/-2m offered by Eurobalises. • More secure because RPS is not affected by electronic warfare systems because of the antenna’s high directivity, the inexistence of powerful sources at these frequencies that can be used as jammers and the Process Gain obtained thanks to the 28 GHz of transmitted bandwidth. On the other hand, the 4 MHz weak response transmitted by passive Eurobalises is very easy to interfere.

Table #1: COST ATP BASED ON RPS vs ERTMS-1 BASICs: BUDGET FOR 100 KMS OF TRACK AND 20 TRAINS OPERATING AUTOMATIC TRAIN PROTECTION BASED ON RPS TECHNOLOGY Item unit prize comments quantity RPS-Radar module onboard $5.000,00 2 radars per train 40 Balise $45,00 estimated 20 balises per km 2000 Set up the balises and the signalling drawings. Technical assistance. Lump Sum $250.000,00 1 Onboard ATP system 20 BUDGET FOR 100 KM TRACK AND 20 TRAINS OPERATING THE LINE ERTMS 1 Item unit prize comments quantity Cost per km of ERTMS-1 Signalling $981.750,00 100 BUDGET FOR 100 KM TRACK AND 20 TRAINS OPERATING THE LINE

total budget $200.000,00 $90.000,00

$250.000,00 $1.500.000,00 $2.040.000,00 total budget

$98.175.000,00 $98.175.000,00

Auto Drive Solutions (ADS) has patented a disruptive positioning system called Radar Positioning System (RPS). A millimeter -wave radar reads information encoded in a plastic band that contains different one-centimeter segments of various thicknesses. The radar concentrates its energy over a square centimeter of the band, measuring the relative thickness of each segment. Each plastic segment is assigned with logic levels 1 or 0. For more information, please visit: AUTO DRIVE SOLUTIONS C/ CHILE 10, LOCAL 248 - EDIFICIO 92 28290 LAS ROZAS (MADRID) – SPAIN E-mail: Web:




Naeem Ali, P. Eng, Director & Principal Consultant CBTC Solutions Inc., Toronto, Canada,

Is CBTC Safer than Conventional Signalling?

This article is based on a collaboration with Ali Edraki, VP of Transit & Rail Systems at Gannett Fleming, for a presentation we delivered at the 2016 Rail Safety Seminar in Orlando Florida. A special thanks to Sergio Mammoliti of Soter Solutions for providing valuable insights and for clarifying my thinking on this topic. After our discussion, he changed my perspective from "CBTC is safer than Conventional" to "CBTC is operational superior than Conventional." A special thanks to Daniel Sandu of Gannett Fleming for providing valuable insights and technical details about conventional signalling; without which I would not have been able to conduct a proper comparison.



The safety record for conventional signaling is beyond doubt; 140 years of improvements, handed down by thousands of engineers has ensured the safety of our urban transit infrastructure. However, transit authorities are switching to CBTC in increasing numbers and the primary motivation is due to the operational superiority, not safety, of a CBTC solution over a conventional one. CBTC shines because it pushes the operational envelope (shorter headways) while maintaining the proper level of safety. Whereas a conventional system is handcuffed operationally due to its inherent limitations (fixed block signalling philosophy). This article will compare the key safety and operational characteristics between a CBTC and conventional system. By the end, it will be clear why transit authorities are selecting CBTC for it operational benefits.

Speed Supervision – Speed is not monitored in a conventionally signaled system other than to rely on the driver to follow the speed limit for the block. Cabs signalling has become popular over the last few decades, but it has a limited number of speed transitions (usually 3 or 4) permitted for a block. However, CBTC monitors speed continuously and if the train exceeds the permitted speed, the train borne unit will either emergency brake or service brake the train. Train Localization – A conventional system utilizes track circuits to detect the location of a train. The location resolution is based on the size of the block; either the block is occupied or unoccupied. CBTC localizes the train through a two-way train to wayside communication link that transmits the exact position with a resolution in centimeters. Both methods are safe but CBTC is more efficient from an operational perspective.

Comparison of Safety Characteristics The safety capabilities of a CBTC solution over a conventional one is not as great as some may believe. CBTC does provide additional safety protections but a conventional system is safe but it relies on a human to follow the rules. The table below lists the basic safety characteristics expected of any signalling system. Safety Feature Speed supervision Train localization Safe Train Separation Rollback Protection Parted Consist Protection Train Door interlocks Departure Interlocks Route interlocks Protection against passing a signal at danger Broken Rail detection Protection Against Human Error Hint: Red – Advantage for CBTC Signalling

Conventional Limited Yes Yes Limited Yes Yes Yes Yes

CBTC Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes No

Yes No Yes

Blue - Advantage for conventional Signalling

Black - Neutral



Safe Train Separation – Conventional signalling operates on the principal of a one block (or two signals) separation between trains. If there is a failure, the one block guarantees the train will emergency brake to a stop before the next train. A CBTC system keeps a minimum safety distance between trains. If there is an emergency brake condition, the minimum safety distance ensures there is enough room to stop a train before the next train. Both methods are safe but operationally, CBTC is more efficient. Rollback Protection – A conventional system has partial rollback protection; A) If a train is stopped at a station and rolls back, the train will not prevent rollback. B) A train on an uphill grade commanding effort from the propulsion unit detects rollback, will increase effort from the propulsion unit to prevent rollback. C) Newer trains determine travel direction based on the active cab. If the train moves in the opposite direction, the train will emergency brake. In CBTC, if a train moves in the opposite direction of the route set under the train, emergency brakes are applied. If the train moves when no route is set, emergency brakes are applied. CBTC provides better rollback protection.

Train Door Interlocks – by definition, the basic interlocks that must be performed are: A) Train is aligned within an acceptable tolerance. B) There is a platform on the side where the train doors will open. C) Train is stopped. D)The train is prevented from moving. A CBTC and conventional system implement these basic interlocks but a conventional system relies on the driver to make the right decision (decision to open doors and which side). Whereas in a CBTC system the human element is removed.

Departure Interlocks – For a conventional and CBTC system, the train will not depart if the train or platform doors are open. Route Interlocks – A conventional and CBTC system both have approach and routing locking concepts but approach it from different angles. Both methods are safe but CBTC allows for greater throughput through the interlocking than a conventional system. Protection against Passing a Signal at Danger – A conventional system has trip stops or devices that emergency brake a train if a signal is passed at danger. CBTC does not have trip stops but if a train passes its permitted stopping point, the train borne unit will emergency brake the train.

Parted Consist Protection – If a train breaks apart, a conventional system will use block occupancy to track the train and the apply emergency brakes. A CBTC system will create a protection envelope around the train. Neither approach is better than the other.


Broken Rail Detection – This is one area where a conventional system has an advantage over CBTC. Conventional uses track circuits to detect a broken rail. CBTC does not have this ability unless a secondary broken rail detection system is utilized.


Protection against Human Error – A general principal within the safety community is, the less human interaction, the safer it is. A conventional signalling system depends on the operator to follow the rules of the railroad. If an operator violates a safety critical procedure (speed limit around a curve for example), safety is compromised. Whereas a CBTC system is automated and the human element is removed or reduced significantly.

access to the track is difficult; maintenance is conducted during the wee hours of night when the system is closed to passengers traffic. Equipment in a CBTC system is significantly lower and therefore the space required in the equipment rooms and along the track is also low. Resulting in a reduced maintenance program (unless it’s a conventional system with a CBTC overlay). More important, the need to access the track is reduced.

Comparison of Operational Characteristics Out of the 11 safety features discussed above, 3 favor CBTC, 1 favors conventional and the rest are neutral. But when comparing the operational characteristics, CBTC has the overwhelming advantage. Operational Features Maximize Throughput Equipment & Maintenance Automatic Speed Regulation (Ride Quality) Bi-Directional Operations



No Significant/ High

Yes Limited/ Low





Reduced wear and tear of train propulsion and braking system



Energy optimization



Interoperability Automatic recovery from perturbations






Red – Advantage for CBTC Signalling Blue - Advantage for conventional Signalling Black - Neutral

Maximize Throughput – Throughput is the primary reason why CBTC is selected by transit authorities. Its ability to reduce headways is unmatched by any conventional signalling technology available on the market today. Equipment & Maintenance – A track littered with signals, trip stops, track circuits, associated cables and row upon row of relay racks in the equipment rooms makes for a daunting maintenance program in any conventional system. The requirements for corrective and preventive maintenance are high and

Automatic Speed Regulation (Ride Quality) – Uniform ride quality from one train to the next is a staple of a CBTC system. A CBTC train will travel at the same speed and brake at the same rate at the same point on the track every time. The acceleration and braking is gradual and jerk is reduced or eliminated when departing or arriving at a station. In a conventional system, the passengers are left at the mercy of the driver. The driver may accelerate suddenly or brake hard, drive in excess or slower than the posted speed. The ride quality will differ from one driver to the next.

Bi-Directional Operations – A conventional system is designed for maximum efficiency in the normal running direction. Due to cost and complexity, the reverse running direction is not optimized and headways are large. Recovery options in an emergency situation are also limited. However, in a CBTC system there is no concept of normal or reverse running; the design is optimized for both directions. Only the civil design of the track limits the efficiency of the system (the placement and orientation of cross overs and curves). Reduced wear and tear of train propulsion and braking system – A CBTC systems ability to regulate speed and acceleration reduces the stress placed on the braking and propulsion unit when compared to a human driver in a conventional system. A CBTC train operates within the design limits of the braking and propulsion unit maximizing its life while reducing maintenance costs.



Energy Optimization – this is the ability of a signalling system to regulate energy utilization during operation. CBTC optimizes energy usage by controlling trains acceleration (energy consumption spikes when a train accelerates) and allow trains to coast when travelling between stations (the propulsion unit is disabled reducing energy consumption). A conventional system does not have this capability. Interoperability – This is CBTC’s weakest point. A conventional system is not wedded to any single supplier. Parts can be procured from multiple suppliers which are interchangeable. Whereas, once a CBTC supplier is selected, Transit Authorities are at the mercy of that supplier. Meaning, if a system has an Alstom CBTC system installed, a Bombardier or Ansaldo train controller cannot be used in that system. Standards have not been established to allow interoperability between suppliers (NYCT’s I2S interoperability specification is the lone exception). This will change over the coming years as CENELEC, IEEE, AREMA define standards and Transit Authorities force suppliers to comply.

Automatic recovery from Perturbations – CBTC’s bidirectional capability is the magic behind recovery from perturbations and its built-in safety shines in these scenarios. When an operator in a conventional system operates the system outside of its normal operating conditions, mistakes happen due to human error. In a CBTC application everything is automated, including recovery scenarios. In high congestion scenarios, CBTC excels because it manages the situation as part of its normal functionality (conflict avoidance zones, route optimization, adjusting station dwells and max speed limits, etc.) whereas a human might be overwhelmed with information overload. Conclusions Many assume a CBTC system is safer than a conventional system but this is a misunderstanding. CBTC does offer some safety advantages but a conventional system is safe; and 140 years of proven operations demonstrate this. But a conventional system cannot match the operational advantages of a CBTC system.

About the Author Naeem Ali is CBTC specialist working with CBTC technologies for 15+ years. He has deployed 7 CBTC projects around world including Jacksonville Monorail, Newark Airport People Mover, Las Vegas Monorail, Busan Gimhae Monorail in South Korea, Makkah Metro in Saudi Arabia, Singapore NSEW and he is currently providing CBTC consulting services to Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) YUS line. Naeem works as an independent consultant providing CBTC expertise. You can follow his blog at



Exclusive Interview with Achal Khare, MD, NHSRCL Mr. Achal Khare, Managing Director, National High Speed Rail Corporation Limited (NHSRCL), is a man with big responsibility of realizing India’s dream of running a high speed bullet train. In conversation with Media, Khare lists various challenges before the NHSRCL the executing agency of the Ahmedabad-Mumbai high speed rail (HSR) project and the road map for the development and implementation of HSR projects in India. During conversation he also highlights the importance of the project and why one can’t compare it to Hyperloop.

What are the major challenges ahead in introducing India’s first bullet train on the Ahmedabad-Mumbai route? Construction of a 7-km undersea tunnel, which would pass under the mangrove areas and a flamingo sanctuary in Mumbai region, is one of the biggest technical challenges. It would have disturbed the mangroves and ecological balance if we had chosen the elevated corridor. Another challenge is the construction of high-speed



rail stations at locations where Indian Railway stations – Vadodara, Ahmedabad and Sabarmati – already exist. There is a plan to connect bullet train stations with these three Indian Railway stations. It is a big challenge to carry out construction work of the high-speed stations and platforms at the height of 1415 metres at these crowded railway stations, having a huge number of trains and passenger footfall. Usually, the high-speed alignments are at 11-12 metre height from the ground. If there is a metro or road over bridge, then the height of the high-speed station would be further increased. In Sabarmati, there is a road over bridge close to the proposed station and the metro is also coming up. So, the height of the Sabarmati high-speed station will be 2021 metres. In Vadodara, both sides are densely inhabited due to which limited working space is available. The same is the case with Ahmedabad and Sabarmati where the Indian Railways has got expansion plans


and we will have to plan high-speed alignment keeping in view that the said stations’ plan is not disturbed. Mumbai would have one underground station at Bandra Kurla Complex (BKC) close to the Mithi river and we have to cross the river for doing excavation for the tunnel. The undersea tunnel will have a large diameter of around 12.5 metres, having two tracks in a single tube while the metros have tunnels of a 6.5metre diameter and one track in a single tube. Since, Ahmedabad-Mumbai high speed train is a mega project, it requires huge manpower and training them is certainly a challenge. The highspeed Shinkansen system is completely a new technology and we are yet to fully understand it. Acquiring technological knowledge and imparting training to staff are extremely crucial. We need to have well-trained human resource. A total of 300 officials are planned to be trained in Japan and 10 of them have already left for a 15-day training course.


As per the estimation by the Japanese, the project requires around 4,000 personnel under several categories such as locomotive drivers, guards, station staff, operation control centre staff, maintenance personnel, signal maintainers and electrical staff. There will be a big depot at Sabarmati for periodic overhaul of the trains, while a small depot at Thane will be built for weekly and monthly maintenance. Around 20,000-25,000 persons would be required for construction of the project. When exactly will the construction of Ahmedabad-Mumbai high-speed train take off? The work of the training institute in Vadodara has already kicked off and would be completed by December 2020. It is the first thing to be completed – for training the manpower. Most of the other works such as laying viaducts [a long elevated roadway consisting of a series of short spans supported on arches or piers] would start by September 2018.

Is it true that Japan’s financial aid to India is a tied loan? Will Indian companies get enough opportunities to participate in the high-speed rail project? Kindly elaborate on the ‘Make in India’ factor. The loan from Japan is not a tied loan. It is a special loan. Japan has a tied loan system but for the Ahmedabad-Mumbai high-speed train project, that is not the case. It is being misconstrued by many. Out of the 508-km length of the project, a 450-km stretch is open to Indian contractors without any condition on them to form a joint venture with the Japanese firms for civil construction. The estimated cost of civil construction of the project is around 50-60 percent of the total project cost. Whenever expertise is available within India, the work will be done by Indian companies only. The 21-km tunnelling work would be done by Japanese companies as they have the expertise, but it does not mean that the entire cost of tunnel work would go to Japan. For instance, tunnel boring



equipment is manufactured by a German company in Chennai. If they get the order, they may manufacture in India, which should be seen as ‘Make in India’. In tunnel work, most of the material like raw material, reinforcement and steel bars will be produced in India. In Vadodara, Ahmedabad and Sabarmati, where high-speed stations would be built, we are trying to rope in a prime contractor from Japan to prepare design and planning of the sub packages and award them to Indian companies. Again, the technical skills come from Japan initially and then the Indian companies will gradually learn. Whatever technology is not available in India has been assigned to Japan. Signalling, rolling stocks and electrical side, among others, will be entirely done by Japanese companies. NHSRCL will do competitive biddings amongst Japanese companies to get the technology which India does not have. Efforts will be made to have joint ventures with Japanese companies or transfer of technology to do manufacturing in India. The department of industrial policy and promotion (DIPP) is the nodal agency which is discussing issues like having JVs with Japanese companies and transfer of technology.

I feel that displacement would not be an issue because the project is mostly on elevated tracks. NHSRCL will discuss with the affected people to get their feedback and understand what they need from the government. The matter in Palghar is more critical. Tell us about the footfall required and the fare structure for the viability, and also the speed of the bullet train. Based on different surveys, the estimated ridership will be around 40,000 passengers per day. By 2053, around 1.86 lakh people will be travelling by bullet train every day. In the initial phase, there will be 35 trips each way between Ahmedabad and Mumbai. Fare will definitely be lower than the flights and it cannot be compared with the existing fare of the Indian Railways. India’s bullet train fare will be competitive enough compared to its competitors globally. The fare will be around 1.5 times of the AC first class fare of an express train. For example, if an Ahmedabad-Mumbai flight costs around Rs 4,000, the one side trip of the bullet train would cost around Rs 3,000. In fact, the low-cost airlines will face competition from the bullet train in the coming years. The global experience has been that the airlines have phased out and not the bullet trains.

How much land is required? JICA’s feasibility report mentions that Valsad and Plaghar have high tribal population. How will the NHSRCL carry out the resettlement of the affected families? According to the initial estimates, around 9001,000 hectares of land would be required for the project and 1,100 families are likely to get affected. A social impact assessment consultant has been assigned to conduct field inspections and assess the exact number of families to be rehabilitated or resettled. Yes, it is a matter of concern that there is a significant population of scheduled tribes in Valsad (Gujarat) and Palghar (Maharashtra) but


The design speed of the high-speed train is 350 kmph, while the maximum operating speed is 320 kmph. The rolling stock and tracks would be designed to run at a speed of 350 kmph but we will not run the train with maximum design speed. Usually, we keep the operating speed 10 percent lower than the design speed.


A recent IIM Ahmedabad report claimed that the bullet train will have to ferry around 1.18 lakh passengers per day or do 100 trips a day between Ahmedabad and Mumbai to make it financially viable. Your views? Financial viability is something which different people take in different prospects. We should be able to run the system on our own without seeking any grant from any source. Another aspect of viability is from the economic perspective. Infrastructure projects should not be looked purely from the profitability point of view. In any infrastructure project, it is very difficult to earn profits in its initial phase. Currently, it takes eight hours to reach Mumbai from Ahmedabad. If people cover this distance within two hours, they can utilise the remaining six hours for some productive work. People all over the world resisted the first-time projects and as soon as they start using them, it becomes a necessity.

The project will definitely generate operating profit and would not need money to run the system on yearly basis, but it will not be able to support the depreciation. It will be able to support the 0.1% interest on loan and the operating cost. What plans do you have for getting uninterrupted electricity supply for the bullet train? Getting uninterrupted electricity supply for the high-speed network is another challenge. A study is being conducted by the NHSRCL to understand the best way of tapping electricity. There are five-six power distributers with whom the talks are going on. We will have the figures of the exact amount of electricity required for the highspeed train in the next three months. Once the statistics are with us, we will accordingly approach the distribution companies. The Shinkansen system requires the least power consumption per seat compared with any other high-speed trains globally.

There are reports that Maharashtra has some reservations on the proposed high-speed station at Bandra Kurla Complex. It’s not a bone of contention between the Maharashtra government and the NHSRCL. The BKC in Mumbai has two sides: one is an exhibition ground and the other is the G block. The Maharashtra government has asked us to examine the G block first and if it suits our requirement, the NHSRCL will build the high-speed station there; otherwise the exhibition ground area would be chosen. Investigations are going on to find a suitable location in BKC. According to media reports, the Shinkansen technology of the bullet train was a flop in Taiwan. What makes you sure that it will be a hit in India? The loan interest and depreciation cost were the major reasons behind the poor show of the bullet train in Taiwan. It is not that people are not accepting the bullet train in Taiwan. I would not say the Shinkansen system has failed in Taiwan. Ridership is increasing gradually. The bullet train started in 200708 in Taiwan and at that time the ridership was around 40,000 and by 2014 it went up to 1.40 lakh per day. The air traffic in the same sector is reducing in Taiwan. The project came up in Taiwan on public-private partnership (PPP) basis, which is not the case with India. Taiwan’s loan was a commercial loan and India’s interest on the Japanese loan is very nominal. Besides, India will have to pay interest 15 years after receiving the loan, which gives us enough time. If Taiwan takes out depreciation, even now its bullet train will become profitable. If the bullet train was not acceptable to Taiwanese people, how come the traffic increased? Air traffic in Taiwan in a certain section has almost come down to half. Many believe that the loan given by Japan to India is not a soft loan. Please elaborate. In all likelihood, if Japanese Yen becomes strong



[appreciates] then India will have to pay more. But, will the sanctioned amount of loan remain the same after 50 years? If we simply take escalation of 4-5 percent into account, which usually happens in India, the project cost of Rs 1.10 lakh crore will become Rs 1.30 lakh crore in terms of net present value in the next 50 years. What are the engineering challenges? Can India absorb 100% of the technology?

There are challenges other than the under-sea tunnel. We are working in Indian Railways territory in Vadodara, Ahmedabad and Sabarmati. We have to work in a very limited area, with train operations on the existing track. Above that we have to build the high-speed network. For example, at Sabarmati, we have to build highspeed train over the rail overbridge and the metro network. There are technical challenges which we are confident we will find solution to with the help of our Japanese colleagues.

What are the roll-out milestones? Immediately, the training institute will come up in December 2020. It is an integral part of this project because we have to train people for absorption of technology and skills. About 4,000 people will be trained before we commission the project. We will start the land acquisition shortly and the construction will continue even as the institute comes up.

Why did India choose Japanese technology? Many deliberations were done. The Committee on Innovative Collaboration under the aegis of NITI Aayog has examined this. In a nutshell for common man’s absorption – Japan was the first to develop bullet train in 1964. It has a track record of zero fatalities and accidents. The train’s punctuality (delay record) is less than a minute. That takes care of passengers’ needs. Also, the kind of funding Japan is giving, probably no other country had offered it.

(Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe In Ahmedabad, India)




Will existing Indian railway system benefit from the learning of this safety technology? You cannot put the technology from one place (project) to the other. But the overall work culture can be translated on Indian Railways. So, yes it will definitely benefit the existing India railway system also. Hyperloop will be tested in Amravati. What is the longevity of a bullet train project? Will it get outdated in the next few years? There is no commercial service available for Hyperloop as of now. Once it is put to commercial service, then only we can talk about it. But the bullet train technology has been serving Japan for the last 52 years. It is a proven technology. With Hyperloop, I can’t comment.

(The entire interview was taken by Mr. Vishwas Dass and Ms. Smriti Jain)

How India benefits from bullet train 1. High-speed connectivity - The bullet train running between Ahmedabad and Mumbai will cover the distance of 508 km within two to three hours. The project is supposed to connect bustling economic corridors in the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra. This will facilitate economic growth. Smaller cities along the way can also be connected with high-speed transit facility to these economic centres through the bullet train network. 2. Employment - The bullet train project will bring speed and employment, PM Modi said during its inauguration. The bullet train project is expected to create 4,000 direct job opportunities, along with 20,000 indirect jobs. 20,000 construction workers will also be employed during the set up period of Ahmedabad-Mumbai bullet train. 3. Urban expansion - New bullet train stations set to come up along the route will attract urban growth. This will again shift the pressure of urbanisation from the existing urban centres. 4. Open new avenues - When completed, the Ahmedabad-Mumbai bullet train project will present as a favourable destination for high-speed train technologies, attracting other parties working in the field.

About the Project NHSRCL is implementing the project of high speed train corridor between Ahmedabad and Mumbai. The total length of proposed High Speed Railway Corridor works out to be 508.17km. The route of Mumbai Ahmedabad High Speed Rail will be passing through two states, Maharashtra and Gujarat and one Union Territory, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, of the Union of India. The proposed corridor lies in Western Railway zone. It shall start from Bandra Kurla Complex in Mumbai and will end near Sabarmati Railway Station in Ahmedabad. Out of 508.17km, 155.642 km of the proposed alignment falls in Maharastra, 350.530 km in Gujarat and 2 km in UT of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The High Speed Corridor of Mumbai-Ahmedabad has been proposed with 12 Stations i.e. Mumbai, Thane, Virar, Boisar, Vapi, Bilimora, Surat, Bharuch,Vadodara, Anand/Nadia, Ahmedabad and Sabarmati, all near major traffic points. Two depots are proposed on either ends of the corridor one near Thane and one near Sabarmati Rail Depot.



Know your Union Housing and Urban Affairs Minister Shri Hardeep Singh Puri, Hon’ble Minister of State (Independent Charge) in the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs was born in Delhi on 15 February 1952. He did his BA (Hons) History from Hindu College, University of Delhi and was placed first in order of Merit in 1971 and completed his MA(History) 1973 in the First Division. He was Prime Minister of the Hindu College Parliament and was also a keen debater. He also taught at St. Stephens College, Delhi.

Shri Hardeep Singh Puri has extensive experience in multilateral diplomacy. He served on three occasions as a member of India’s delegation to the GATT/United Nations in Geneva including as Ambassador and Permanent Representative from 2002 to 2005. He has had a long association with and specialization in trade policy related matters and served on several Dispute Settlement Panels of the GATT and WTO.

He joined the Indian Foreign Service in 1974. During a career spanning 39 years, served in senior positions at the Ministries of External Affairs and Defence, held ambassadorial level posts in the United Kingdom, Brazil and served as Permanent Representative of India to the United Nations both in Geneva and New York. He had earlier served in India’s Missions in Tokyo, and Colombo.

He was President of the United Nations Security Council in August 2011 and November 2012 and Chairman of the United Nations Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee in 2011-2012.

He retired from the Indian Foreign Service on 28 February, 2013 and joined the International Peace Institute (IPI), New York, a non-profit think tank with



Media Partner

headquarters in New York and offices in Vienna and Manama. He was Senior Adviser from June to December 2013. He was Vice-President of the IPI and Secretary General of the Independent Commission on Multilateralism (ICM). He left the IPI on 31 March 2016. He has authored ‘Perilous Interventions’ – The Security Council and The Politics of Chaos, which was published by Harper Collins in September 2016. He has delivered numerous lectures at important fora and also published a large number of articles and papers. He delivered a public lecture on ‘India and the Western Liberal Democratic Order’ at the Nehru Memorial Museum and Library

on 23rd January 2017. He also authored India’s Trade Policy Dilemma and the Role of Domestic Reform, published by Carnegie India in February, 2017. He was appointed President of the Governing Body and Chairman of the Governing Council of the Research and Information Systems for Developing Countries (RIS). He is a visiting faculty of the Graduate Institute in Geneva. He was inducted in the Union Cabinet on 3 September, 2017 and took over as Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs on 4 September,2017.

Contact for registration and sponsorship details: Terrapinn Holdings Ltd Wren House, 43 Hatton Garden, London, EC1N 8EL Tel: +44 (0)20 7092 1000 Fax: +44 (0)87 1233 9263 For more details log on to



SELECTION AND APPOINTMENTS Shri Piyush Goyal Union Minister of Railways and Coal Mr. Piyush Goyal took charge of Union Minister of Railways and Coal, Govt. of India on 3rd September, 2017. Before taking charge of Ministry of Railways, he was Minister of State with Independent Charge for Power, Coal, New and Renewable Energy in the Government of India. He has had a strong academic record - all-India second rank holder Chartered Accountant and second rank holder in Law in Mumbai University. Shri Ashwani Lohani Chairman, Railway Board

Air India CMD Mr. Ashwani appointed as Chairman Railway Board after the resignation of Shri Ashok Kumar Mittal after two train derailments in four days in Uttar Pradesh. Mr. Lohani is a mechanical engineer from the 1980 batch of the Indian Railway Services, has been seen as a doer, always leading by example. Shri Sanjeev Sinha Advisor, Ahmedabad-Mumbai High Speed Bullet Train Sanjeev Sinha, former Tata executive in Tokyo and the first IITian from Barmer, Rajasthan, has been appointed as adviser for the Ahmedabad-Mumbai High Speed Rail project by Japan Railways.



LIVE TENDER NOTICES Company Name & Location

Description of Work

Tender Cost (INR)

Closing Date

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for the scope “Supply, Installation, Testing & Commissioning Of E&M, Fire Detection, Fire Suppression, EOT Crane, Compressor And VAC System for extension work in Najafgarh Depot of Delhi MRTS Project Phase- III, Contract CE-22

9.27 Crore


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for Five Year Comprehensive Annual Maintenance Contract (CAMC) of Environmental Control Systems (Electrical, Mechanical, RO Plant & BMS) for 09 Underground Metro Stations of Line-2 (i.e. Udyog Bhawan, Race Course, Jor Bagh, INA, AIIMS, Green Park, Hauz Khas, Malviya Nagar & Saket ) and 04 Underground Metro Stations of Line-6 (i.e. Central Secretariat, Khan Market, Jawahar Lal Nehru Stadium & Jangpura ) of Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd.


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for replacement of Split ACs with VRV/VRF units at 05Metro Stations (Pragati Maidan, Indraprastha, R.K.Ashram and Jhandewalan and Karol Bagh) of Line-3


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for Construction and development of Parking at stations and miscellaneous works at Noida-Greater Noida Metro Corridor and Depot.

39.94 Crore


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for “Contract CE/UD/T-47: Supply, installation, testing & commissioning for shifting / modification of balance work of Electrical Utilities, 11kV & LT Lines, Substations, Street Light Poles etc. infringing various sections of Delhi MRTS Phase-III.

1.82 Crore




Company Name & Location

Description of Work

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for combining of Station Control Rooms at AZU, NSHP, LJPN, KDDM, WC, JPW, HKS,KJMD and BCGN stations of DMRC.

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

Inviting Expressions of Interest (EOI) for Implementation of EMV and RUPAY based Open Loop Ticketing in DMRC including Comprehensive Maintenance of AFC system of Phase I, II, and III stations.



Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation Ltd., Mumbai, India

NIT for ”Design, Manufacture, Supply, Installation, Testing and Commissioning of E&M works comprising of Electrical Sub Stations with HT and LT works, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems (VAC), Fire Detection Systems, Fire Suppression (Fire Fighting) Systems, Building Management System (BMS), EOT cranes, AirCompressors including compressed air piping works and Plumbing Pumps for the Depot Buildings including OCC and at grade Aarey Station for “Mumbai Metro Line -3”

69.67 Crore


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for Licensing of operation, maintenance and Event management of Prakriti Metro park at Shastri Park, Near Shastri Park Metro Station.


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for the work “Miscellaneous maintenance facilitation works at Najafgarh Metro Depot”.


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for the work of “ Independent Safety Assessment Services For Train Control & Signalling System of Noida City Center - Noida Electronic City corridor.”


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for the work, "Replacement of MS Water Pipe Line of Cooling Tower in Airport Express Line".


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for the work, "Refilling of Argonite Gas cylinders (300 Bar, 80 Ltr ) In Airport Line".


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for the work “Providing of Caution and Speed Restriction Sign Boards at Najafgarh, Dwarka and Khyber Pass Depots”.


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for the work “Architectural Finishing, Plumbing, Sanitary, Drainage, Water and Sewage Treatment, External Development, Electrical & Mechanical Works, Fire Fighting & Mechanical Ventilation Works at Residential Block near Okhla NSIC Metro Station of Delhi MRTS Phase-III.”




Tender Cost (INR)

Closing Date 28.10.2017


Official Media Partner


Event Name


Oct. 7-8, 2017

IC-TRAM 2017


Oct. 10-12, 2017

InnoRail 2017


Oct. 11-13, 2017

International Rail Conference 2017


Oct. 11-13, 2017

12th IREE 2017


Oct. 11-13, 2017

3rd Urban Mass Transit Expo 2017


Nov. 4-5, 2017

Urban Mobility India Conference & Expo 2017


Nov. 13-15, 2017

World Rail Festival 2017

AMSTERDAM, The Netherlands

Nov. 20, 2017

FICCI Smart Mobility Conference


Nov. 30, 2017

GMS Rail Expansion Summit 2017


Dec. 7-8, 2017

2nd Annual Future Rail India Summit 2017


Dec. 15-16, 2017

UITP India Seminar on Metro Rail Projects 2017




Metro Rail Job Openings Organization & Location

Position Name

Last Date

RITES Ltd., Gurgaon, India

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •


Assistant Manager (E&S) – 01 post Assistant Manager (Logistics) – 01 post Assistant Manager (Mechanical) – 10 post Engineer (Mechanical) – 25 posts Assistant Manager (Electrical) – 05 posts Engineer (Electrical) – 10 posts Dy. General Manager (Company Secretary) – 01 post Assistant Manager (Company Secretary) – 02 posts Dy. General Manager (Civil) – 02 posts Manager (Civil) – 02 posts Dy. General Manager (Electrical) – 02 posts Manager (Electrical) – 02 posts Dy. General Manager (S&T) – 02 posts Manager (S&T) – 02 posts Engineer (Mechanical) – 08 posts Engineer (Electrical) – 13 posts



Organization & Location

Position Name

Last Date

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd., New Delhi, India

• • • • •

Claim Commissioner – 01 post Dy. General Manager (Finance) – 01 post Assistant Manager (Finance) – 01 post Account Assistants – 03 posts Senior Section Engineers (Rolling Stock) – 10 posts


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd., New Delhi, India

DGM (Finance) – 1 post


Kochi Metro Rail Ltd., Kochi, India

• • • • • • • • • •

General Manager (Operation & Maint.) – 1 post Junior Architect – 1 post Auto CAD Operator – 1 post Document Controller – 1 post Horticulturist – 1 post Transport Assistant – 1 post Transport Coordinator – 1 post Office Maintainer – 1 post Tool Crib cum Attendant – 1 post Liaison Assistant – 2 post


IRCON International Limited, New Delhi, India

• • • •

Work Engineer (Civil) – 88 posts Site Supervisor (Civil) – 33 posts Site Supervisor (S&T) – 22 posts Work Engineer (Mechanical) – 3 posts


Indian Port Rail Corporation, Mumbai, India

• • •

AGM/JGM/DGM (Project) – 6 posts AGM/JGM/DGM (S&T) – 1 post Manager/Asstt. Manager (HR) – 1 post


Indian Railway Stations Development Corporation Ltd., New Delhi, India

• • •

Site Engineer (Civil) – 1 post Civil Engineer – 2 posts Electrical Engineer – 1 post


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd., New Delhi, India

DGM (Electrical/Utility Division) – 1 post


Maharashtra Metro Rail Corporation Ltd., Nagpur

• • • • • • • • • • •

Station Controller/Train Operators – 62 posts Section Engineer (Electrical) – 5 posts Section Engineer (Electronics) – 4 posts Section Engineer (Mechanical) – 1 post Junior Engineer (Electrical) – 18 posts Junior Engineer (Electronics) – 16 posts Junior Engineer (Mechanical) – 4 posts Junior Engineer (Civil) – 5 posts Technician (Electrical) – 34 posts Technician (Civil) – 32 posts Technician (Electronics) – 25 posts





Special Edition on Govt. of India’s new

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Highlights of September 2017 Edition: • • • • • • • • • •

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